Data Collection Techniques for Robotics to Identify the Facial Expressions of Traumatic Brain Injured Patients
This paper presents the investigation of data collection procedures, associated with robots when placed with traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients for rehabilitation purposes through facial expression and mood analysis. Rehabilitation after TBI is very crucial due to nature of injury and variation in recovery time. It is advantageous to analyze these emotional signals in a contactless manner, due to the non-supportive behavior of patients, limited muscle movements and increase in negative emotional expressions. This work aims at the development of framework where robots can recognize TBI emotions through facial expressions to perform rehabilitation tasks by physical, cognitive or interactive activities. The result of these studies shows that with customized data collection strategies, proposed framework identify facial and emotional expressions more accurately that can be utilized in enhancing recovery treatment and social interaction in robotic context.
Calibrations and Effect of Different Operating Conditions on the Performance of a Fluid Power Control System with Servo Solenoid Valve
The current investigation presents a study on the hydraulic performance of an electro-hydraulic servo solenoid valve controlled linear piston used in hydraulic systems. Advanced methods have been used to measure and record laboratory experiments, to ensure accurate analysis and evaluation. Experiments have been conducted under different values of temperature (28, 40 and 50 °C), supply pressure (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 bar), system stiffness (32 N/mm), and load (0.0 & 5560 N). It is concluded that increasing temperature of hydraulic oil increases the quantity of flow rate, so it achieves an increase of the quantity of flow by 5.75 % up to 48.8 % depending on operating conditions. The values of pressure decay at low temperature are less than the values at high temperature. The frequency increases with the increase of the temperature. When we connect the springs to the system, it decreases system frequency. These results are very useful in the process of packing and manufacturing of fluid products, where the properties are not affected by 50 °C, so energy and time are saved.
Bulk/Hull Cavitation Induced by Underwater Explosion: Effect of Material Elasticity and Surface Curvature
Bulk/hull cavitation evolution induced by an underwater explosion (UNDEX) near a free surface (bulk) or a deformable structure (hull) is numerically investigated using a multiphase compressible ﬂuid solver coupled with a one-ﬂuid cavitation model. A series of two-dimensional computations is conducted with varying material elasticity and surface curvature. Results suggest that material elasticity and surface curvature inﬂuence the peak pressures generated from UNDEX shock and cavitation collapse, as well as the bulk/hull cavitation regions near the surface. Results also show that such effects can be different for bulk cavitation generated from UNDEX-free surface interaction and for hull cavitation generated from UNDEX-structure interaction. More importantly, results demonstrate that shock wave focusing caused by a concave solid surface can lead to a larger cavitation region and thus intensify the cavitation reload. The ﬁndings can be linked to the strength and the direction of reﬂected waves from the structural surface and reﬂected waves from the expanding bubble surface, which are functions of material elasticity and surface curvature. Shockwave focusing effects are also observed for axisymmetric simulations, but the strength of the pressure contours for the axisymmetric simulations is less than those for the 2D simulations due to the difference between the initial shock energy. The current method is limited to two-dimensional or axisymmetric applications. Moreover, the thermal effects are neglected and the liquid is not allowed to sustain tension in the cavitation model.
Efficient Computer-Aided Design-Based Multilevel Optimization of the LS89
The paper deals with a single point optimization of the LS89 turbine using an adjoint optimization and defining the design variables within a CAD system. The advantage of including the CAD model in the design system is that higher level constraints can be imposed on the shape, allowing the optimized model or component to be manufactured. However, CAD-based approaches restrict the design space compared to node-based approaches where every node is free to move. In order to preserve a rich design space, we develop a methodology to refine the CAD model during the optimization and to create the best parameterization to use at each time. This study presents a methodology to progressively refine the design space, which combines parametric effectiveness with a differential evolutionary algorithm in order to create an optimal parameterization. In this manuscript, we show that by doing the parameterization at the CAD level, we can impose higher level constraints on the shape, such as the axial chord length, the trailing edge radius and G2 geometric continuity between the suction side and pressure side at the leading edge. Additionally, the adjoint sensitivities are filtered out and only smooth shapes are produced during the optimization process. The use of algorithmic differentiation for the CAD kernel and grid generator allows computing the grid sensitivities to machine accuracy and avoid the limited arithmetic precision and the truncation error of finite differences. Then, the parametric effectiveness is computed to rate the ability of a set of CAD design parameters to produce the design shape change dictated by the adjoint sensitivities. During the optimization process, the design space is progressively enlarged using the knot insertion algorithm which allows introducing new control points whilst preserving the initial shape. The position of the inserted knots is generally assumed. However, this assumption can hinder the creation of better parameterizations that would allow producing more localized shape changes where the adjoint sensitivities dictate. To address this, we propose using a differential evolutionary algorithm to maximize the parametric effectiveness by optimizing the location of the inserted knots. This allows the optimizer to gradually explore larger design spaces and to use an optimal CAD-based parameterization during the course of the optimization. The method is tested on the LS89 turbine cascade and large aerodynamic improvements in the entropy generation are achieved whilst keeping the exit flow angle fixed. The trailing edge and axial chord length, which are kept fixed as manufacturing constraints. The optimization results show that the multilevel optimizations were more efficient than the single level optimization, even though they used the same number of design variables at the end of the multilevel optimizations. Furthermore, the multilevel optimization where the parameterization is created using the optimal knot positions results in a more efficient strategy to reach a better optimum than the multilevel optimization where the position of the knots is arbitrarily assumed.
