Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50723

Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering

1888
88766
Effect on the Performance of the Nano-Particulate Graphite Lubricant in the Turning of AISI 1040 Steel under Variable Machining Conditions
Abstract:
Technological advancements in the development of cutting tools and coolant/lubricant chemistry have enhanced the machining capabilities of hard materials under higher machining conditions. Generation of high temperatures at the cutting zone during machining is one of the most important and pertinent problems which adversely affect the tool life and surface finish of the machined components. Generally, cutting fluids and solid lubricants are used to overcome the problem of heat generation, which is not effectively addressing the problems. With technological advancements in the field of tribology, nano-level particulate solid lubricants are being used nowadays in machining operations, especially in the areas of turning and grinding. The present investigation analyses the effect of using nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant in the turning of AISI 1040 steel under variable machining conditions and to study its effect on cutting forces, tool temperature and surface roughness of the machined component. Experiments revealed that the increase in cutting forces and tool temperature resulting in the decrease of surface quality with the decrease in the size of nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1887
88687
Pressure Angle and Profile Shift Factor Effects on the Natural Frequency of Spur Tooth Design
Abstract:
In this paper, an (irregular) case relating to base circle, root circle, and pressure angle has been discussed and a computer programme has been developed to simulate and plot spur gear tooth profile, including involute and trochoid curves based on the formulation of rack cutter using different values of pressure angle and profile shift factor and it gave the values of all important geometric parameters. The results showed the flexibility of this approach and versatility of the programme to draw many different cases of spur gear teeth of any module, pressure angle, profile shift factor, number of teeth and rack cutter tip radius. The procedure developed can be extended to produce finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms also. Finite elements model of these irregular cases have been built using above programme, and modal analysis has been done using ANSYS software, and natural frequencies of these selected cases have been obtained and discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1886
88479
Scorbot-ER 4U Using Forward Kinematics Modelling and Analysis
Abstract:
Robotic arm manipulators are wisely used to express many kinds of tasks. SCORBOT-ER 4u is a 5 DOF vertical articulated educational robotic arm, and all joints are revolute. It is specifically designed to perform pick and place task with its gripper. The pick and place task consists of consideration of the end effector coordinate of the robotic arm and the desired position coordinate in its workspace. This paper describes forward kinematics modeling and analysis of the robotic end effector motion through joint space. The kinematics problems are defined by the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space. Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) model is used in order to model the robotic links and joints with 4x4 homogeneous matrix. The forward kinematics model is also developed and simulated in MATLAB. The mathematical model is validated by using robotic toolbox in MATLAB. By using this method, it may be applicable to get the end effector coordinate of this robotic arm and other similar types of this arm. The software development of SCORBOT-ER 4u is also described here. PC-and EtherCAT based control technology from BECKHOFF is used to control the arm to express the pick and place task.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1885
88347
Numerical Simulation of Natural Gas Dispersion from Low Pressure Pipelines
Abstract:
Gas release from the pipelines is one of the main factors in the gas industry accidents. Released gas ejects from the pipeline as a free jet and in the growth process, the fuel gets mixed with the ambient air. Accordingly, an accidental spark will release the chemical energy of the mixture with an explosion. Gas explosion damages the equipment and endangers the life of staffs. So due to importance of safety in gas industries, prevision of accident can reduce the number of the casualties. In this paper, natural gas leakages from the low pressure pipelines are studied in two steps: 1) the simulation of mixing process and identification of flammable zones and 2) the simulation of wind effects on the mixing process. The numerical simulations were performed by using the finite volume method and the pressure-based algorithm. Also, for the grid generation the structured method was used. The results show that, in just 6.4 s after accident, released natural gas could penetrate to 40 m in vertical and 20 m in horizontal direction. Moreover, the results show that the wind speed is a key factor in dispersion process. In fact, the wind transports the flammable zones into the downstream. Hence, to improve the safety of the people and human property, it is preferable to construct gas facilities and buildings in the opposite side of prevailing wind direction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1884
87834
