Mechanical Structural and Optical Properties of Lu₂SiO₅ Scintillator-Polymer Composite Films
Composite films containing homogeneously dispersed scintillation nano-particles of Lu₂SiO₅:Ce³⁺, in optically transparent polymer matrix, have been prepared and characterized through X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (ATG), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), electron scanning microscopy morphology (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL). Lu₂SiO₅:Ce³⁺ scintillator powder was successfully synthesized via Sol-Gel method. This study is realized with different mass ratios of nano-particles embedded in polystyrene and polylactic acid polymer matrix (5, 10, 15, 20%) to see the influence of nano-particles on the mechanical, structural and optical properties of films. The composites have been prepared with 400 µm thickness. It has found that the structural proprieties change with mass ratio on each sample. PL photoluminescence shows the characteristic Lu₂SiO₅:Ce³⁺ emission in the blue region and intensity varied for each film.
Mixed Convective Heat Transfer of Flow around a Radial Heat Sink
This work presents the numerical results of the mixed convective heat transfer of a three-dimensional flow around a radial heat sink composed of horizontal circular base fitted with rectangular fins. The governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy equation are solved by the finite volume method using the commercially available CFD software Fluent 6.3.26. The circular base of the heat sink is subjected to uniform heat generation; the flow enters through the sides of the heat sink around the fins then the heat is transmitted from the base to the fins afterwards the fluid. In this study two fluids are utilized, in the first case, the air for the following Reynolds numbers Re=600,900,1200 and a Grashof number Gr=3.7x10⁶, in the second case a water based nano fluid for which two types of nano particles (Cu and Al₂O₃) are carried out for Re=25 and a Richardson number Ri=2.7(Ri=Gr/Re²). The effect of the number of the fins of the heat sink as well as the type and the volume fraction of nano particles of the nano fluid were investigated. Results have been presented for N=15 and N=20 fins. The effect of the nano particles concentrations and the number of fins on the temperature in the heat sink and the Nusselt number has been studied.
Timescape-Based Panoramic View for Historic Landmarks
Providing a panoramic view of famous landmarks around the world offers artistic and historic value for historians, tourists, and researchers. Exploring the history of famous landmarks by presenting a comprehensive view of a temporal panorama merged with geographical and historical information presents a unique challenge of dealing with images that span a long period, from the 1800’s up to present. This work presents the concept of temporal panorama through a timeline display of aligned historic and modern images for many famous landmarks. Utilization of this panorama requires a collection of hundreds of thousands of landmark images from the Internet comprised of historic images and modern images of the digital age. These images have to be classified for subset selection to keep the more suitable images that chronologically document a landmarks history. Processing of historic images captured using older analog technology under various different capturing conditions represents a big challenge when they have to be used with modern digital images. Successful processing of historic images to prepare them for next steps of temporal panorama creation represents an active contribution in cultural heritage preservation through the fulfilment of one of UNESCO goals in preservation and displaying famous worldwide landmarks.
Study of the Nanostructured Fe₅₀Cr₃₅Ni₁₅ Powder Alloy Developed by Mechanical Alloying
Nanostructured Fe₅₀Cr3₃₅Ni₁₅ alloys were prepared from pure elemental powders using high energy mechanical alloying. The mixture powders obtained are characterized by several techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis revelated the formation of the Fe₁Cr₁ compound with BBC structure after one hour of milling. A second compound Fe₃Ni₂ with FCC structure was observed after 12 hours of milling. The size of crystallite determined by Williamson Hall method was about 5.1 nm after 48h of mill. SEM observations confirmed the growth of crushed particles as a function of milling time, while the homogenization of our powders into different constituent elements was verified by the EDX analysis.
