Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 56400

Materials and Textile Engineering

Sustainable Dyeing of Cotton and Polyester Blend Fabric without Reduction Clearing
In contemporary research world, focus is more set on sustainable products and innovative processes. The global textile industries are putting tremendous effort to achieve a balance between economic development and ecological protection concurrently. The conservation of water sources and environment have become immensely significant issue in textile dyeing production. Accordingly, an attempt has been taken in this study to develop a process to dye polyester blend cotton without reduction clearing process and any extra wash off chemical by simple modification aiming at cost reduction and sustainability. A widely used combination of 60/40 cotton/polyester (c/p) single jersey knitted fabric of 30’s, 180 g/m² was considered for study. Traditionally, pretreatment is done followed by polyester part dyeing, reduction clearing and cotton part dyeing for c/p blend dyeing. But in this study, polyester part is dyed right away followed by pretreatment process and cotton part dyeing by skipping the reduction clearing process diametrically. The dyed samples of both traditional and modified samples were scrutinized by various color fastness tests, dyeing parameters and by consumption of water, steam, power, process time and total batch cost. The modified process in this study showed no necessity of reduction clearing process for polyester blend cotton dyeing. The key issue contributing to avoid the reduction clearing after polyester part dyeing has been the multifunctional effect of NaOH and H₂O₂ while pretreatment of cotton after polyester part dyeing. The results also revealed that the modified process could reduce the consumption of water, steam, power, time and cost remarkably. The bulk trial of modified process demonstrated the well exploitability to dye polyester blend cotton substrate ensuring all fastness and dyeing properties regardless of dyes category, blend ratio, color, and shade percentage thus making the process sustainable, eco-friendly and economical. Furthermore, the proposed method could be applicable to any cellulosic blend with polyester.
Dyeing of Wool and Silk with Soxhlet Water Extracted Natural Dye from Dacryodes macrophylla Fruits and Study of Antimicrobial Properties of Extract
Dacryodes macrophylla is a species of the Burseraceae family that is widespread in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. The only part of D. macrophylla known to use is the pulp contained in the fruit. This very juicy pulp is consumed directly and used in making juices. During consumption, these fruit leaves a dark blackish colour on fingers and garment. This observation means that D. macrophylla fruits must be a good source of natural dye with probably good fastness properties on textile materials. But D. macrophylla has not yet been investigated with reference as a potential source of natural dye to our best knowledge. Natural dye has been extracted using water as solvent by soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/Visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative (Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, Shigella flexneri) and gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. It was observed that the water extract of D. macrophylla showed antimicrobial activities against S. enterica. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Taken together, these results indicate that D. macrophylla can be used as natural dye not only in textile but also in other domains like food coloring.
Development of Stretchable Woven Fabrics with Auxetic Behaviour
Auxetic fabrics are a special kind of textile materials which possess negative Poisson’s ratio. Opposite to most of the conventional fabrics, auxetic fabrics get bigger in the transversal direction when stretched or get smaller when compressed. Auxetic fabrics are superior to conventional fabrics because of their counterintuitive properties, such as enhanced porosity under the extension, excellent formability to a curved surface and high energy absorption ability. Up till today, auxetic fabrics have been produced based on two approaches. The first approach involves using auxetic fibre or yarn and weaving technology to fabricate auxetic fabrics. The other method to fabricate the auxetic fabrics is by using non-auxetic yarns. This method has gained extraordinary curiosity of researcher in recent years. This method is based on realizing auxetic geometries into the fabric structure. In the woven fabric structure auxetic geometries can be realized by creating a differential shrinkage phenomenon into the fabric structural unit cell. This phenomenon can be created by using loose and tight weave combinations within the unit cell of interlacement pattern along with elastic and non-elastic yarns. Upon relaxation, the unit cell of interlacement pattern acquires a non-uniform shrinkage profile due to different shrinkage properties of loose and tight weaves in designed pattern, and the auxetic geometry is realized. The development of uni-stretch auxetic woven fabrics and bi-stretch auxetic woven fabrics by using this method has already been reported. This study reports the development of another kind of bi-stretch auxetic woven fabric. The fabric is first designed by transforming the auxetic geometry into interlacement pattern and then fabricated, using the available conventional weaving technology and non-auxetic elastic and non-elastic yarns. The tensile tests confirmed that the developed bi-stretch auxetic woven fabrics exhibit negative Poisson’s ratio over a wide range of tensile strain. Therefore, it can be concluded that the auxetic geometry can be realized into the woven fabric structure by creating the phenomenon of differential shrinkage and bi-stretch woven fabrics made of non-auxetic yarns having auxetic behavior and stretchability are possible can be obtained. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (grant number 15205514).
