Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 56058

Medical and Health Sciences

Nursing and Allied Health Perception of Desirable Junior Doctor Attributes for Effective Collaboration and Teamwork
The ability of a junior doctor to deliver complex multi-disciplinary care to patients in a paradigm of respect and collaboration requires a multitude of interpersonal skills and competencies. A short survey was used to explore the perspective of allied health staff on the desirable attributes of a junior doctor which are conducive to good teamwork. 23 allied health professionals (14 nurses, 4 physiotherapists, 2 dietitians, 1 occupational therapist, 1 speech therapist and 1 audiologist) responded to this 17-item survey. There were 17 females. The mean age of the respondents was 34.9 ± 10.1 years. The salient findings of our survey are that 95% of our respondents rated friendliness and non-clinical small talk with average importance or greater. 45% of them viewed these 2 items as very important or absolutely essential. A single respondent viewed these 2 items with little importance. The other criteria which were rated with high levels of importance were the acknowledgment of allied health suggestions and good ward organizational skills. Training these collaborative skills is challenging, and an enhanced understanding of interprofessional perspectives will help a junior doctor to achieve better clinical outcomes. It is hoped that this paper will further stimulate discussion in this area and will encourage junior doctors to engage in non-clinical conversations with allied health staff in the spirit of promoting effective teamwork.
Molecular Detection of Viruses Causing Hemorrhagic Fevers in Rodents in the South-West of Korea
Background: Many pathogens causing hemorrhagic fevers of medical and veterinary importance have been identified and isolated from rodents in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Objective: We investigated the prevalence of emerging viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and flaviviruses, from wild rodents. Methods: Striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius, (n=39) were captured during 2014-2015 in the south-west of ROK. Using molecular methods, lung samples were evaluated for SFTS virus, HFRS virus and flavivirus, and seropositivity was evaluated in the blood. Results: A high positive rate of Hantavirus (46.2%) was detected in A.agrarius lungs by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-N-PCR). The monthly prevalence of HFRS virus was 16.7% in October, 86.7% in November and 25% in August of the following year (p < 0.001). Moreover, 17.9% of blood samples were serologically positive for Hantavirus antibodies. The most prevalent strain in A. agrarius was Hantaan virus. All samples were positive for neither SFTS nor flavivirus. Conclusion: Hantan virus was detected in 86.7% of A. agrarius in November (autumn), and thus, virus shedding from A. agrarius can increase the risk of humans contracting HFRS. These findings may help to predict and prevent disease outbreaks in ROK.
Molecular Detection of Helicobacter Pylori and Its Association with TNFα-308 Polymorphism in Cardiovascular Diseases
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important cause of death in industrialized and developing countries such as Iran. The most important risk factors for the CVD, genetic factors and chronic infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori, can be mentioned. The TNFα gene is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines that can affect the sensitivity, efficacy, and ability of the immune response to chronic infections. Some TNF-α gene polymorphisms, including the replacement of the G nucleotide G with A at position 308 in the promoter region of TNF-α, increase the transcription of cytokines in the target cells and thus predispose a person to chronic infections. This study examines the TNF-α 308 polymorphism and its association with Helicobacter pylori infection in this disease. This study was a case-control study in which 154 patients were examined as cases or patients with symptoms of myocardial infarction or angina and 160 as controls or healthy subjects. All of the subjects at different ages were given venous blood and age, BMI, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were determined. DNA was extracted from the specimens, and the cagA gene from H. pylori and the TNF-α-308 polymorphism were determined by PCR in patients and healthy subjects. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi Info software. The results showed that the frequency of H. pylori infection in the patients and healthy group were 53.23% (82 out of 154) and 47.5% (76 out of 160). There was no significant difference in H. pylori outbreak between the two groups. The frequencies of TNF-α-308 genotype for GG, GA, and AA in patients were 0.17, 0.49, and 0.34, respectively, whereas for controls 0.47, 0.35, and 0.18 for GG, GA, and AA, respectively. The frequency of genotype analysis of TNF-α-308 polymorphisms in both patients and healthy groups showed that there was a significant difference in the frequency of genotypes and the AA genotype was higher in the affected individuals. Also, there was a significant relationship between the genotype and the contamination with H. pylori and changes in cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were observed. The results of the study indicate that H. pylori detection in individuals with AA genotype in people under 50 years of age can play an important role in early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
Assessment of the Association between Serum Thrombospondin-1 Levels at the Time of Admission and the Severity of Neurological Deficit in Patients with Ischemic Stroke
Introduction: Despite improvements in stroke management, it remains the leading cause of disability worldwide. It has been suggested that enhancing brain angiogenesis after stroke will improve stroke outcome. Promoting post stroke angiogenesis requires the upregulation of angiogenic factors with a simultaneous reduction of anti-angiogenic factors. Thrombospondin-1 is the main anti-angiogenic protein in the living cells. Counterintuitively, it has been shown that animals with Thrombospondin-1 knockdown will have better stroke outcome. Data about the clinical significance of Thrombspondin-1 levels at the time of admission is still lacking. The objective of this work is to assess the association between serum Thrombospondin-1 levels measured at the time of admission and baseline neurologic severity after stroke. Patients and Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) with ischemic stroke at the time of admission and serum Thrombopsondin-1 levels were measured using ELISA. Patients neurologic severity was evaluated using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Results: Samples from 50 patients admitted between January 2016 and December 2016 were collected. The median age of participants was 68 years and the median NIHSS was 3. Multinomial regression identified serum Thrombospondin-1 as an independent predictor of stroke outcome (p=0.003). Baseline serum Thrombsopondin-1 was negatively associated with NIHSS at the time of admission (spearman rho correlation coefficient=0.272, p=0.032). Conclusion: Serum Thrombospondin-1 at the time of admission may be a useful marker of stroke severity that predicts more severe neurologic severity.
