A Decade of Creating an Alternative Banking System in Tanzania: The Current State of Affairs of Islamic Banks
The concept of financial inclusion has been tabled in the whole world where practitioners, academicians, policy makers and economists are working hard to look for the best possible opportunities in order to enable the whole society to be in the banking cycle. The Islamic banking system is considered to be one of the said opportunities. Countries like the United Kingdom, United States of America, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the whole of the United Arab Emirates and many African countries have accommodated the aspect of Islamic banking in the conventional banking system as one of the financial inclusion strategies. This paper tries to analyse the current state of affairs of the Islamic Banking system in Tanzania in order to understand the improvement of the provision of Islamic banking products and services in the said country. The paper discusses the historical background of the banking system in Tanzania, the level of penetration of banking products and services and the coming of the Islamic banking system in the country. Furthermore, the paper discusses banking regulatory bodies, legal instruments governing banking operations as well as number of legal challenges facing Islamic banking operations in the country. Following a critical literature review, the paper discovered that there is no legal instrument which talks about the introduction and provision of Islamic banking system in Tanzania. Furthermore, the Islamic banking system was considered as a banking product which is absolutely incorrect because Islamic banking is considered to be as a banking system of its own. In addition to that, it has been discovered that lack of a proper regulatory system and legal instruments to harmonize the conventional and Islamic banking systems has resulted in the closure of one Islamic window in the country, which in the end affects the credibility of the newly introduced banking system. In its conclusive remarks, the paper suggests that Tanzania should work on all legal challenges affecting the smooth operations of the Islamic banking system. This can be in a way of adopting various Islamic banking legal models which are used in countries like Malaysia and others, or a borrowing legal harmonization process which has been adopted by the UK, Uganda, Nigeria and Kenya.
The Significance of a Well-Defined Systematic Approach in Risk Management for Construction Projects within Oil Industry
Construction projects in the oil industry can be very complex, having unknown outcomes and uncertainties that cannot be easily predicted. Each project has its unique risks generated by a number of factors which, if not controlled, will impact the successful completion of the project mainly in terms of schedule, cost, quality, and safety. This paper highlights the historic risks associated with projects in the south and east region of Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) collated from the company’s lessons learned database. Starting from Contract Award through to handover of the project to the Asset owner, the gaps in project execution in terms of managing risk will be brought to discussion and where a well-defined systematic approach in project risk management reflecting many claims, change of scope, exceeding budget, delays in engineering phase as well as in the procurement and fabrication of long lead items should be adopted. This study focuses on a proposed feasible approach in risk management for engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) level projects including the various stakeholders involved in executing the works from International to local contractors and vendors in KOC. The proposed approach covers the areas categorized into organizational, design, procurement, construction, pre-commissioning, commissioning and project management in which the risks are identified and require management and mitigation. With the effective deployment and implementation of the proposed risk management system and the consideration of it as a vital key in achieving the project’s target, the outcomes will be more predictable in the future, and the risk triggers will be managed and controlled. The correct resources can be allocated on a timely basis for the company for avoiding any unpredictable outcomes during the execution of the project. It is recommended in this paper to apply this risk management approach as an integral part of project management and investigate further in the future, the effectiveness of this proposed system for newly awarded projects and compare the same with those projects of similar budget/complexity that have not applied this approach to risk management.
An Explorative Study of the Application of Project Management in German Research Projects
Research activities are mostly conducted in form of projects. In fact, research projects take the highest share of all project forms combined. However, project management is very rarely applied purposefully by researchers and scientists. More specifically no project management frameworks, methods or tools are not being used to plan, execute or control research project to ensure research success or improve project quality. In this qualitative study, several interviews were conducted with scientists and research managers from German institutions to gain insights into project management activities, to determine challenges and barriers, and to evaluate premises for successful project management. The analyses show that conventional project management is not easily applicable in scientific environments and researchers’ mindsets prevent a reasonable application.
Corporate Governance and Initial Public Offerings: Case of Croatia
This paper empirically investigates the performance of Croatian initial public offerings (IPOs) throughout 20 years period, from 1996 until 2016. By proving the comprehensive evaluation of reasons and consequences of IPO initiatives in Croatia we give analytic evidence on the influence of this corporate action on the development of corporate governance. Furthermore, the paper discusses the relationship between internal and external corporate governance mechanisms in companies that initialize entering the financial markets. The paper will provide a synthesis of evidence of IPO-s in Croatia based on in-depth case studies of 13 cases of IPO-s. The major findings of the paper include identification of reasons for conducting IPO-s and calculation of underpricing effect and change of market capitalization. To the best of the author's knowledge, the results of the paper provide the analytical framework for understanding the impact of IPOs on the corporate governance system in transition countries.
The Level of Disclosure of Intellectual Capital at Jordanian Development Banks
This study aims at identifying the level of disclosure of intellectual capital at the Jordanian development banks. The study sample composed of (100) individuals working at the National Bank to Finance Small Projects around the different governorates of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed over the study sample. (95) Questionnaires have been retrieved; valid for the statistical analysis purposes with a percentage of (95%). The study results showed that the level of disclosure of intellectual capital with all its dimensions (human capital, customer capital and structural capital) at the Jordanian development banks was of a high level. The results also showed that there is a high level of awareness performed by the Jordanian development banks’ employees in regard to the necessity and importance of the intellectual capital’s disclosure. The study was concluded with a number of recommendations among which were that the Jordanian development banks shall take notice toward increasing their workers’ awareness regarding the importance of intellectual capital’s disclosure, as well as applying this study over commercial and Islamic banks for the purposes of carrying out a comparison between them and the development banks.