[Keynote Talk]: Determination of the Quality of the Machined Surface Using Fuzzy Logic
This paper deals with measuring and modelling of the quality of the machined surface of the metal machining process. The average surface roughness (Ra) which represents the quality of the machined part was measured during the dry turning of the AISI 4140 steel. A large number of factors with the unknown relations among them influences this parameter, and that is why mathematical modelling is extremely complicated. Different values of cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut (cutting regime) and workpiece hardness causes different surface roughness values. Modelling with soft computing techniques may be very useful in such cases. This paper presents the usage of the fuzzy logic-based system for determining metal machining process parameter in order to find the proper values of cutting regimes.
Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling
Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.
Taguchi-Based Surface Roughness Optimization for Slotted and Tapered Cylindrical Products in Milling and Turning Operations
The research follows a systematic approach to optimize the parameters for parts machined by turning and milling processes. The quality characteristic chosen is surface roughness since the surface finish plays an important role for parts that require surface contact. A tapered cylindrical surface is designed as a test specimen for the research. The material chosen for machining is aluminum alloy 6061 due to its wide variety of industrial and engineering applications. HAAS VF-2 TR computer numerical control (CNC) vertical machining center is used for milling and HAAS ST-20 CNC machine is used for turning in this research. Taguchi analysis is used to optimize the surface roughness of the machined parts. The L9 Orthogonal Array is designed for four controllable factors with three different levels each, resulting in 18 experimental runs. Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio is calculated for achieving the specific target value of 75 ± 15 µin. The controllable parameters chosen for turning process are feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow and finish cut and for milling process are feed rate, spindle speed, step over and coolant flow. The uncontrollable factors are tool geometry for turning process and tool material for milling process. Hypothesis testing is conducted to study the significance of different uncontrollable factors on the surface roughnesses. The optimal parameter settings were identified from the Taguchi analysis and the process capability Cp and the process capability index Cpk were improved from 1.76 and 0.02 to 3.70 and 2.10 respectively for turning process and from 0.87 and 0.19 to 3.85 and 2.70 respectively for the milling process. The surface roughnesses were improved from 60.17 µin to 68.50 µin, reducing the defect rate from 52.39% to 0% for the turning process and from 93.18 µin to 79.49 µin, reducing the defect rate from 71.23% to 0% for the milling process. The purpose of this study is to efficiently utilize the Taguchi design analysis to improve the surface roughness.
Numerical Simulation of Von Karman Swirling Bioconvection Nanofluid Flow from a Deformable Rotating Disk
Motivation- Rotating disk bio-reactors are fundamental to numerous medical/biochemical engineering processes including oxygen transfer, chromatography, purification and swirl-assisted pumping. The modern upsurge in biologically-enhanced engineering devices has embraced new phenomena including bioconvection of micro-organisms (photo-tactic, oxy-tactic, gyrotactic etc). The proven thermal performance superiority of nanofluids i.e. base fluids doped with engineered nanoparticles has also stimulated immense implementation in biomedical designs. Motivated by these emerging applications, we present a numerical thermofluid dynamic simulation of the transport phenomena in bioconvection nanofluid rotating disk bioreactor flow. Methodology- We study analytically and computationally the time-dependent three-dimensional viscous gyrotactic bioconvection in swirling nanofluid flow from a rotating disk configuration. The disk is also deformable i.e. able to extend (stretch) in the radial direction. Stefan blowing is included. The Buongiorno dilute nanofluid model is adopted wherein Brownian motion and thermophoresis are the dominant nanoscale effects. The primitive conservation equations for mass, radial, tangential and axial momentum, heat (energy), nanoparticle concentration and micro-organism density function are formulated in a cylindrical polar coordinate system with appropriate wall and free stream boundary conditions. A mass convective condition is also incorporated at the disk surface. Forced convection is considered i.e. buoyancy forces are neglected. This highly nonlinear, strongly coupled system of unsteady partial differential equations is normalized with the classical Von Karman and other transformations to render the boundary value problem (BVP) into an ordinary differential system which is solved with the efficient Adomian decomposition method (ADM). Validation with earlier Runge-Kutta shooting computations in the literature is also conducted. Extensive computations are presented (with the aid of MATLAB symbolic software) for radial and circumferential velocity components, temperature, nanoparticle concentration, micro-organism density number and gradients of these functions at the disk surface (radial local skin friction, local circumferential skin friction, Local Nusselt number, Local Sherwood number, motile microorganism mass transfer rate). Main Findings- Increasing radial stretching parameter decreases radial velocity and radial skin friction, reduces azimuthal velocity and skin friction, decreases local Nusselt number and motile micro-organism mass wall flux whereas it increases nano-particle local Sherwood number. Disk deceleration accelerates the radial flow, damps the azimuthal flow, decreases temperatures and thermal boundary layer thickness, depletes the nano-particle concentration magnitudes (and associated nano-particle species boundary layer thickness) and furthermore decreases the micro-organism density number and gyrotactic micro-organism species boundary layer thickness. Increasing Stefan blowing accelerates the radial flow and azimuthal (circumferential flow), elevates temperatures of the nanofluid, boosts nano-particle concentration (volume fraction) and gyrotactic micro-organism density number magnitudes whereas suction generates the reverse effects. Increasing suction effect reduces radial skin friction and azimuthal skin friction, local Nusselt number, and motile micro-organism wall mass flux whereas it enhances the nano-particle species local Sherwood number. Conclusions - Important transport characteristics are identified of relevance to real bioreactor nanotechnological systems not discussed in previous works. ADM is shown to achieve very rapid convergence and highly accurate solutions and shows excellent promise in simulating swirling multi-physical nano-bioconvection fluid dynamics problems. Furthermore, it provides an excellent complement to more general commercial computational fluid dynamics simulations.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of a Nanofluid-Based Annular Solar Collector with Different Metallic Nano-Particles