Assessment of the Neuroprotective Effect of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke
Introduction: Diabetes is a chronic health problem and a major risk factor of stroke. A number of therapeutic modalities exist for diabetes management. It’s still unknown whether the different oral hypoglycemic agents would ameliorate the detrimental effect of diabetes on stroke severity. The objective of this work is to assess the effect of pretreatment with oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin and their combination on stroke severity at presentation. Patients and Methods: Patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH)-Jordan with ischemic stroke between January 2015 and December 2016 were evaluated and their comorbid diseases, treatment on admission and their neurologic severity was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were documented. Stroke severity was compared for non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients treated with different antidiabetic agents. Results: Data from 324 patients with acute stroke was documented. The median age of participants was 69 years. Diabetes was documented in about 50% of the patients. Multinomial regression analysis identified diabetes treatment status as an independent predictor of neurological severity of stroke (p=0.032). Patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents had a significantly lower NIHSS as compared to nondiabetic patients and insulin treated patients (p < 0.02). The positive effect of oral hypoglycemic agents was blunted by insulin co-treatment. Insulin did not alter the severity of stroke as compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Oral hypoglycemic agents may reduce the severity of neurologic deficit of ischemic stroke and may have neuroprotective effect.
A Case Report on Anesthetic Considerations in a Neonate with Isolated Oesophageal Atresia with Radiological Fallacy
Esophageal atresia is a disorder of maldevelopment of esophagus with or without a connection to the trachea. Radiological reviews are needed in consultation with the pediatric surgeon and neonatologist and we report a rare case of esophageal atresia associated with atrial septal defect-patent ductus arteriosus complex. A 2-day old female baby born at term, weighing 3.010kg, admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with respiratory distress and excessive oral secretions. On examination, continuous murmur and cyanosis were seen. Esophageal atresia was suspected, after a failed attempt to pass a nasogastric tube. Chest radiograph showed coiling of the nasogastric tube and absent gas shadow in the abdomen. Echocardiography confirmed Patent Ductus Arteriosus with Atrial Septal Defect not in failure and was diagnosed with esophageal atresia with suspected fistula posted for surgical repair. After preliminary management with oxygenation, suctioning in prone position and antibiotics, investigations revealed Hb 17gms serum biochemistry, coagulation profile and C-Reactive Protein Test normal. The baby was premedicated with 5mcg of fentanyl and 100 mcg of midazolam and a rapid awake laryngoscopy was done to rule out difficult airway followed by induction with o2 air, sevo and atracurium 2 mg. Placement of a 3.5 tube was uneventful at first attempt and after confirming bilateral air entry positioned in the lateral position for Right thoracotomy. A pulse oximeter, Echocardiogram, Non-invasive Blood Pressure, temperature and a precordial stethoscope in left axilla were essential monitors. During thoracotomy, both the ends of the esophagus and the fistula could not be located after thorough search suggesting an on table finding of type A esophageal atresia. The baby was repositioned for gastrostomy, and cervical esophagostomy ventilated overnight and extubated uneventful. Absent gas shadow was overlooked and the purpose of this presentation is to create an awareness between the neonatologist, pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologist regarding variation of typing of Tracheoesophageal fistula pre and intraoperatively. A need for imaging modalities warranted for a definitive diagnosis in the presence of a gasless stomach.
Adequacy of Second-Generation Laryngeal Mask Airway during Prolonged Abdominal Surgery
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the adequacy of second-generation laryngeal mask airway use during prolonged abdominal surgery in respect of ventilation, oxygenation, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC), and postoperative non-pulmonary complications on living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) surgery. Methods: In total, 257 recipients who underwent LDKT using either laryngeal mask airway-ProSeal (LMA-P) or endotracheal tube (ETT) were retrospectively analyzed. Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen (PFR) during surgery were compared between two groups. In addition, PPC including pulmonary aspiration and postoperative non-pulmonary complications including nausea, vomiting, hoarseness, vocal cord palsy, delirium, and atrial fibrillation were also compared. Results: PaCO2 and PFR during surgery were not significantly different between the two groups. PPC was also not significantly different between the two groups. Interestingly, the incidence of delirium was significantly lower in the LMA-P group than the ETT group (3.0% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.029). Conclusions: During prolonged abdominal surgery such as LDKT, second-generation laryngeal mask airway offers adequate ventilation and oxygenation and can be considered a suitable alternative to ETT.
Role of Glutamine-Rich Region of Candida albicans Tec1p in Mediating Morphological Transition, Invasive Growth and Shock Resistance
Hyphal growth and the transcriptional regulation to the host environment are key issues during the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Tec1p is the C. albicans homolog of a TEA transcription factor family, which share a conserved DNA-binding TEA domain in their N-terminal. In order to define a structure-function relationship of the C. albicans Tec1p protein, we constructed several mutations on the N terminal, C terminal or in the TEA binding domain itself by homologous recombination technology. The modifications in the open reading frame of TEC1 were tested for reconstitution of the morphogenetic development of the tec1/tec1 mutant strain CaAS12. Mutation in the TEA consensus sequence did not confer transition to hyphae whereas the reconstitution of the full-length Tec1p has reconstituted hyphal development. A deletion in one of glutamine-rich regions either in the Tec1p N-terminal or the C-terminal in regions of 53-212 or 637–744 aa, respectively, did not restore morphological development in mutant CaAS12 strain. Whereas, the reconstitution with Tec1p mutants other than the glutamate-rich region has restored the morphogenetic switch. Additionally, the deletion of glutamine-rich region has attenuated the invasive growth and the heat shock resistance of C. albicans. In conclusion, we show that a glutamine-rich region of Tec1p is essential for the hyphal development and mediating adaptation to the host environment of C. albicans.