Reducing Support Structures in Design for Additive Manufacturing: A Neural Networks Approach
This article presents a neural networks-based strategy for reducing the need for support structures when designing for additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing is a relatively new and immature industrial technology, and the information to make confident decisions when designing for AM is limited. This lack of information impacts especially the early stages of engineering design, for instance, it is difficult to actively consider the support structures needed for manufacturing a part. This difficulty is related to the challenge of designing a product geometry accounting for customer requirements, manufacturing constraints and minimization of support structure. The approach presented in this article proposes an automatized geometry modification technique for reducing the use of the support structures while designing for AM. This strategy starts with a neural network-based strategy for shape recognition to achieve product classification, using an STL file of the product as input. Based on the classification, an automatic part geometry modification based on MATLAB© is implemented. At the end of the process, the strategy presents different geometry modification alternatives depending on the type of product to be designed. The geometry alternatives are then evaluated adopting a QFD-like decision support tool.
WiFi Data Offloading: Bundling Method in a Canvas Business Model
Mobile operators deal with increasing in the data traffic as a critical issue. As a result, a vital responsibility of the operators is to deal with such a trend in order to create added values. This paper addresses a bundling method in a Canvas business model in a WiFi Data Offloading (WDO) strategy by which some elements of the model may be affected. In the proposed method, it is supposed to sell a number of data packages for subscribers in which there are some packages with a free given volume of data-offloaded WiFi complimentary. The paper on hands analyses this method in the views of attractiveness and profitability. The results demonstrate that the quality of implementation of the WDO strongly affects the final result and helps the decision maker to make the best one.
An Analysis of Gender Discrimination and Horizontal Hostility among Working Women in Pakistan
Horizontal hostility has been identified as a special type of workplace violence and refers to the aggressive behavior inflicted by women towards other women due to gender issues or towards minority group members due to minority issues. Many women, while they want eagerly to succeed and invest invigorated efforts to achieve success, harbor negative feelings for other women to succeed in their career. This phenomenon has been known as Horizontal Violence, Horizontal Hostility, Lateral Violence, Indirect Aggression, or The Tall Poppy Syndrome in Australian culture. Tall Poppy is referred to as a visibly successful individual who attracts envy or hostility due to distinctive characteristics. Therefore, horizontal hostility provides theoretical foundation to examine fierce competition among females than males for their limited access to top level management positions. In Pakistan, gender discrimination persists due to male dominance in the society and women do not enjoy basic equality rights in all aspects of life. They are oppressed at social and organizational level. As Government has been trying to enhance women participation through providing more employment opportunities, provision of peaceful workplace is mandatory that will enable aspiring females to achieve objectives of career success. This research study will help to understand antecedents, dimensions and outcomes of horizontal hostility that hinder career success of competitive females. The present paper is a review paper and various forms of horizontal hostility have been discussed in detail. Different psychological and organizational level drivers of horizontal hostility have been explored through literature. Psychological drivers include oppression, lack of empowerment, learned helplessness and low self-esteem. Organizational level drivers include sticky floor, glass ceiling, toxic work environment and leadership role. Horizontal hostility among working women results in psychological and physical outcomes including stress, low motivation, poor job performance and intention to leave. The study recommends provision of healthy and peaceful work environment that will enable competent women to achieve objectives of career success. In this regard, concrete actions and effective steps are required to promote gender equality at social and organizational level. The need is to ensure the enforcement of legal frameworks by government agencies in order to provide healthy working environment to women by reducing harassment and violence against them. Organizations must eradicate drivers of horizontal hostility and provide women peaceful work environment. In order to develop coping skills, training and mentoring must be provided to them.
Development of Swing Valve for Gasoline Turbocharger Using Hybrid Metal Injection Molding
Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is a technology that combines powder metallurgy and injection molding. Particularly, it is widely applied to the manufacture of precision mobile parts and automobile turbocharger parts because compact precision parts with complicated three-dimensional shapes that are difficult to machining are formed into a large number of finished products. The swing valve is a valve that adjusts the boost pressure of the turbocharger. Since the head portion is exposed to the harsh temperature condition of about 900 degrees in the gasoline GDI engine, it is necessary to use Inconel material with excellent heat resistance and abrasion resistance, resulting in high manufacturing cost. In this study, we developed a swing valve using a metal powder injection molding based hybrid material (Inconel 713C material with heat resistance is applied to the head part, and HK30 material with low price is applied to the rest of the body part). For this purpose, the process conditions of the metal injection molding were optimized to minimize the internal defects, and the effectiveness was confirmed by the fracture strength and fatigue test.