Weaving Social Development: An Exploratory Study of Adapting Traditional Textiles Using Indigenous Organic Wool for the Modern Interior Textiles Market
The Interior Design profession aims at creating aesthetically pleasing design solutions for human habitats but of late, growing awareness about depleting environmental resources, both tangible and intangible, and damages to the eco-system has led to the quest for creating healthy and sustainable interior environments. The paper proposes adapting traditionally produced organic wool textiles for the mainstream Interior Design industry. This can create sustainable livelihoods whereby eco-friendly bridges can be built between Interior designers and consumers and pastoral communities. This study focuses on traditional textiles produced by two pastoral communities from India that use organic wool from indigenous sheep varieties. The Gaddi communities of Himachal Pradesh use wool from the Gaddi sheep breed to create Pattu (a multi-purpose textile). The Kurumas of Telengana weave a blanket called the Gongadi, using wool from the Black Deccani variety of sheep. These communities have traditionally reared indigenous sheep breeds for their wool and produce hand-spun and hand-woven textiles for their own consumption, using traditional processes that are chemical free. Based on data collected personally from field visits and documentation of traditional crafts of these pastoral communities, and using traditionally produced indigenous organic wool, the authors have developed innovative textile samples by including design interventions and exploring dyeing and weaving techniques. As part of the secondary research, the role of pastoralism in sustaining the eco-systems of Himachal Pradesh and Telengana was studied, and also the role of organic wool in creating healthy interior environments. The authors found that natural wool from indigenous sheep breeds can be used to create interior textiles that have the potential to be marketed to an urban audience, and this will help create earnings for pastoral communities. Their studies have led the authors to the understanding that organic and sustainable wool can contribute in creating healthier interior environments with reductions in indoor pollution and toxicity levels. Revival of indigenous breeds of sheep can further help in rejuvenating dying crafts, and promotion of these indigenous textiles can help in sustaining traditional eco-systems and the pastoral communities whose way of life is endangered today.
Observing Sustainability: Case Studies of Chandigarh Boutiques and Their Textile Waste Reuse
Since the ancient times recycling, reusing and upcycling has been strongly practiced in India. However, previously reprocess was common due to lack of resources and availability of free time, especially with women who were homemakers. The upward strategy of design philosophy and drift of sustainability is sustainable fashion which is also termed eco fashion, the aspiration of which is to craft a classification which can be supported ad infinitum in terms of environmentalism and social responsibility. The viable approach of sustaining fashion is part of the larger trend of justifiable design where a product is generated and produced while considering its social impact to the environment. The purpose of this qualitative research paper is to find out if the apparel design boutiques in Chandigarh, (an educated fashion-conscious city) are contributing towards making conscious efforts with the re-use of environmentally responsive materials to rethink about eco-conscious traditional techniques and socially responsible approaches of the invention. Observation method and case studies of ten renowned boutiques of Chandigarh were conducted to find out about the creativity of their waste management and social contribution. Owners were interviewed with open-ended questions to find out their understanding of sustainability. This paper concludes that there are many sustainable ideas existing within India from olden times that can be incorporated into modern manufacturing techniques. The results showed all the designers are aware of sustainability as a concept. In all practical purposes, a patch of fabric is being used for bindings or one over the other as surface ornamentation techniques. Plain Fabrics and traditional prints and fabrics are valued more by the owners for using on other garments. Few of them sort their leftover pieces according to basic colors. Few boutique owners preferred donating it to Non-Government organizations. Still, they have enough waste which is not utilized because of lack of time and labor. This paper discusses how the Indian traditional techniques still derive influences though design and techniques, making India one of the contributing countries to the sustainability of fashion and textiles.
A Chemical-Free Colouration Technique for Regenerated Fibres Using Waste Alpaca Fibres
Generally, the colouration of textile fibres is performed by using synthetic colourants in dope dyeing or conventional dyeing methods. However, the toxic effect of some synthetic colorants due to long-term exposure can cause several health threats including cancer, asthma and skin diseases. Moreover, in colouration process, these colourants not only consume a massive amount of water but also generates huge proportion of wastewater to the environment. Despite having the environmentally friendly characteristics, current natural colourants have downsides in their yield and need chemical extraction processes which are water consuming as well. In view of this, the present work focuses to develop a chemical-free biocompatible and natural pigment based colouration technique to colour regenerated fibres. Waste alpaca fibre was used as a colourant and the colour properties, as well as the mechanical properties, of the regenerated fibres were investigated. The colourant from waste alpaca was fabricated through mechanical milling process and it was directly applied to the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) dope solution in different ratios of alpaca: PAN (10:90, 20:80, 30:70). The results obtained from the chemical structure characterization suggested that all the coloured regenerated fibres exhibited chemical functional groups of both PAN and alpaca. Furthermore, the color strength was increased gradually with the increment of alpaca content and showed excellent washing fastness properties. These results reveal a potential new pathway for chemical-free dyeing technique for fibres with improved properties.
Consumer Perception of 3D Body Scanning While Online Shopping for Clothing
Technological development and the globalization in production and sales of clothing in the last decade have significantly influenced the changes in consumer relation to the industrial-fashioned apparel and in the way of clothing purchasing. The Internet sale of clothing is in a constant and significant increase in the global market, but the possibilities offered by modern computing technologies in the customization segment are not yet fully involved, especially according to the individual customer requirements and body sizes. Today, scientific literature still lacks empirical research that would define differences in shopping behavior, especially in on-line shopping as a growing trend, regarding body sizes. Building on this literature gap, the main goal of this paper is to investigate the differences in customer perceptions towards on-line apparel shopping and particularly to discover the main differences in perceptions between customers regarding three different body sizes. In order to complete the research goal, the quantitative study on the sample of 85 Croatian consumers was conducted in 2017 in Zagreb, Croatia. Respondents were asked to indicate their level of agreement according to a five-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). To analyze attitudes of respondents, simple and descriptive statistics were used. The main findings highlight the differences in respondent perception of 3D body scanning, using 3D body scanning in Internet shopping, on-line apparel shopping habits regarding their body sizes.