Postpartum Depression and Its Association with Food Insecurity and Social Support among Women in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda
Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major psychiatric disorder that affects women soon after birth and in some cases, is a continuation of antenatal depression. Food insecurity (FI) and social support (SS) are known to be associated with major depressive disorder, and vice versa. This study was conducted to examine the interrelationships among FI, SS, and PPD among postpartum women in Gulu, a post-conflict region in Uganda. Methods: Cross-sectional data from postpartum women on depression symptoms, FI and SS were, respectively, obtained using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, Individually Focused FI Access scale (IFIAS) and Duke-UNC functional social support scale. Standard regression methods were used to assess associations among FI, SS, and PPD. Results: A total of 239 women were studied, and 40% were found to have any PPD, i.e., with depressive symptom scores of ≥ 17. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for FI score and SS scores were 6.47 ± 5.02 and 19.11 ± 4.23 respectively. In adjusted analyses, PPD symptoms were found to be positively associated with FI (unstandardized beta and standardized beta of 0.703 and 0.432 respectively, standard errors =0.093 and p-value < 0.0001) and negatively associated with SS (unstandardized beta and standardized beta of -0.263 and -0.135 respectively, standard errors = 0.111 and p-value = 0.019). Conclusions: Many women in this post-conflict region reported experiencing PPD. In addition, this data suggest that food security and psychosocial support interventions may help mitigate women’s experience of PPD or its severity.
Importance of Prostate Volume, Prostate Specific Antigen Density and Free/Total Prostate Specific Antigen Ratio for Prediction of Prostate Cancer
Objectives: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign disease, and prostate cancer (PC) is malign disease of the prostate gland. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-bx) is one of the most important diagnostic tools in PC diagnosis. Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Method: We retrospectively studied 269 patients who had a prostate specific antigen (PSA) score of 4 or who had suspected rectal examination at any PSA level and received TRUS-bx between January 2015 and June 2018 in our clinic. TRUS-bx was received by 12 experienced urologists with 12 quadrants. Prostate volume was calculated prior to biopsy together with TRUS. Patients were classified as malignant and benign at the end of pathology. Age, PSA value, prostate volume in transrectal ultrasonography, corpuscle biopsy, biopsy pathology result, the number of cancer core and Gleason score were evaluated in the study. The success rates of PV, PSAD, and f/tPSA were compared in all patients and those with PSA 2.5-10 ng/mL and 10.1-30 ng/mL tp foresee prostate cancer. Result: In the present study, in patients with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PV cut-off value was 43,5 mL (n=42 < 43,5 mL and n=102 > 43,5 mL) while in those with PSA 10.1-30 ng/mL prostate volüme (PV) cut-off value was found 61,5 mL (n=31 < 61,5 mL and n=36 > 61,5 mL). Total PSA values in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml were found lower (6.0 ± 1.3 vs 6.7 ± 1.7) than that with PV < 43,5 mL, this value was nearly significant (p=0,043). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, no significant difference was found (p=0,117) in terms of total PSA values between the group with PV < 61,5 mL and that with PV > 61,5 mL. In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in patients with PV < 43,5 mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower compared to the group with PV > 43,5 mL (0.21 ± 0.09 vs 0.26 ± 0.09 p < 0.001 ). Similarly, in the group with PSA value of 10.1-30 ng/mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.16 ± 0.08 vs 0.23 ± 0.10 p=0,003). In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PSAD value in patients with PV < 43,5 mL was found significantly higher compared to those with PV > 43,5 mL (0.17 ± 0.06 vs 0.10 ± 0.03 p < 0.001). Similarly, in the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL PSAD value was found significantly higher in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.47 ± 0.23 vs 0.17 ± 0.08 p < 0.001 ). The biopsy results suggest that in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in 29 of the patients with PV < 43,5 mL (69%) cancer was detected while in 13 patients (31%) no cancer was detected. While in 19 patients with PV > 43,5 mL (18,6%) cancer was found, in 83 patients (81,4%) no cancer was detected (p < 0.001). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, in 21 patients with PV < 61,5 mL (67.7%) cancer was observed while only in10 patients (32.3%) no cancer was seen. In 5 patients with PV > 61,5 mL (13.9%) cancer was found while in 31 patients (86.1%) no cancer was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider PSA, f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Prostate volume in PC was found lower.
Emotional and Physiological Reaction While Listening the Speech of Adults Who Stutter
Stuttered speech is filled with intermittent sound prolongations and/or rapid part word repetitions. Oftentimes, these aberrant acoustic behaviors are associated with intermittent physical tension and struggle behaviors such as head jerks, arm jerks, finger tapping, excessive eye-blinks, etc. Additionally, the jarring nature of acoustic and physical manifestations that often accompanies moderate-severe stuttering may induce negative emotional responses in listeners, which alters communication between the person who stutters and their listeners. However, researches for the influence of negative emotions in the communication and for physical reaction are limited. Therefore, to compare psycho-physiological responses of fluent adults, while listening the speech of adults who speak fluency and adults who stutter, are necessary. This study comprises the experimental method, with total of 104 participants (average age-20 years old, SD=2.1), divided into 3 groups. All participants self-reported no impairments in speech, language, or hearing. Exploring the responses of the participants, there were used two records speeches; a voice who speaks fluently and the voice who stutters. Heartbeats and the pulse were measured by the digital blood pressure monitor called 'Tensoval', as a physiological response to the fluent and stuttering sample. Meanwhile, the emotional responses of participants were measured by the self-reporting questionnaire (Steenbarger, 2001). Results showed an increase in heartbeats during the stuttering speech compared with the fluent sample (p < 0.5). The listeners also self-reported themselves as more alive, unhappy, nervous, repulsive, sad, tense, distracted and upset when listening the stuttering words versus the words of the fluent adult (where it was reported to experience positive emotions). These data support the notions that speech with stuttering can bring a psycho-physical reaction to the listeners. Speech pathologists should be aware that listeners show intolerable physiological reactions to stuttering that remain visible over time.