Determination of Safety Distance Around Gas Pipelines Using Numerical Methods
Abstract:
Energy transmission pipelines are one of the most vital parts of each country which several strict laws have been conducted to enhance the safety of these lines and their vicinity. One of these laws is the safety distance around high pressure gas pipelines. Safety distance refers to the minimum distance from the pipeline where people and equipment do not confront with serious damages. In the present study, safety distance around high pressure gas transmission pipelines were determined by using numerical methods. For this purpose, gas leakages from cracked pipeline and created jet fires were simulated as continuous ignition, three dimensional, unsteady and turbulent cases. Numerical simulations were based on finite volume method and turbulence of flow was considered using k-ω SST model. Also, the combustion of natural gas and air mixture was applied using the eddy dissipation method. The results show that, due to the high pressure difference between pipeline and environment, flow chocks in the cracked area and velocity of the exhausted gas reaches to sound speed. Also, analysis of the incident radiation results shows that safety distances around 42 inches high pressure natural gas pipeline based on 5 and 15 kW/m2 criteria are 205 and 272 meters, respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1883
86810
A Study on Thermal and Flow Characteristics by Solar Radiation for Single-Span Greenhouse by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation
Abstract:
Recently, there are lots of increasing interest in a smart farming that represents application of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into agriculture since it provides a methodology to optimize production efficiencies by managing growing conditions of crops automatically. In order to obtain high performance and stability for smart greenhouse, it is important to identify the effect of various working parameters such as capacity of ventilation fan, vent opening area and etc. In the present study, a 3-dimensional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation for single-span greenhouse was conducted using the commercial program, Ansys CFX 18.0. The numerical simulation for single-span greenhouse was implemented to figure out the internal thermal and flow characteristics. In order to numerically model solar radiation that spread over a wide range of wavelengths, the multiband model that discretizes the spectrum into finite bands of wavelength based on Wien’s law is applied to the simulation. In addition, absorption coefficient of vinyl varied with the wavelength bands is also applied based on Beer-Lambert Law. To validate the numerical method applied herein, the numerical results of the temperature at specific monitoring points were compared with the experimental data. The average error rates (12.2~14.2%) between them was shown and numerical results of temperature distribution are in good agreement with the experimental data. The results of the present study can be useful information for the design of various greenhouses. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Advanced Production Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA)(315093-03).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1882
86224
A Mathematical Model of Pulsatile Blood Flow through a Bifurcated Artery
Abstract:
In this article, the pulsatile flow of blood flow in bifurcated artery with mild stenosis is investigated. Blood is treated to be a micropolar fluid with constant density. The arteries forming bifurcation are assumed to be symmetric about its axes and straight cylinders of restricted length. As the geometry of the stenosed bifurcated artery is irregular, it is changed to regular geometry utilizing the appropriate transformations. The numerical solutions, using the finite difference method, are computed for the flow rate, the shear stress, and the impedance. The influence of time, coupling number, half of the bifurcated angle and Womersley number on shear stress, flow rate and impedance (resistance to the flow) on both sides of the flow divider is shown graphically. It has been observed that the shear stress and flow rate are increasing with increase in the values of Womersley number and bifurcation angle on both sides of the apex. The shear stress is increasing along the inner wall and decreasing along the outer wall of the daughter artery with an increase in the value of coupling number. Further, it has been noticed that the shear stress, flow rate, and impedance are perturbed largely near to the apex in the parent artery due to the presence of backflow near the apex.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1881
84715
Measuring the Cavitation Cloud by Electrical Impedance Tomography
Abstract:
This paper is a case study dealing with the viability of using Electrical Impedance Tomography for measuring cavitation clouds in a pipe setup. The authors used a simple passive cavitation generator to cause a cavitation cloud, which was then recorded for multiple flow rates using electrodes in two measuring planes. The paper presents the results of the experiment, showing the used industrial grade tomography system ITS p2+ is able to measure the cavitation cloud and may be particularly useful for identifying the inception of cavitation in setups where other measuring tools may not be viable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1880
84692
Measuring of the Volume Ratio of Two Immiscible Liquids Using Electrical Impedance Tomography
