Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54437

Medical and Health Sciences

2646
98425
Analyzing the Ergonomic Design of Manual Material Handling in Chemical Industry: Case Study of Activity Task Weigh Liquid Catalyst to the Container Storage
Abstract:
Work activities for MMH (Manual Material Handling) in the storage of liquid catalyst raw material workstations in chemical industries identify high-risk MSDs (Musculoskeletal Disorders). Their work is often performed frequently requires an awkward body posture, twisting, bending because of physical space limited, cold, slippery, and limited tools for transfer container and weighing the liquid chemistry of the catalyst into the container. This study aims to develop an ergonomic work system design on the transfer and weighing process of liquid catalyst raw materials at the storage warehouse. A triangulation method through an interview, observation, and detail study team with assessing the level of risk work posture and complaints. Work postures were analyzed using the RULA method, through the support of CATIA software. The study concludes that ergonomic design can make reduce 3 levels of risk scores awkward posture. CATIA Software simulation provided a comprehensive solution for a better posture of manual material handling at task weigh. An addition of manual material handling tools such as adjustable conveyors, trolley and modification tools semi-mechanical weighing with techniques based on rule ergonomic design can reduce the hazard of chemical fluid spills.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2645
97801
Comparison of Visual Field Tests in Glaucoma Patients with a Central Visual Field Defect
Abstract:
We compared the 24-2 and 10-2 visual fields (VFs) and investigate the degree of discrepancy between the two tests in glaucomatous eyes with central VF defects. In all, 99 eyes of 99 glaucoma patients who underwent both the 24-2 VF and 10-2 VF tests within 6 months were enrolled retrospectively. Glaucomatous eyes involving a central VF defect were divided into three groups based on the average total deviation (TD) of 12 central points in the 24-2 VF test (N = 33, in each group): group 1 (tercile with the highest TD), group 2 (intermediate TD), and group 3 (lowest TD). The TD difference was calculated by subtracting the average TD of the 10-2 VF test from the average TD of 12 central points in the 24-2 VF test. The absolute central TD difference in each quadrant was defined as the absolute value of the TD value obtained by subtracting the average TD of four central points in the 10-2 VF test from the innermost TD in the 24-2 VF test in each quadrant. The TD differences differed significantly between group 3 and groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). In the superonasal quadrant, the absolute central TD difference was significantly greater in group 2 than in group 1 (P < 0.05). In the superotemporal quadrant, the absolute central TD difference was significantly greater in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that the results of VF tests for different VFs can be inconsistent, depending on the degree of central defects and the VF quadrant.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2644
97789
Prevalence of Lupus Glomerulonephritis in Renal Biopsies in an Eastern Region of the Arab World
Abstract:
Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Glomerular diseases make a small portion of the renal disease. Lupus glomerulonephritis (GN) is the commonest among the GN of systemic diseases. More than a hundred and eighty-eight consecutive renal biopsies are performed and evaluated for clinically suspected glomerular diseases over a period of two years. As in a standard practice after receiving the ultrasound-guided renal biopsies, the fresh biopsy is divided to three parts, one part is frozen for immunofluorescence evaluation, the second part is placed in 4% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic evaluation, and the third part is placed in 10% buffered formalin for light microscopic evaluation. Primary glomerular diseases are detected in 83 biopsies; glomerulonephritis (GN) of systemic diseases are identified in 88, glomerular lesions in vascular diseases in 3, glomerular lesions in metabolic diseases in 7, hereditary nephropathies in 2, end-stage kidney in 2, and glomerular lesions in transplantation in 3 biopsies. Among the primary lesions, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28) and mesangial proliferative GN (26) were the most common. Lupus GN (67) and Ig A nephropathy (20) were the most common of the GN of systemic diseases. Lupus nephritis biopsies included one biopsy diagnosed as class 1 (normal), 17 biopsies class 2 (mesangial proliferation), 5 biopsies class 3 (focal proliferative GN), 39 biopsies class 4 diffuse proliferative GN), 3 biopsies class 5 (membranous GN), and 2 biopsies class 6 (crescentic GN). Lupus GN is the most common among GN of systemic diseases. While diabetes is very common here, diabetic GN (3 biopsies) is not as common as might one expects. Most likely this is due to sampling and reluctance on part of nephrologists and patients in sampling the kidney in diabetes mellitus.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2643