The City of Images: Urban Mobility Policies and Extra-Small Tactical Projects for Promoting the Quality of Urban Life of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Everyday City
Current researches and applications aimed at exploring the role of spatial configuration as a means for improving the autonomy of people with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), almost exclusively focus on the definition of criteria for the design of closed, separated, private spaces devoted only to people - mainly children - with ASD. In fact, very few researches specifically investigate the relation between the city and people with autism, focusing on their sensory experiences related to the interaction with the urban environment. The growing incidence of ASD and the need to guarantee during adulthood the actual opportunity to exercise the achieved level of autonomy and independency, emphasizes the necessity to ‘broaden’ the research perspective by investigating also the specific contribution of urban mobility policies and urban design to the enhancement of the quality of life of people with ASD. Starting from these considerations, the paper describes an ongoing research focused on the relation between the city and people with autism spectrum disorder, with the specific aim of promoting their possibility of walking across the city at the neighborhood scale, thus making the access to relevant urban spaces and services possible. In the first part, the paper proposes a framework for illustrating the commonly recurring problems that people with ASD face in their daily life when they interact with the urban environment (with reference to the capability approach). Subsequently, with the support of an in depth analysis of existing contributions (researches and projects) and an exchange with different experts (neuropsychiatrists, teachers, parents), are identified two urban requirements, then 'translated' into an integrated system of urban mobility policies and extra-small tactical project aimed at enhancing the actual possibility for people with ASD of walking through the city autonomously and safely. According to this vision, the promotion of the autonomy of people with ASD through the adoption of mobility policies and micro tactical urban projects can represent an opportunity for promoting and improving the overall quality of urban life.
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite among Patients Attending Two Medical Centers in Jos
Intestinal parasitic infections are the most common parasitic infections of the man commonly resulting in morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Two hundred (200) patients from two medical centers were randomly examined for intestinal parasites using normal saline wet mount and formol-ether concentration methods. One hundred patients each were examined from Plateau State Specialist Hospital (PSSH) and Vom Christian Hospital (VCH) respectively. Of the 100 patients examined at PSSH, (22.0%) tested positive for intestinal parasites, while only (6.0%) was reported for VCH. Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia spp. were significantly (P value=0.0002726) the most prevalent intestinal parasites in PSSH with (31.8%) respectively. Balantidium coli and Entamoeba histolytica were the least prevalent at (4.5%) respectively. Hookworm (50.0%) was significantly (P< 0.0001) the most prevalent intestinal parasite in VCH, followed by A. lumbricoides (33.3%), while Taenia spp. (16.7%) was the least. Female subjects 12(54.5%) were more infected than their male 10(45.4%) counterparts in PSSH. The difference (P value=0.3633) in the infection between female and male subjects at PSSH was not significant. Female subjects were significantly (P value=0.0008586) more infected 4(66.7%) than male subjects 2(33.3%) at VCH. The prevalence of intestinal parasite in relation to age in PSSH shows a significantly (P-value = 0.02573) high level among age group 11-20years 9(36.0%). On the contrary, the high prevalence of intestinal parasites among age groups 31-40 years 2(9.1%) at VCH was not significant (P value=0.1595). The result in relation to a water source in patients attending PSSH shows that the boreholes sources (66.7%) had a significantly (P< 0.0001) high prevalence of intestinal parasites, while the least prevalence was observed in tap source (7.9%). Results from VCH shows that streams/rivers (16.7%) revealed high prevalence, while the tap source was least parasitized (10.0%). There was no significant difference (P value=0.436) in the prevalence of parasites in relation to the water source at VCH. This prevalence is directly related to the sanitary condition, socio-economic status, educational level, the age and hygienic habits of the patients. Thus, necessary sanitary policies, awareness, screening and de-worming exercises and occasional check of intestinal parasites are recommended.
MITOS-RCNN: Mitotic Figure Detection in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images Using Region Based Convolutional Neural Networks
Studies estimate that there will be 266,120 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,920 breast cancer induced deaths in the year of 2018 alone. Despite the pervasiveness of this affliction, the current process to obtain an accurate breast cancer prognosis is tedious and time consuming. It usually requires a trained pathologist to manually examine histopathological images and identify the features that characterize various cancer severity levels. We propose MITOS-RCNN: a region based convolutional neural network (RCNN) geared for small object detection to accurately grade one of the three factors that characterize tumor belligerence described by the Nottingham Grading System: mitotic count. Other computational approaches to mitotic figure counting and detection do not demonstrate ample recall or precision to be clinically viable. Our models outperformed all previous participants in the ICPR 2012 challenge, the AMIDA 2013 challenge and the MITOS-ATYPIA-14 challenge along with recently published works. Our model achieved an F- measure score of 0.955, a 6.11% improvement in accuracy from the most accurate of the previously proposed models.
Imprecise Vowel Articulation in Down Syndrome: An Acoustic Study
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have relatively better expressive language compared to other individuals with intellectual disabilities. Reduced speech intelligibility is one of the major concerns of this group of individuals due to their anatomical and physiological differences. The study investigated the vowel articulation of Malayalam speaking children with DS in the age range of 5-10 years. The vowel production of 10 children with DS was compared with typically developing children in the same age range. Vowels were extracted from 3 words with the corner vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ in the word-initial position, using Praat (version 5.3.23) software. Acoustic analysis was based on vowel space area (VSA), Formant centralization ration (FCR) and F2i/F2u. The findings revealed increased formant values for the control group except for F2a and F2u. Also, the experimental group had higher FCR, lower VSA, and F2i/F2u values suggestive of imprecise vowel articulation due to restricted tongue movements. The results of the independent t-test revealed a significant difference in F1a, F2i, F2u, VSA, FCR and F2i/F2u values between the experimental and control group. These findings support the fact that children with DS have imprecise vowel articulation that interferes with the overall speech intelligibility. Hence it is essential to target the oromotor skills to enhance the speech intelligibility which in turn benefit in the social and vocational domains of these individuals.