Modeling of Cold Tube Drawing with a Fixed Plug by Finite Element Method and Determination of Optimum Drawing Parameters
In this study, a comprehensive simulation was made for the cold tube drawing with fixed plug. The cold tube drawing process is preferred due to its high surface quality and the high mechanical properties. In drawing processes applied to materials with low plastic deformability, cracks can occur on the surfaces and the process efficiency decreases. The aim of the work is to investigate the effects of different drawing parameters on drawing forces and stresses. In the simulations, optimum conditions were investigated for four different materials, Ti64Al4V, AA5052, AISI4140, and C365. One of the most important parameters for the cold drawing process is the die angle. Three dies were designed for the analysis with semi die angles of 5°, 10°, and 15°. Three different parameters were used for the friction coefficient between die and the material. In the simulations, reduction of area and the drawing speed is kept constant. Drawing is done in one pass. According to the simulation results, the highest drawing forces were obtained in Ti64Al4V. As the semi die angle increases, the drawing forces decrease. The change in semi die angle was most effective on Ti64Al4V. Increasing the coefficient of friction is another effect that increases the drawing forces. The increase in the friction coefficient has also increased in drawing stresses. The increase in die angle also increased the drawing stress distribution for the other three materials outside C365. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that the designed drawing die is suitable for drawing. The lowest drawing stress distribution and drawing forces were obtained for AA5052. Drawing die parameters have a direct effect on the results. In addition, lubricants used for drawing have a significant effect on drawing forces.
Design of a Chaotic Trajectory Generator Algorithm for Mobile Robots
This work addresses the problem of designing an
algorithm capable of generating chaotic trajectories for mobile robots.
Particularly, the chaotic behavior is induced in the linear and angular
velocities of a Khepera III differential mobile robot by infusing them
with the states of the H´enon chaotic map. A possible application,
using the properties of chaotic systems, is patrolling a work area.
In this work, numerical and experimental results are reported and
analyzed. In addition, two quantitative numerical tests are applied in
order to measure how chaotic the generated trajectories really are.
Failure Mechanisms of Isolated vs. in Aggregate Historical Buildings: A Case Study for Timisoara, Romania
Romania is a seismic country, with two major seismic zones, Vrancea and Banat. One of the most important cities from Banat seismic area is Timisoara, where a lot of valuable historical buildings were built before any design codes, but still they kept their stability during past earthquakes. This article presents the influence of the adjacent buildings during an earthquake and the way that the specific failure mechanism is changed when the building is part of an aggregate. The investigation was made using nonlinear analysis based on Tremuri software, first analyzing the buildings as isolated and second, considering the entire aggregate of buildings. There were noticed significant differences through the two situations regarding the specific failure mechanism activated for each building, showing the fact that in some situations, the presence of the adjacent buildings has positive or negative contribution for the seismic behavior of the analyzed one. The difference between the failure mechanism of the same buildings considered isolated and in aggregate aims to provide explications for the good structural state of the existing historical areas of Timisoara, as part of a larger multidisciplinary study, which will help local authorities to prioritize the consolidation works for the historical buildings in order to assure that the history of the city will be kept alive for the next generations.
Dimension Free Rigid Point Set Registration in Linear Time
This paper proposes a rigid point set matching
algorithm in arbitrary dimensions based on the idea of symmetric
covariant function. A group of functions of the points in the set are
formulated using rigid invariants. Each of these functions computes a
pair of correspondence from the given point set. Then the computed
correspondences are used to recover the unknown rigid transform
parameters. Each computed point can be geometrically interpreted as
the weighted mean center of the point set. The algorithm is compact,
fast, and dimension free without any optimization process. It either
computes the desired transform for noiseless data in linear time, or
fails quickly in exceptional cases. Experimental results for synthetic
data and 2D/3D real data are provided, which demonstrate potential
applications of the algorithm to a wide range of problems.
Effect of Blast Loads on the Seismically Designed Reinforced Concrete Buildings
The work done here in this paper is dedicated to studying the effect of high blast explosives over the seismically designed buildings. Buildings are seismically designed in SAP 2000 software to simulate seismic designs of buildings using response spectrum method. Later these buildings have been studied applying blast loads with the same amount of the blast explosives. This involved varying the standoff distances of the buildings from the blast explosion. The study found out that, for a seismically designed building, the minimum standoff distance is to be at least 120m from the place of explosion for an average blast explosive weight of 20kg TNT. This has shown that the building does not fail due to this huge explosive weight of TNT but resists immediate collapse of the building. The results also show that the adverse effect of the column failure due to blasting is reduced to 73.75% from 22.5% due to the increase of the standoff distance from the blast loads. The maximum affected locations due to the blast loads are also detected in this study.