97785
Correlation between Clinical Measurements of Static Foot Posture in Young Adults
Abstract:
Identifying abnormal foot posture is important for prescribing appropriate management in patients with lower limb disorders and chronic non-specific low back pain. The normalized navicular height truncated (NNHt) and the foot posture index-6 (FPI-6) have been recommended as the common, simple, valid, and reliable static measures for clinical application. The NNHt is a single plane measure while the FPI-6 is a triple plane measure. At present, there is inadequate information about the correlation between the NNHt and the FPI-6 for categorizing foot posture that leads to a difficulty of choosing the appropriate assessment. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the correlation between the NNHt and the FPI-6 measures in adult participants with asymptomatic feet. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 47 asymptomatic individuals (23 males and 24 females) aged 28.89 ± 7.67 years with body mass index 21.73 ± 1.76 kg/m². The right foot was measured twice by the experienced rater using the NNHt and the FPI-6. A sequence of the measures was randomly arranged for each participant with a 10-minute rest between the tests. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationship between the measures. Results: The mean NNHt score was 0.23 ± 0.04 (ranged from 0.15 to 0.36) and the mean FPI-6 score was 4.42 ± 4.36 (ranged from -6 to +11). The Pearson’s correlation coefficient among the NNHt score and the FPI-6 score was -0.872 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The present finding demonstrates the strong correlation between the NNHt and FPI-6 in adult feet and implies that both measures could be substituted for each other in identifying foot posture.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2642
97772
Absorbed Dose Estimation of 177Lu-DOTATOC in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer Bearing Mice
Abstract:
In this study, the absorbed dose of human organs after injection of 177Lu-DOTATOC was studied based on the biodistribution of the complex in adenocarcinoma breast cancer bearing mice. For this purpose, the biodistribution of the radiolabelled complex was studied and compartmental modeling was applied to calculate the absorbed dose with high precision. As expected, 177Lu-DOTATOC illustrated a notable specific uptake in tumor and pancreas, organs with high level of somatostatin receptor on their surface and the effectiveness of the radio-conjugate for targeting of the breast adenocarcinoma tumors was indicated. The elicited results of modeling were the exponential equations, and those are utilized for obtaining the cumulated activity data by taking their integral. The results also exemplified that non-target absorbed-doses such as the liver, spleen and pancreas were approximately 0.008, 0.004, and 0.039, respectively. While these values were so much lower than target (tumor) absorbed-dose, it seems due to this low toxicity, this complex is a good agent for therapy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2641
97738
The Distributed Pattern of the Neurovascular Structures under Clavicle to Minimize Structural Injury in Clinical Field: Anatomical Study
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the location and distribution pattern of neurovascular structures superior and inferior to the clavicle by detailed dissection. Fifteen adult non-embalmed cadavers with a mean age of 71.5 years were studied. For measurements, the most prominent point of the sternal end of the clavicle (SEC) on anterior view and the most prominent point of the acromial end of the clavicle (AEC) were identified before dissection. A line connecting the SEC and AEC was used as a reference line. The surrounding neurovascular structures were investigated. The supraclavicular nerve was densely distributed at 71.73% on the reference line. Branches of the thoracoacromial artery were located at 76.92%. Branches of subclavian vein were evenly distributed at all sections. The subclavian vein and artery and brachial plexus were located from 31.3% to 57.5%. That area needs caution because major neurovascular structures run underneath the clavicle.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2640
97597
Aspirin Loaded Poly-L-Lactic Acid Nanofibers and Their Potentials as Small Diameter Vascular Grafts
Abstract:
Among various approaches used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the occlusion of the small-diameter vascular graft (SDVG) is still an unresolved problem which seeks further research to address them. Though autografts are now the gold standards to be replaced for blocked coronary arteries, they suffer from inadequate quality and quantity. On the other hand, the major problems of the tissue engineered grafts are thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. Provision of a suitable spatiotemporal release pattern of anticoagulant agents such as heparin and aspirin can be a step forward to overcome such issues . Herein, we fabricated electrospun scaffolds from FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) with aspirin loaded into the nanofibers. Also, we surface coated the scaffolds with Amniotic Membrane lysate as a source for natural elastic polymers and a mimic of endothelial basement membrane. The scaffolds were characterized thoroughly structurally and mechanically for their morphology, fiber orientation, tensile strength, hydrophilicity, cytotoxicity, aspirin release and cell attachment support. According to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the size of fibers ranged from 250 to 500 nm. The scaffolds showed appropriate tensile strength expected for vascular grafts. Cellular attachment, growth, and infiltration were proved using SEM and MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay. Drug-loaded scaffolds showed a sustained release profile of aspirin in 7 days. An enhanced cytocompatibility was observed in AM-coated electrospun PLLA fibers compared to uncoated scaffolds. Our results together indicated that AM lysate coated ASA releasing scaffolds have promising potentials for development of a biocompatible SDVG.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2639
97121
Teicoplanin Derivatives with Antiviral Activity: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation
Abstract:
The approval of modern glycopeptide antibiotics such as dalbavancin and oritavancin which have excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, encouraged our research group to prepare semisynthetic compounds from several members of glycopeptides by various chemical methods. Derivatives from the aglycone of ristocetin, eremomycin, vancomycin and a pseudoaglycon of teicoplanin have been synthesized in a systematic manner. Interestingly, some of the aglycoristocetin derivatives displayed noteworthy anti-influenza activity. More recently our group has been focusing on the modifications of one of the pseudoaglycons of teicoplanin. The reaction of N-ethoxycarbonyl maleimide derivatives with the primary amino function, the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne click reaction and the sulfonylation of the N-terminus were utilized to obtain systematic series of compounds. All substituents provide a more lipophilic character to the new molecules compared to the parent antibiotics, which is known to be favourable for activity against resistant bacteria. Lipoglycopeptides are also known to have antiviral properties, which has been predominantly studied on HIV by others. The structure-activity relationship study of our compounds revealed the influence of a few structural elements on biological activity. In many cases, minimal changes in lipophilicity and structure produced great differences in efficacy and cytotoxicity. In vitro experiments showed that these compounds are not only active against glycopeptide resistant Gram-positive bacteria but in several cases they prevent the infection of cell cultures by different strains of influenza viruses. This is probably related to the inhibition of the viral entry into the host cell nucleus, of which the exact mechanism is unknown. In some instances, reasonably low concentrations were sufficient to observe this effect. Several derivatives were highly cytotoxic at the same time, but some of them displayed a good selectivity index. The antiviral properties of the compounds are not restricted to influenza viruses e.g., some of them showed good activity against Human Coronavirus 229E. This work could potentially lead to the development of antiviral drugs which possess the crucial structural motifs that are needed for antiviral activity, while missing those which contribute to the antibacterial effect.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2638
96958
Diagnostic Properties of Exercise or Pharmacological Stress Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy in Per-Vessel Basis: A Clinical Validation Study
Abstract:
Background: Various stress tests have been proposed yet to assess patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, their diagnostic properties in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are variable and their applicability remained somewhat vague. The aim of this study is to validate per-vessel diagnostic properties of 3 types of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in gated SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) using either exercise or pharmacological stress testing with dipyridamole or dobutamine. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of 314 patients who referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran between September 2015 and January 2017 were completely reviewed in this study. All patients underwent coronary angiography within 3 months after stress myocardial perfusion scan. Eventually, the results were analyzed in per-vessel basis to find the proper modality for each involved vessel or scanned site. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.15 ± 4.94 years (30-85) and 35.03% were women. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated as 56.59%, 54.24%, and 55.09%, respectively. These values were 56.43% and 53.25%, 54.46% and 47.36%, 56.75% and 54.83% for dipyridamole and exercise, respectively. Ischemia of the anterior wall through exercise stress testing has the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting LAD (Left Anterior Descending artery) involvement. Inferior wall hypokinesia and anterolateral wall ischemia during exercise stress testing have the highest diagnostic accuracy in detecting RCA (Right Coronary Artery) and LCX artery (Left Circumflex Artery) stenosis, respectively. Conclusion: Stress myocardial perfusion scan should be carried out on the basis of the findings of the preliminary investigations on suspicion of a specific coronary artery or involved myocardial wall.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2637