Clinical Profile of Oral Sensory Abilities in Developmental Dysarthria
One of the major causes of communication disorders in pediatric population is Motor speech disorders. These disorders which affect the motor aspects of speech articulators can have an adverse effect on the communication abilities of children in their developmental period. The motor aspects are dependent on the sensory abilities of children with motor speech disorders. Hence, oral sensorimotor evaluation is an important component in the assessment of children with motor speech disorders. To our knowledge, the importance of oral motor examination has been well established, yet the sensory assessment of the oral structures has received less focus. One of the most common motor speech disorders seen in children is developmental dysarthria. The present study aimed to assess the orosensory aspects in children with developmental dysarthria (CDD). The control group consisted of 240 children in the age range of four and eight years which was divided into four subgroups (4-4.11, 5-5.11, 6-6.11 and 7-7.11 years). The experimental group consisted of 15 children who were diagnosed with developmental dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy who belonged in the age range of four and eight years. The oro-sensory aspects such as response to touch, temperature, taste, texture, and orofacial sensitivity were evaluated and profiled. For this purpose, the authors used the ‘Oral Sensorimotor Evaluation Protocol- Children’ which was developed by the authors. The oro-sensory section of the protocol was administered and the clinical profile of oro-sensory abilities of typically developing children and CDD was obtained for each of the sensory abilities. The oro-sensory abilities of speech articulators such as lips, tongue, palate, jaw, and cheeks were assessed in detail and scored. The results indicated that experimental group had poorer scores on oro-sensory aspects such as light static touch, kinetic touch, deep pressure, vibration and double simultaneous touch. However, it was also found that the experimental group performed similar to control group on few aspects like temperature, taste, texture and orofacial sensitivity. Apart from the oro-motor abilities which has received utmost interest, the variation in the oro-sensory abilities of experimental and control group is highlighted and discussed in the present study. This emphasizes the need for assessing the oro-sensory abilities in children with developmental dysarthria in addition to oro-motor abilities.
A Comparative Study on Vowel Articulation in Malayalam Speaking Children Using Cochlear Implant
Hearing impairment (HI) at an early age, identified before the onset of language development can reduce the negative effect on speech and language development of children. Early rehabilitation is very important in the improvement of speech production in children with HI. Other than conventional hearing aids, Cochlear Implants are being used in the rehabilitation of children with HI. However, delay in acquisition of speech and language milestones persist in children with Cochlear Implant (CI). Delay in speech milestones are reflected through speech sound errors. These errors reflect the temporal and spectral characteristics of speech. Hence, acoustical analysis of the speech sounds will provide a better representation of speech production skills in children with CI. The present study aimed at investigating the acoustic characteristics of vowels in Malayalam speaking children with a cochlear implant. The participants of the study consisted of 20 Malayalam speaking children in the age range of four and seven years. The experimental group consisted of 10 children with CI, and the control group consisted of 10 typically developing children. Acoustic analysis was carried out for 5 short (/a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/) and 5 long vowels (/a:/, /i:/, /u:/, /e:/, /o:/) in word-initial position. The responses were recorded and analyzed for acoustic parameters such as Vowel duration, Ratio of the duration of a short and long vowel, Formant frequencies (F₁ and F₂) and Formant Centralization Ratio (FCR) computed using the formula (F₂u+F₂a+F₁i+F₁u)/(F₂i+F₁a). Findings of the present study indicated that the values for vowel duration were higher in experimental group compared to the control group for all the vowels except for /u/. Ratio of duration of short and long vowel was also found to be higher in experimental group compared to control group except for /i/. Further F₁ for all vowels was found to be higher in experimental group with variability noticed in F₂ values. FCR was found be higher in experimental group, indicating vowel centralization. Further, the results of independent t-test revealed no significant difference across the parameters in both the groups. It was found that the spectral and temporal measures in children with CI moved towards normal range. The result emphasizes the significance of early rehabilitation in children with hearing impairment. The role of rehabilitation related aspects are also discussed in detail which can be clinically incorporated for the betterment of speech therapeutic services in children with CI.
Phonological Encoding and Working Memory in Kannada Speaking Adults Who Stutter
Background: A considerable number of studies have evidenced that phonological encoding (PE) and working memory (WM) skills operate differently in adults who stutter (AWS). In order to tap these skills, several paradigms have been employed such as phonological priming, phoneme monitoring, and nonword repetition tasks. This study, however, utilizes a word jumble paradigm to assess both PE and WM using different modalities and this may give a better understanding of phonological processing deficits in AWS. Aim: The present study investigated PE and WM abilities in conjunction with lexical access in AWS using jumbled words. The study also aimed at investigating the effect of increase in cognitive load on phonological processing in AWS by comparing the speech reaction time (SRT) and accuracy scores across various syllable lengths. Method: Participants were 11 AWS (Age range=19-26) and 11 adults who do not stutter (AWNS) (Age range=19-26) matched for age, gender and handedness. Stimuli: Ninety 3-, 4-, and 5-syllable jumbled words (JWs) (n=30 per syllable length category) constructed from Kannada words served as stimuli for jumbled word paradigm. In order to generate jumbled words (JWs), the syllables in the real words were randomly transpositioned. Procedures: To assess PE, the JWs were presently visually using DMDX software and for WM task, JWs were presented through auditory mode through headphones. The participants were asked to silently manipulate the jumbled words to form a Kannada real word and verbally respond once. The responses for both tasks were audio recorded using record function in DMDX software and the recorded responses were analyzed using PRAAT software to calculate the SRT. Results: SRT: Mann-Whitney test results demonstrated that AWS performed significantly slower on both tasks (p < 0.001) as indicated by increased SRT. Also, AWS presented with increased SRT on both the tasks in all syllable length conditions (p < 0.001). Effect of syllable length: Wilcoxon signed rank test was carried out revealed that, on task assessing PE, the SRT of 4syllable JWs were significantly higher in both AWS (Z= -2.93, p=.003) and AWNS (Z= -2.41, p=.003) when compared to 3-syllable words. However, the findings for 4- and 5-syllable words were not significant. Task Accuracy: The accuracy scores were calculated for three syllable length conditions for both PE and PM tasks and were compared across the groups using Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that the accuracy scores of AWS were significantly below that of AWNS in all the three syllable conditions for both the tasks (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The above findings suggest that PE and WM skills are compromised in AWS as indicated by increased SRT. Also, AWS were progressively less accurate in descrambling JWs of increasing syllable length and this may be interpreted as, rather than existing as a uniform deficiency, PE and WM deficits emerge when the cognitive load is increased. AWNS exhibited increased SRT and increased accuracy for JWs of longer syllable length whereas AWS was not benefited from increasing the reaction time, thus AWS had to compromise for both SRT and accuracy while solving JWs of longer syllable length.