Motivation- Solar energy constitutes the most promising renewable energy source on earth. Nanofluids are a very successful family of engineered fluids, which contain well-dispersed nanoparticles suspended in a stable base fluid. The presence of metallic nanoparticles (e.g. gold, silver, copper, aluminum etc) significantly improves the thermo-physical properties of the host fluid and generally results in a considerable boost in thermal conductivity, density, and viscosity of nanofluid compared with the original base (host) fluid. This modification in fundamental thermal properties has profound implications in influencing the convective heat transfer process in solar collectors. The potential for improving solar collector direct absorber efficiency is immense and to gain a deeper insight into the impact of different metallic nanoparticles on efficiency and temperature enhancement, in the present work, we describe recent computational fluid dynamics simulations of an annular solar collector system. The present work studies several different metallic nano-particles and compares their performance. Methodologies- A numerical study of convective heat transfer in an annular pipe solar collector system is conducted. The inner tube contains pure water and the annular region contains nanofluid. Three-dimensional steady-state incompressible laminar flow comprising water- (and other) based nanofluid containing a variety of metallic nanoparticles (copper oxide, aluminum oxide, and titanium oxide nanoparticles) is examined. The Tiwari-Das model is deployed for which thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and viscosity of the nanofluid suspensions is evaluated as a function of solid nano-particle volume fraction. Radiative heat transfer is also incorporated using the ANSYS solar flux and Rosseland radiative models. The ANSYS FLUENT finite volume code (version 18.1) is employed to simulate the thermo-fluid characteristics via the SIMPLE algorithm. Mesh-independence tests are conducted. Validation of the simulations is also performed with a computational Harlow-Welch MAC (Marker and Cell) finite difference method and excellent correlation achieved. The influence of volume fraction on temperature, velocity, pressure contours is computed and visualized. Main findings- The best overall performance is achieved with copper oxide nanoparticles. Thermal enhancement is generally maximized when water is utilized as the base fluid, although in certain cases ethylene glycol also performs very efficiently. Increasing nanoparticle solid volume fraction elevates temperatures although the effects are less prominent in aluminum and titanium oxide nanofluids. Significant improvement in temperature distributions is achieved with copper oxide nanofluid and this is attributed to the superior thermal conductivity of copper compared to other metallic nano-particles studied. Important fluid dynamic characteristics are also visualized including circulation and temperature shoots near the upper region of the annulus. Radiative flux is observed to enhance temperatures significantly via energization of the nanofluid although again the best elevation in performance is attained consistently with copper oxide. Conclusions-The current study generalizes previous investigations by considering multiple metallic nano-particles and furthermore provides a good benchmark against which to calibrate experimental tests on a new solar collector configuration currently being designed at Salford University. Important insights into the thermal conductivity and viscosity with metallic nano-particles is also provided in detail. The analysis is also extendable to other metallic nano-particles including gold and zinc.
Effect of Print Orientation on the Mechanical Properties of Multi Jet Fusion Additively Manufactured Polyamide-12
The advancement of additive manufacturing, in both research and commercial realms, is highly dependent upon continuing innovations and creativity in materials and designs. Additive manufacturing shows great promise towards revolutionizing various industries, due largely to the fact that design data can be used to create complex products and components, on demand and from the raw materials, for the end user at the point of use. However, it will be critical that the material properties of additively-made parts for engineering purposes be fully understood. As it is a relatively new additive manufacturing method, the response of properties of Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) produced parts to different printing parameters has not been well studied. In this work, testing of mechanical and tribological properties MJF-printed Polyamide 12 parts was performed to determine whether printing orientation in this method results in significantly different part performances. Material properties were studied at macro- and nanoscales. Tensile tests, in combination with tribology tests including steady-state wear, were performed. Results showed a significant difference in resultant part characteristics based on whether they were printed in a vertical or horizontal orientation. Tensile performance of vertically and horizontally printed samples varied, both in ultimate strength and strain. Tribology tests showed that printing orientation has notable effects on the resulting mechanical and wear properties of tested surfaces, due largely to layer orientation and the presence of unfused fused powder grain inclusions. This research advances the understanding of how print orientation affects the mechanical properties of additively manufactured structures, and also how print orientation can be exploited in future engineering design.
