Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer and Scale Growth Characteristics of Crystallisation Scale in Agitation Tank
Crystallisation scale occurs when dissolved minerals precipitate from an aqueous solution. To investigate the crystallisation scale growth of normal solubility salt, a lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark using potassium nitrate as the test fluid. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) solution in this test leads to crystallisation scale on heat transfer surfaces. This experimental investigation has focused on the effect of surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate on the low-temperature heat exchange surfaces on the wall of the agitation tank. The impeller agitation rate affects the scaling rate at the low-temperature agitation wall and it shows a decreasing scaling rate with an increasing agitation rate. It was observed that there was a significant variation of heat transfer coefficients and scaling resistance coefficients with different agitation rate as well as with varying impeller size, tank with and without baffles and solution concentration.
Experimental Investigation of Fluid Dynamic Effects on Crystallisation Scale Growth and Suppression in Agitation Tank
Mineral scale formation is undoubtedly a more serious problem in the mineral industry than other process industries. To better understand scale growth and suppression, an experimental model is proposed in this study for supersaturated crystallised solutions commonly found in mineral process plants. In this experiment, surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate (KNO3) on the wall of the agitation tank and agitation effects on the scale growth and suppression are studied. The new quantitative scale suppression model predicts that at lower agitation speed, the scale growth rate is enhanced and at higher agitation speed, the scale suppression rate increases due to the increased flow erosion effect. A lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark in this study. The fluid dynamic effects on scale growth and suppression in the agitation tank with three different size impellers (diameter 86, 114, 160 mm and model A310 with flow number 0.56) at various ranges of rotational speed (up to 700 rpm) and solution with different concentration (4.5, 4.75 and 5.25 mol/dm3) were investigated. For more elucidation, the effects of the different size of the impeller on wall surface scale growth and suppression rate as well as bottom settled scale accumulation rate are also discussed. Emphasis was placed on applications in the mineral industry, although results are also relevant to other industrial applications.
Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys
Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.
Effect of the Cross-Sectional Geometry on Heat Transfer and Particle Motion of Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser for CO₂ Capture
Effect of the cross-sectional geometry on heat transfer and particle motion of circulating fluidized bed riser for CO₂ capture was investigated. Numerical simulation using Eulerian-eulerian method with kinetic theory of granular flow was adopted to analyze gas-solid flow consisting in circulating fluidized bed riser. Circular, square, and rectangular cross-sectional geometry cases of the same area were carried out. Rectangular cross-sectional geometries were analyzed as having aspect ratios of 1: 2, 1: 4, 1: 8, and 1:16. The cross-sectional geometry significantly influenced the particle motion and heat transfer. The downward flow pattern of solid particles near the wall was changed. The gas-solid mixing degree of the riser with the rectangular cross-section of the high aspect ratio was the lowest. There were the differences in bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient according to rectangular geometry with different aspect ratios.
Thermal-Fluid Characteristics of Heating Element in Rotary Heat Exchanger in Accordance with Fouling Phenomena
To decrease sulfur oxide in flue gas of the coal power plant, a flue gas de-sulfurization facility is operated. In the reactor, chemical reaction is occurred with temperature change of the gas so that sulfur oxide is removed and cleaned air is emitted. In this process, temperature change induces a serious problem which is cold erosion of stack. To solve this problem, rotary heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, heating element is equipped to increase a heat transfer area. Heat transfer and pressure loss is a big issue to improve a performance. In this research, thermal-fluid characteristics of heating element is analyzed by computational fluid dynamics. Fouling simulation is also conducted to calculate a performance of heating element. Angle of plate in heating element is varied from 30 to 60 degrees. Increase of angle makes a lower pressure drop so that a performance of heating element is improved. Thickness of heating element increases pressure drop due to narrow channel cross section.
Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel
The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib, and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one-fourth and three-fourth of the channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because, the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.
Comparison of the Material Response Based on Production Technologies of Metal Foams
Lightweight cellular-type structures like metal foams have excellent mechanical properties, therefore the interest in these materials is widely spreading as load-bearing structural elements, e.g. as implants. Numerous technologies are available to produce metal foams. In this paper the material response of closed cell foam structures produced by direct foaming and additive technology is compared. The production technology circumstances are also investigated. Geometrical variations are developed for foam structures produced by additive manufacturing and simulated by finite element method to be able to predict the mechanical behavior.