Day-Case Ketamine Infusions in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis
Introduction: Chronic Pancreatitis is an increasing problem worldwide. Pain is the main symptom and the main reason for hospital readmission following diagnosis, despite the use of strong analgesics including opioids. Ketamine infusions reduce pain in complex regional pain syndrome and other neuropathic pain conditions. Our centre has trialed the use of ketamine infusions in patients with chronic pancreatitis. We have evaluated this service to assess whether ketamine reduces emergency department admissions and analgesia requirements. Methods: This study collected retrospective data from 2010 in all patients who received a ketamine infusion for chronic pain secondary to a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. The day-case ketamine infusions were initiated in theatre by an anaesthetist, with standard monitoring and the assistance of an anaesthetic practitioner. A bolus dose of 0.5milligrams/kilogram was given in theatre. The infusion of 0.5 milligrams/kilogram per hour was then administered over a 6 hour period in the theatre recovery area. A study proforma detailed the medical history, analgesic use and admissions to hospital. Patients received a telephone follow up consultation. Results: Over the last eight years, a total of 30 patients have received intravenous ketamine infusions, with a total of 92 ketamine infusions being administered. 53% of the patients were male with the average age of 47. A total of 27 patients participated with the telephone consultation. A third of patients reported a reduction in hospital admissions with pain following the ketamine infusion. Analgesia requirements were reduced by an average of 48.3% (range 0-100%) for an average duration of 69.6 days (range 0-180 days.) Discussion: This service evaluation illustrates that ketamine infusions can reduce analgesic requirements and the number of hospital admissions in patients with chronic pancreatitis. In the light of increasing pressures on Emergency departments and the increasing evidence of the dangers of long-term opioid use, this is clearly a useful finding. We are now performing a prospective study to assess the long-term effectiveness of ketamine infusions in reducing analgesia requirements and improving patient’s quality of life.
Short Teaching Sessions for Emergency Front of Neck Access
Introduction: The Can’t intubate, Can’t ventilate emergency scenario is one which has been shown to be managed badly in the past. Reasons identified included gaps in knowledge of the procedure and the emergency equipment used. We aimed to show an increase in confidence amongst anesthetists and operating department practitioners in the technique following a short tea trolley style teaching intervention. Methods: We carried out the teaching on a one-to-one basis. Two Anaesthetists visited each operating theatre during normal working days. One carried out the teaching session and one took over the intra‐operative care of the patient, releasing the listed anaesthetist for a short teaching session. The teaching was delivered to mixture of students and healthcare professionals, both anaesthetists and anaesthetic practitioners. The equipment includes a trolley, an airway manikin, size 10 scalpel, bougie and size 6.0 tracheal tube. The educator discussed the equipment, performed a demonstration and observed the participants performing the procedure. We asked each person to fill out a pre and post teaching questionnaire, stating their confidence with the procedure. Results: The teaching was delivered to 63 participants in total, which included 21 consultant anaesthetists, 23 trainee doctors and 19 anaesthetic practitioners. The teaching sessions lasted on average 9 minutes (range 5– 15 minutes). All participants reported an increase in confidence in both the equipment and technique in front of neck access. Anaesthetic practitioners reported the greatest increase in confidence (53%), with trainee anaesthetists reporting 27% increase and consultant anaesthetists 22%. Overall, confidence in the performance of emergency front of neck access increased by 31% after the teaching session. Discussion: Short ‘Trolley style’ teaching improves confidence in the equipment and technique used for the emergency front of neck access. This is true for students and for consultant anaesthetists. This teaching style is quick with minimal running costs and is relevant for all anesthetic departments.
Risk Mapping of Road Traffic Incidents in Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area for Planning of Emergency Medical Services
Road traffic incidents (RTIs) continue to be a serious public health and development burden around the globe. Compared to high-income countries (HICs), the low and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear the heaviest brunt of RTIs. Like other LMICs, Uganda, a country located in Eastern Africa, has been experiencing a worryingly high burden of RTIs and their associated impacts. Over the years, the highest number of all the total registered RTIs in Uganda has taken place in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). This places a tremendous demand on the few existing emergency medical services (EMS) to adequately respond to those affected. In this regard, the overall objective of the study was to risk map RTIs in the GKMA so as to help in the better planning of EMS for the victims of RTIs. Other objectives included: (i) identifying the factors affecting the exposure, vulnerability and EMS capacity for the victims of RTIs; (ii) identifying the RTI prone-areas and estimating their associated risk factors; (iii) identifying the weaknesses and capacities which affect the EMS systems for RTIs; and (iv) determining the strategies and priority actions that can help to improve the EMS response for RTI victims in the GKMA. To achieve these objectives, a mixed methodological approach was used in four phrases for approximately 15 months. It employed a systematic review based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-data analysis guidelines; a Delphi panel technique; retrospective data analysis; and a cross-sectional method. With Uganda progressing forward as envisaged in its 'Vision 2040', the GKMA, which is the country’s political and socioeconomic epicenter, is experiencing significant changes in terms of population growth, urbanization, infrastructure development, rapid motorization and other factors. Unless appropriate actions are taken, these changes are likely to worsen the already alarming rate of RTIs in Uganda, and in turn also to put pressure on the few existing EMS and facilities to render care for those affected. Therefore, road safety vis-à-vis injury prevention measures, which are needed to reduce the burden of RTIs, should be multifaceted in nature so that they closely correlate with the ongoing dynamics that contribute to RTIs, particularly in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole.
Patients' Understanding of Their Treatment Plans and Diagnosis during Discharge in Emergency Ward at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences
Background: Understanding the diagnosis and the treatment plan is very important for the patient which reflects the effectiveness of the patient care as well as counseling. Large groups of patients do not understand their emergency care plan or their discharge instructions. With only a little more than 2/3ʳᵈ of the adult population is literate and poorly distributed health service institutions in Nepal, exploring the current status of patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment would help identify interventions to improve patient compliance with the provided care and the treatment outcomes. Objectives: This study was conducted to identify and describe the areas of patients’ understanding and confusion regarding emergency care and discharge instructions at the Emergency ward of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences teaching hospital, Dharan, Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 426 patients discharged from the emergency unit of BPKIHS. Cases who are leaving against medical advice absconded cases and those patients who came just for vaccination are excluded from the study. Patients’ understanding of the treatment plan and diagnosis was measured. Results: There were 60% men in this study. More than half of the participants reported not being able to read English. More than 90% of the respondents reported they could not read their prescription at all. While patient could point out their understanding of their diagnosis at discharge, most of them could not tell the names and the dosage of all the drugs prescribed to them at discharge. More than 95% of the patients could not tell the most common side effects of the drugs that they are prescribed. Conclusions: There is a need to further explore the factors influencing the understanding of the patients regarding their treatment plan. Interventions to understand the health literacy needs and ways to improve the health literacy of the patients are needed.