Oblique Radiative Solar Nano-Polymer Gel Coating Heat Transfer and Slip Flow: Manufacturing Simulation
Nano-polymeric solar paints and sol-gels have emerged as a major new development in solar cell/collector coatings offering significant improvements in durability, anti-corrosion and thermal efficiency. They also exhibit substantial viscosity variation with temperature which can be exploited in solar collector designs. Modern manufacturing processes for such nano-rheological materials frequently employ stagnation flow dynamics under high temperature which invokes radiative heat transfer. Motivated by elaborating in further detail the nanoscale heat, mass and momentum characteristics of such sol gels, the present article presents a mathematical and computational study of the steady, two-dimensional, non-aligned thermo-fluid boundary layer transport of copper metal-doped water-based nano-polymeric sol gels under radiative heat flux. To simulate real nano-polymer boundary interface dynamics, thermal slip is analysed at the wall. A temperature-dependent viscosity is also considered. The Tiwari-Das nanofluid model is deployed which features a volume fraction for the nanoparticle concentration. This approach also features a Maxwell-Garnet model for the nanofluid thermal conductivity. The conservation equations for mass, normal and tangential momentum and energy (heat) are normalized via appropriate transformations to generate a multi-degree, ordinary differential, non-linear, coupled boundary value problem. Numerical solutions are obtained via the stable, efficient Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme with shooting quadrature in MATLAB symbolic software. Validation of solutions is achieved with a Variational Iterative Method (VIM) utilizing Langrangian multipliers. The impact of key emerging dimensionless parameters i.e. obliqueness parameter, radiation-conduction Rosseland number (Rd), thermal slip parameter (α), viscosity parameter (m), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ) on non-dimensional normal and tangential velocity components, temperature, wall shear stress, local heat flux and streamline distributions is visualized graphically. Shear stress and temperature are boosted with increasing radiative effect whereas local heat flux is reduced. Increasing wall thermal slip parameter depletes temperatures. With greater volume fraction of copper nanoparticles temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness is elevated. Streamlines are found to be skewed markedly towards the left with positive obliqueness parameter.
Thermal Stress and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion
Thermal barrier coatings are among the most popular methods for providing corrosion protection in high temperature applications including aircraft engine systems, external spacecraft structures, rocket chambers etc. Many different materials are available for such coatings, of which ceramics generally perform the best. Motivated by these applications, the current investigation presents detailed finite element simulations of coating stress analysis for a 3- dimensional, 3-layered model of a test sample representing a typical gas turbine component scenario. Structural steel is selected for the main inner layer, Titanium (Ti) alloy for the middle layer and Silicon Carbide (SiC) for the outermost layer. The model dimensions are 20 mm (width), 10 mm (height) and three 1mm deep layers. ANSYS software is employed to conduct three types of analysis- static structural, thermal stress analysis and also computational fluid dynamic erosion/corrosion analysis (via ANSYS FLUENT). The specified geometry which corresponds to corrosion test samples exactly is discretized using a body-sizing meshing approach, comprising mainly of tetrahedron cells. Refinements were concentrated at the connection points between the layers to shift the focus towards the static effects dissipated between them. A detailed grid independence study is conducted to confirm the accuracy of the selected mesh densities. To recreate gas turbine scenarios; in the stress analysis simulations, static loading and thermal environment conditions of up to 1000 N and 1000 degrees Kelvin are imposed. The default solver was used to set the controls for the simulation with the fixed support being set as one side of the model while subjecting the opposite side to a tabular force of 500 and 1000 Newtons. Equivalent elastic strain, total deformation, equivalent stress and strain energy were computed for all cases. Each analysis was duplicated twice to remove one of the layers each time, to allow testing of the static and thermal effects with each of the coatings. ANSYS FLUENT simulation was conducted to study the effect of corrosion on the model under similar thermal conditions. The momentum and energy equations were solved and the viscous heating option was applied to represent improved thermal physics of heat transfer between the layers of the structures. A Discrete Phase Model (DPM) in ANSYS FLUENT was employed which allows for the injection of continuous uniform air particles onto the model, thereby enabling an option for calculating the corrosion factor caused by hot air injection (particles prescribed 5 m/s velocity and 1273.15 K). Extensive visualization of results is provided. The simulations reveal interesting features associated with coating response to realistic gas turbine loading conditions including significantly different stress concentrations with different coatings.
ANSYS FLUENT Simulation of Natural Convection and Radiation in a Solar Enclosure
In this study, multi-mode heat transfer characteristics of spacecraft solar collectors are investigated computationally. Two-dimensional steady-state incompressible laminar Newtonian viscous convection-radiative heat transfer in a rectangular solar collector geometry. The ANSYS FLUENT finite volume code (version 17.2) is employed to simulate the thermo-fluid characteristics. Several radiative transfer models are employed which are available in the ANSYS workbench, including the classical Rosseland flux model and the more elegant P1 flux model. Mesh-independence tests are conducted. Validation of the simulations is conducted with a computational Harlow-Welch MAC (Marker and Cell) finite difference method and excellent correlation. The influence of aspect ratio, Prandtl number (Pr), Rayleigh number (Ra) and radiative flux model on temperature, isotherms, velocity, the pressure is evaluated and visualized in color plots. Additionally, the local convective heat flux is computed and solutions are compared with the MAC solver for various buoyancy effects (e.g. Ra = 10,000,000) achieving excellent agreement. The P1 model is shown to better predict the actual influence of solar radiative flux on thermal fluid behavior compared with the limited Rosseland model. With increasing Rayleigh numbers the hot zone emanating from the base of the collector is found to penetrate deeper into the collector and rises symmetrically dividing into two vortex regions with very high buoyancy effect (Ra >100,000). With increasing Prandtl number (three gas cases are examined respectively hydrogen gas mixture, air and ammonia gas) there is also a progressive incursion of the hot zone at the solar collector base higher into the solar collector space and simultaneously a greater asymmetric behavior of the dual isothermal zones. With increasing aspect ratio (wider base relative to the height of the solar collector geometry) there is a greater thermal convection pattern around the whole geometry, higher temperatures and the elimination of the cold upper zone associated with lower aspect ratio.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Rectangular Mini-Channels for Rocket Cooling Applications
In this work, motivated by rocket channel cooling applications, we describe recent CFD simulations of turbulent convective heat transfer in mini-channels at different aspect ratios. ANSYS FLUENT software has been employed with a mean average error of 5.97% relative to Forrest’s MIT cooling channel study (2014) at a Reynolds number of 50,443 with a Prandtl number of 3.01. This suggests that the simulation model created for turbulent flow was suitable to set as a foundation for the study of different aspect ratios in the channel. Multiple aspect ratios were also considered to understand the influence of high aspect ratios to analyse the best performing cooling channel, which was determined to be the highest aspect ratio channels. Hence, the approximate 28:1 aspect ratio provided the best characteristics to ensure effective cooling. A mesh convergence study was performed to assess the optimum mesh density to collect accurate results. Hence, for this study an element size of 0.05mm was used to generate 579,120 for proper turbulent flow simulation. Deploying a greater bias factor would increase the mesh density to the furthest edges of the channel which would prove to be useful if the focus of the study was just on a single side of the wall. Since a bulk temperature is involved with the calculations, it is essential to ensure a suitable bias factor is used to ensure the reliability of the results. Hence, in this study we have opted to use a bias factor of 5 to allow greater mesh density at both edges of the channel. However, the limitations on mesh density and hardware have curtailed the sophistication achievable for the turbulence characteristics. Also only linear rectangular channels were considered, i.e. curvature was ignored. Furthermore, we only considered conventional water coolant. From this CFD study the variation of aspect ratio provided a deeper appreciation of the effect of small to high aspect ratios with regard to cooling channels. Hence, when considering an application for the channel, the geometry of the aspect ratio must play a crucial role in optimizing cooling performance.