Abstract:
Authors of this paper discuss the measuring of volume ratio of two immiscible liquids in the homogenous mixture using the industrial Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) system ITS p2+. In the first part of the paper, the principle of EIT and the basic theory of conductivity of mixture of two components are stated. In the next part, the experiment with water and olive oil mixed with Rushton turbine is described, and the measured results are used to verify the theory. In the conclusion, the results are discussed in detail, and the accuracy of the measuring method and its advantages are also mentioned.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1879
84623
Numerical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics with Various Working Conditions inside a Reactor of Wet Scrubber
Abstract:
Recently, with the rapid growth of semiconductor industry, lots of interests have been focused on after treatment system that remove the polluted gas produced from semiconductor manufacturing process, and a wet scrubber is the one of the widely used system. When it comes to mechanism of removing the gas, the polluted gas is removed firstly by chemical reaction in a reactor part. After that, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid. Effective design of the reactor part inside the wet scrubber is highly important since removal performance of the polluted gas in the reactor plays an important role in overall performance and stability. In the present study, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis was performed to figure out the thermal and flow characteristics inside unit a reactor of wet scrubber. In order to verify the numerical result, temperature distribution of the numerical result at various monitoring points was compared to the experimental result. The average error rates (12~15%) between them was shown and the numerical result of temperature distribution was in good agreement with the experimental data. By using validated numerical method, the effect of the reactor geometry on heat transfer rate was also taken into consideration. Uniformity of temperature distribution was improved about 15%. Overall, the result of present study could be useful information to identify the fluid behavior and thermal performance for various scrubber systems. This project is supported by the ‘R&D Center for the reduction of Non-CO₂ Greenhouse gases (RE201706054)’ funded by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as the Global Top Environment R&D Program.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1878
84189
An Exponential Field Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Integrated with Visual Perception
Abstract:
Global vision, whether provided by overhead fixed cameras, on-board aerial vehicle cameras, or satellite images can always provide detailed information on the environment around mobile robots. In this paper, an intelligent vision-based method of path planning and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots is presented. The method integrates visual perception with a new proposed field-based path-planning method to overcome common path-planning problems such as local minima, unreachable destination and unnecessary lengthy paths around obstacles. The method proposes an exponential angle deviation field around each obstacle that affects the orientation of a close robot. As the robot directs toward, the goal point obstacles are classified into right and left groups, and a deviation angle is exponentially added or subtracted to the orientation of the robot. Exponential field parameters are chosen based on Lyapunov stability criterion to guarantee robot convergence to the destination. The proposed method uses obstacles' shape and location, extracted from global vision system, through a collision prediction mechanism to decide whether to activate or deactivate obstacles field. In addition, a search mechanism is developed in case of robot or goal point is trapped among obstacles to find suitable exit or entrance. The proposed algorithm is validated both in simulation and through experiments. The algorithm shows effectiveness in obstacles' avoidance and destination convergence, overcoming common path planning problems found in classical methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1877
83906
Modelling of Meandering River Dynamics in Colombia: A Case Study of the Magdalena River
Abstract:
The analysis and study of Open Channel flow dynamics for River applications has been based on flow modelling using discreet numerical models based on hydrodynamic equations. The overall spatial characteristics of rivers, i.e. its length to depth to width ratio generally allows one to correctly disregard processes occurring in the vertical or transverse dimensions thus imposing hydrostatic pressure conditions and considering solely a 1D flow model along the river length. Through a calibration process an accurate flow model may thus be developed allowing for channel study and extrapolation of various scenarios. The Magdalena River in Colombia is a large river basin draining the country from South to North with 1550 km with 0.0024 average slope and 275 average width across. The river displays high water level fluctuation and is characterized by a series of meanders. The city of La Dorada has been affected over the years by serious flooding in the rainy and dry seasons. As the meander is evolving at a steady pace repeated flooding has endangered a number of neighborhoods. This study has been undertaken in pro of correctly