96829
Dependence of Androgen Status in Men with Primary Hypothyroidism on Duration and Condition of Compensation
Authors:
Abstract:
Introduction: The role of androgen deficiency in men as a factor in the pathogenesis of many somatic diseases is unmistakable. The interaction of thyroid and sex hormones with hypothyroidism in men is still the subject of discussions. The purpose of the study is to assess the androgen status of men with primary hypothyroidism, depending on its duration and the state of compensation. Materials and methods: 45 men with primary hypothyroidism aged 35 to 60 years, as well as 25 healthy men, who formed a control group, were under supervision. A selection of men for examination was conducted in the process of outpatient and in-patient treatment at the endocrinology department of the University Hospital in Ternopil. The functional state of the pituitary-gonadal system was evaluated in order to characterize the androgen status of patients. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone was determined in blood with the help of enzyme-linked method. Also, the content of hormones: total testosterone, linking sex hormones globulin were determined. Results: Reduced total testosterone (TT) content was found in 42.2% of patients with hypothyroidism. Herewith in 17.8% of patients, blood TT levels were lower than 8.0 nmol / L, and in 11 (24.4%) men, the rate was in the range of 8.0 to 12.0 nmol / L. Based on the results of the determination of the content of free testosterone (FT), the frequency of laboratory hypogonadism in men with hypothyroidism was higher than the results of the determination of TT. The degree of compensation of hypothyroidism probably did not affect the average levels of gonadotropic and sex hormones. Conclusions: Reduced total testosterone content was found in 42.2% of patients with primary hypothyroidism. Herewith, in 17.8% of patients blood TT levels were lower than 8.0 nmol / L, which is a sign of absolute deficiency of testosterone, and in 24.4% of men the rate ranged from 8.0 to 12.0 nmol / l , indicating partial androgen deficiency. Linking sex hormones globulin levels were believed to be lower in 46.7% of patients with hypothyroidism compared to control group. The average levels of E2 in the examined patients did not significantly differ from the mean of control group. FSH, LH, and prolactin levels in men with hypothyroidism were within the normal age limits and probably did not differ from those of control group. The degree of compensation of hypothyroidism probably did not affect the average levels of gonadotropic and sex hormones. The mean LH content in the blood was significantly increased in men with a duration of hypothyroidism up to 5 years and did not differ from that of the control group and in men with a duration of hypothyroidism over 5 years. In men with hypothyroidism, a probable reduction in T / LH coefficient is found. The obtained data may indicate a combined lesion of the central and peripheral parts of the pituitary-gonadal system in men with hypothyroidism.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2636
96799
The Effects of Circadian Rhythms Change in High Latitudes
Abstract:
Nowadays, Arctic and Antarctic regions are distinguished to be one of the most important strategic resources for global development. Nonetheless, living conditions in Arctic regions still demand certain improvements. As soon as the region is rarely populated, one of the main points of interest is health accommodation of the people, who migrate to Arctic region for permanent and shift work. At Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, personnel face polar day and polar night conditions during the time of the year. It means that they are deprived of natural sunlight in winter season and have continuous daylight in summer. Firstly, the change in light intensity during 24-hours period due to migration affects circadian rhythms. Moreover, the controlled artificial light in winter is also an issue. The results of the recent studies on night shift medical professionals, who were exposed to permanent artificial light, have already demonstrated higher risks in cancer, depression, Alzheimer disease. Moreover, people exposed to frequent time zones change are also subjected to higher risks of heart attack and cancer. Thus, our main goals are to understand how high latitude work and living conditions can affect human health and how it can be prevented. In our study, we analyze molecular and cellular factors, which play important role in circadian rhythm change and distinguish main risk groups in people, migrating to high latitudes. The