Exploration of Copper Fabric in Non-Asbestos Organic Brake-Pads for Thermal Conductivity Enhancement
Range of thermal conductivity (TC) of Friction Materials (FMs) is a critical issue since lower TC leads to accumulation of frictional heat on the working surface, which results in excessive fade while higher TC leads to excessive heat flow towards back-plate resulting in boiling of brake-fluid leading to ‘spongy brakes’. This phenomenon prohibits braking action, which is most undesirable. Therefore, TC of the FMs across the brake pads should not be high while along the brake pad, it should be high. To enhance TC, metals in the forms of powder and fibers are used in the FMs. Apart from TC improvement, metals provide strength and structural integrity to the composites. Due to higher TC Copper (Cu) powder/fiber is a most preferred metallic ingredient in FM industry. However, Cu powders/fibers are responsible for metallic wear debris generation, which has harmful effects on aquatic organisms. Hence to get rid of a problem of metallic wear debris generation and to keep the positive effect of TC improvement, incorporation of Cu fabric in NAO brake-pads can be an innovative solution. Keeping this in view, two realistic multi-ingredient FM composites with identical formulations were developed in the form of brake-pads. Out of which one composite series consisted of a single layer of Cu fabric in the body of brake-pad and designated as C1 while double layer of Cu fabric was incorporated in another brake-pad series with designation of C2. Distance of Cu fabric layer from the back-plate was kept constant for C1 and C2. One more composite (C0) was developed without Cu fabric for the sake of comparison. Developed composites were characterized for physical properties. Tribological performance was evaluated on full scale inertia dynamometer by following JASO C 406 testing standard. It was concluded that Cu fabric successfully improved fade resistance by increasing conductivity of the composite and also showed slight improvement in wear resistance. Worn surfaces of pads and disc were analyzed by SEM and EDAX to study wear mechanism.
Comparative Mesh Sensitivity Study of Different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Turbulence Models in OpenFOAM
In industry, to validate a case, often a multitude of simulation are required and in order to demonstrate confidence in the process where users tend to use a coarser mesh. Therefore, it is imperative to establish the coarsest mesh that could be used while keeping reasonable simulation accuracy. To date, the two most reliable, affordable and broadly used advanced simulations are the hybrid RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes)/LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and wall modelled LES. The potentials in these two simulations will still be developed in the next decades mainly because the unaffordable computational cost of a DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). In the wall modelled LES, the turbulence model is applied as a sub-grid scale model in the most inner layer near the wall. The RANS turbulence models cover the entire boundary layer region in a hybrid RANS/LES (Detached Eddy Simulation) and its variants, therefore, the RANS still has a very important role in the state of art simulations. This research focuses on the turbulence model mesh sensitivity analysis where various turbulence models such as the S-A (Spalart-Allmaras), SSG (Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski), K-Omega transitional SST (Shear Stress Transport), K-kl-Omega, γ-Reθ transitional model, v2f are evaluated within the OpenFOAM. The simulations are conducted on a fully developed turbulent flow over a flat plate where the skin friction coefficient as well as velocity profiles are obtained to compare against experimental values and DNS results. A concrete conclusion is made to clarify the mesh sensitivity for different turbulence models.
Modelling of Heat Transfer during Controlled Cooling of Thermo-Mechanically Treated Rebars Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach
Thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) of rebars is a critical process to impart sufficient strength and ductility to rebar. TMT rebars are produced by the Tempcore process, involves an 'in-line' heat treatment in which hot rolled bar (temperature is around 1080°C) is passed through water boxes where it is quenched under high pressure water jets (temperature is around 25°C). The quenching rate dictates composite structure consisting (four non-homogenously distributed phases of rebar microstructure) pearlite-ferrite, bainite, and tempered martensite (from core to rim). The ferrite and pearlite phases present at core induce ductility to rebar while martensitic rim induces appropriate strength. The TMT process is difficult to model as it brings multitude of complex physics such as heat transfer, highly turbulent fluid flow, multicomponent and multiphase flow present in the control volume. Additionally the presence of film boiling regime (above Leidenfrost point) due to steam formation adds complexity to domain. A coupled heat transfer and fluid flow model based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been developed at product technology division of Tata Steel, India which efficiently predicts temperature profile and percentage martensite rim thickness of rebar during quenching process. The model has been validated with 16 mm rolling of New Bar mill (NBM) plant of Tata Steel Limited, India. Furthermore, based on the scenario analyses, optimal configuration of nozzles was found which helped in subsequent increase in rolling speed.