Performance Improvement of Information System of a Banking System Based on Integrated Resilience Engineering Design
Integrated resilience engineering (IRE) is capable of returning banking systems to the normal state in extensive economic circumstances. In this study, information system of a large bank (with several branches) is assessed and optimized under severe economic conditions. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) models are employed to achieve the objective of this study. Nine IRE factors are considered to be the outputs, and a dummy variable is defined as the input of the DEA models. A standard questionnaire is designed and distributed among executive managers to be considered as the decision-making units (DMUs). Reliability and validity of the questionnaire is examined based on Cronbach's alpha and t-test. The most appropriate DEA model is determined based on average efficiency and normality test. It is shown that the proposed integrated design provides higher efficiency than the conventional RE design. Results of sensitivity and perturbation analysis indicate that self-organization, fault tolerance, and reporting culture respectively compose about 50 percent of total weight.
Mediating Role of 'Investment Recovery' and 'Competitiveness' on the Impact of Green Supply Chain Management Practices over Firm Performance: An Empirical Study Based on Textile Industry of Pakistan
Purpose: The concept of GrSCM (Green Supply Chain Management) in the academic and research field is still thought to be in the development stage especially in Asian Emerging Economies. The purpose of this paper is to contribute significantly to the first wave of empirical investigation on GrSCM Practices and Firm Performance measures in Pakistan. The aim of this research is to develop a more holistic approach towards investigating the impact of Green Supply Chain Management Practices (Ecodesign, Internal Environmental Management systems, Green Distribution, Green Purchasing and Cooperation with Customers) on multiple dimensions of Firm Performance Measures (Economic Performance, Environmental Performance and Operational Performance) with a mediating role of Investment Recovery and Competitiveness. This paper also serves as an initiative to identify if the relationship between Investment Recovery and Firm Performance Measures is mediated by Competitiveness. Design/ Methodology/Approach: This study is based on survey Data collected from 272, ISO (14001) Certified Textile Firms Based in Lahore, Faisalabad, and Karachi which are involved in Spinning, Dyeing, Printing or Bleaching. A Theoretical model was developed incorporating the constructs representing Green Activities and Firm Performance Measures of a firm. The data was analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling. Senior and Mid-level managers provided the data reflecting the degree to which their organizations deal with both internal and external stakeholders to improve the environmental sustainability of their supply chain. Findings: Of the 36 proposed Hypothesis, 20 are considered valid and significant. The statistics result reveal that GrSCM practices positively impact Environmental Performance followed by Economic and Operational Performance. Investment Recovery acts as a strong mediator between Intra organizational Green activities and performance outcomes. The relationship of Reverse Logistics influencing outcomes is significantly mediated by Competitiveness. The pressure originating from customers exert significant positive influence on the firm to adopt Green Practices consequently leading to higher outcomes. Research Contribution/Originality: Underpinning the Resource dependence theory and as a first wave of investigating the impact of Green Supply chain on performance outcomes in Pakistan, this study intends to make a prominent mark in the field of research. Investment and Competitiveness together are tested as a mediator for the first time in this arena. Managerial implications: Practitioner is provided with a framework for assessing the synergistic impact of GrSCM practices on performance. Upgradation of Accreditations and Audit Programs on regular basis are the need of the hour. Making the processes leaner with the sale of excess inventories and scrap helps the firm to work more efficiently and productively.
Optimal Selection of Inventory Polices Using Distance Based Approach
This paper presents a model based on Distance-Based Approach (DBA) method employed for evaluation, selection and ranking of inventory policies for a single location inventory which hitherto not developed in the literature. The major development of inventory policies over the time, this work recognizes the significance of inventory policy selection problem; identify the selection criteria; the relative importance of selection criteria for this research problem. The developed model is capable to compare of any number of alternate inventory policies for various selection criteria where cardinal values are assigned as a rating to alternate inventory policies for selection criteria and weights of selection criteria. The illustrated example demonstrates the model and presents the result in terms of ranking of inventory policies the results so obtained have been compared with other technique.
An Online Adaptive Thresholding Method to Classify Google Trends Data Anomalies for Investor Sentiment Analysis
Google Trends data has gained increasing popularity in the applications of behavioral finance, decision science and risk management. Because of Google’s wide range of use, the Trends statistics provide significant information about the investor sentiment and intention, which can be used as decisive factors for corporate and risk management fields. However, an anomaly, a significant increase or decrease, in a certain query cannot be detected by the state of the art applications of computation due to the random baseline noise of the Trends data, which is modelled as an Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Since through time, the baseline noise power shows a gradual change an adaptive thresholding method is required to track and learn the baseline noise for a correct classification. To this end, we introduce an online method to classify meaningful deviations in Google Trends data. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our method can successfully classify various anomalies for plenty of different data.