model flow characteristics of the river in this region in order to evaluate various scenarios and provide decision makers with erosion control measures options and a forecasting tool. Two field campaigns have been completed over the dry and rainy seasons including extensive topographical and channel survey using Topcon GR5 DGPS and River Surveyor ADCP. Also in order to characterize the erosion process occurring through the meander, extensive suspended and river bed samples were retrieved as well as soil perforation over the banks. Hence based on DEM ground digital mapping survey and field data a 2DH flow model was prepared using the Iber freeware based on the finite volume method in a non-structured mesh environment. The calibration process was carried out comparing available historical data of nearby hydrologic gauging station. Although the model was able to effectively predict overall flow processes in the region, its spatial characteristics and limitations related to pressure conditions did not allow for an accurate representation of erosion processes occurring over specific bank areas and dwellings. As such a significant helical flow has been observed through the meander. Furthermore, the rapidly changing channel cross section as a consequence of severe erosion has hindered the model’s ability to provide decision makers with a valid up to date planning tool.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1876
83722
Design and Fabrication of Electricity Generating Speed Breaker
Abstract:
Electricity harvesting speed bump (EHSB) is speed breaker of conventional shape, but the difference is that it is not fixed, rather it moves up and down, and electricity can be generated from its vibrating motion. This speed bump consists of an upper cover which will move up and down, a shaft mechanism which will be used to drive the generator and a rack and pinion mechanism which will connect the cover and shaft. There is a spring mechanism to return the cover to its initial state when a vehicle has passed over the bump. Produced energy in the past was up to 80 Watts. For this purpose, a clutch mechanism is used so that both the up-down movements of the cover can be used to drive the generator. Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) mechanism ensures the conversion of both the linear motions into rotational motion which is used to drive the generator.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1875
83040
Superlyophobic Surfaces for Increased Heat Transfer during Condensation of CO₂
Abstract:
CO₂ capture, transport and storage (CCS) is essential to mitigate global anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. To make CCS a widely implemented technology in, e.g. the power sector, the reduction of costs is crucial. For a large cost reduction, every part of the CCS chain must contribute. By increasing the heat transfer efficiency during liquefaction of CO₂, which is a necessary step, e.g. ship transportation, the costs associated with the process are reduced. Heat transfer rates during dropwise condensation are up to one order of magnitude higher than during filmwise condensation. Dropwise condensation usually occurs on a non-wetting surface (Superlyophobic surface). The vapour condenses in discrete droplets, and the non-wetting nature of the surface reduces the adhesion forces and results in shedding of condensed droplets. This, again, results in fresh nucleation sites for further droplet condensation, effectively increasing the liquefaction efficiency. In addition, the droplets in themselves have a smaller heat transfer resistance than a liquid film, resulting in increased heat transfer rates from vapour to solid. Surface tension is a crucial parameter for dropwise condensation, due to its impact on the solid-liquid contact angle. A low surface tension usually results in a low contact angle, and again to spreading of the condensed liquid on the surface. CO₂ has very low surface tension compared to water. However, at relevant temperatures and pressures for CO₂ condensation, the surface tension is comparable to organic compounds such as pentane, a dropwise condensation of CO₂ is a completely new field of research. Therefore, knowledge of several important parameters such as contact angle and drop size distribution must be gained in order to understand the nature of the condensation. A new setup has been built to measure these relevant parameters. The main parts of the experimental setup is a pressure chamber in which the condensation occurs, and a high- speed camera. The process of CO₂ condensation is visually monitored, and one can determine the contact angle, contact angle hysteresis and hence, the surface adhesion of the liquid. CO₂ condensation on different surfaces can be analysed, e.g. copper, aluminium and stainless steel. The experimental setup is built for accurate measurements of the temperature difference between the surface and the condensing vapour and accurate pressure measurements in the vapour. The temperature will be measured directly underneath the condensing surface. The next step of the project will be to fabricate nanostructured surfaces for inducing superlyophobicity. Roughness is a key feature to achieve contact angles above 150° (limit for superlyophobicity) and controlled, and periodical roughness on the nanoscale is beneficial. Surfaces that are non- wetting towards organic non-polar liquids are candidates surface structures for dropwise condensation of CO₂.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1874
83029