Taguchi Approach for the Optimization of the Stitching Defects of Knitted Garments
For any industry, the production and quality management or wastages reductions have major impingement on overall factory economy. This work discusses the quality improvement of garment industry by applying Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagram and Taguchi experimental design. The main purpose of the work is to reduce the stitching defects, which will also minimize the rejection and reworks rate. Application of Pareto chart, fish bone diagram and Process Sigma Level/and or Performance Level tools helps solving those problems on priority basis. Among all, only sewing, defects are responsible form 69.3% to 97.3 % of total defects. Process Sigma level has been improved from 0.79 to 1.3 and performance rate improved, from F to D level. The results showed that the new set of sewing parameters was superior to the original one. It can be seen that fabric size has the largest effect on the sewing defects and that needle size has the smallest effect on the stitching defects.
Study of Drape and Seam Strength of Fabric and Garment in Relation to Weave Design and Comparison of 2D and 3D Drape Properties
Aesthetic and performance are two most important considerations along with quality, durability, comfort and cost that affect the garment credibility. Fabric drape is perhaps the most important clothing characteristics that distinguishes fabric from the sheet, paper, steel or other film materials. It enables the fabric to mold itself under its own weight into desired and required shape when only part of it is directly sustained. The fabric has the ability to be crumpled charmingly in bent folds of single or double curvature due to its drapeability to produce a smooth flowing i.e. ‘the sinusoidal-type folds of a curtain or skirt’. Drape and seam strength are two parameters that are considered for aesthetic and performance of fabric for both apparel and home textiles. Until recently, no such study have been conducted in which effect of weave designs on drape and seam strength of fabric and garment is inspected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure seam strength and drape of fabric and garment objectively by changing weave designs and quality of the fabric. Also, the comparison of 2-D drape and 3-D drape was done to find whether a fabric behaves in same manner or differently when sewn and worn on the body. Four different cotton weave designs were developed and pr-treatment was done. 2-D Drape of the fabric was measured by drapemeter attached with digital camera and a supporting disc to hang the specimen on it. Drape coefficient value (DC %) has negative relation with drape. It is the ratio of draped sample’s projected shadow area to the area of undraped (flat) sample expressed as percentage. Similarly, 3-D drape was measured by hanging the A-line skirts for developed weave designs. BS 3356 standard test method was followed for bending length examination. It is related to the angle that the fabric makes with its horizontal axis. Seam strength was determined by following ASTM test standard. For sewn fabric, stitch density of seam was found by magnifying glass according to standard ASTM test method. In this research study, from the experimentation and evaluation it was investigated that drape and seam strength were significantly affected by change of weave design and quality of fabric (PPI & yarn count). Drapeability increased as the number of interlacement or contact point deceased between warp and weft yarns. As the weight of fabric, bending length, and density of fabric had indirect relationship with drapeability. We had concluded that 2-D drape was higher than 3-D drape even though the garment was made of the same fabric construction. Seam breakage strength decreased with decrease in picks density and yarn count.
The Background of Ornamental Design Practice: Theory and Practice Based Research on Ornamental Traditions
This research looks at the principles and purposes ornamental design has served in the field of textile design. Ornamental designs are characterized by richness of details, abundance of elements, vegetative motifs and organic forms that flow harmoniously in complex compositions. Research on ornamental design is significant, because ornaments have been overlooked and considered as less meaningful and aesthetically pleasing than minimalistic, modern designs. This is despite the fact that in many parts of the world ornaments have been an important part of the cultural identification and expression for centuries. Ornament has been claimed to be superficial and merely used as a decorative way to hide the faults of designs. Such generalization is an incorrect interpretation of the real purposes of ornament. Many ornamental patterns tell stories, present mythological scenes or convey symbolistic meanings. Historically, ornamental decorations have been representing ideas and characteristics such as abundance, wealth, power and personal magnificence. The production of fine ornaments required refined skill, eye for intricate detail and perseverance while compiling complex elements into harmonious compositions. For this reason, ornaments have played an important role in the advancement of craftsmanship. Even though it has been claimed that people in the western design world have lost the relationship to ornament, the relation to it has merely changed from the practice of a craftsman to conceptualisation of a designer. With the help of new technological tools the production of ornaments has become faster and more efficient, demanding less manual labour. Designers who commit to this style of organic forms and vegetative motifs embrace and respect nature by representing its organically growing forms and by following its principles. The complexity of the designs is used as a way to evoke a sense of extraordinary beauty and stimulate intellect by freeing the mind from the predetermined interpretations. Through the study of these purposes it can be demonstrated that complex and richer design styles are as valuable a part of the world of design as more modern design approaches. The study highlights the meaning of ornaments by presenting visual examples and literature research findings. The practice based part of the project is the visual analysis of historical and cultural ornamental traditions such as Indian Chikan embroidery, Persian carpets, Art Nouveau and Rococo according to the rubric created for the purpose. The next step is the creation of ornamental designs based on the key elements in different styles. Theoretical and practical parts are woven together in this study that respects respect the long traditions of ornaments and highlight the importance of these design approaches to the field, in contrast to the more commonly preferred styles.