Prognostic Value in Meningioma Patients’: A Clinical-Histopathological Study
Meningioma is adult brain tumors originating from the meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. The females have approximately twice higher 2:1 than male in the incidence of meningioma. This study aimed to analyze the histopathological grading and clinical aspect in predicting the prognosis of meningioma patients. An observational study with cross sectional design was used on 53 meningioma patients treated at Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo hospital in 2016. The data then were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Of 53 patients, mostly 41 (77,4%) were female and 12 (22,6%) were male. The distribution of histopathology patients showed the meningothelial meningioma of 18 (43,9%) as the most type found. Fibroplastic meningioma were 8 (19,5%), while atypical meningioma and psammomatous meningioma were 6 (14,6%) each. The rest were malignant meningioma and angiomatous meningioma which found in respectively 2 (4,9%) and 1 (2,4%). Our result found significant finding that mostly male were fibroblastic meningioma (50%), however meningothelial meningioma were found in the majority of female (54,8%) and also seizure comprised only in higher grade meningioma. On the outcome of meningioma patient treated operatively, histopathological grade remained insignificant (p > 0,05). This study can be used as prognostic value of meningioma patients based on gender, histopathological grade, and clinical manifestation. Overall, the outcome of the meningioma’s patients is good and promising as long as it is well managed.
Analyzing the Ergonomic Design of Manual Material Handling in Chemical Industry: Case Study of Activity Task Weigh Liquid Catalyst to the Container Storage
Work activities for MMH (Manual Material Handling) in the storage of liquid catalyst raw material workstations in chemical industries identify high-risk MSDs (Musculoskeletal Disorders). Their work is often performed frequently requires an awkward body posture, twisting, bending because of physical space limited, cold, slippery, and limited tools for transfer container and weighing the liquid chemistry of the catalyst into the container. This study aims to develop an ergonomic work system design on the transfer and weighing process of liquid catalyst raw materials at the storage warehouse. A triangulation method through an interview, observation, and detail study team with assessing the level of risk work posture and complaints. Work postures were analyzed using the RULA method, through the support of CATIA software. The study concludes that ergonomic design can make reduce 3 levels of risk scores awkward posture. CATIA Software simulation provided a comprehensive solution for a better posture of manual material handling at task weigh. An addition of manual material handling tools such as adjustable conveyors, trolley and modification tools semi-mechanical weighing with techniques based on rule ergonomic design can reduce the hazard of chemical fluid spills.
Effect of Timing and Contributing Factors for Early Language Intervention in Toddlers with Repaired Cleft Lip and Palate
Introduction: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a congenital condition which hinders effectual communication due to associated speech and language difficulties. Expressive language delay (ELD) is a feature seen in this population which is influenced by factors such as type and severity of CLP, age at surgical and linguistic intervention and also the type and intensity of speech and language therapy (SLT). Since CLP is the most common congenital abnormality seen in Indian children, early intervention is a necessity which plays a critical role in enhancing their speech and language skills. The interaction between the timing of intervention and factors which contribute to effective intervention by caregivers is an area which needs to be explored. Objectives: The present study attempts to determine the effect of timing of intervention on the contributing maternal factors for effective linguistic intervention in toddlers with repaired CLP with respect to the awareness, home training patterns, speech and non-speech behaviors of the mothers. Participants: Thirty six toddlers in the age range of 1 to 4 years diagnosed as ELD secondary to repaired CLP, along with their mothers served as participants. Group I (Early Intervention Group, EIG) included 19 mother-child pairs who came to seek SLT soon after corrective surgery and group II (Delayed Intervention Group, DIG) included 16 mother-child pairs who received SLT after the age of 3 years. Further, the groups were divided into group A, and group B. Group ‘A’ received SLT for 60 sessions by Speech Language Pathologist (SLP), while Group B received SLT for 30 sessions by SLP and 30 sessions only by mother without supervision of SLP. Method: The mothers were enrolled for the Early Language Intervention Program and following this, their awareness about CLP was assessed through the Parental awareness questionnaire. The quality of home training was assessed through Mohite’s Inventory. Subsequently, the speech and non-speech behaviors of the mothers were assessed using a Mother’s behavioral checklist. Detailed counseling and orientation was done to the mothers, and SLT was initiated for toddlers. After 60 sessions of intensive SLT, the questionnaire and checklists were re-administered to find out the changes in scores between the pre- and posttest measurements. Results: The scores obtained under different domains in the awareness questionnaire, Mohite’s inventory and Mothers behavior checklist were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Since the data did not follow normal distribution (i.e. p > 0.05), Mann-Whitney U test was conducted which revealed that there was no significant difference between groups I and II as well as groups A and B. Further, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test revealed that mothers had better awareness regarding issues related to CLP and improved home-training abilities post-orientation (p ≤ 0.05). A statistically significant difference was also noted for speech and non-speech behaviors of the mothers (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: Extensive orientation and counseling helped mothers of both EI and DI groups to improve their knowledge about CLP. Intensive SLT using focused stimulation and a parent-implemented approach enabled them to carry out the intervention in an effectual manner.
A Study on Compromised Periodontal Health Status among the Pregnant Woman of Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India
Preterm-low birth weight delivery is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries and has been linked to poor periodontal health during pregnancy. Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory oral diseases. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. This study is intended to investigate predisposing and enabling factors as determinants of oral health indicators in pregnancy as well as the association between periodontal problems during pregnancy with age and socio economic status of the individual. A community –based prospective cohort study will be conducted in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India among pregnant women using completed interviews and a full mouth oral clinical examination using the CPITN (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need) and OHI-S (Simplified Oral Hygiene) indices with adequate sample size and informed consent to the patient following proper inclusion and exclusion criteria. Multiple logistic regression analyses will be used to identify independent determinants of periodontal problems and use of dental services during pregnancy. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) will be used to investigate the relationship between periodontal problems with the age and socioeconomic status. The result will help in proper monitoring of periodontal health during pregnancy encouraging the delivery of healthy child and the maintenance of proper health of the mother.