Significance of Square Non-Spiral Microcoils for Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
Micro coils are significant components for micro magnetic sensors and actuators especially in biomedical devices. Non-spiral planar microcoils of square, hexagonal and octagonal shapes are introduced for the first time in this paper. Comparison between different planar spiral and non-spiral coils are also discussed. The fabrication advantages and low power dissipation of non-spiral structures make them a strong alternative for conventional spiral planar coils. Series resistance of non-spiral coil is lesser than that of spiral coils though magnetic field is slightly lesser for non-spiral coils. Comparison of different planar microcoils shows that the proposed square non-spiral coil gives better performance than other structures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1873
82952
Comparison of Efficient Production of Small Module Gears
Abstract:
The new designs of satellite gears comprising a number of small gears pose high requirements on the precise production of small module gears. The objective of the experimental activity stated in this article was to compare the conventional rolling gear cutting technology with the modern wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) technology for the production of small module gear m=0.6 mm (thickness of 2.5 mm and material 30CrMoV9). The WEDM technology lies in copying the profile of gearing from the rendered trajectory which is then transferred to the track of a wire electrode. During the experiment, we focused on the comparison of these production methods. Main measured parameters which significantly influence the lifetime and noise was chosen. The first parameter was to compare the precision of gearing profile in respect to the mathematic model. The second monitored parameter was the roughness and surface topology of the gear tooth side. The experiment demonstrated high accuracy of WEDM technology, but a low quality of machined surface.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1872
82751
Design Optimization and Thermoacoustic Analysis of Pulse Tube Cryocooler Components
Abstract:
The usage of pulse tube cryocoolers is significantly increased mainly due to the advantage of the absence of moving parts. The underlying idea of this project is to optimize the design of pulse tube, regenerator, a resonator in cryocooler and analyzing the thermo-acoustic oscillations with respect to the design parameters. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model with time-dependent validation is done to predict its performance. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations are solved for various porous media regions. The effect of changing the geometries and orientation will be validated and investigated in performance. The pressure, temperature and velocity fields in the regenerator and pulse tube are evaluated. This optimized design performance results will be compared with the existing pulse tube cryocooler design. The sinusoidal behavior of cryocooler in acoustic streaming patterns in pulse tube cryocooler will also be evaluated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1871
82589
Three-Dimensional, Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Bullet Penetration through Thin AISI 4340 Steel Target Plate
Abstract:
Bullet penetration in steel plate is investigated with the help of three-dimensional, non-linear, transient, dynamic, finite elements analysis using explicit time integration code LSDYNA. The effect of large strain, strain-rate and temperature at very high velocity regime was studied from number of simulations of semi-spherical nose shape bullet penetration through single layered circular plate with 2 mm thickness at impact velocities of 500,1000 and 1500 m/s with the help of Johnson-Cook material model. Mie-Gruneisen equation of state is used in conjunction with Johnson Cook material model to determine pressure-volume relationship at various points of interests. Two material models viz. Plastic-Kinematic and Johnson-Cook resulted in different deformation patterns in steel plate. It is observed from the simulation results that the velocity drop and loss of kinetic energy occurred very quickly up to perforation of plate, after that the change in velocity and changes in kinetic energy are negligibly small. The physics behind this kind of behaviour is presented in the paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1870
82571
Effects of Fe Addition and Process Parameters on the Wear and Corrosion Characteristics of Icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Abstract:
The performance of material surface under wear and corrosion environments cannot be fulfilled by the conventional surface modifications and coatings. Therefore, different industrial sectors need an alternative technique for enhanced surface properties. Titanium and its alloys possess poor tribological properties which limit their use in certain industries. This paper focuses on the effect of hybrid coatings Al-Cu-Fe on a grade five titanium alloy using laser metal deposition (LMD) process. Icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe as quasicrystals is a relatively new class of materials which exhibit unusual atomic structure and useful physical and chemical properties. A 3kW continuous wave ytterbium laser system (YLS) attached to a KUKA robot which controls the movement of the cladding process was utilized for the fabrication of the coatings. The titanium cladded surfaces were investigated for its