Approach on Conceptual Design and Dimensional Synthesis of the Linear Delta Robot for Additive Manufacturing
In recent years, robots manipulators with parallel architectures are used in additive manufacturing processes – 3D printing. These robots have advantages such as speed and lightness that make them suitable to help with the efficiency and productivity of these processes. Consequently, the interest for the development of parallel robots for additive manufacturing applications has increased. This article deals with the conceptual design and dimensional synthesis of the linear delta robot for additive manufacturing. Firstly, a methodology based on structured processes for the development of products through the phases of informational design, conceptual design and detailed design is adopted: a) In the informational design phase the Mudge diagram and the QFD matrix are used to aid a set of technical requirements, to define the form, functions and features of the robot. b) In the conceptual design phase, the functional modeling of the system through of an IDEF0 diagram is performed, and the solution principles for the requirements are formulated using a morphological matrix. This phase includes the description of the mechanical, electro-electronic and computational subsystems that constitute the general architecture of the robot. c) In the detailed design phase, a digital model of the robot is drawn on CAD software. A list of commercial and manufactured parts is detailed. Tolerances and adjustments are defined for some parts of the robot structure. The necessary manufacturing processes and tools are also listed, including: milling, turning and 3D printing. Secondly, a dimensional synthesis method applied on design of the linear delta robot is presented. One of the most important key factors in the design of a parallel robot is the useful workspace, which strongly depends on the joint space, the dimensions of the mechanism bodies and the possible interferences between these bodies. The objective function is based on the verification of the kinematic model for a prescribed cylindrical workspace, considering geometric constraints that possibly lead to singularities of the mechanism. The aim is to determine the minimum dimensional parameters of the mechanism bodies for the proposed workspace. A method based on genetic algorithms was used to solve this problem. The method uses a cloud of points with the cylindrical shape of the workspace and checks the kinematic model for each of the points within the cloud. The evolution of the population (point cloud) provides the optimal parameters for the design of the delta robot. The development process of the linear delta robot with optimal dimensions for additive manufacture is presented. The dimensional synthesis enabled to design the mechanism of the delta robot in function of the prescribed workspace. Finally, the implementation of the robotic platform developed based on a linear delta robot in an additive manufacturing application using the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technique is presented.
Stainless Steel Swarfs for Replacement of Copper in Non-Asbestos Organic Brake-Pads
Nowadays extensive research is going on in the field of friction materials (FMs) for development of eco-friendly brake-materials by removing copper as it is a proven threat to the aquatic organisms. Researchers are keen to find the solution for copper-free FMs by using different metals or without metals. Steel wool is used as a reinforcement in non-asbestos organic (NAO) FMs mainly for increasing thermal conductivity, and it affects wear adversely, most of the times and also adds friction fluctuations. Copper and brass used to be the preferred choices because of superior performance in almost every aspect except cost. Since these are being phased out because of a proven threat to the aquatic life. Keeping this in view, a series of realistic multi-ingredient FMs containing stainless steel (SS) swarfs as a theme ingredient in increasing amount (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt. %- S₅, S₁₀, and S₁₅) were developed in the form of brake-pads. One more composite containing copper instead of SS swarfs (C₁₀) was developed. These composites were characterized for physical, mechanical, chemical and tribological performance. Composites were tribo-evaluated on a chase machine with various test loops as per SAE J661 standards. Various performance parameters such as normal µ, hot µ, performance µ, fade µ, recovery µ, % fade, % recovery, wear resistance, etc. were used to evaluate the role of amount of SS swarfs in FMs. It was concluded that SS swarfs proved successful in Cu replacement almost in all respects except wear resistance. With increase in amount of SS swarfs, most of the properties improved. Worn surface analysis and wear mechanism were studied using SEM and EDAX techniques.
Smart Side View Mirror Camera for Real Time System
In the last decade, automotive companies have invested a lot in terms of innovation about many aspects regarding the automatic driver assistance systems. One innovation regards the usage of a smart camera placed on the car’s side mirror for monitoring the back and lateral road situation. A common road scenario is the overtaking of the preceding car and, in this case, a brief distraction or a loss of concentration can lead the driver to undertake this action, even if there is an already overtaking vehicle, leading to serious accidents. A valid support for a secure drive can be a smart camera system, able to automatically analyze the road scenario and consequentially warning the driver when another vehicle is overtaking. This paper describes a method for monitoring the side view of a vehicle by using camera optical flow motion vectors. The proposed solution detects the presence of incoming vehicles, assesses their distance from the host car and warns the driver through different levels of alert according to the estimated distance. Due to the low complexity and computational cost, the proposed system ensures real time performances.