Content-Aware Image Augmentation for Medical Imaging Applications
Machine learning based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) is gaining much popularity in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. However, it requires a large amount of high quality and labeled training image datasets. The training images may come from different sources and be acquired from different radiography machines produced by different manufacturers, digital or digitized copies of film radiographs, with various sizes as well as different pixel intensity distributions. In this paper, a content-aware image augmentation method is presented to deal with these variations. The results of the proposed method have been validated graphically by plotting the removed and added seams of pixels on original images. Two different chest X-ray (CXR) datasets are used in the experiments. The CXRs in the datasets defer in size, some are digital CXRs while the others are digitized from analog CXR films. With the proposed content-aware augmentation method, the Seam Carving algorithm is employed to resize CXRs and the corresponding labels in the form of image masks, followed by histogram matching used to normalize the pixel intensities of digital radiography, based on the pixel intensity values of digitized radiographs. We implemented the algorithms, resized the well-known Montgomery dataset, to the size of the most frequently used Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and normalized our digital CXRs for testing. This work resulted in the unified off-the-shelf CXR dataset composed of radiographs included in both, Montgomery and JSRT datasets. The experimental results show that even though the amount of augmentation is large, our algorithm can preserve the important information in lung fields, local structures, and global visual effect adequately. The proposed method can be used to augment training and testing image data sets so that the trained machine learning model can be used to process CXRs from various sources, and it can be potentially used broadly in any medical imaging applications.
Corticomotor Excitability after Two Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocols in Ischemic Stroke Patients
This study is to compare the motor evoked potential (MEP) changes using different settings of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the post-haemorrhagic stroke patient which treated conservatively. The goal of the study is to determine changes in corticomotor excitability and functional outcome after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy regime. 20 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were studied due to haemorrhagic stroke. One of the three settings; (I) Inhibitory setting, or (II) facilitatory setting, or (III) control group, no excitatory or inhibitory setting have been applied randomly during the first meeting. The motor evoked potential (MEP) were recorded before and after application of the rTMS setting. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Barthel index score. We found pre-treatment MEP values of the lesional side were lower compared to post-treatment values in both settings. In contrast, we found that the pre-treatment MEP values of the non-lesional side were higher compared to post-treatment values in both settings. Interestingly, patients with treatment, either facilitatory setting and inhibitory setting have faster motor recovery compared to the control group. Our data showed both settings might improve the MEP of the upper extremity and functional outcomes in the haemorrhagic stroke patient.
Changes in Skin Microbiome Diversity According to the Age of Xian Women
Skin is the largest organ of the human body and can provide the diverse habitat for various microorganisms. The ecology of the skin surface selects distinctive sets of microorganisms and is influenced by both endogenous intrinsic factors and exogenous environmental factors. The diversity of the bacterial community in the skin also depends on multiple host factors: gender, age, health status, location. Among them, age-related changes in skin structure and function are attributable to combinations of endogenous intrinsic factors and exogenous environmental factors. Skin aging is characterized by a decrease in sweat, sebum and the immune functions thus resulting in significant alterations in skin surface physiology including pH, lipid composition, and sebum secretion. The present study gives a comprehensive clue on the variation of skin microbiota and the correlations between ages by analyzing and comparing the metagenome of skin microbiome using Next Generation Sequencing method. Skin bacterial diversity and composition were characterized and compared between two different age groups: younger (20 – 30y) and older (60 - 70y) Xian, Chinese women. A total of 73 healthy women meet two conditions: (I) living in Xian, China; (II) maintaining healthy skin status during the period of this study. Based on Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database, skin samples of 73 participants were enclosed with ten most abundant genera: Chryseobacterium, Propionibacterium, Enhydrobacter, Staphylococcus and so on. Although these genera are the most predominant genus overall, each genus showed different proportion in each group. The most dominant genus, Chryseobacterium was more present relatively in Young group than in an old group. Similarly, Propionibacterium and Enhydrobacter occupied a higher proportion of skin bacterial composition of the young group. Staphylococcus, in contrast, inhabited more in the old group. The beta diversity that represents the ratio between regional and local species diversity showed significantly different between two age groups. Likewise, The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) values representing each phylogenetic distance in the two-dimensional framework using the OTU (Operational taxonomic unit) values of the samples also showed differences between the two groups. Thus, our data suggested that the composition and diversification of skin microbiomes in adult women were largely affected by chronological and physiological skin aging.
Surveillance of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Circulating in North India
Introduction: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. Injection drug use and individuals receiving blood and blood products are the primary modes of HCV transmission. Our study aims to establish the prevalent genotypes/ subtypes of HCV circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India, as reported from a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It is a retrospective observational analysis of consecutive 404 HCV RNA positive cases referred to our hospital during September 2014 to April 2017. The study was approved by an institutional ethics committee. Written informed consent was taken from each participant. Clinical and demographic details of these patients were recorded using predesigned questionnaires. All the laboratory testing was carried on stored serum sample of enrolled cases. Genotyping of all 404 strains was done by Sanger’s sequencing of the core region. The phylogenetic analysis of 179 HCV strains with high -quality sequencing data was performed. Results: The distribution of prevalent genotypes/ subtypes as noted in the present study was; Genotype (GT)1a [n-101(25%)], GT1b [n-12(2.9%)], GT1c [1(0.25%)], GT3a [275(68.07%)], GT3b [9(2.2%)], GT3g [2(0.49%)], GT3i [3(0.74%)], and GT4a [1(0.24%)]. HCV genotypes GT2, GT5 and GT6 were not detected from our region. Sequence analysis showed high genotypic variability in HCV GT3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HCV GT3 and GT1 circulating in our region were related to Indian strains reported earlier. Conclusions: HCV genotypes 3a and 1a are commonest circulating genotypes in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India.