The Design of Smart Tactile Textiles for Therapeutic Applications
Smart tactile textiles are a series of textile-based products that incorporates smart embedded technology to be utilized as tactile therapeutic applications for 2 main groups of target users. The first group of users will be children with sensory processing disorder who are suffering from tactile sensory dysfunction. Children with tactile sensory issues may have difficulty tolerating the sensations generated from the touch of certain textures on the fabrics. A series of smart tactile textiles, collectively known as ‘Tactile Toys’ are developed as tactile therapy play objects, exposing children to different types of touch sensations within textiles, enabling them to enjoy tactile experiences together with interactive play which will help them to overcome fear of certain touch sensations. The second group of users will be the elderly or geriatric patients who are suffering from deteriorating sense of touch. One of the common consequences of aging is suffering from deteriorating sense of touch and a decline in motoric function. With the focus in stimulating the sense of touch for this particular group of end users, another series of smart tactile textiles, collectively known as ‘Tactile Aids’ are developed also as tactile therapy. This range of products can help to maintain touch sensitivity and at the same time allowing the elderly to enjoy interactive play to practice their hand-eye coordination and enhancing their motor skills. These smart tactile textile products are being designed and tested out by the end users and have proofed their efficacy as tactile therapy enabling the users to lead a better quality of life.
Liquid Crystal Elastomers as Light-Driven Star-Shaped Microgripper
Scientists are very keen on biomimetic research that mimics biological species to micro-robotic devices with the novel functionalities and accessibility. The source of inspiration is the complexity, sophistication, and intelligence of the biological systems. In this work, we design a light-driven star-shaped microgripper, an autonomous soft device which can change the shape under the external stimulus such as light. The design is based on light-responsive Liquid Crystal Elastomers which fabricated onto the polymer coated aligned substrate. The change in shape, controlled by the anisotropicity and the molecular orientation of the Liquid Crystal Elastomer, based on the external stimulus. This artificial star-shaped microgripper is capable of autonomous closure and capable to grab the objects in response to an external stimulus. This external stimulus-responsive materials design, based on soft active smart materials, provides a new approach to autonomous, self-regulating optical systems.
Development and Characterisation of Nonwoven Fabrics for Apparel Applications
The cost of making apparel fabrics for garment manufacturing is very high because of their conventional manufacturing processes and new methods/processes are being constantly developed for making fabrics by unconventional methods. With the advancements in technology and the availability of the innovative fibres, durable nonwoven fabrics by using the hydroentanglement process that can compete with the woven fabrics in terms of their aesthetic and tensile properties are being developed. In the work reported here, the hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics were developed through a hybrid nonwoven manufacturing processes by using fibrillated Tencel® and bi-component (sheath/core) polyethylene/polyester (PE/PET) fibres, in which the initial nonwoven fabrics were prepared by the needle-punching method followed by hydroentanglement process carried out at optimal pressures of 50 to 250bars. The prepared fabrics were characterized according to the British Standards (BS 3356:1990, BS 9237:1995, BS 13934-1:1999) and the attained results were compared with those for a standard plain-weave cotton, polyester woven fabric and commercially available nonwoven fabric (Evolon®). The developed hydroentangled fabrics showed better drape properties owing to their flexural rigidity of 252 in the machine direction, while the corresponding commercial hydroentangled fabric displayed a value of 1340 in the machine direction. The tensile strength of the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed an approximately 200% increase than the commercial hydroentangled fabrics. Similarly, the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed higher properties in term of air permeability, such as the developed hydroentangled fabric exhibited 448 mm/sec and Evolon fabric exhibited 69 mm/sec at 100 Pa pressure. Thus for apparel fabrics, the work combining the existing methods of nonwoven production, provides additional benefits in terms of cost, time and also helps in reducing the carbon footprint for the apparel fabric manufacture.
CRYPTO COPYCAT: A Fashion Centric Blockchain Framework for Eliminating Fashion Infringement
The fashion industry represents a significant portion of the global gross domestic product, however, it is plagued by cheap imitators that infringe on the trademarks which destroys the fashion industry's hard work and investment. While eventually the copycats would be found and stopped, the damage has already been done, sales are missed and direct and indirect jobs are lost. The infringer thrives on two main facts: the time it takes to discover them and the lack of tracking technologies that can help the consumer distinguish them. Blockchain technology is a new emerging technology that provides a distributed encrypted immutable and fault resistant ledger. Blockchain presents a ripe technology to resolve the infringement epidemic facing the fashion industry. The significance of the study is that a new approach leveraging the state of the art blockchain technology coupled with artificial intelligence is used to create a framework addressing the fashion infringement problem. It transforms the current focus on legal enforcement, which is difficult at best, to consumer awareness that is far more effective. The framework, Crypto CopyCat, creates an immutable digital asset representing the actual product to empower the customer with a near real time query system. This combination emphasizes the consumer's awareness and appreciation of the product's authenticity, while provides real time feedback to the producer regarding the fake replicas. The main findings of this study are that implementing this approach can delay the fake product penetration of the original product market, thus allowing the original product the time to take advantage of the market. The shift in the fake adoption results in reduced returns, which impedes the copycat market and moves the emphasis to the original product innovation.