Capillary Microvalve Actuation Using Thermal Expansion of Trapped Bubble
The success of a truly miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip system depends largely on the effectiveness of its fluidic control. For this, on-chip microvalves play an important role. An ingenious way to control capillary-driven fluid transport in a microfluidic chip is by taking advantage of specially designed microstructures called capillary stop valves. If the cross section of a microchannel expands abruptly, the liquid-vapor interface becomes pinned to the sharp edge of the valve and moves no further. In order to for the liquid to wet the side walls of the valve structure, an excess pressure (referred to as a capillary pressure barrier) must be supplied to the liquid. Several methods have been proposed to overcome this barrier such as electrostatic actuation, centrifugal force or using a second capillary-driven fluid stream to make physical contact with the stationary meniscus. Here, we present a mechanism for thermal actuation of a capillary microvalve. Liquid advances from the inlet reservoir through a fluidic resistor and past a T-junction connecting a microchamber to the channel. An air bubble is trapped in the microchamber. The liquid continues to advance past the T-junction and rises up the vertical section of channel where it stops at the valve. An integrated microheater is used to increase the pressure inside the trapped air bubble to overcome the capillary pressure barrier. The microfluidic structures are fabricated by deep reactive ion etching on a 200 mm silicon wafer. The microchannel (100 μm wide by 250 μm deep) is connected to a microchamber (1 mm by 1mm by 250 μm deep) through a T-junction. The fluidic resistor consists of a 5 μm wide serpentine channel. The purpose of the fluidic resistor is to suppress back flow during the thermal expansion of the bubble trapped in the microchamber. The microfluidic structures in the silicon wafer are sealed by a borosilicate glass wafer (500 μm thick) using anodic bonding. After bonding, the backside of the silicon wafer is ground to a thickness of 400 μm. On the backside of the silicon microchamber, aluminum is deposited and etched into a serpentine heater with a resistance of 40 Ω. Thereafter, a fluid inlet (1 mm dia.) and vertical stop valve (50 μm dia.) are constructed by etching the non-bonded side of silicon chip until the underlying sealed fluidic channel is exposed and accessible. Silicon is also etched around the microchamber to provide thermal isolation. We have verified the functionality of our design by breaching the capillary pressure barrier created by the 50 μm diameter capillary stop valve with a 4 V square pulse with a pulse duration of 0.184 s supplied to the heater. Thus, the present method can be effectively used to actuate a pinned liquid-vapor interface at a capillary stop valve and is particularly relevant in those applications where metal layers are already implemented for sensor connection or for microreactor heating.
Dynamic Response of Magnetorheological Fluid Tapered Laminated Beams Reinforced with Nano-Particles
Non-uniform laminated composite structures are being used in many engineering applications where the structures are subjected to unpredicted vibration. To mitigate the vibration response of these structures, recently, magnetorheological fluid (MR), is added to non-uniform (tapered) thickness laminated composite structures to achieve a new generation of the smart composite as MR tapered beam. However, due to the nature of MR fluid, especially the low stiffness, MR tapered beam exhibit lower stiffness and in turn, lower natural frequencies. To achieve the basic design requirements of the structure without MR fluid, one may need to apply a predefined magnetic energy to the structures, requiring a constant source of energy. In the present work, a passive initial stiffness control of MR tapered beam has been studied. The effects of adding nanoparticles on the dynamic response of MR tapered beam has been investigated. It is observed that adding nanoparticles up to 3% may significantly modify the natural frequencies of the structures and achieve dynamic behavior of the structures before addition of MR fluid. Two Models of tapered structures have been taken into consideration. It is observed that adding only 3% of nanoparticles backs the structures to its initial dynamic behavior.
Effect of Assumptions of Normal Shock Location on the Design of Supersonic Ejectors for Refrigeration
The complex oblique shock phenomenon can be simply assumed as a normal shock at the constant area section to simulate a sharp pressure increase and velocity decrease in 1-D thermodynamic models. The assumed normal shock location is one of the greatest sources of error in ejector thermodynamic models. Most researchers consider an arbitrary location without justifying it. Our study compares the effect of normal shock place on ejector dimensions in 1-D models. To this aim, two different ejector experimental test benches, a constant area-mixing ejector (CAM) and a constant pressure-mixing (CPM) are considered, with different known geometries, operating conditions and working fluids (R245fa, R141b). In the first step, in order to evaluate the real value of the efficiencies in the different ejector parts and critical back pressure, a CFD model was built and validated by experimental data for two types of ejectors. These reference data are then used as input to the 1D model to calculate the lengths and the diameters of the ejectors. Afterwards, the design output geometry calculated by the 1D model is compared directly with the corresponding experimental geometry. It was found that there is a good agreement between the ejector dimensions obtained by the 1D model, for both CAM and CPM, with experimental ejector data. Furthermore, it is shown that normal shock place affects only the constant area length as it is proven that the inlet normal shock assumption results in more accurate length. Taking into account previous 1D models, the results suggest the use of the assumed normal shock location at the inlet of the constant area duct to design the supersonic ejectors.