Single Layer Carbon Nanotubes Array as an Efficient Membrane for Desalination: A Molecular Dynamics Study
By stacking carbon nanotubes (CNT) one on top of another, single layer CNT arrays can perform water-salt separation with ultra-high permeability and selectivity. Such outer-wall CNT slit membrane is named as the transverse flow CNT membrane. By adjusting the slit size between neighboring CNTs, the membrane can be configured to sieve out different solutes, right down to the separation of monovalent salt ions from water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the permeability of transverse flow CNT membrane is more than two times that of conventional axial-flow CNT membranes, and orders of magnitude higher than current reverse osmosis membrane. In addition, by carrying out MD simulations with different CNT size, it was observed that the variance in desalination performance with CNT size is small. This insensitivity of the transverse flow CNT membrane’s performance to CNT size is a distinct advantage over axial flow CNT membrane designs. Not only does the membrane operate well under constant pressure desalination operation, but MD simulations further indicate that oscillatory operation can further enhance the membrane’s desalination performance, making it suitable for operation such as electrodialysis reversal. While there are still challenges that need to be overcome, particularly on the physical fabrication of such membrane, it is hope that this versatile membrane design can bring the idea of using low dimensional structures for desalination closer to reality.
Flotation of Rare Earth Oxides from Iron-Oxide Silicate Rich Tailings Using Fatty Acids
The versatility of froth flotation has made it vital in the beneficiation of rare earth elements minerals from either high or low-grade ores. There has been a significant increase in the quantity of iron oxide silicate-rich tailings generated from the extraction of primary commodities such as copper and gold in Australia, which have been identified to contain very low-grade rare earth oxides (≤ 1%). There is a vast knowledge gap in the beneficiation of rare earth oxides from such tailings. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using fatty acids as collectors for the flotation recovery and upgrade of rare earth oxides from selected iron-oxide silicate-rich tailings. Two forms of fatty acid collectors (oleic acid and sodium oleate) were tested in this investigation. Flotation tests were carried out using a 1.2 L Denver D-12 cell. The effects of pulp pH, fatty acid dosage, particle size distribution (-150 +75 µm, -75 +38 µm and -38 µm) and conventional depressants (sodium silicate and starch) dosage on flotation recovery of rare earth oxides were investigated. A comparison of the flotation results indicated that sodium oleate was the more efficient fatty acid for rare earth oxides flotation at all the pulp pH investigated. The flotation performance was found to be particle size-dependent. Both sodium silicate and starch were unselective in decreasing the recovery of iron oxides and silicate minerals, respectively with the corresponding decrease in rare earth oxides recovery. Generally, iron oxides and silicate minerals formed the substantial fraction of the flotation concentrates obtained, both in the absence and presence of depressants, resulting in a generally low rare earth oxides upgrade, even though rare earth oxides recoveries were high. The flotation tests carried out on the tailings sample suggest the feasibility of rare earth oxides recovery using fatty acids, although particle size distribution and minerals liberation are key limiting factors in achieving selective rare earth oxides upgrade.
Friction Coefficient of Epiphen Epoxy System Filled with Powder Resulting from the Grinding of Pine Needles
Recent ecological interests have resulted in scientific concerns regarding natural-organic powder composites. Because natural-organic powders are cheap and biodegradable, green composites represent a substantial contribution in polymer science area. The aim of this study is to point out the effect of natural-organic powder resulting from the grinding of pine needles used as a modifying agent for Epiphen epoxy resin and is focused on friction coefficient behavior. A pin-on-disc setup is used for friction coefficient experiments. Epiphen epoxy resin was used with the different ratio of organic powder from the grinding of pine needles. Because of the challenges of natural organic powder, more and more companies are looking at organic composite materials.
Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd Eutectics Ribbons under Superplastic Tensile Test Regime
Superplastic deformation is shown by materials with a fine grain size, usually less than 10 μm, when they are deformed within the strain rate range 10-5 10-1 s-1 at temperatures greater than 0.5Tm, where Tm is the melting point in Kelvin. According to the constitutive equation for superplastic flow, refinement of the grain size would be expected to increase the optimum strain rate and decrease the temperature required for superplastic flow. Ribbons of eutectic Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd alloys were manufactured by using a single roller melt-spinning technique to obtain a fine grain structure for later test in superplastic regime. The eutectics ribbons were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction, and the grain size was determined using the image analysis software ImageJ. The average grain size was less than 1 μm. Tensile tests were carried out from 10-4 to 10-1 s-1, at room temperature, to evaluate the superplastic behavior. The largest deformation was shown by the Bi-Cd eutectic ribbons, Ɛ=140 %, despite that these ribbons have a hexagonal unit cell. On the other hand, Ag-Cu eutectic ribbons have a minor grain size and cube unit cell, however they showed a lower deformation in tensile test under the same conditions than Bi-Cd ribbons. This is because the Ag-Cu grew in a strong cube-cube orientation relationship.