Fuzzy Control of Thermally Isolated Greenhouse Building by Utilizing Underground Heat Exchanger and Outside Weather Conditions
A traditional greenhouse is a metal frame agricultural building used for cultivation plants in a controlled environment isolated from external climatic changes. Using greenhouses in agriculture is an efficient way to reduce the water consumption, where agriculture field is considered the biggest water consumer world widely. Controlling greenhouse environment yields better productivity of plants but demands an increase of electric power. Although various control approaches have been used towards greenhouse automation, most of them are applied to traditional greenhouses with ventilation fans and/or evaporation cooling system. Such approaches are still demanding high energy and water consumption. The aim of this research is to develop a fuzzy control system that minimizes water and energy consumption by utilizing outside weather conditions and underground heat exchanger to maintain the optimum climate of the greenhouse. The proposed control system is implemented on an experimental model of thermally isolated greenhouse structure with dimensions of 6x5x2.8 meters. It uses fans for extracting heat from the ground heat exchanger system, motors for automatic open/close of the greenhouse windows and LED as lighting system. The controller is integrated also with environmental condition sensors. It was found that using the air-to-air horizontal ground heat exchanger with 90 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness placed 2.5 m below the ground surface results in decreasing the greenhouse temperature of 3.28 ˚C which saves around 3 kW of consumed energy. It also eliminated the water consumption needed in evaporation cooling systems which are traditionally used for cooling the greenhouse environment.
Estimation of the External Force for a Co-Manipulation Task Using the Drive Chain Robot
The aim of this paper is to show that the observation
of the external effort and the sensor-less control of a system is
limited by the mechanical system. First, the model of a one-joint
robot with a prismatic joint is presented. Based on this model,
two different procedures were performed in order to identify the
mechanical parameters of the system and observe the external effort
applied on it. Experiments have proven that the accuracy of the force
observer, based on the DC motor current, is limited by the mechanics
of the robot. The sensor-less control will be limited by the accuracy in
estimation of the mechanical parameters and by the maximum static
friction force, that is the minimum force which can be observed in
this case. The consequence of this limitation is that industrial robots
without specific design are not well adapted to perform sensor-less
precision tasks. Finally, an efficient control law is presented for high
Real Time Lidar and Radar High-Level Fusion for Obstacle Detection and Tracking with Evaluation on a Ground Truth
Both Lidars and Radars are sensors for obstacle
detection. While Lidars are very accurate on obstacles positions
and less accurate on their velocities, Radars are more precise on
obstacles velocities and less precise on their positions. Sensor
fusion between Lidar and Radar aims at improving obstacle
detection using advantages of the two sensors. The present
paper proposes a real-time Lidar/Radar data fusion algorithm
for obstacle detection and tracking based on the global nearest
neighbour standard filter (GNN). This algorithm is implemented
and embedded in an automative vehicle as a component generated
by a real-time multisensor software. The benefits of data fusion
comparing with the use of a single sensor are illustrated through
several tracking scenarios (on a highway and on a bend) and
using real-time kinematic sensors mounted on the ego and tracked
vehicles as a ground truth.
Artificial Neural Network and Satellite Derived Chlorophyll Indices for Estimation of Wheat Chlorophyll Content under Rainfed Condition
Numerous models used in prediction and decision-making process but most of them are linear in natural environment, and linear models reach their limitations with non-linearity in data. Therefore accurate estimation is difficult. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) found extensive acceptance to address the modeling of the complex real world for the non-linear environment. ANN’s have more general and flexible functional forms than traditional statistical methods can effectively deal with. The link between information technology and agriculture will become more firm in the near future. Monitoring crop biophysical properties non-destructively can provide a rapid and accurate understanding of its response to various environmental influences. Crop chlorophyll content is an important indicator of crop health and therefore the estimation of crop yield. In recent years, remote sensing has been accepted as a robust tool for site-specific management by detecting crop parameters at both local and large scales. The present research combined the ANN model with satellite-derived chlorophyll indices from LANDSAT 8 imagery for predicting real-time wheat chlorophyll estimation. The cloud-free scenes of LANDSAT 8 were acquired (Feb-March 2016-17) at the same time when ground-truthing campaign was performed for chlorophyll estimation by using SPAD-502. Different vegetation indices were derived from LANDSAT 8 imagery using ERADAS Imagine (v.2014) software for chlorophyll determination. The vegetation indices were including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio Index (CARI), Modified Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio Index (MCARI) and Transformed Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio index (TCARI). For ANN modeling, MATLAB and SPSS (ANN) tools were used. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) in MATLAB provided very satisfactory results. For training purpose of MLP 61.7% of the data, for validation purpose 28.3% of data and rest 10% of data were used to evaluate and validate the ANN model results. For error evaluation, sum of squares error and relative error were used. ANN model summery showed that sum of squares error of 10.786, the average overall relative error was .099. The MCARI and NDVI were revealed to be more sensitive indices for assessing wheat chlorophyll content with the highest coefficient of determination R²=0.93 and 0.90 respectively. The results suggested that use of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for the retrieval of crop chlorophyll content by using ANN model provides accurate, reliable assessment of crop health status at a larger scale which can help in managing crop nutrition requirement in real time.