main well-studied index of circadian timing is melatonin or its metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. In low light intensity melatonin synthesis is disturbed and as a result human organism requires more time for sleep, which is still disregarded when it comes to working time organization. Lack of melatonin also causes shortage in serotonin production, which leads to higher depression risk. Melatonin is also known to inhibit oncogenes and increase apoptosis level in cells, the main factors for tumor growth, as well as circadian clock genes (for example Per2). Thus, people who work in high latitudes can be distinguished as a risk group for cancer diseases and demand more attention. Clock/Clock genes, known to be one of the main circadian clock regulators, decrease sensitivity of hypothalamus to estrogen and decrease glucose sensibility, which leads to premature aging and oestrous cycle disruption. Permanent light exposure also leads to accumulation superoxide dismutase and oxidative stress, which is one of the main factors for early dementia and Alzheimer disease. We propose a new screening system adjusted for people, migrating from middle to high latitudes and accommodation therapy. Screening is focused on melatonin and estrogen levels, sleep deprivation and neural disorders, depression level, cancer risks and heart and vascular disorders. Accommodation therapy includes different types artificial light exposure, additional melatonin and neuroprotectors. Preventive procedures can lead to increase of migration intensity to high latitudes and, as a result, the prosperity of Arctic region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2635
96646
Spermiogram Values of Fertile Men in Malatya Region
Abstract:
Objective: It was aimed to evaluate the current status of semen parameters in fertile males with one or more children and whose wife having a pregnancy for the last 1-12 months in Malatya region. Methods: Sperm samples were obtained from 131 voluntary fertile men. In each analysis, sperm volume (ml), number of sperm (sperm/ml), sperm motility and sperm viscosity were examined with Makler device. Classification was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results: Mean ejaculate volume ranged from 1.5 ml to 5.5 ml, sperm count ranged from 27 to 180 million/ml and motility ranged from 35 to 90%. Sperm motility was found to be on average; 69.9% in A, 7.6% in B, 8.7% in C, 13.3% in D category. Conclusion: The mean spermiogram values of fertile males in Malatya region were found to be similar to those in fertile males determined by the WHO. This study has a regional classification value in terms of spermiogram values.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2634
96454
Molecular Detection and Antibiotics Resistance Pattern of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli in a Tertiary Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria
Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance is increasing globally and has become a major health challenge. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase is clinically important because the ESBL gene are mostly plasmid encoded and these plasmids frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other classes of antimicrobials thereby limiting antibiotic options in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs production in Escherichia coli, to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of ESBLs producing Escherichia coli, to detect TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes and the risk factors to acquisition of ESBL producing Escherichia coli. The protocol of the study was approved by Health Research and Ethics committee of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that involved all hospitalized patients in UNTH from whose specimens Escherichia coli was isolated during the period of the study. The samples analysed were urine, wound swabs, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. These samples were cultured in 5% sheep Blood agar and MacConkey agar (Oxoid Laboratories, Cambridge UK) and incubated at 35-370C for 24 hours. Escherichia coli was identified with standard biochemical tests and confirmed using API 20E auxanogram (bioMerieux, Marcy 1'Etoile, France). The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method and interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guideline. ESBL production was confirmed using ESBL Epsilometer test strips (Liofilchem srl, Italy). The ESBL bla genes were detected with polymerase chain reaction, after extraction of DNA with plasmid mini-prep kit (Jena Bioscience, Jena, Germany). Data analysis was with appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred and six isolates (53.00%) out of the 200 were from urine, followed by isolates from different swabs specimens 53(26.50%) and the least number of the isolates 4(2.00) were from blood (P value = 0.096). Seventy (35.00%) out of the 200 isolates, were confirmed positive for ESBL production. Forty-two (60.00%) of the isolates were from female patients while 28(40.00%) were from male patients (P value = 0.13). Sixty-eight (97.14%) of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem while all of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. From the 70 positive isolates the ESBL genes detected with polymerase chain reaction were blaCTX-M (n=26; 37.14%), blaTEM (n=7; 10.00%), blaSHV (n=2; 2.86%), blaCTX-M/TEM (n=7; 10.0%), blaCTX-M/SHV (n=14; 20.0%) and blaCTX-M/TEM/SHV (n=10; 14.29%). There was no gene detected in 4(5.71%) of the isolates. The most associated risk factors to infections caused by ESBL producing Escherichia coli was previous antibiotics use for the past 3 months followed by admission in the intensive care unit, recent surgery, and urinary catheterization. In conclusion, ESBLs was detected in 4 of every 10 Escherichia coli with the predominant gene detected being CTX-M. This knowledge will enable appropriate measures towards improvement of patient health care, antibiotic stewardship, research and infection control in the hospital.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2633
95599
Reduction in Population Growth under Various Contraceptive Strategies in Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract:
Contraceptive policies have been derived to achieve desired reductions in the growth rate and also, applied to the data of Uttar-Pradesh, India for illustration. Using the Lotka&rsquo;s integral equation for the stable population, expressions for the proportion of contraceptive users at different ages have been obtained. At the age of 20 years, 42% of contraceptive users is imperative to reduce the present annual growth rate of 0.036 to 0.02, assuming that 40% of the contraceptive users discontinue at the age of 25 years and 30% again continue contraceptive use at age 30 years. Further, presuming that 75% of women start using contraceptives at the age of 23 years, and 50% of the remaining women start using contraceptives at the age of 28 years, while the rest of them start using it at the age of 32 years. If we set a minimum age of marriage as 20 years, a reduction of 0.019 in growth rate will be obtained. This study describes how the level of contraceptive use at different age groups of women reduces the growth rate in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The article also promotes delayed marriage in the region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2632
95598
Count Data Regression Modeling: An Application to Spontaneous Abortion in India
Abstract:
Objective: In India, around 20,000 women die every year due to abortion-related complications. In the modelling of count variables, there is sometimes a preponderance of zero counts. This article concerns the estimation of various count regression models to predict the average number of spontaneous abortion among women in the Punjab state of India. It also assesses the factors associated with the number of spontaneous abortions. Materials and methods: The study included 27,173 married women of Punjab obtained from the DLHS-4 survey (2012-13). Poisson regression (PR), Negative binomial (NB) regression, zero hurdle negative binomial (ZHNB), and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models were employed to predict the average number of spontaneous abortions and to identify the determinants affecting the number of spontaneous abortions. Results: Statistical comparisons among four estimation methods revealed that the ZINB model provides the best prediction for the number of spontaneous abortions. Antenatal care (ANC) place, place of residence, total children born to a woman, woman's education and economic status were found to be the most significant factors affecting the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. Conclusions: The study offers a practical demonstration of techniques designed to handle count variables. Statistical comparisons among four estimation models revealed that the ZINB model provided the best prediction for the number of spontaneous abortions and is recommended to be used to predict the number of spontaneous abortions. The study suggests that women receive institutional Antenatal care to attain limited parity. It also advocates promoting higher education among women in Punjab, India.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2631
95572
Human Development Outcomes and Macroeconomic Indicators Nexus in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation
Abstract:
This study investigates the response of human development outcomes to selected macroeconomic indicators in Nigeria. Human development outcomes is measured by human development index while the selected macroeconomic variables are inflation rate, real interest rate, government capital expenditure, real exchange rate, current account balance, and savings. Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) technique is employed in examining the response of human development index to the macroeconomic shocks. The result from the forecast error variance decomposition and Impulse-Response analysis reveals that fiscal policy (government capital expenditure) shock is the greatest determinant of human development outcomes. This result reiterates the role which the government plays in improving the welfare of the citizenry. The fiscal policy tool is pivotal in human development which comes in the form of investment in education, health, housing, and infrastructure. Further conclusion drawn from this study is that human development outcome positively and significantly responds to shocks from real interest rate, a monetary policy transmission variable and is felt greatly in the short run period. The policy implication of this study is that if capital budget implementation falls below expectations, human development will be engendered. Hence, efforts should be made to ensure that full implementation and appraisal of government capital expenditure is taken sacrosanct as any shock from such plan, engenders human development outcome.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2630