The Impact of External Technology Acquisition and Exploitation on Firms' Process Innovation Performance
There is a consensus among innovation scholars that knowledge is a vital antecedent for firm’s innovation; e.g., process innovation. Recently, there has been an increasing amount of attention to more open approaches to innovation. This open model emphasizes the use of purposive flows of knowledge across the organization boundaries. Firms adopt open innovation strategy to improve their innovation performance by bringing knowledge into the organization (inbound open innovation) to accelerate internal innovation or transferring knowledge outside (outbound open innovation) to expand the markets for external use of innovation. Reviewing open innovation research reveals the following. First, the majority of existing studies have focused on inbound open innovation and less on outbound open innovation. Second, limited research has considered the possible interaction between both and how this interaction may impact the firm’s innovation performance. Third, scholars have focused mainly on the impact of open innovation strategy on product innovation and less on process innovation. Therefore, our knowledge of the relationship between firms’ inbound and outbound open innovation and how these two impact process innovation is still limited. This study focuses on the firm’s external technology acquisition (ETA) and external technology exploitation (ETE) and the firm’s process innovation performance. The ETA represents inbound openness in which firms rely on the acquisition and absorption of external technologies to complement their technology portfolios. The ETE, on the other hand, refers to commercializing technology assets exclusively or in addition to their internal application. This study hypothesized that both ETA and ETE have a positive relationship with process innovation performance and that ETE fully mediates the relationship between ETA and process innovation performance, i.e., ETA has a positive impact on ETE, and turn, ETE has a positive impact on process innovation performance. This study empirically explored these hypotheses in software development firms in Thailand. These firms were randomly selected from a list of Software firms registered with the Department of Business Development, Ministry of Commerce of Thailand. The questionnaires were sent to 1689 firms. After follow-ups and periodic reminders, we obtained 329 (19.48%) completed usable questionnaires. The structure question modeling (SEM) has been used to analyze the data. An analysis of the outcome of 329 firms provides support for our three hypotheses: First, the firm’s ETA has a positive impact on its process innovation performance. Second, the firm’s ETA has a positive impact its ETE. Third, the firm’s ETE fully mediates the relationship between the firm’s ETA and its process innovation performance. This study fills up the gap in open innovation literature by examining the relationship between inbound (ETA) and outbound (ETE) open innovation and suggest that in order to benefits from the promises of openness, firms must engage in both. The study went one step further by explaining the mechanism through which ETA influence process innovation performance.
Intentions and Willingness of Marketing Professionals to Adopt Neuromarketing
This paper is part of a doctoral research study aimed to identify behavioral indicators for the existence of the new marketing paradigm. Neuromarketing is becoming a growing trend in the marketing industry worldwide and it is capturing a lot of interest among the members of academia and the practitioner community. However, it is still not very clear how big of an impact neuromarketing might have in the following years. In an effort to get closer to an answer, this study investigates behavioral intentions and willingness to adopt neuromarketing and its practices by the marketing professionals, including academics, practitioners, students, researchers, experts and journal editors. The participants in the study include marketing professionals at different levels of neuromarketing fluency with residency in the United States of America and the South East Europe. The total of 19 participants participated in the interviews, all of whom belong to more than one group of marketing professionals. The authors use qualitative research approach and open-ended interview questions specifically developed to assess ideas, beliefs and opinions that marketing professionals hold towards neuromarketing. In constructing the interview questions, the authors have used the theory of planned behavior, the prototype willingness model and the technology acceptance model as a theoretical framework. Previous studies have not explicitly investigated the behavioral intentions of marketing professionals to engage in neuromarketing behavior, which is described here as a tendency to apply neuromarketing assumptions and tools in usual marketing practices. This study suggests that the marketing professionals believe that neuromarketing can contribute to the business in a positive way and outlines the main advantages and disadvantages of adopting neuromarketing as identified by the participants. In addition, the study reveals an emerging image of an exemplar company that is perceived to be using neuromarketing, including the most common characteristics and attributes. These findings are believed to be crucial in facilitating a way for neuromarketing field to have a broader impact than it currently does by recognizing and understanding the limitations that such exemplars imply and how that has an effect on the decision-making of marketing professionals.
The Effect of Corporate Governance to Islamic Banking Performance Using Maqasid Index Approach in Indonesia
The practices of Islamic banking are more attuned to the goals of profit maximization rather than obtaining ethical profit. Ethical profit is obtained from interest-free earnings and to give an impact which benefits to the growth of society and economy. Good corporate governance practices are needed to assure the sustainability of Islamic banks in order to achieve Maqasid Shariah with the main purpose of boosting the well-being of people. The Maqasid Shariah performance measurement is used to measure the duties and responsibilities expected to be performed by Islamic banks. It covers not only unification dimension like financial measurement, but also many dimensions covered to reflect the main purpose of Islamic banks. The implementation of good corporate governance is essential because it covers the interests of the stakeholders and facilitates effective monitoring to encourage Islamic banks to utilize resources more efficiently in order to achieve the Maqasid Shariah. This study aims to provide the empirical evidence on the Maqasid performance of Islamic banks in relation to the Maqasid performance evaluation model, to examine the influence of SSB characteristics and board structures to Islamic Banks performance as measured by Maqasid performance evaluation model. By employing the simple additive weighting method, Maqasid index for all the Islamic Banks in Indonesia within 2012 to 2016 ranged from above 11% to 28%. The Maqasid Syariah performance index where results reached above 20% are obtained by Islamic Banks such as Bank Muamalat Indonesia, Bank Panin Syariah, and Bank BRI Syariah. The consistent achievement above 23% is achieved by BMI. Other Islamic Banks such as Bank Victoria Syariah, Bank Jabar Banten Syariah, Bank BNI Syariah, Bank Mega Syariah, BCA Syariah, and Maybank Syariah Indonesia shows a fluctuating value of the Maqasid performance index every year. The impact of SSB characteristics and board structures are tested using random-effects generalized least square. The findings indicate that SSB characteristics (Shariah Supervisory Board size, Shariah Supervisory Board cross membership, Shariah Supervisory Board Education, and Shariah Supervisory Board reputation) and board structures (Board size and Board independence) have an essential role in improving the performance of Islamic Banks. The findings denote Shariah Supervisory Board with smaller size, higher portion of Shariah Supervisory Board cross membership; lesser Shariah Supervisory Board holds doctorate degree, lesser reputable scholar, more members on board of directors, and less independence non-executive directors will enhance the performance of Islamic Banks.