Hydrogen Embrittlement Properties of the Hot Stamped Carbon Steels
The effects of microstructural characteristics on the mechanical and hydrogen embrittlement properties of 1,800MPa grade hot stamping carbon steel were investigated experimentally. The tensile strength increased with increasing the hot stamping temperature until around 921°C, but that decreased with increasing the temperature in more than 921°C due to the increment of the size of lath martensite and prior austenite. With the hot stamping process, internal strain was slightly created in the sample, which led to the slight increment of the hardness value although no clear change of the microstructural formation was detected. Severity of hydrogen embrittlement was investigated using the hot stamped carbon steels after the immersion in a hydrogen gas, and that was directly attributed to the infiltration of the hydrogen into their grain boundaries. The high strength carbon steel with tiny lath martensite microstructure could make severe hydrogen brittleness as the hydrogen was strongly penetrated in the grain boundaries in the hydrogen gas for a month. Because of weak embrittlement for the as-received carbon (ferrite and pearlite), hydrogen embrittlement is caused by the high internal strain and high dislocation density. The hydrogen embrittlement for carbon steel is attributed to amount of the hydrogen immersed in-between grain boundaries, which is caused by the dislocation density and internal strain.
Effect of Depressurization Rate in Batch Foaming of Porous Microcellular Polycarbonate on Microstructure Development
In this article, a focused study has been performed to comprehend the influence of change in depressurization rate on microcellular polycarbonate foamed morphological attributes. The depressurization rate considered in this study were 0.5, 0.05, 0.01 and 0.005 MPa/sec and the physical blowing agent utilized was carbon dioxide owing to its high solubility in polycarbonate at room temperature. The study was performed on two distinct saturation pressures, i.e., 3 MPa and 6 MPa to understand if saturation pressure has any effects on it. It is reported that with increase in depressurization rate, a higher amount of thermodynamic instability was induced which resulted in generation of larger number of smaller sized cells. This article puts forward an understanding of how depressurization rate control could be well exploited during the batch foaming process to develop high quality microcellular foamed products with exceedingly well controlled cell size.
Microjetting from a Grooved Metal Surface under Decaying Shocks
Using Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations, we simulated the microjet from the metal surface under decaying shock loading. The microjetting processes under release melting conditions are presented in detail, and some properties on the microjet mass and velocity are revealed. The phased increase of microjet mass with shock pressure is found. For all cases, the ratio of the maximal jetting velocity to the surface velocity approximately keeps a constant for liquid state. In addition, the temperature of the microjet can be always above the melting point. When introducing slow decaying profiles, the microjet mass begins to increase with the decay rate, which is dominated by the deformation of the bubble during pull-back. When the decay rate becomes fast enough, the microspall occurs as expected, meanwhile, the microjet appears to reduce because of the shock energy reduction.
Enhancement of Hardness and Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Nitrided Low Alloy Tool Steel
This study concerns improving the corrosion resistance of low alloy steel after plasma nitriding performed at variable time and temperature. Nitriding carried out in the temperature range of 450-550ᵒC for a various time period of 1-8 hrs. at 500Pa in a glow discharge plasma of H₂ and N₂ (80:20). The substrate was kept biased negatively at 250V. Following nitriding the X-ray diffraction studies shown that the phases formed were mainly γ′ (Fe₄N) and ε (Fe₂₋₃N). The ε (Fe₂₋₃N) phase found to be the dominating phase. Cross sections of the samples under scanning electron microscope point analyses revealed the presence of nitrogen in the surface region. For the assessment of corrosion resistance property, potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed in 3.5% NaCl solution. It has been shown that the plasma nitriding significantly improved the corrosion resistance when compared to the as-received steel. Furthermore, it has also been found that nitriding for 6h has more corrosion resistance than nitriding for the 8h duration. The hardness of the nitrided samples was measured by Vicker’s microhardness tester. The hardness of the nitrided steel was found to be improved much above the hardness of the steel in the as-received condition. It was found to be around two-fold of the initial hardness.
Synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ Doped Co, Ni, Cr and Its Characterization as Lithium Battery Cathode
Manganese dioxide (MnO₂) and its derivatives are among the most widely used materials for the positive electrode in both primary and rechargeable lithium batteries. The MnO₂ derivative compound of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) is one of the leading candidates for positive electrode materials in lithium batteries as it is abundant, low cost and environmentally friendly. Over the years, synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) has been carried out using various methods including sol-gel, gas condensation, spray pyrolysis, and ceramics. Problems with these various methods persist including high cost (so commercially inapplicable) and must be done at high temperature (environmentally unfriendly). This research aims to: (1) synthesize LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) by reflux technique; (2) develop microstructure analysis method from XRD Powder LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ data with the two-stage method; (3) study the electrical conductivity of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄. This research developed the synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) with reflux. The materials consisting of Mn(CH₃COOH)₂. 4H₂O and Na₂S₂O₈ were refluxed for 10 hours at 120°C to form β-MnO₂. The doping of Co, Ni and Cr were carried out using solid-state method with LiOH to form LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄. The instruments used included XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, TEM, SAA, TG/DTA, FTIR, LCR meter and eight-channel battery analyzer. Microstructure analysis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ was carried out on XRD powder data by two-stage method using FullProf program integrated into WinPlotR and Oscail Program as well as on binding energy data from XPS. The morphology of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ was studied with SEM-EDX, TEM, and SAA. The thermal stability test was performed with TG/DTA, the electrical conductivity was studied from the LCR meter data. The specific capacity of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ as lithium battery cathode was tested using an eight-channel battery analyzer. The results showed that the synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) was successfully carried out by reflux. The optimal temperature of calcination is 750°C. XRD characterization shows that LiMn₂O₄ has a cubic crystal structure with Fd3m space group. By using the CheckCell in the WinPlotr, the increase of Li/Mn mole ratio does not result in changes in the LiMn₂O₄ crystal structure. The doping of Co, Ni and Cr on LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (x = 0.02; 0.04; 0; 0.6; 0.08; 0.10) does not change the cubic crystal structure of Fd3m. All the formed crystals are polycrystals with the size of 100-450 nm. Characterization of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) microstructure by two-stage method shows the shrinkage of lattice parameter and cell volume. Based on its range of capacitance, the conductivity obtained at LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) is an ionic conductivity with varying capacitance. The specific battery capacity at a voltage of 4799.7 mV for LiMn₂O₄; Li₁.₀₈Mn₁.₉₂O₄; LiCo₀.₁Mn₁.₉O₄; LiNi₀.₁Mn₁.₉O₄ and LiCr₀.₁Mn₁.₉O₄ are 88.62 mAh/g; 2.73 mAh/g; 89.39 mAh/g; 85.15 mAh/g; and 1.48 mAh/g respectively.
Methodology for the Integration of Object Identification Processes in Handling and Logistic Systems
The uprising complexity in production systems due to an increasing amount of variants up to customer innovated products leads to requirements that hierarchical control systems are not able to fulfil. Therefore, factory planners can install autonomous manufacturing systems. The fundamental requirement for an autonomous control is the identification of objects within production systems. In this approach an attribute-based identification is focused for avoiding dose-dependent identification costs. Instead of using an identification mark (ID) like a radio frequency identification (RFID)-Tag, an object type is directly identified by its attributes. To facilitate that it’s recommended to include the identification and the corresponding sensors within handling processes, which connect all manufacturing processes and therefore ensure a high identification rate and reduce blind spots. The presented methodology reduces the individual effort to integrate identification processes in handling systems. First, suitable object attributes and sensor systems for object identification in a production environment are defined. By categorising these sensor systems as well as handling systems, it is possible to match them universal within a compatibility matrix. Based on that compatibility further requirements like identification time are analysed, which decide whether the combination of handling and sensor system is well suited for parallel handling and identification within an autonomous control. By analysing a list of more than thousand possible attributes, first investigations have shown, that five main characteristics (weight, form, colour, amount, and position of subattributes as drillings) are sufficient for an integrable identification. This knowledge limits the variety of identification systems and leads to a manageable complexity within the selection process. Besides the procedure, several tools, as an example a sensor pool are presented. These tools include the generated specific expert knowledge and simplify the selection. The primary tool is a pool of preconfigured identification processes depending on the chosen combination of sensor and handling device. By following the defined procedure and using the created tools, even laypeople out of other scientific fields can choose an appropriate combination of handling devices and sensors which enable parallel handling and identification.