Effect of Weave on Cotton Fabric to Improve the Durable Press Finish Rating
Cellulose fibres, mainly cotton, are the most important kind of fibre used for manufacturing shirting fabric. However, to overcome its main disadvantage, that is it gets wrinkled after washing, is to use special kind of finish which is resin finish. This finish provides a resistance against shrinkage along with improved wet and dry wrinkle recovery to cellulosic textiles. The Durable Press (DP) finish uses a mechanism of cross-linking with polymers or resin to inhibit the easy movement of the cellulose chains. The purpose of these experimentations on the weave is to observe and compare the variations in properties after DP finish without adverse effect on strength of the fabric. In this work, we have prepared three types of fabric weaves viz. Plain, Twill and Sateen with their construction parameters intact. To get the projected results, this work uses three types of variables viz. concentration of Resin, Temperature and Time. Resultant of these variables is only change in weave or construction on DP finish which further opens the possibilities of improvement of DP either of mentioned weaves. The combined effect of such various parametric resin finish methodology will give the best method to improve the DP. However, the DP finish can cause a side effect of reduction in elasticity and flexibility of cellulosic fibres. The natural cellulose could loss abrasion resistance along with tear and tensile strength by applying DP finish. In this work, it is taken care that the tear strength of fabric will not drop below certain limit otherwise the fabric will tear down easily. In this work, it is found that there is a significant drop in tearing and tensile strength with the improvement of DP finish. Later on, it is also found that the twill weave has more percentage drop in tearing strength as compared to plain and sateen weave. There is major kind of observations obtained after this work. First, the mixing of cotton should be done properly to achieve the higher DP rating in plain weave. Second, the careful combination of warp, weft and fabric construction must be decided to avoid the high drop in tear and tensile strength in a twill weave. Third, the sateen weave has a good sheen and DP rating hence it can be used in shirting of gents and ladies dress materials. This concludes that to achieve higher DP ratings, use plain weave construction than twill and sateen because it has the lowest tear and tensile strength drop.
Sequential Padding: A Method to Improve the Impact Resistance in Body Armor Materials
Application of shear thickening fluid (STF) has been proved to increase the impact resistance performance of the textile structures to further use it as a body armor material. In the present research, STF was applied on Kevlar woven fabric to make the structure lightweight and flexible while improving its impact resistance performance. It was observed that getting a fair amount of add-on of STF on Kevlar fabric is difficult as Kevlar fabric comes with a pre-coating of PTFE which hinders its absorbency. Hence, a method termed as sequential padding is developed in the present study to improve the add-on of STF on Kevlar fabric. Contrary to the conventional process, where Kevlar fabric is treated with STF once using any one pressure, in sequential padding method, the Kevlar fabrics were treated twice in a sequential manner using combination of two pressures together in a sample. 200 GSM Kevlar fabrics were used in the present study. STF was prepared by adding PEG with 70% (w/w) nano-silica concentration. Ethanol was added with the STF at a fixed ratio to reduce viscosity. A high-speed homogenizer was used to make the dispersion. Total nine STF treated Kevlar fabric samples were prepared by using varying combinations and sequences of three levels of padding pressure {0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 bar). The fabrics were dried at 80°C for 40 minutes in a hot air oven to evaporate ethanol. Untreated and STF treated fabrics were tested for add-on%. Impact resistance performance of samples was also tested on dynamic impact tester at a fixed velocity of 6 m/s. Further, to observe the impact resistance performance in actual condition, low velocity ballistic test with 165 m/s velocity was also performed to confirm the results of impact resistance test. It was observed that both add-on% and impact energy absorption of Kevlar fabrics increases significantly with sequential padding process as compared to untreated as well as single stage padding process. It was also determined that impact energy absorption is significantly better in STF treated Kevlar fabrics when 1st padding pressure is higher, and 2nd padding pressure is lower. It is also observed that impact energy absorption of sequentially padded Kevlar fabric shows almost 125% increase in ballistic impact energy absorption (40.62 J) as compared to untreated fabric (18.07 J).The results are owing to the fact that the treatment of fabrics at high pressure during the first padding is responsible for uniform distribution of STF within the fabric structures. While padding with second lower pressure ensures the high add-on of STF for over-all improvement in the impact resistance performance of the fabric. Therefore, it is concluded that sequential padding process may help to improve the impact performance of body armor materials based on STF treated Kevlar fabrics.
Impact of Negative News on Ethical Fashion: Case Study to Investigate the Effect of Fashion CSR Ad Framing on Purchase Intention
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the fashion corporate social responsibility (CSR) ad framing and consumer purchase behaviours with the focus on consumer’s concern and involvement towards fashion brands. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 200 respondents. Factor analysis and other statistical analyses were applied to test hypotheses. The results suggested that the quality of the product was the most important factor when consumers purchase fashion brand products with high level of responsibility towards unethical practices but surprisingly favourability for fast fashion. Unexpectedly, it was shown that consumers took the plenty of blame, but not much responsibility on buying fast fashion evading their responsibility to CSR ad, and their purchase intentions remained unchanged. The result, on the other hand, showed that fashion CSR ads can significantly moderate individuals’ emotions even though this had no significant correlation with the purchase intentions. Despite the limited sample size and geographical region, this research has important implications for contemporary fashion brands that use ad framing to understand how consumers’ involvement and concernedness toward the CSR actions in ad, influence their favourability (purchase intention) for fashion brands.