The Role of Macroeconomic Condition and Volatility in Credit Risk: An Empirical Analysis of Credit Default Swap Index Spread on Structural Models in U.S. Market during Post-Crisis Period
This research builds linear regressions of U.S. macroeconomic condition and volatility measures in the investment grade and high yield Credit Default Swap index spreads using monthly data from March 2009 to July 2016, to study the relationship between different dimensions of macroeconomy and overall credit risk quality. The most significant contribution of this research is systematically examining individual and joint effects of macroeconomic condition and volatility on CDX spreads by including macroeconomic time series that captures different dimensions of the U.S. economy. The industrial production index growth, non-farm payroll growth, consumer price index growth, 3-month treasury rate and consumer sentiment are introduced to capture the condition of real economic activity, employment, inflation, monetary policy and risk aversion respectively. The conditional variance of the macroeconomic series is constructed using ARMA-GARCH model and is used to measure macroeconomic volatility. The linear regression model is conducted to capture relationships between monthly average CDX spreads and macroeconomic variables. The Newey–West estimator is used to control for autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity in error terms. Furthermore, the sensitivity factor analysis and standardized coefficients analysis are conducted to compare the sensitivity of CDX spreads to different macroeconomic variables and to compare relative effects of macroeconomic condition versus macroeconomic uncertainty respectively. This research shows that macroeconomic condition can have a negative effect on CDX spread while macroeconomic volatility has a positive effect on determining CDX spread. Macroeconomic condition and volatility variables can jointly explain more than 70% of the whole variation of the CDX spread. In addition, sensitivity factor analysis shows that the CDX spread is the most sensitive to Consumer Sentiment index. Finally, the standardized coefficients analysis shows that both macroeconomic condition and volatility variables are important in determining CDX spread but macroeconomic condition category of variables have more relative importance in determining CDX spread than macroeconomic volatility category of variables. This research shows that the CDX spread can reflect the individual and joint effects of macroeconomic condition and volatility, which suggests that individual investors or government should carefully regard CDX spread as a measure of overall credit risk because the CDX spread is influenced by macroeconomy. In addition, the significance of macroeconomic condition and volatility variables, such as Non-farm Payroll growth rate and Industrial Production Index growth volatility suggests that the government, should pay more attention to the overall credit quality in the market when macroecnomy is low or volatile.
Extended Literature Review on Sustainable Energy by Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making Techniques
Increased global issues such as depletion of sources, environmental problems and social inequality triggered public awareness towards finding sustainable solutions in order to ensure the well-being of the current as well as future generations. Since energy plays a significant role in improved social and economic well-being and is imperative on both industrial and commercial wealth creation, it is a must to develop a standardized set of metrics which makes it possible to indicate the present condition relative to conditions in the past and to develop any perspective which is required to frame actions for the future. This is not an easy task by considering the complexity of the issue which requires integrating economic, environmental and social aspects of sustainable energy. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) can be considered as a form of integrated sustainability evaluation and a decision support approach that can be used to solve complex problems featuring; conflicting objectives, different forms of data and information, multi-interests and perspectives. On that matter, MCDM methods are useful for providing solutions to complex energy management problems. The aim of this study is to review MCDM approaches that can be used for examining sustainable energy management. This study presents an insight into MCDM techniques and methods that can be useful for engineers, researchers and policy makers working in the energy sector.
Project Management and International Development: Competencies for International Assignment
Projects are popular vehicles through which international aid is delivered in developing countries. To achieve their objectives, many northern organizations develop projects with local partner organizations in the developing countries through technical assistance projects. International aid and international development projects precisely have long been criticized for poor results although billions are spent every year. Little empirical research in the field of project management has the focus on knowledge transfer in international development context. This paper focuses particularly on personal dimensions of international assignees participating in project within local team members in the host country. We propose to explore the possible links with a human resource management perspective in order to shed light on the less research problematic of knowledge transfer in development cooperation projects. The process leading to capacity building being far complex, involving multiple dimensions and far from being linear, we propose here to assess if traditional research on expatriate in multinational corporations pertain to the field of project management in developing countries. The following question is addressed: in the context of international development project cooperation, what personal determinants should the selection process focus when looking to fill a technical assistance position in a developing country? To answer that question, we first reviewed the literature on expatriate in the context of inter organizational knowledge transfer. Second, we proposed a theoretical framework combining perspectives of development studies and management to explore if parallels can be draw between traditional international assignment and technical assistance project assignment in developing countries. We conducted an exploratory study using case studies from technical assistance initiatives led in Haiti, a country in Central America. Data were collected from multiple sources following qualitative study research methods. Direct observations in the field were allowed by local leaders of six organization; individual interviews with present and past international assignees, individual interview with local team members, and focus groups were organized in order to triangulate information collected. Contrary from empirical research on knowledge transfer in multinational corporations, results tend to show that technical expertise rank well behind many others characteristics. Results tend to show the importance of soft skills, as a prerequisite to succeed in projects where local team have to collaborate. More importantly, international assignees who were talking knowledge sharing instead of knowledge transfer seemed to feel more satisfied at the end of their mandate than the others. Reciprocally, local team members who perceived to have participated in a project with an expat looking to share instead of aiming to transfer knowledge seemed to describe the results of project in more positive terms than the others. Results obtained from this exploratory study open the way for a promising research agenda in the field of project management. It emphasises the urgent need to achieve a better understanding on the complex set of soft skills project managers or project chiefs would benefit to develop, in particular, the ability to absorb knowledge and the willingness to share one’s knowledge.