Analysis of the Use of a NAO Robot to Improve Social Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Saudi Arabia
Autism Spectrum Disorder is extensively spread amid children; it affects their social, communication and interactive skills. As robotics technology has been proven to be a significant helpful utility those able individuals to overcome their disabilities. Robotic technology is used in ASD therapy. The purpose of this research is to show how Nao robots can improve the social skills for children who suffer from autism in Saudi Arabia by interacting with the autistic child and perform a number of tasks. The objective of this research is to identify, implement, and test the effectiveness of the module for interacting with ASD children in an autism center in Saudi Arabia. The methodology in this study followed the ten layers of protocol that needs to be followed during any human-robot interaction. Also, in order to elicit the scenario module, TEACCH Autism Program was adopted. Six different qualified interaction modules have been elicited and designed in this study; the robot will be programmed to perform these modules in a series of controlled interaction sessions with the Autistic children to enhance their social skills.
Accuracy/Precision Evaluation of Excalibur I: A Neurosurgery-Specific Haptic Hand Controller
This study reports on a proposed method to evaluate the accuracy and precision of Excalibur I, a neurosurgery-specific haptic hand controller, designed and developed at Project neuroArm. Having an efficient and successful robot-assisted telesurgery is considerably contingent on how accurate and precise a haptic hand controller (master/local robot) would be able to interpret the kinematic indices of motion, i.e., position and orientation, from the surgeon’s upper limp to the slave/remote robot. A proposed test rig is designed and manufactured according to standard ASTM F2554-10 to determine the accuracy and precision range of Excalibur I at four different locations within its workspace: central workspace, extreme forward, far left and far right. The test rig is metrologically characterized by a coordinate measuring machine (accuracy and repeatability < ± 5 µm). Only the serial linkage of the haptic device is examined due to the use of the Structural Length Index (SLI). The results indicate that accuracy decreases by moving from the workspace central area towards the borders of the workspace. In a comparative study, Excalibur I performs on par with the PHANToM PremiumTM 3.0 and more accurate/precise than the PHANToM PremiumTM 1.5. The error in Cartesian coordinate system shows a dominant component in one direction (δx, δy or δz) for the movements on horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces. The average error magnitude of three attempts is recorded, considering all three error components. This research is the first promising step to quantify the kinematic performance of Excalibur I.
Cooperative Robot Application in a Never Explored or an Abandoned Sub-Surface Mine
Autonomous mobile robots deployed to explore or operate in a never explored or an abandoned sub-surface mine requires extreme effectiveness in coordination and communication. In a bid to transmit information from the depth of the mine to the external surface in real-time and amidst diverse physical, chemical and virtual impediments, the concept of unified cooperative robots is seen to be a proficient approach. This paper presents an effective [human → robot → task] coordination framework for effective exploration of an abandoned underground mine. The problem addressed in this research is basically the development of a globalized optimization model premised on time series differentiation and geometrical configurations for effective positioning of the two classes of robots in the cooperation namely the outermost stationary master (OSM) robots and the innermost dynamic task (IDT) robots for effective bi-directional signal transmission. In addition, the synchronization of a vision system and wireless communication system for both categories of robots, fiber optics system for the OSM robots in cases of highly sloppy or vertical mine channels and an autonomous battery recharging capability for the IDT robots further enhanced the proposed concept. The OSM robots are the master robots which are positioned at strategic locations starting from the mine open surface down to its base using a fiber-optic cable or a wireless communication medium all subject to the identified mine geometrical configuration. The OSM robots are usually stationary and function by coordinating the transmission of signals from the IDT robots at the base of the mine to the surface and in a reverse order based on human decisions at the surface control station. The proposed scheme also presents an optimized number of robots required to form the cooperation in a bid to reduce overall operational cost and system complexity.
Motion-Based Detection and Tracking of Multiple Pedestrians
Tracking of moving people has gained a matter of great importance due to rapid technological advancements in the field of computer vision. The objective of this study is to design a motion based detection and tracking multiple walking pedestrians randomly in different directions. In our proposed method, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to determine moving persons in image sequences. It reacts to changes that take place in the scene like different illumination; moving objects start and stop often, etc. Background noise in the scene is eliminated through applying morphological operations and the motions of tracked people which is determined by using the Kalman filter. The Kalman filter is applied to predict the tracked location in each frame and to determine the likelihood of each detection. We used a benchmark data set for the evaluation based on a side wall stationary camera. The actual scenes from the data set are taken on a street including up to eight people in front of the camera in different two scenes, the duration is 53 and 35 seconds, respectively. In the case of walking pedestrians in close proximity, the proposed method has achieved the detection ratio of 87%, and the tracking ratio is 77 % successfully. When they are deferred from each other, the detection ratio is increased to 90% and the tracking ratio is also increased to 79%.