Flexural Properties of Carbon/Polypropylene Composites: Influence of Matrix Forming Polypropylene in Fiber, Powder, and Film States
Thermoplastic composites render new opportunities as effective processing technology while crafting newer complications into processing. One of the notable challenges is in achieving thorough wettability that is significantly deterred by the high viscosity of the long molecular chains of the thermoplastics. As a result of high viscosity, it is very difficult to impregnate the resin into a tightly interlaced textile structure to fill the voids present in the structure. One potential solution to the above problem, is to pre-deposit resin on the fiber, prior to consolidation. The current study compares DREF spinning, powder coating and film stacking methods of predeposition of resin onto fibers. An investigation into the flexural properties of unidirectional composites (UDC) produced from blending of carbon fiber and polypropylene (PP) matrix in varying forms of fiber, powder and film are reported. Dr. Ernst Fehrer (DREF) yarns or friction spun hybrid yarns were manufactured from PP fibers and carbon tows. The DREF yarns were consolidated to yield unidirectional composites (UDCs) referred to as UDC-D. PP in the form of powder was coated on carbon tows by electrostatic spray coating. The powder-coated towpregs were consolidated to form UDC-P. For the sake of comparison, a third UDC referred as UDC-F was manufactured by the consolidation of PP films stacked between carbon tows. The experiments were designed to yield a matching fiber volume fraction of about 50 % in all the three UDCs. A comparison of mechanical properties of the three composites was studied to understand the efficiency of matrix wetting and impregnation. Approximately 19% and 68% higher flexural strength were obtained for UDC-P than UDC-D and UDC-F respectively. Similarly, 25% and 81% higher modulus were observed in UDC-P than UDC-D and UDC-F respectively. Results from micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and short beam tests indicate better impregnation of PP matrix in UDC-P obtained through electrostatic spray coating process and thereby higher flexural strength and modulus.
Effect of Different Types of Washes on the Fabric Strength of Denim
Experimental Design (DOE) economically maximizes information; we deliberately change one or more process variables (looms) in order to observe the effect the changes have on one or more response fabric properties. In DOE obtained data can be analyzed to yield valid and objective conclusions. An Experimental Design is lying out of a detailed experimental plan in advance and maximizes the amount of "information" that can be obtained for a given amount of experimental. Fabric of 36 inches having following weaves was used. 3/1 twill, warp cotton (10.5 den), weft Lycra (16 spandex * 70 den) Ends per inch86, Picks per inch 52 and washes process includes Stone wash, Rinse wash, Bleaching and Enzyme wash. Once the samples were ready, they were subjected to tensile and tear strength tests, for these two kinds of samples were considered. One washed fabric samples of warp direction type and other type of the samples was weft direction. Then five samples from each were considered for tensile and teat strength tests separately then takes the mean value. The results found that the lowest strength damaged in the weft direction observed by tensile strength test & Enzyme wash. Maximum breaking load of the enzyme washed fabric sample was 42 kg.
Coating of Cotton with Blend of Natural Rubber and Chloroprene Containing Ammonium Acetate for Producing Moisture Vapour Permeable Waterproof Fabric
For the purpose of producing moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton fabric to be used for protective apparel against rain, cotton fabric was coated with the blend of natural rubber and chloroprene rubber containing ammonium acetate as the water-soluble salt, employing a calendar coating technique. Rubber formulations also contained filler, homogenizer, and a typical sulphur curing system. Natural rubber and chloroprene blend in the blend ratio of 30: 70, containing 25 parts of sodium acetate per hundred parts of rubber was coated on the fabric. The coated fabric was vulcanized thereafter at 140oC for 3 h. Coated and vulcanized fabric was subsequently dipped in water for 45 min, followed by drying in air. Such set of treatments produced optimum results. Coated, vulcanized, washed and dried cotton fabric showed optimum developments in the property profiles in respect of waterproofness, breathability as revealed by moisture vapor transmission rate, coating adhesion, tensile properties, abrasion resistance, flex endurance and fire retardancy. Incorporation of highly water-soluble ammonium acetate salt in the coating formulation and their subsequent removal from vulcanized coated layer affected by post washing in consequent to dipping in the water-bath produced holes of only a few microns in the coating matrix of the fabric. Such microporous membrane formed on the cotton fabric allowed only transportation of moisture vapor through them, giving a moisture vapor transmission rate of 3734 g/m2/24h, while acting as a barrier for large liquid water droplet resisting 120cm of the water column in the hydrostatic water-head tester, rendering the coated cotton fabric waterproof. Examination of surface morphology of vulcanized coating by scanning electron microscopy supported the mechanism proposed for development of breathable waterproof layer on cotton fabric by the process employed above. Such process provides an easy and cost-effective route for achieving moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton.