Optical Flow Based System for Cross Traffic Alert
This document describes an advanced system and methodology for Cross Traffic Alert (CTA), able to detect vehicles that move into the vehicle driving path from the left or right side. The camera is supposed to be not only on a vehicle still, e.g., at a traffic light or at an intersection, but also moving slowly, e.g., in a car park. In all of the aforementioned conditions, a driver short loss of concentration or distraction can easily lead to a serious accident. A valid support to avoid these kinds of car crashes is represented by the proposed system. It is an extension of our previous work, related to a clustering system, which only works on fixed cameras. Just a vanish point calculation and simple optical flow filtering, to eliminate motion vectors due to the car relative movement, is performed to let the system to achieve high performances with different scenarios, cameras, and resolutions. The proposed system just uses as input the optical flow, which is hardware implemented in the proposed platform and since the elaboration of the whole system is really speed and power consumption, it is inserted directly in the camera framework, allowing to execute all the processing in real-time.
Failure Analysis and Fatigue Life Estimation of a Shaft of a Rotary Draw Bending Machine
Human consumption of the Earth's resources increases the need for a sustainable development as an important ecological, social, and economic theme. Re-engineering of machine tools, in terms of design and failure analysis, is defined as steps performed on an obsolete machine to return it to a new machine with the warranty that matches the customer requirement. To understand the future fatigue behavior of the used machine components, it is important to investigate the possible causes of machine parts failure through design, surface, and material inspections. In this study, the failure modes of the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine are inspected. Furthermore, stress and deflection analysis of the shaft subjected to combined torsion and bending loads are carried out by an analytical method and compared with a finite element analysis method. The theoretical fatigue strength, correction factors, and fatigue life sustained by the shaft before damaged are estimated by creating a stress-cycle (S-N) diagram. In conclusion, it is seen that the shaft can work in the second life, but it needs some surface treatments to increase the reliability and fatigue life.
Effect of Non-Newtonian Behaviour of Oil Phase on Oil-Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Channel
The present work focuses on the investigation of the effect of non-Newtonian behavior, on the oil-water stratified flow in a horizontal channel using ANSYS Fluent. Coupled level set and volume of fluid (CLSVOF) has been used to capture the evolving interface assuming unsteady, coaxial flow with constant fluid properties. The diametric variation of oil volume fraction, mixture velocity, total pressure and pressure gradient has been studied. Non-Newtonian behavior of oil has been represented by the power law model in order to investigate the effect of flow behavior index. Stratified flow pattern tends to assume dispersed flow pattern with the change in the behavior of oil to non-Newtonian. The pressure gradient is found to be very much sensitive to the flow behavior index. The findings could be useful in designing the transportation pipe line in petroleum industries.
Robots for the Elderly at Home: For Men Only
Our research focuses on the question of whether assistive and social robotics could pose a promising strategy to support the independent living of elderly people and potentially relieve relatives of any anxieties. To answer the question of how elderly people perceive the potential of robotics, we analysed the data from the Berlin Aging Study BASE-II (https://www.base2.mpg.de/de) (N=1463) and data from the German SYMPARTNER study (http://www.sympartner.de) (N=120) and compared those to a control group made up of people younger than 30 years (BASE II: N=241; SYMPARTNER: N=30). BASE-II is a cohort study of people living in Berlin, Germany. The sample covers more than 2200 cases; a questionnaire on the use and acceptance of assistive and social robots was carried out with a sub-sample of 1463 respondents in 2015. The SYMPARTNER study was done by SIBIS institute of Social Research, Berlin and included a total of 120 persons between the ages of 60 and 87 in Berlin and the rural German federal state of Thuringia. Both studies included a control group of persons between the ages of 20 and 35 (BASE II: N=241; SYMPARTNER: N=30). Additional data, representative for the whole population in Germany, will be surveyed in fall 2017 (Survey “Technikradar” [technology radar] by the National Academy of Science and Engineering). Since this survey is including some identical questions as BASE-II/SYMPARTNER, comparative results can be presented at 20th International Conference on Social Robotics in New York 2018. The complexity of the data gathered in BASE-II and SYMPARTNER, encompassing detailed socio-economic background characteristics as well as personality traits such as the personal attitude to risk taking, locus of control and Big Five, proves highly valuable and beneficial. Results show that participants’ expressions of resentment against robots are comparatively low. Participants’ personality traits play a role, however the effect sizes are small. Only 15 percent of participants received domestic robots with great scepticism. Participants aged older than 70 years expressed greatest rejection of the robotic assistant. The effect sizes however account for only a few percentage points. Overall, participants were surprisingly open to the robot and its usefulness. The analysis also shows that men’s acceptance of the robot is generally greater than that of women (with odds ratios of about 0.6 to 0.7). This applies to both assistive robots in the private household and in care environments. Men expect greater benefits of the robot than women. Women tend to be more sceptical of their technical feasibility than men. Interview results prove our hypothesis that men, in particular of the age group 60+, are more accustomed to delegate household chores to women. A delegation to machines instead of humans, therefore, seems palpable. The answer to the title question of this planned presentation is: social and assistive robots at home robots are not only accepted by men – but by fewer women than men.