Managing Organizational Change for a Transformation Project: The Billing and Customer Relationship Management Journey
The Billing & Customer Relationship Management (BCRM) project is an important enabler towards realizing customer experience transformation. It involves technological shifts for future scalability, revision of multiple business processes and adoption of change by the users and impacted employees. This massive transition, if not managed properly, may result in the decline of business performance due to productivity drop. Organizational change management is an essential element in BCRM project implementation to ensure the system is well understood and embraced by all stakeholders. In order to move impacted employees from unaware state or denial mode to full-acceptance mindset and committing themselves in using the new system, their involvement in the whole change process starting from the initial stage is imperative. Through the BCRM Change Management Plan, a holistic approach was taken whereby the strategy and program for five key components namely executive sponsorship, continuous communication, process change readiness, organizational readiness and individual readiness were all carefully established. Roles of the project sponsor, change agents, change ambassadors and community of practice (CoP) were clearly defined in gaining high commitment and support across the entire organization. Continuous communication and engagement initiatives throughout project implementation have been carried out to reach all stakeholders. The business readiness was constantly monitored and assessed including effectiveness of end-user training, thorough review of process documentation and completion of roles realignment exercise.
Examining the Investment Behavior of Arab Women in the Stock Market
Gender plays a vital role in the stock markets because men and women differ in their behavior when investing in stocks. Accordingly, the role of gender differences in investment behavior is an increasingly important strand in the field of behavioral finance research. The investment behaviors of women relative to men have been examined in the behavioral finance literature, mainly for comparison purposes. Women's roles in the stock market have not been examined in the behavioral finance literature, however, particularly with respect to the Arab region. This study aims to contribute towards a better understanding of the investment behavior of Arab women (in regards to their risk tolerance, investment confidence, and investment literacy levels) relative to Arab men; using a sample from Arab women and men investors living in Saudi Arabia and Jordan. In order to achieve the study's main aim, the researcher used non-parametric tests, as Mann-Whitney U test, along with frequency distribution analysis to analyze the study’s primary data. The researcher distributed close-ended online questionnaires to a sample of 550 Arab male and female individuals investing in stocks in both Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The results confirm that the sample Arab women invest less in stocks compared to Arab men due to their risk-averse behaviors and limited confidence levels. The results also reveal that due to Arab women’s very low investment literacy levels, they fear from taking the risk and invest often in stocks relative to Arab men. Overall, the study’s main variables (risk tolerance, investment confidence, and investment literacy levels) have a combined effect on the investment behavior of Arab women and their limited participation in the stock market. Hence, this study is one of the very first studies that indicate the combined effect of the three main variables (which are usually studied separately in the existing literature) on the investment behavior of women, particularly Arab women. This study makes three important contributions to the growing literature on gender differences in investment behavior. First, while the behavioral finance literature documents evidence on gender differences in investment behaviors in many developed countries, there are very limited studies that investigate such differences in Arab countries. Arab women investors, generally, are ignored from the behavioral finance literature due probably to cultural barriers and data collection difficulties. Thus, this study extends the literature to include Arab women and their investment behaviors when trading stock relative to Arab men. Moreover, the study associates women investment literacy and confidence levels with their financial risk behaviors and participation in the stock market. This study provides direct evidence on Arab women's investment behaviors when trading stocks. Overall, studying Arab women investors is important to investigate whether the investment behavior identified for Western women investors are also found in Arab women investors.
Optimal Data Selection in Non-Ergodic Systems: A Tradeoff between Estimator Convergence and Representativeness Errors
Past Financial Crisis has shown that contemporary risk management models provide an unjustified sense of security and fail miserably in situations in which they are needed the most. In this paper, we start from the assumption that risk is a notion that changes over time and therefore past data points only have limited explanatory power for the current situation. Our objective is to derive the optimal amount of representative information by optimizing between the two adverse forces of estimator convergence, incentivizing us to use as much data as possible, and the aforementioned non-representativeness doing the opposite. In this endeavor, the cornerstone assumption of having access to identically distributed random variables is weakened and substituted by the assumption that the law of the data generating process changes over time. Hence, in this paper, we give a quantitative theory on how to perform statistical analysis in non-ergodic systems. As an application, we discuss the impact of a paragraph in the last iteration of proposals by the Basel Committee on Banking Regulation. We start from the premise that the severity of assumptions should correspond to the robustness of the system they describe. Hence, in the formal description of physical systems, the level of assumptions can be much higher. It follows that every concept that is carried over from the natural sciences to economics must be checked for its plausibility in the new surroundings. Most of the probability theory has been developed for the analysis of physical systems and is based on the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) assumption. In Economics both parts of the i.i.d. assumption are inappropriate. However, only dependence has, so far, been weakened to a sufficient degree. In this paper, an appropriate class of non-stationary processes is used, and their law is tied to a formal object measuring representativeness. Subsequently, that data set is identified that on average minimizes the estimation error stemming from both, insufficient and non-representative, data. Applications are far reaching in a variety of fields. In the paper itself, we apply the results in order to analyze a paragraph in the Basel 3 framework on banking regulation with severe implications on financial stability. Beyond the realm of finance, other potential applications include the reproducibility crisis in the social sciences (but not in the natural sciences) and modeling limited understanding and learning behavior in economics.