An Efficient Robot Navigation Model in a Multi-Target Domain amidst Static and Dynamic Obstacles
This paper presents an efficient robot navigation model in a multi-target domain amidst static and dynamic workspace obstacles. The problem is that of developing an optimal algorithm to minimize the total travel time of a robot as it visits all target points within its task domain amidst unknown workspace obstacles and finally return to its initial position. In solving this problem, a classical algorithm was first developed to compute the optimal number of paths to be travelled by the robot amidst the network of paths. The principle of shortest distance between robot and targets was used to compute the target point visitation order amidst workspace obstacles. Algorithm premised on the standard polar coordinate system was developed to determine the length of obstacles encountered by the robot hence giving room for a geometrical estimation of the total surface area occupied by the obstacle especially when classified as a relevant obstacle i.e. obstacle that lies in between a robot and its potential visitation point. A stochastic model was developed and used to estimate the likelihood of a dynamic obstacle bumping into the robot’s navigation path and finally, the navigation/obstacle avoidance algorithm was hinged on the hybrid virtual force field (HVFF) method. Significant modelling constraints herein include the choice of navigation path to selected target points, the possible presence of static obstacles along a desired navigation path and the likelihood of encountering a dynamic obstacle along the robot’s path and the chances of it remaining at this position as a static obstacle hence resulting in a case of re-routing after routing. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a high potential for optimal solution in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.
Mobile Robot Manipulator Kinematics Motion Control Analysis with MATLAB/Simulink
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sophistication of the use of Proportional Integral and Derivative Control to control the kinematic motion of the mobile robot manipulator. Simulation and experimental methods will be used to investigate the sophistication of PID control to control the mobile robot arm in the collection and placement of several kinds of objects quickly, accurately and correctly. Mathematical modeling will be done by utilizing the integration of Solidworks and MATLAB / Simmechanics software. This method works by converting the physical model file into the xml file. This method is easy, fast and accurate done in modeling and design robotics. The automatic control design of this robot manipulator will be validated in simulations and experimental in control labs as evidence that the mobile robot manipulator gripper control design can achieve the best performance such as the error signal is lower than 5%, small overshoot and get steady signal response as quickly.
Design and Implementation of Control System in Underwater Glider of Ganeshblue
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider is one of the renewal of underwater vehicles. This vehicle is one of the autonomous underwater vehicles that are being developed in Indonesia. Glide ability is obtained by controlling the buoyancy and attitude of the vehicle using the movers within the vehicle. The glider motion mechanism is expected to provide energy resistance from autonomous underwater vehicles so as to increase the cruising range of rides while performing missions. The control system on the vehicle consists of three parts: controlling the attitude of the pitch, the buoyancy engine controller and the yaw controller. The buoyancy and pitch controls on the vehicle are sequentially referring to the finite state machine with pitch angle and depth of diving inputs to obtain a gliding cycle. While the yaw control is done through the rudder for the needs of the guide system. This research is focused on design and implementation of control system of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider based on PID anti-windup. The control system is implemented on an ARM TS-7250-V2 device along with a mathematical model of the vehicle in MATLAB using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method. The TS-7250-V2 is chosen because it complies industry standards, has high computing capability, minimal power consumption. The results show that the control system in HILS process can form glide cycle with depth and angle of operation as desired. In the implementation using half control and full control mode, from the experiment can be concluded in full control mode more precision when tracking the reference. While half control mode is considered more efficient in carrying out the mission.