Energy Reclamation in Micro Cavitating Flow
Cavitation phenomenon has attracted much attention in the mechanical and biomedical technologies. Despite the simplicity and mostly low cost of the devices generating cavitation bubbles, the physics behind the generation and collapse of these bubbles particularly in micro/nano scale has still not well understood. In the chemical industry, micro/nano bubble generation is expected to be applicable to the development of porous materials such as microcellular plastic foams. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the presence of micro/nano bubbles on a surface reduced the adsorption of proteins. Thus, the micro/nano bubbles could act as antifouling agents. Micro and nano bubbles were also employed in water purification, froth floatation, even in sonofusion, which was not completely validated. Small bubbles could also be generated using micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation. In this study, compared to the studies available in the literature, we are proposing a novel approach in micro scale utilizing the energy produced during the interaction of the spray affected by the hydrodynamic cavitating flow and a thin aluminum plate. With a decrease in the size, cavitation effects become significant. It is clearly shown that with the aid of hydrodynamic cavitation generated inside the micro/mini-channels in addition to the optimization of the distance between the tip of the microchannel configuration and the solid surface, surface temperatures can be increased up to 50C under the conditions of this study. The temperature rise on the surfaces near the collapsing small bubbles was exploited for energy harvesting in small scale, in such a way that miniature, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly energy-harvesting devices can be developed. Such devices will not require any external power and moving parts in contrast to common energy-harvesting devices, such as those involving piezoelectric materials and micro engine. Energy harvesting from thermal energy has been widely exploited to achieve energy savings and clean technologies. We are proposing a cost effective and environmentally friendly solution for the growing individual energy needs thanks to the energy application of cavitating flows. The necessary power for consumer devices, such as cell phones and laptops, can be provided using this approach. Thus, this approach has the potential for solving personal energy needs in an inexpensive and environmentally friendly manner and can trigger a shift of paradigm in energy harvesting.
Stability Analysis and Experimental Evaluation on Maxwell Model of Impedance Control
Normally, impedance control methods are based on a model that connects a spring and damper in parallel. The series connection, namely the Maxwell model, has emerged as a counterpart and draw the attention of robotics researchers. In the theoretical analysis, it turns out that the two pattern are both equivalents to some extent, but notable differences of response characteristics exist, especially in the effect of damping viscosity. However, this novel impedance control design is lack of validation on realistic robot platforms. In this study, stability analysis and experimental evaluation are achieved using a 3-fingered Barrett® robotic hand BH8-282 endowed with tactile sensing, mounted on a torque-controlled lightweight and collaborative robot KUKA® LBR iiwa 14 R820. Object handover and incoming objects catching tasks are executed for validation and analysis. Experimental results show that the series connection pattern has much better performance in natural impact or shock absorption, which indicate promising applications in robots’ safe and physical interaction with humans and objects in various environments.
Vibration Response of Soundboards of Classical Guitars
Research is focused on the response of soundboards of Classical guitars at frequencies up to 5 kHz as the soundboard is a major contributor to acoustic radiation at high frequencies when compared to the bridge and sound hole. A thin rectangular plate of variable thickness that is simply-supported on all sides is used as an analytical model of the research. This model is used to study the response of the guitar soundboard as the latter can be considered as a modified form of a rectangular plate. Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is selected as a mathematical method to obtain an analytical solution of the 4th-order parabolic partial differential equation of motion of the rectangular plate of constant thickness viewed as a linear problem. This procedure is generalized to the nonlinear problem of the rectangular plate with variable thickness and an analytical solution can also be obtained. Sound power is used as a parameter to investigate the acoustic radiation of soundboards made from spruce using various bracing patterns. The sound power of soundboards made from Malaysian softwood such as damar minyak, sempilor or podo are investigated to determine the viability of replacing spruce as future materials for soundboards of Classical guitars.