Analysis of Preferences in Decision Making in a Bilateral Negotiation Context: An Experimental Approach from Game Theory
Decision making can be conditioned by factors such as the environments, circumstances, behavioral biases, emotions, beliefs and preferences of the participants. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect ‘amount of information’ and ‘number of options’, on the behavior of competitors under a bilateral negotiation context. For the above, it has been designed an experiment as a classroom game where they negotiate goods, under the condition that none of the players knows exactly the real value of the asset. The game is designed under the concept of zero-sum (non-cooperative game) and focuses on the fact that agents must anticipate the strategies of their opponent to improve their chances of winning in the negotiation. The empirical results show that, contrary to the traditional view of expected utility theory, players prefer to obtain low profits and losses, when faced with a higher expectation of losses, using sub-optimal strategies not in accordance with game theory.
Collaboration with Governmental Stakeholders in Positioning Reputation on Value
The concept of reputation in corporate development comes to the fore as one of the most frequently discussed topics in recent years. Many organizations, which make worldwide investments, make effort in order to adapt themselves to the topics within the scope of this concept and to promote the name of the organization through the values that might become prominent. The stakeholder groups are considered as the most important actors determining the reputation. Even, the effect of stakeholders is not evaluated as a direct factor; it is signed as indirect effects of their perception are a very strong on ultimate reputation. It is foreseen that the parallelism between the projected reputation and the perceived c reputation, which is established as a result of communication experiences perceived by the stakeholders, has an important effect on achieving these objectives. In assessing the efficiency of these efforts, the opinions of stakeholders are widely utilized. In other words, the projected reputation, in which the positive and/or negative reflections of corporate communication play effective role, is measured through how the stakeholders perceptively position the organization. From this perspective, it is thought that the interaction and cooperation of corporate communication professionals with different stakeholder groups during the reputation positioning efforts play significant role in achieving the targeted reputation or in sustainability of this value. The governmental stakeholders having intense communication with mass stakeholder groups are within the most effective stakeholder groups of organization. The most important reason of this is that the organizations, regarding which the governmental stakeholders have positive perception, inspire more confidence to the mass stakeholders. At this point, the organizations carrying out joint projects with governmental stakeholders in parallel with sustainable communication approach come to the fore as the organizations having strong reputation, whereas the reputation of organizations, which fall behind in this regard or which cannot establish the efficiency from this aspect, is thought to be perceived as weak. Similarly, the social responsibility campaigns, in which the governmental stakeholders are involved and which play efficient role in strengthening the reputation, are thought to draw more attention. From this perspective, the role and effect of governmental stakeholders on the reputation positioning is discussed in this study. In parallel with this objective, it is aimed to reveal perspectives of seven governmental stakeholders towards the cooperation in reputation positioning. The sample group representing the governmental stakeholders is examined under the lights of results obtained from in-depth interviews with the executives of different ministries. It is asserted that this study, which aims to express the importance of stakeholder participation in corporate reputation positioning especially in Turkey and the effective role of governmental stakeholders in strong reputation, might provide a new perspective on measuring the corporate reputation, as well as establishing an important source to contribute to the studies in both academic and practical domains.
Total Chromatic Number of Δ-Claw-Free 3-Degenerated Graphs
The total chromatic number χ"(G) of a graph G is the
minimum number of colors needed to color the elements (vertices
and edges) of G such that no incident or adjacent pair of elements
receive the same color Let G be a graph with maximum degree Δ(G).
Considering a total coloring of G and focusing on a vertex with
maximum degree. A vertex with maximum degree needs a color and
all Δ(G) edges incident to this vertex need more Δ(G) + 1 distinct
colors. To color all vertices and all edges of G, it requires at least
Δ(G) + 1 colors. That is, χ"(G) is at least Δ(G) + 1. However,
no one can find a graph G with the total chromatic number which
is greater than Δ(G) + 2. The Total Coloring Conjecture states that
for every graph G, χ"(G) is at most Δ(G) + 2. In this paper, we prove that the Total Coloring Conjectur for a
Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph. That is, we prove that the total
chromatic number of every Δ-claw-free 3-degenerated graph is at
most Δ(G) + 2.
Assessment-Assisted and Relationship-Based Financial Advising: Using an Empirical Assessment to Understand Personal Investor Risk Tolerance in Professional Advising Relationships
A crucial component to the success of any financial advising relationship is for the financial professional to understand the perceptions, preferences and thought-processes carried by the financial clients they serve. Armed with this information, financial professionals are more quickly able to understand how they can tailor their approach to best match the individual preferences and needs of each personal investor. Our research explores the use of a quantitative assessment tool in the financial services industry to assist in the identification of the personal investor’s consumer behaviors, especially in terms of financial risk tolerance, as it relates to their financial decision making. Through this process, the Unitifi Consumer Insight Tool (UCIT) was created and refined to capture and categorize personal investor financial behavioral categories and the financial personality tendencies of individuals prior to the initiation of a financial advisement relationship. This paper discusses the use of this tool to place individuals in one of four behavior-based financial risk tolerance categories. Our discoveries and research were aided through administration of a web-based survey to a group of over 1,000 individuals. Our findings indicate that it is possible to use a quantitative assessment tool to assist in predicting the behavioral tendencies of personal consumers when faced with consumer financial risk and decisions.