Studies on Organic and Inorganic Micro/Nano Particle Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Fibre based nano particles are presently considered as one of the potential filler materials for the improvement of mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites. Due to high matrix-filler interfacial area there will be uniform and homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles. In micro/nano filler reinforced composites, resin material is usually tailored by organic or inorganic nanoparticles to have improved matrix properties. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of reinforcement of different organic and inorganic micro/nano fillers in epoxy composites. Industrial and agricultural waste of fibres like Agave Americana, cornhusk, jute, basalt, carbon, glass and fly ash was utilized to prepare micro/nano particles. Micro/nano particles were obtained using high energy planetary ball milling process in dry condition. Milling time and ball size were kept constant throughout the ball milling process. Composites were fabricated by hand lay method. Particle loading was kept constant to 3% wt. for all composites. In present study, loading of fillers was selected as 3 wt. % for all composites. Dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films were performed in three-point bending mode with gauge length and sample width of 50 mm and 10 mm respectively. The samples were subjected to an oscillating frequency of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz and 100 % oscillating amplitude in the temperature ranges of 30°C to 150°C at the heating rate of 3°C/min. Damping was found to be higher with the jute composites. Amongst organic fillers lowest damping factor was observed with Agave Americana particles, this means that Agave americana fibre particles have betters interface adhesion with epoxy resin. Basalt, fly ash and glass particles have almost similar damping factors confirming better interface adhesion with epoxy.
Reactive Fabrics for Chemical Warfare Agent Decomposition Using Particle Crystallization
Recently, research for reactive fabrics which have the characteristics of CWA (Chemical Warfare Agent) decomposition is being performed actively. The performance level of decomposition for CWA decomposition in various environmental condition is one of the critical factors in applicability as protective materials for NBC (Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical) protective clothing. In this study, results of performance test for CWA decomposition by reactive fabric made of electrospinning web and reactive particle are presented. Currently, the MOF (metal organic framework) type of UiO-66-NH₂ is frequently being studied as material for decomposing CWA especially blister agent HD [Bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide]. When we test decomposition rate with electrospinning web made of PVB (Polyvinyl Butiral) polymer and UiO-66-NH₂ particle, we can get very high protective performance than the case other particles are applied. Furthermore, if the repellant surface fabric is added on reactive material as the component of protective fabric, the performance of layer by layered reactive fabric could be approached to the level of current NBC protective fabric for HD decomposition rate. Reactive fabric we used in this study is manufactured by electrospinning process of polymer which contains the reactive particle of UiO-66-NH₂, and we performed crystalizing process once again on that polymer fiber web in solvent systems as a second step for manufacturing reactive fabric. Three kinds of polymer materials are used in this process, but PVB was most suitable as an electrospinning fiber polymer considering the shape of product. The density of particle on fiber web and HD decomposition rate is enhanced by secondary crystallization compared with the results which are not processed. The amount of HD penetration by 24hr AVLAG (Aerosol Vapor Liquid Assessment Group) swatch test through the reactive fabrics with secondary crystallization and without crystallization is 24 and 146μg/cm² respectively. Even though all of the reactive fiber webs for this test are combined with repellant surface layer at outer side of swatch, the effects of secondary crystallization of particle for the reactive fiber web are remarkable.
Fashion Blogging as a Marketing Tool: A Cross-Cultural Investigation to Help the Emerging Fashion Markets
Over the last decade, the emerging phenomenon of fashion blogging has altered the fashion landscape by providing new avenues of marketing to the fashion brands and designers. Given the growing popularity of this trend, there is a potential research scope within the developing fashion markets in South Asia as the majority of the previous studies have been centralized in the context of an established fashion industry. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide an insight on how these newly established marketplaces can benefit by incorporating fashion blogging as a marketing tool in a cross-cultural context. For this reason, the established fashion industry of UK and emerging fashion market of Pakistan was chosen to address the impact of cross-cultural differences on blogging based on the idea of individualism and collectivism. The study used a qualitative approach, using the semi-structured interviews with the fashion industry professionals including PR experts, fashion designers and fashion bloggers Additionally, a questionnaire was designed to gauge consumer’s perception of the blogging from the chosen fashion industries. It is established through the research findings that blogging has evolved from a trend to a strategic public relations and marketing tool in the established fashion industry, which is progressively growing its roots in the new emerging fashion markets. Furthermore, it is evaluated from the research that the cross-cultural differences have a positive impact on fashion blogging. Thus, this research paper serves as the guideline for the emerging fashion markets to incorporate fashion blogging as a marketing tool which can facilitate effective cross-cultural communication.
An Analysis of the Relationship between Consumer Perception and Purchase Behavior towards Green Fashion in India
The green fashion market is growing rapidly as eco-friendly consumers are willing to expand their organic lifestyle to include clothing. With an increasing share of fashion consumers globally, Indian consumers are observed to consider the social and environmental ethics while making purchasing decisions. While some research clearly identifies the efforts of responsible consumers towards green fashion, some argue that fashion-orientated consumers who are sensitive towards environment do not actively participate towards supporting green fashion. This study aims to analyze the current perception of green fashion among Indian consumers. A small-scale exploratory study is conducted where consumers’ perception of green fashion is examined followed by an analysis of translation of this perception into purchase decision making. This research paper gives insight into consumer awareness on green fashion and provides scope towards the expansion of ethical fashion consumption within the demography of India.
The Effect of Pulsator on Washing Performance in a Front-Loading Washer
The object of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsator on washing performance quantitatively for front-loading washer. The front-loading washer with pulsator shows washing performance improvement of 18% and the particle-based body simulation technique has been applied to figure out the relation between washing performance and mechanical forces exerted on textile during washing process. As a result, the mechanical forces, such as collision force and strain force, acting on the textile have turned out to be about twice numerically. The washing performance improvement due to additional pulsate system has been utilized for customers to save 50% of washing time.