Design and Development of an Optimal Fault Tolerant 3 Degree of Freedom Robotic Manipulator
Kinematic redundancy within the manipulators presents extended dexterity and manipulability to the manipulators. Redundant serial robotic manipulators are very popular in industries due to its competencies to keep away from singularities during normal operation and fault tolerance because of failure of one or more joints. Such fault tolerant manipulators are extraordinarily beneficial in applications where human interference for repair and overhaul is both impossible or tough; like in case of robotic arms for space programs, nuclear applications and so on. The design of this sort of fault tolerant serial 3 DoF manipulator is presented in this paper. This work was the extension of the author’s previous work of designing the simple 3R serial manipulator. This work is the realization of the previous design with optimizing the link lengths for incorporating the feature of fault tolerance. Various measures have been followed by the researchers to quantify the fault tolerance of such redundant manipulators. The fault tolerance in this work has been described in terms of the worst-case measure of relative manipulability that is, in fact, a local measure of optimization that works properly for certain configuration of the manipulators. An optimum fault tolerant Jacobian matrix has been determined first based on prescribed null space properties after which the link parameters have been described to meet the given Jacobian matrix. A solid model of the manipulator was then developed to realize the mathematically rigorous design. Further work was executed on determining the dynamic properties of the fault tolerant design and simulations of the movement for various trajectories have been carried out to evaluate the joint torques. The mathematical model of the system was derived via the Euler-Lagrange approach after which the same has been tested using the RoboAnalyzer© software. The results have been quite in agreement. From the CAD model and dynamic simulation data, the manipulator was fabricated in the workshop and Advanced Machining lab of NED University of Engineering and Technology.
Robotics Technology Supported Pedagogic Models in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics Education
As the world aspires for technological innovation, Innovative Robotics Technology-Supported Pedagogic Models in STEAM Education (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics) are critical in our global education system to build and enhance the next generation 21st century skills. Thus, diverse international schools endeavor in attempts to construct an integrated robotics and technology enhanced curriculum based on interdisciplinary subjects. Accordingly, it is vital that the globe remains resilient in STEAM fields by equipping the future learners and educators with Innovative Technology Experiences through robotics to support such fields. A variety of advanced teaching methods is employed to learn about Robotics Technology-integrated pedagogic models. Therefore, it is only when STEAM and innovations in Robotic Technology becomes integrated with real-world applications that transformational learning can occur. Robotics STEAM education implementation faces major challenges globally. Moreover, STEAM skills and concepts are communicated in separation from the real world. Instilling the passion for robotics and STEAM subjects and educators’ preparation could lead to the students’ majoring in such fields by acquiring enough knowledge to make vital contributions to the global STEAM industries. Thus, this necessitates the establishment of Pedagogic models such as Innovative Robotics Technologies to enhance STEAM education and develop students’ 21st-century skills. Moreover, an ICT innovative supported robotics classroom will help educators empower and assess students academically. Globally, the Robotics Design System and platforms are developing in schools and university labs creating a suitable environment for the robotics cross-discipline STEAM learning. Accordingly, the research aims at raising awareness about the importance of robotics design systems and methodologies of effective employment of robotics innovative technology-supported pedagogic models to enhance and develop (STEAM) education globally and enhance the next generation 21st century skills.
Improvement of Camera Calibration Based on the Relationship between Focal Length and Aberration Coefficient
In the processing of camera-based high precision and non-contact measurement, the geometric-optical aberration is always inevitably disturbing the measuring system. Moreover, the aberration is different with the different focal length, which will increase the difficulties of the system’s calibration. Therefore, to understand the relationship between the focal length as a function of aberration properties is a very important issue to the calibration of the measuring systems. In this study, we propose a new mathematics model, which is based on the plane calibration method by Zhang Zhengyou, and establish a relationship between the focal length and aberration coefficient. By using the mathematics model and carefully modified compensation templates, the calibration precision of the system can be dramatically improved. The experiment results show that the relative error is less than 1%. It is important for optoelectronic imaging systems that apply to measure, track and position by changing the camera’s focal length.
Subpixel Corner Detection for Monocular Camera Linear Model Research
Camera calibration is a fundamental issue of high precision noncontact measurement. And it is necessary to analyze and study the reliability and application range of its linear model which is often used in the camera calibration. According to the imaging features of monocular cameras, a camera model which is based on the image pixel coordinates and three dimensional space coordinates is built. Using our own customized template, the image pixel coordinate is obtained by the subpixel corner detection method. Without considering the aberration of the optical system, the feature extraction and linearity analysis of the line segment in the template are performed. Moreover, the experiment is repeated 11 times by constantly varying the measuring distance. At last, the linearity of the camera is achieved by fitting 11 groups of data. The camera model measurement results show that the relative error does not exceed 1%, and the repeated measurement error is not more than 0.1 mm magnitude. Meanwhile, it is found that the model has some measurement differences in the different region and object distance. The experiment results show this linear model is simple and practical, and have good linearity within a certain object distance. These experiment results provide a powerful basis for establishment of the linear model of camera. These works will have potential value to the actual engineering measurement.