hardness, corrosion and tribological behaviour at different laser processing conditions. The samples were cut to corrosion coupons, and immersed into 3.65% NaCl solution at 28oC using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Linear Polarization (LP) techniques. The cross-sectional view of the samples was analysed. It was found that the geometrical properties of the deposits such as width, height and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of each sample remarkably increased with increasing laser power due to the laser-material interaction. It was observed that there are higher number of aluminum and titanium presented in the formation of the composite. The indentation testing reveals that for both scanning speed of 0.8 m/min and 1m/min, the mean hardness value decreases with increasing laser power. The low coefficient of friction, excellent wear resistance and high microhardness were attributed to the formation of hard intermetallic compounds (TiCu, Ti2Cu, Ti3Al, Al3Ti) produced through the in situ metallurgical reactions during the LMD process. The load-bearing capability of the substrate was improved due to the excellent wear resistance of the coatings. The cladded layer showed a uniform crack free surface due to optimized laser process parameters which led to the refinement of the coatings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1869
82446
Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Porous Cylinder Flow in In-Line Arrangement
Abstract:
The flow around three porous cylinders in inline arrangement is investigated in this paper computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. The arrangement generally operates with the dirty gases passing through the porous cylinders, the particulate material being deposited on the outside of the cylinders. However, in a combined cycle power plant, filtration is required to allow the hot exhaust gases to be fed to a turbine without causing any physical damage to the turbine blades. Three cylinder elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the cylinder.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1868
82330
Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study
Abstract:
In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1867
82130
[Keynote Talk]: Machining Parameters Optimization with Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper deals with the determination of the optimum machining parameters, according to the measured and modelled data of the cutting temperature and surface roughness, during the turning of the AISI 4140 steel. The high cutting temperatures are unwanted occurences in the metal cutting process. They impact negatively on the quality of the machined part. The machining experiments were performed using different cutting regimes (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut), with different values of the workpiece hardness, which causes different values of the measured cutting temperature as well as the measured surface roughness. The temperature and surface roughness data were modelled after that using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The obtained RSM models are used in the process of optimization of the cutting regimes using the Genetic Algorithms (GA) tool, which enables the metal cutting process in the optimum conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1866
81861
Combustion Analysis of Suspended Sodium Droplet
Authors:
Abstract:
Combustion analysis of suspended sodium droplet is performed by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equations. The combustion model consists of the pre-ignition and post-ignition models. The reaction rate for the pre-ignition model is based on the chemical kinetics, while that for the post-ignition model is based on the mass transfer rate of oxygen. The calculated droplet temperature is shown to be in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The temperature field in and around the droplet is obtained as well as the droplet shape variation, and the present numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the combustion analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1865
81829
Role of Amount of Glass Fibers in PAEK Composites to Control Mechanical and Tribological Properties
Abstract:
PAEK (Polyaryl ether ketone) being a high-performance polymer, is currently being explored for its tribo-potential by incorporating various fibers, solid lubricants. In this work, influence of amount (30 and 40 %) of short glass fibers (GF) in two composites containing PAEK (60 and 50 %) and synthetic graphite (10 %) on mechanical and tribological behaviour was studied. The composites were developed by injection molding and evaluated in adhesive wear mode (pin on disc configuration) against mild steel disc. The load and speed were selected as variable input parameters while coefficient of friction (µ), specific wear rate (K0) and PVlimit (pressure × velocity) values were selected as output parameters for performance evaluation. Although higher amount of GF lead to better mechanical properties, tribological properties were not in tune to this. Overall, µ and K0 for both composites were in the range 0.04-0.08 and 3-8x 10-16 m3/Nm respectively and decreased with increase in applied PV values till failure was observed. PVlimit was indicated by 112 and 100 MPa m/s. Such high PVlimit values are not reported for any polymer composites running in dry conditions in the literature. The mechanical properties of the C40 composite (40 % GF) proved superior to C30 composite (30 % GF). However, all tribological properties of C40 were inferior to C30. It exhibited higher µ, higher K0 and slightly lower PVlimit value. The higher % fibers proved detrimental for tribo-performance and worn surface analysis by SEM & EDAX was done on the discs & pins to understand wear mechanisms.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1864