Fashion Accessory and Its Future: Design for Sustainability Applied to the Design Process as a Potential Approach
The fashion industry has become one of the most polluting industries in the world. In this context, designers can contribute solutions to the problem by applying Design for Sustainability (DfS) criteria, which will enable to promote designing products and services toward Sustainability. Therefore, 'Slow Fashion' movement has been receiving the attention of researchers, designers, and customers who are sensitive to sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of DfS in fashion. In particular, how can apply sustainable design principles to the fashion accessory in order to minimize the negative impact on the environment and society? The research method of this study is qualitative, utilising a multi-method case study approach. Grounded theory analysis was applied to analyse the data of the case studies collected and the results obtained. Also, research findings indicate that DfS applied to Fashion Accessory design processes might have great potential and win-win approaches toward a sustainable future. An important implication is that understanding the concepts and applying DfS to fashion accessory design processes can support designers to face challenges and seize opportunities. Furthermore, identify the key concept of sustainability and social responsibility could raise awareness on sustainable fashion for both producers and customers more effectively.
Impact of Story-Telling through Indian Textiles: Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad
In the endeavour of connecting culture to stories, textile to narratives and people to material, authors analyse the impact of narratives in two popular Indian textiles namely - Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad. These textiles narrate people’s tale or Folk tale. Each textile has a style or format in which the story is told (and it is visual). Mata Ni Pachedi, when translated into the English language literally means behind the mother goddess. Mata Ni Pachedi is an Indian textile from the province of Gujarat which constitutes an entire temple of the goddess, with the idol herself in it. On the other hand, Pabuji ki Phad is scroll painting of folk deities of Rajasthan, narrated by Bhopas (the Priest singers of Rajasthan). These textiles narrate stories of ordinary people with extraordinary courage, of social reform, and people’s belief in the divine. Authors take to task their years of craft-cluster study conducted in the past and use existing literature to map their journey in the preliminary phase of research. And then carried out an ethnographic study by visiting the origins of these textiles in Rajasthan and Gujrat (in India), met artisans and their families who are still practicing these dying art form, in order to understand the format and impact of textile story-telling. This research paper talks about the narrative in Indian textiles; the stories in them, artisans and their life as metaphorical representations of the People in Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad.
Investigating the Impact of the Laundry and Sterilization Process on the Performance of Reusable Surgical Gowns
Recently, the utilization of reusable surgical gowns in order to decrease costs, environmental protection and enhance surgeon’s comfort is considered. One of the concerns in applying this kind of medical protective clothing is reduction of their resistance to bacterial penetration especially in wet state, after repeated laundering and sterilizing process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the laundering and sterilizing process on the reusable surgical gown’s resistance against bacterial wet penetration. To this end, penetration of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in wet state after 70 washing and sterilizing cycles was evaluated on the two single-layer and three-layer reusable gowns. The outcomes reveal that up to 20 laundering and sterilizing cycles, protective property of samples improves due to fabric shrinkage, after that because of the fabric’s construction opening, the bacterial penetration increase. However, the three-layer gown presents higher protective performance comparing to the single-layer one.
Impact of Sericin Treatment on Perfection Dyeing of Polyester Viscose Blend
In the midst of the two decades the use of microwave dielectric warming in the field of science has transformed into a powerful methodology to redesign compound procedures. The potential benefit of the application of these modern methods of treatment emphasize so as to reach to optimum treatment conditions and the best results, especially hydrophobicity, moisture content and increase dyeing processing while maintaining the physical and chemical properties of each textile. Moreover, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. So that at the present task, the polyester/viscose mix fabrics (60 /40) were pretreated with 4 g/l of KOH for 2 min in microwave irradiation with a liquor ratio 1:25. Subsequently fabrics were inundated with different concentrations of sericin (10, 30, 50 g/l). Treated fabrics were coloured with the commercial dyes samples: Reactive Red 84(Dye 1). C. I. Acid Blue 203(Dye 2) and C.I. Reactive violet 5 (Dye 3). Colour value was specified as well as fastness properties. Likewise, the physical properties of untreated and treated fabrics such as moisture content %, tensile strength, elongation % and were evaluated. The untreated and treated fabrics are described by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy.
The Effects of Scientific Studies on the Future Fashion Trends
The discovery of chemical dyes, the development of regenerated fibers, and warp knitting technology have enormous effects on the fashion world. The trends created by the information obtained in the context of various studies today shape the fashion world. Trend analysts must follow scientific developments as well as sociological events, political developments and artwork to obtain healthy data on trends. Digital printing technologies have changed the dynamics of textile printing production and also the style of printed designs. Fashion designers already have started design 3D printed accessories and garments. The research fields like the internet of things, artificial intelligence, hologram technologies, mechatronics, energy storage systems, nanotechnology are seen as the technologies that will change the social life and economy of the future. It is clear that research carried out in these areas will affect the textiles of the future and whereat the trends of fashion. The article aims to create a future vision for trend researchers and designers by giving clues about the changes to be experienced in the fashion world. In the first part of the article, information about the scientific studies that are thought to shape the future is given, and the forecasting about how the inventions that can be obtained from these studies can be adapted at the textile are presented. In the second part of the article, examples of how the new generation of innovative textiles will affect the daily life experience of the user are given.