Design Optimization of Miniature Mechanical Drive Systems Using Tolerance Analysis Approach
Geometrical deviations and interaction of mechanical parts influences the performance of miniature systems.These deviations tend to cause costly problems during assembly due to imperfections of components, which are invisible to a naked eye.They also tend to cause unsatisfactory performance during operation due to deformation cause by environmental conditions.One of the effective tools to manage the deviations and interaction of parts in the system is tolerance analysis.This is a quantitative tool for predicting the tolerance variations which are defined during the design process.Traditional tolerance analysis assumes that the assembly is static and the deviations come from the manufacturing discrepancies, overlooking the functionality of the whole system and deformation of parts due to effect of environmental conditions. This paper presents an integrated tolerance analysis approach for miniature system in operation.In this approach, a computer-aided design (CAD) model is developed from system’s specification.The CAD model is then used to specify the geometrical and dimensional tolerance limits (upper and lower limits) that vary component’s geometries and sizes while conforming to functional requirements.Worst-case tolerances are analyzed to determine the influenced of dimensional changes due to effects of operating temperatures.The method is used to evaluate the nominal conditions, and worse case conditions in maximum and minimum dimensions of assembled components.These three conditions will be evaluated under specific operating temperatures (-40°C,-18°C, 4°C, 26°C, 48°C, and 70°C). A case study on the mechanism of a zoom lens system is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology.
CyberSteer: Cyber-Human Approach for Safely Shaping Autonomous Robotic Behavior to Comply with Human Intention
Modern approaches to train intelligent agents rely on prolonged training sessions, high amounts of input data, and multiple interactions with the environment. This restricts the application of these learning algorithms in robotics and real-world applications, in which there is low tolerance to inadequate actions, interactions are expensive, and real-time processing and action are required. This paper addresses this issue introducing CyberSteer, a novel approach to efficiently design intrinsic reward functions based on human intention to guide deep reinforcement learning agents with no environment-dependent rewards. CyberSteer uses non-expert human operators for initial demonstration of a given task or desired behavior. The trajectories collected are used to train a behavior cloning deep neural network that asynchronously runs in the background and suggests actions to the deep reinforcement learning module. An intrinsic reward is computed based on the similarity between actions suggested and taken by the deep reinforcement learning algorithm commanding the agent. This intrinsic reward can also be reshaped through additional human demonstration or critique. This approach removes the need for environment-dependent or hand-engineered rewards while still being able to safely shape the behavior of autonomous robotic agents, in this case, based on human intention. CyberSteer is tested in a high-fidelity unmanned aerial vehicle simulation environment, the Microsoft AirSim. The simulated aerial robot performs collision avoidance through a clustered forest environment using forward-looking depth sensing and roll, pitch, and yaw references angle commands to the flight controller. This approach shows that the behavior of robotic systems can be shaped in a reduced amount of time when guided by a non-expert human, who is only aware of the high-level goals of the task. Decreasing the amount of training time required and increasing safety during training maneuvers will allow for faster deployment of intelligent robotic agents in dynamic real-world applications.