81726
Production, Characterisation and Assessment of Biomixture Fuels for Compression Ignition Engine Application
Abstract:
Hardly any neat biodiesel satisfies the European EN14214 standard for compression ignition engine application. To satisfy the EN14214 standard, various additives are doped into biodiesel; however, biodiesel additives might cause other problems such as increase in the particular emission and increased specific fuel consumption. In addition, the additives could be expensive. Considering the increasing level of greenhouse gas GHG emissions and fossil fuel depletion, it is forecasted that the use of biodiesel will be higher in the near future. Hence, the negative aspects of the biodiesel additives will likely to gain much more importance and need to be replaced with better solutions. This study aims to satisfy the European standard EN14214 by blending the biodiesels derived from sustainable feedstocks. Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) and Animal Fat Oil (AFO) are two sustainable feedstocks in the EU (including the UK) for producing biodiesels. In the first stage of the study, these oils were transesterified separately and neat biodiesels (W100 & A100) were produced. Secondly, the biodiesels were blended together in various ratios: 80% WCO biodiesel and 20% AFO biodiesel (W80A20), 60% WCO biodiesel and 40% AFO biodiesel (W60A40), 50% WCO biodiesel and 50% AFO biodiesel (W50A50), 30% WCO biodiesel and 70% AFO biodiesel (W30A70), 10% WCO biodiesel and 90% AFO biodiesel (W10A90). The prepared samples were analysed using Thermo Scientific Trace 1300 Gas Chromatograph and ISQ LT Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The GS-MS analysis gave Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) breakdowns of the fuel samples. It was found that total saturation degree of the samples was linearly increasing (from 15% for W100 to 54% for A100) as the percentage of the AFO biodiesel was increased. Furthermore, it was found that WCO biodiesel was mainly (82%) composed of polyunsaturated FAMEs. Cetane numbers, iodine numbers, calorific values, lower heating values and the densities (at 15 oC) of the samples were estimated by using the mass percentages data of the FAMEs. Besides, kinematic viscosities (at 40 °C and 20 °C), densities (at 15 °C), heating values and flash point temperatures of the biomixture samples were measured in the lab. It was found that estimated and measured characterisation results were comparable. The current study concluded that biomixture fuel samples W60A40 and W50A50 were perfectly satisfying the European EN 14214 norms without any need of additives. Investigation on engine performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics will be conducted to assess the full feasibility of the proposed biomixture fuels.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1863
81692
Systems Engineering and Project Management Process Modeling in the Aeronautics Context: Case Study of SMEs
Abstract:
The aeronautics sector is currently living an unprecedented growth largely due to innovative projects. In several cases, such innovative developments are being carried out by Small and Medium sized-Enterprises (SMEs). For instance, in Europe, a handful of SMEs are leading projects like airships, large civil drones, or flying cars. These SMEs have all limited resources, must make strategic decisions, take considerable financial risks and in the same time must take into account the constraints of safety, cost, time and performance as any commercial organization in this industry. Moreover, today, no international regulations fully exist for the development and certification of this kind of projects. The absence of such a precise and sufficiently detailed regulatory framework requires a very close contact with regulatory instances. But, SMEs do not always have sufficient resources and internal knowledge to handle this complexity and to discuss these issues. This poses additional challenges for those SMEs that have system integration responsibilities and that must provide all the necessary means of compliance to demonstrate their ability to design, produce, and operate airships with the expected level of safety and reliability. The final objective of our research is thus to provide a methodological framework supporting SMEs in their development taking into account recent innovation and institutional rules of the sector. We aim to provide a contribution to the problematic by developing a specific Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach. Airspace regulation, aeronautics standards and international norms on systems engineering are taken on board to be formalized in a set of models. This paper presents the on-going research project combining Systems Engineering and Project Management process modeling and taking into account the metamodeling problematic.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1862
81679
Exploration of Graphite Nano-Particles as Anti-Wear Additive for Performance Enhancement of Oil
Abstract:
Additives in lubricating oils are the focus of research attention since the further reduction in friction and wear properties of oils would lead to the further saving of tribo-materials and energy apart from improving their efficiency. Remarkable tribo-performance enhancement is reported in the literature due to addition of particles of solid lubricants in lubricating oils; especially that of nano-sizes. In the present work graphite nano-particles (NPs) in various amounts (1, 2, 3 and 4 wt. %) were used to explore the possible anti-wear (AW) performance enhancement in Group III oil. Polyisobutylene succinimide (PIBSI- 1 wt. %) was used as a dispersant for dispersing these NPs and to enhance the stability of these nano-suspensions. It was observed that PIBSI inclusion enhanced the stability of oil almost by eight times. NPs in all amounts enhanced the AW performance of oil considerably. The optimum amount was three wt. %, which led to the highest enhancement under all loads. The extent of benefits, however, were dependent on load. At the lowest (392 N) and highest loads (784 N), the benefits were not profound. At moderate load (588 N), highest improvement (around 60 %) was recorded. The SEM and AFM studies were done on the worn ball surfaces to reveal the detailed features of films transferred and proved useful to correlate the wear performance of oils.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1861
81581
Analysis of Thermal Damage Characteristics of High Pressure Turbine Blade According to Off-Design Operating Conditions
Abstract:
Gas turbines are heat engines that convert chemical energy into electrical energy through mechanical energy. Since their high energy density per unit volume and low pollutant emissions, gas turbines are classified as clean energy. In order to obtain better performance, the turbine inlet temperature of the current gas turbine is operated at about 1600℃, and thermal damage is a very serious problem. Especially, these thermal damages are more prominent in off-design conditions than in design conditions. In this study, the thermal damage characteristics of high temperature components of a gas turbine made of a single crystal material are studied numerically for the off-design operating conditions. The target gas turbine is configured as a reheat cycle and is operated in peak load operation mode, not normal operation. In particular, the target gas turbine features a lot of low-load operation. In this study, a commercial code, ANSYS 18.2, was used for analyzing the thermal-flow coupling problems. As a result, the flow separation phenomenon on the pressure side due to the flow reduction was remarkable at the off-design condition, and the high heat transfer coefficient at the upper end of the suction surface due to the tip leakage flow was appeared.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1860
81511
Experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Theoretical Study of Cyclone Performance Based on Inlet Velocity and Particle Loading Rate
Abstract:
This paper describes experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and theoretical analysis of a cyclone performance, operated 1.0 g/m3 solid loading rate, at two different inlet velocities (5 m/s and 10 m/s). Comparing experimental results with theoretical and CFD simulation results, it is pronounced that the influence of solid in processing flow is significant than expected. Experimental studies based on gas- solid flows of cyclone separators are complicated as they required advanced sensitive measuring techniques, especially flow characteristics. Thus, CFD modelling and theoretical analysis are economical in analyzing cyclone separator performance but detailed clarifications of the application of these in cyclone separator performance evaluation is not yet discussed. The present study shows the limitations of influencing parameters of CFD and theoretical considerations, comparing experimental results and flow characteristics from CFD modelling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1859
81030
Performance Analysis of Air Conditioning System Working on the Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle under Magnetohydrodynamic Influence
Abstract:
The fluids exposed to magnetic field can enhance the convective heat transfer by inducing secondary convection currents due to Lorentz force. The use of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in power generation and mass transfer is increasing steadily but its application to enhance the convective currents in fluids needed to be explored. The enhancement in convective heat transfer using MHD forces can be employed in heat exchangers, cooling of molten metal, vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) systems etc. The effective increase in the convective heat transfer without any additional energy consumption will lead to the energy efficient heat exchanging devices. In this work, the effect of MHD forces on the performance of air conditioning system working on the VCR system is studied. The refrigerant in VCR system is exposed to the magnetic field which influenced the flow of refrigerant. The different intensities of magnets are used on the different liquid refrigerants and investigation on performance of split air conditioning system is done under different loading conditions. The results of this research work show that the application of magnet on refrigerant flow has positive influence on the coefficient of performance (COP) of split air conditioning system. It is also observed that with increasing intensity of magnetic force the COP of split air conditioning system also increases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):