Framework for Developing Change Team to Maximize Change Initiative Success
Change facilitators are individuals who utilise change philosophy to make a positive change to the organisation. Application of change facilitator can be seen in various change models; Lewin, Lippitt, Kotter, etc. The facilitators within numerous change models are considered as an internal/external consultant. Whilst most of the scholarly papers consider change facilitation as a consensus attempt to improve organisation, there is a lack of a framework that develops both the organisation and the change facilitator creating a self-sustaining change environment. This research paper introduces LPE framework which works within the various organisational level (Process level, Departmental level, and Organisational level), whilst developing Change Leaders, Change Planners, and Change Executers across the organisation. The LPE framework is derived from Change Management models and Organisation behavior. The introduced framework can be utilised by the organisation to identify the most appropriate people to successfully deliver the change initiative.
Study the Effect of Tolerances for Press Tool Assembly: Computer Aided Tolerance Analysis
This paper describes a study for simple blanking tool. In blanking or piercing operation, punch and die should be concentric for proper cutting. In this study, tolerance analysis method is used to analyze the variation in the press tool assembly. Variation results into the eccentricity in between die and punch due to cumulative tolerance of parts used in assembly. 1D variation analysis were performed by CREO parametric computer aided design (CAD) Software Powered by CETOL 6σ computer aided tolerance analysis software. Use of CAD analysis software given the opportunity to find out the cause of variation in tool assembly. Accordingly, the new specification of tolerance and process setting for die set manufacturing has determined. Tolerance allocation and tolerance analysis method were performed iteratively to conclude that position tolerance as well as size tolerance of hole in top plate for bush and size tolerance of guide pillar were more responsible for eccentricity in punch and die. This work proposes optimum tolerance for press tool assembly parts to achieve 100 % yield for specified .015mm minimum tolerance zone.
The Effect of Kaizen Implementation on Employees’ Affective Attitude in Textile Company in Ethiopia
This study has the objective of assessing the effect of kaizen (5S, Muda elimination and Quality Control Circle (QCC) on employees’ affective attitude (job satisfaction, commitment and job stress) in Kombolcha Textile Share Company. A conceptual model was developed to describe the relationship between Kaizen and Employees’ Affective Attitude (EAA) factors. The three factors of Employee Affective Attitude were measured using questionnaire derived from other validated questionnaire. In the data collection to conduct this study; questionnaire, unstructured interview, written documents and direct observations are used. To analyze the data, SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used. In addition, the internal consistency of similar items in the questionnaire instrument was measured for their equivalence by using the cronbach’s alpha test. In this study, the effect of 5S, Muda elimination and QCC on job satisfaction, commitment and job stress in Kombolcha Textile Share Company is assessed and factors that reduce employees’ job satisfaction with respect to kaizen implementation are identified. The total averages of means from the questionnaire are 3.1 for job satisfaction, 4.31 for job commitment and 4.2 for job stress. And results from interview and secondary data show that kaizen implementation have effect on EAA. In general, based on the thesis results it was concluded that kaizen (5S, muda elimination and QCC) have positive effect for improving EAA factors at KTSC. Finally, recommendations for improvement are given based on the results.
Biases in Macroprudential Supervision and Their Legal Implications
Given that macro-prudential supervision is a relatively new policy area and its empirical and analytical research are still in their infancy, its theoretical foundations are also lagging behind. This paper contributes to the developing discussion on effective legal and institutional macroprudential supervision frameworks. In the first part of the paper, it is argued that effectiveness as a key benchmark poses some challenges in the context of macroprudential supervision such as the difficulty in proving causality between supervisory actions and the achievement of the supervisor’s mission. The paper suggests that effectiveness in the macroprudential context should, therefore, be assessed at the supervisory decision-making process (to be differentiated from the supervisory outcomes). The second part of the essay examines whether insights from behavioural economics can point to biases in the macroprudential decision-making process. These biases include, inter alia, preference bias, groupthink bias and inaction bias. It is argued that these biases are exacerbated in the multilateral setting of the macroprudential supervision framework in the EU. The paper then examines how legal and institutional frameworks should be designed to acknowledge and perhaps contain these identified biases. The paper suggests that the effectiveness of macroprudential policy will largely depend on the existence of clear and robust transparency and accountability arrangements. Accountability arrangements can be used as a vehicle for identifying and addressing potential biases in the macro-prudential framework, in particular, inaction bias. Inclusiveness of the public in the supervisory process in the form of transparency and awareness of the logic behind policy decisions may assist in minimising their potential unpopularity thus promoting their effectiveness. Furthermore, a governance structure which facilitates coordination of the macroprudential supervisor with other policymakers and incorporates outside perspectives and opinions could ‘break-down’ groupthink bias as well as inaction bias.