Short and Long Crack Growth Behavior in Ferrite Bainite Dual Phase Steels
There is growing awareness to design steels against fatigue damage Ferrite martensite dual-phase steels are known to exhibit favourable mechanical properties like good strength, ductility, toughness, continuous yielding, and high work hardening rate. However, dual-phase steels containing bainite as second phase are potential alternatives for ferrite martensite steels for certain applications where good fatigue property is required. Fatigue properties of dual phase steels are popularly assessed by the nature of variation of crack growth rate (da/dN) with stress intensity factor range (∆K), and the magnitude of fatigue threshold (∆Kth) for long cracks. There exists an increased emphasis to understand not only the long crack fatigue behavior but also short crack growth behavior of ferrite bainite dual phase steels. The major objective of this report is to examine the influence of microstructures on the short and long crack growth behavior of a series of developed dual-phase steels with varying amounts of bainite and. Three low carbon steels containing Nb, Cr and Mo as microalloying elements steels were selected for making ferrite-bainite dual-phase microstructures by suitable heat treatments. The heat treatment consisted of austenitizing the steel at 1100°C for 20 min, cooling at different rates in air prior to soaking these in a salt bath at 500°C for one hour, and finally quenching in water. Tensile tests were carried out on 25 mm gauge length specimens with 5 mm diameter using nominal strain rate 0.6x10⁻³ s⁻¹ at room temperature. Fatigue crack growth studies were made on a recently developed specimen configuration using a rotating bending machine. The crack growth was monitored by interrupting the test and observing the specimens under an optical microscope connected to an Image analyzer. The estimated crack lengths (a) at varying number of cycles (N) in different fatigue experiments were analyzed to obtain log da/dN vs. log °∆K curves for determining ∆Kthsc. The microstructural features of these steels have been characterized and their influence on the near threshold crack growth has been examined. This investigation, in brief, involves (i) the estimation of ∆Kthsc and (ii) the examination of the influence of microstructure on short and long crack fatigue threshold. The maximum fatigue threshold values obtained from short crack growth experiments on various specimens of dual-phase steels containing different amounts of bainite are found to increase with increasing bainite content in all the investigated steels. The variations of fatigue behavior of the selected steel samples have been explained with the consideration of varying amounts of the constituent phases and their interactions with the generated microstructures during cyclic loading. Quantitative estimation of the different types of fatigue crack paths indicates that the propensity of a crack to pass through the interfaces depends on the relative amount of the microstructural constituents. The fatigue crack path is found to be predominantly intra-granular except for the ones containing > 70% bainite in which it is predominantly inter-granular.
Design and Fabrication of a Smart Quadruped Robot
Over the decade robotics has been a major area of interest among the researchers and scientists in reducing human efforts. The need for robots to replace human work in different dangerous fields such as underground mining, nuclear power station and war against terrorist attack has gained huge attention. Most of the robot design is based on human structure popularly known as humanoid robots. However, the problems encountered in humanoid robots includes low speed of movement, misbalancing in structure, poor load carrying capacity, etc. The simplification and adaptation of the fundamental design principles seen in animals have led to the creation of bio-inspired robots. But the major challenges observed in naturally inspired robot include complexity in structure, several degrees of freedom and energy storage problem. The present work focuses on design and fabrication of a bionic quadruped walking robot which is based on different joint of quadruped mammals like a dog, cheetah, etc. The design focuses on the structure of the robot body which consists of four legs having three degrees of freedom per leg and the electronics system involved in it. The robot is built using readily available plastics and metals. The proposed robot is simple in construction and is able to move through uneven terrain, detect and locate obstacles and take images while carrying additional loads which may include hardware and sensors. The robot will find possible application in the artificial intelligence sector.
Effect of Realistic Lubricant Properties on Thermal Electrohydrodynamic Lubrication Behavior in Circular Contacts
A great deal of efforts has been done in the field of thermal effects in electrohydrodynamic lubrication (TEHL) during the last five decades. The focus was primarily on the development of an efficient numerical scheme to deal with the computational challenges involved in the solution of TEHL model; however, some important aspects related to the accurate description of lubricant properties such as viscosity, rheology and thermal conductivity in EHL point contact analysis remain largely neglected. A few studies available in this regard are based upon highly complex mathematical models difficult to formulate and execute. Using a simplified thermal EHL model for point contacts, this work sheds some light on the importance of accurate characterization of the lubricant properties and demonstrates that the computed TEHL characteristics are highly sensitive to lubricant properties. It also emphasizes the use of appropriate mathematical models with experimentally determined parameters to account for correct lubricant behaviour.
Study of a Louver Structure and Nanofluid for Enhancing Heat Transfer in Microchannels with Lattice Boltzmann Method
Numerical studies of laminar forced convective heat transfer and fluid flow in a 2D louvered microchannel with /water nanofluids are performed by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Eight louvers are arranged in tandem within the single pass microchannel. The Reynolds number based on channel hydraulic diameter and bulk mean velocity ranges from 100 to 400 where the Al₂O₃ fraction varies from 0 to 4%. A double distribution function approach is adopted for modeling fluid flow and heat transfer. Code validations are performed by comparing the streamwise Nusselt number (Nᵤ) profiles of the present LBM and those of the analytical solution. Good agreements are obtained. Simulated results show that the louver microstructure can disturb the core flow and guide coolant towards the heated walls, thus enhancing the heat transfer significantly. Furthermore, the addition of nanoparticles in microchannels can also augment the heat transfer, but it creates an unnoticeable pressure loss. With both the louver microstructure and nanofluid, a maximum overall Nu enhancement of 4.6 is found relative to that of the fully developed smooth channel.