Effect of Velocity-Slip in Nanoscale Electroosmotic Flows: Molecular and Continuum Transport Perspectives
Electroosmotic (EO) slip flows in nanochannels are investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the results are compared with analytical solution of Poisson-Boltzmann and Stokes (PB-S) equations with slip contribution. The ultimate objective of this study is to show that well-known continuum flow model can accurately predict the EO velocity profiles in nanochannels using the slip lengths and apparent viscosities obtained from force-driven flow simulations performed at various liquid-wall interaction strengths. EO flow of aqueous NaCl solution in silicon nanochannels are simulated under realistic electrochemical conditions within the validity region of Poisson-Boltzmann theory. A physical surface charge density is determined for nanochannels based on dissociations of silanol functional groups on channel surfaces at known salt concentration, temperature and local pH. First, we present results of density profiles and ion distributions by equilibrium MD simulations, ensuring that the desired thermodynamic state and ionic conditions are satisfied. Next, force-driven nanochannel flow simulations are performed to predict the apparent viscosity of ionic solution between charged surfaces and slip lengths. Parabolic velocity profiles obtained from force-driven flow simulations are fitted to a second-order polynomial equation, where viscosity and slip lengths are quantified by comparing the coefficients of the fitted equation with continuum flow model. Presence of charged surface increases the viscosity of ionic solution while the velocity-slip at wall decreases. Afterwards, EO flow simulations are carried out under uniform electric field for different liquid-wall interaction strengths. Velocity profiles present finite slips near walls, followed with a conventional viscous flow profile in the electrical double layer that reaches a bulk flow region in the center of the channel. The EO flow enhances with increased slip at the walls, which depends on wall-liquid interaction strength and the surface charge. MD velocity profiles are compared with the predictions from analytical solutions of the slip modified PB-S equation, where the slip length and apparent viscosity values are obtained from force-driven flow simulations in charged silicon nano-channels. Our MD results show good agreements with the analytical solutions at various slip conditions, verifying the validity of PB-S equation in nanochannels as small as 3.5 nm. In addition, the continuum model normalizes slip length with the Debye length instead of the channel height, which implies that enhancement in EO flows is independent of the channel height. Further MD simulations performed at different channel heights also shows that the flow enhancement due to slip is independent of the channel height. This is important because slip enhanced EO flow is observable even in micro-channels experiments by using a hydrophobic channel with large slip and high conductivity solutions with small Debye length. The present study provides an advanced understanding of EO flows in nanochannels. Correct characterization of nanoscale EO slip flow is crucial to discover the extent of well-known continuum models, which is required for various applications spanning from ion separation to drug delivery and bio-fluidic analysis.
Microfluidic Device for Real-Time Electrical Impedance Measurements of Biological Cells
Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is a noninvasive, label free technique for a long term real-time measurements of the impedance spectra of biological cells. DS enables characterization of cellular dielectric properties such as membrane capacitance and cytoplasmic conductivity. We have developed a lab-on-a-chip device that uses an electro-activated microwells array for loading, DS measurements, and unloading of biological cells. We utilized from dielectrophoresis (DEP) to capture target cells inside the wells and release them after DS measurement. DEP is a label-free technique that exploits differences among dielectric properties of the particles. In detail, DEP is the motion of polarizable particles suspended in an ionic solution and subjected to a spatially non-uniform external electric field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first microfluidic chip that combines DEP and DS to analyze biological cells using electro-activated wells. Device performance is tested using two different cell lines of prostate cancer cells (RV122, PC-3). Impedance measurements were conducted at 0.2 V in the 10 kHz to 40 MHz range with 6 s time resolution. An equivalent circuit model was developed to extract the cell membrane capacitance and cell cytoplasmic conductivity from the impedance spectra. We report the time course of the variations in dielectric properties of PC-3 and RV122 cells suspended in low conductivity medium (LCB), which enhances dielectrophoretic and impedance responses, and their response to sudden pH change from a pH of 7.3 to a pH of 5.8. It is shown that microfluidic chip allowed online measurements of dielectric properties of prostate cancer cells and the assessment of the cellular level variations under external stimuli such as different buffer conductivity and pH. Based on these data, we intend to deploy the current device for single cell measurements by fabricating separately addressable N × N electrode platforms. Such a device will allow time-dependent dielectric response measurements for individual cells with the ability of selectively releasing them using negative-DEP and pressure driven flow.
The Methodology of System Modeling of Mechatronic Systems
Aims of the work: After a presentation of the functionality of an example of a mechatronic system which is a paint mixer system, we present the concepts of modeling and safe operation. This paper briefly discusses how to model and protect the functioning of a mechatronic system relying mainly on functional analysis and safe operation techniques. Methods: For the study of an example of a mechatronic system, we use methods for external functional analysis that illustrate the relationships between a mechatronic system and its external environment. Thus, we present the Safe-Structured Analysis Design Technique method (Safe-SADT) which allows the representation of a mechatronic system. A model of operating safety and automation is proposed. This model enables us to use a functional analysis technique of the mechatronic system based on the GRAFCET (Graphe Fonctionnel de Commande des Etapes et Transitions: Step Transition Function Chart) method; study of the safe operation of the mechatronic system based on the Safe-SADT method; automation of the mechatronic system based on a software tool. Results: The expected results are to propose a model and safe operation of a mechatronic system. This methodology enables us to analyze the relevance of the different models based on Safe-SADT and GRAFCET in relation to the control and monitoring functions and to study the means allowing exploiting their synergy. Conclusion: In order to propose a general model of a mechatronic system, a model of analysis, safety operation and automation of a mechatronic system has been developed. This is how we propose to validate this methodology through a case study of a paint mixer system.
Improvement of the Reliability and the Availability of a Production System
Aims of the work: The aim of this paper is to improve the reliability and the availability of a Packer production line of cigarettes based on two methods: The SADT method (Structured Analysis Design Technique) and the FMECA approach (Failure Mode Effects and Critically Analysis). The first method enables us to describe the functionality of the Packer production line of cigarettes and the second method enables us to establish an FMECA analysis. Methods: The methodology adopted in order to contribute to the improvement of the reliability and the availability of a Packer production line of cigarettes has been proposed in this paper, and it is based on the use of Structured Analysis Design Technique (SADT) and Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) methods. This methodology consists of using a diagnosis of the existing of all of the equipment of a production line of a factory in order to determine the most critical machine. In fact, we use, on the one hand, a functional analysis based on the SADT method of the production line and on the other hand, a diagnosis and classification of mechanical and electrical failures of the line production by their criticality analysis based on the FMECA approach. Results: Based on the methodology adopted in this paper, the results are the creation and the launch of a preventive maintenance plan. They contain the different elements of a Packer production line of cigarettes; the list of the intervention preventive activities and their period of realization. Conclusion: The diagnosis of the existing state helped us to found that the machine of cigarettes used in the Packer production line of cigarettes is the most critical machine in the factory. Then this enables us in the one hand, to describe the functionality of the production line of cigarettes by SADT method and on the other hand, to study the FMECA machine in order to improve the availability and the performance of this machine.
Influence of a Pulsatile Electroosmotic Flow on the Dispersivity of a Non-Reactive Solute through a Microcapillary
The influence of a pulsatile electroosmotic flow (PEOF)
at the rate of spread, or dispersivity, for a non-reactive solute released
in a microcapillary with slippage at the boundary wall (modeled by
the Navier-slip condition) is theoretically analyzed. Based on the flow
velocity field developed under such conditions, the present study
implements an analytical scheme of scaling known as the Theory
of Homogenization, in order to obtain a mathematical expression for
the dispersivity, valid at a large time scale where the initial transients
have vanished and the solute spreads under the Taylor dispersion
influence. Our results show the dispersivity is a function of a slip
coefficient, the amplitude of the imposed electric field, the Debye
length and the angular Reynolds number, highlighting the importance
of the latter as an enhancement/detrimental factor on the dispersivity,
which allows to promote the PEOF as a strong candidate for chemical
species separation at lab-on-a-chip devices.
Oscillatory Electroosmotic Flow of Power-Law Fluids in a Microchannel
The Oscillatory electroosmotic flow (OEOF) in power
law fluids through a microchannel is studied numerically. A
time-dependent external electric field (AC) is suddenly imposed
at the ends of the microchannel which induces the fluid motion.
The continuity and momentum equations in the x and y direction
for the flow field were simplified in the limit of the lubrication
approximation theory (LAT), and then solved using a numerical
scheme. The solution of the electric potential is based on the
Debye-H¨uckel approximation which suggest that the surface potential
is small,say, smaller than 0.025V and for a symmetric (z : z)
electrolyte. Our results suggest that the velocity profiles across
the channel-width are controlled by the following dimensionless
parameters: the angular Reynolds number, Reω, the electrokinetic
parameter, ¯κ, defined as the ratio of the characteristic length scale
to the Debye length, the parameter λ which represents the ratio
of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to the characteristic length
scale and the flow behavior index, n. Also, the results reveal that
the velocity profiles become more and more non-uniform across the
channel-width as the Reω and ¯κ are increased, so oscillatory OEOF
can be really useful in micro-fluidic devices such as micro-mixers.
Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed
In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS)
for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling
method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The
dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum
flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook
(BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas
phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved.
The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the
acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is
tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles
with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.
Numerical and Analytical Approach for Film Condensation on Different Forms of Surfaces
This paper seeks to the solution of condensation around of a flat plate, circular and elliptical tube in way of numerical and analytical methods. Also, it calculates the entropy production rates. The first, problem was solved by using mesh dynamic and rational assumptions, next it was compared with the numerical solution that the result had acceptable errors. An additional supporting relation was applied based on a characteristic of condensation phenomenon for condensing elements. As it has been shown here, due to higher rates of heat transfer for elliptical tubes, they have more entropy production rates, in comparison to circular ones. Findings showed that two methods were efficient. Furthermore, analytical methods can be used to optimize the problem and reduce the entropy production rate.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Flow Properties Fluctuations in Slug-Churn Flow through Pipe Elbow
Prediction of multiphase flow induced forces, void fraction and pressure is crucial at both design and operating stages of practical energy and process pipe systems. In this study, transient numerical simulations of upward slug-churn flow through a vertical 90-degree elbow have been conducted. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to model the two-phase flows while the K-epsilon Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were used to model turbulence in the flows. The simulation results were validated using experimental results. Void fraction signal, peak frequency and maximum magnitude of void fraction fluctuation of the slug-churn flow validation case studies compared well with experimental results. The x and y direction force fluctuation signals at the elbow control volume were obtained by carrying out force balance calculations using the directly extracted time domain signals of flow properties through the control volume in the numerical simulation. The computed force signal compared well with experiment for the slug and churn flow validation case studies. Hence, the present numerical simulation technique was able to predict the behaviours of the one-way flow induced forces and void fraction fluctuations.