Formulation of Optimal Shifting Sequence for Multi-Speed Automatic Transmission
The most important component in an automotive transmission system is the gearbox which controls the speed of the vehicle. In an automatic transmission, the right positioning of actuators ensures efficient transmission mechanism embodiment, wherein the challenge lies in formulating the number of actuators associated with modelling a gearbox. Data with respect to actuation and gear shifting sequence has been retrieved from the available literature, including patent documents, and has been used in this proposed heuristics based methodology for modelling actuation sequence in a gear box. This paper presents a methodological approach in designing a gearbox for the purpose of obtaining an optimal shifting sequence. The computational model considers factors namely, the number of stages and gear teeth as input parameters since these two are the determinants of the gear ratios in an epicyclic gear train. The proposed transmission schematic or stick diagram aids in developing the gearbox layout design. The number of iterations and development time required to design a gearbox layout is reduced by using this approach.
Controlling the Power Output, Combustion Phasing and Emissions in an Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine
In the present study, a physic based control model together with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is developed to predict the main effective HCCI engine parameters such as combustion phasing, power output and emissions. The results of proposed model are validated for both steady state and transient cases with the experimental data. A Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) controller is then designed to track these parameters. The main output parameter, which is requested load or Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) is well controlled based on optimal crank angle at which 50% of in cylinder fuel mass is burned (CA50) predicted by ANN model. The optimal CA50 is selected based on minimizing the emissions using a multi-zone kinetic model. The developed controller performance has been tested thoroughly to evaluate the tracking and disturbance rejection capabilities.
Design and Modeling of Human Middle Ear for Harmonic Response Analysis
The human middle ear (ME) is a delicate and vital organ. It has a complex structure that performs various functions such as receiving sound pressure and producing vibrations of eardrum and propagating it to inner ear. It consists of tympanic membrane (TM), three auditory ossicles, various ligament structures and muscles. Incidents such as traumata, infections, ossification of ossicular structures and other pathologies may damage the ME organs. The conditions can be surgically treated by employing prosthesis. However, the suitability of the prosthesis needs to be examined in advance prior to the surgery. A few decades ago, this issue was addressed and analyzed by developing an equivalent representation either in the form of spring mass system, electrical system using R-L-C circuit or developing an approximated CAD model. But, nowadays a three dimensional ME model can be constructed using micro X-Ray Computed Tomography (μCT) scan data. Moreover, the concern about patient specific integrity pertaining to the disease can be examined well in advance. The current research work emphasizes to develop the ME model from the stacks of (μCT) images which are used as input file to MIMICS Research 19.0 (Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System) software. A stack of CT images is converted into geometrical surface model to build accurate morphology of ME. The work is further extended to understand the dynamic behaviour of Harmonic response of the stapes footplate and umbo for different sound pressure levels applied at lateral side of eardrum using finite element approach. The pathological condition Cholesteatoma of ME is investigated to obtain peak to peak displacement of stapes footplate and umbo. Apart from this condition, other pathologies, mainly, changes in the stiffness of stapedial ligament, tympanic membrane (TM) thickness and ossicular chain separation and fixation are also explored. The developed model of ME for pathologies is validated by comparing the results available in the literature and also with the results of a normal ME to calculate the percentage loss in hearing capability.
Complex Rheological Approach to Characterize and Predict the Protein Behavior in Highly Concentrated Solutions
Uncontrollable protein aggregation and denaturation are considered as a bottleneck in the biopharmaceutical process development. The main reason for this is that the biopharmaceutical molecule has to withstand different fluid phase transitions during processing, while the final formulation has to ensure the long term stability of the product. Aggravating this situation highly concentrated dosage forms are of increasing interest. To study their formulation stability, additional to measurable long range protein-protein interactions, short range interactions and the formation of complex network structures have to be taken into account. One promising method to characterize these complex fluids is to study their rheological behavior. Advantages of applied high frequency rheological measurements are, that they provide information on solution inner structure as well as implicit flow characteristics for ideal dilute and highly concentrated protein solutions. We rheologically characterized model proteins of different sizes, pharmaceutical relevant monoclonal antibodies as well as fusioned proteins in varying solution conditions. To correlate the calculated rheological key parameters with protein long term stability, an automated high throughput method for the preparation of protein phase diagrams was established. In the proposed talk, we intend to demonstrate that the sensitivity of high frequency rheological measurements allows reliable statements about the impact of protein concentration, ionic strength and pH shift on the aggregation propensity of all studied molecules. Furthermore, the screening strongly indicates that the viscoelastic characteristics of protein solutions directly correlate with their long term phase behavior. Hence, these investigations are a further step towards the predictability of stable and save formulations.