95506
Distances over Incomplete Diabetes and Breast Cancer Data Based on Bhattacharyya Distance
Abstract:
Missing values in real-world datasets are a common problem. Many algorithms were developed to deal with this problem, most of them replace the missing values with a fixed value that was computed based on the observed values. In our work, we used a distance function based on Bhattacharyya distance to measure the distance between objects with missing values. Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions. The proposed distance distinguishes between known and unknown values. Where the distance between two known values is the Mahalanobis distance. When, on the other hand, one of them is missing the distance is computed based on the distribution of the known values, for the coordinate that contains the missing value. This method was integrated with Wikaya, a digital health company developing a platform that helps to improve prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In order for Wikaya&rsquo;s recommendation system to work distance between users need to be measured. Since there are missing values in the collected data, there is a need to develop a distance function distances between incomplete users profiles. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed distance function in reflecting the actual similarity between different objects, when some of them contain missing values, we integrated it within the framework of k nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier, since its computation is based only on the similarity between objects. To validate this, we ran the algorithm over diabetes and breast cancer datasets, standard benchmark datasets from the UCI repository. Our experiments show that kNN classifier using our proposed distance function outperforms the kNN using other existing methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2629
95503
Assessment of Very Low Birth Weight Neonatal Tracking and a High-Risk Approach to Minimize Neonatal Mortality in Bihar, India
Abstract:
In the absence of adequate well-equipped neonatal-care facilities serving rural Bihar, India, the practice of essential home-based newborn-care remains critically important for reduction of neonatal and infant mortality, especially among pre-term and small-for-gestational-age (Low-birth-weight) newborns. To improve the child health parameters in Bihar, ‘Very-Low-Birth-Weight (vLBW) Tracking’ intervention is being conducted by CARE India, since 2015, targeting public facility-delivered newborns weighing ≤2000g at birth, to improve their identification and provision of immediate post-natal care. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, 200 public health facilities were randomly selected from all functional public-sector delivery points in Bihar and various outcomes were tracked among the neonates born there. Thus far, one pre-intervention (Feb-Apr’2015-born neonates) and three post-intervention (for Sep-Oct’2015, Sep-Oct’2016 and Sep-Oct’2017-born children) follow-up studies were conducted. In each round, interviews were conducted with the mothers/caregivers of successfully-tracked children to understand outcome, service-coverage and care-seeking during the neonatal period. Data from 171 matched facilities common across all rounds were analyzed using SAS-9.4. Identification of neonates with birth-weight ≤ 2000g improved from 2% at baseline to 3.3%-4% during post-intervention. All indicators pertaining to post-natal home-visits by frontline-workers (FLWs) improved. Significant improvements between baseline and post-intervention rounds were also noted regarding mothers being informed about ‘weak’ child – at the facility (R1 = 25 to R4 = 50%) and at home by FLW (R1 = 19%, to R4 = 30%). Practice of ‘Kangaroo-Mother-Care (KMC)’– an important component of essential newborn care – showed significant improvement in postintervention period compared to baseline in both facility (R1 = 15% to R4 = 31%) and home (R1 = 10% to R4=29%). Increasing trend was noted regarding detection and birth weight-recording of the extremely low-birth-weight newborns (< 1500 g) showed an increasing trend. Moreover, there was a downward trend in mortality across rounds, in each birth-weight strata (< 1500g, 1500-1799g and >= 1800g). After adjustment for the differential distribution of birth-weights, mortality was found to decline significantly from R1 (22.11%) to R4 (11.87%). Significantly declining trend was also observed for both early and late neonatal mortality and morbidities. Multiple regression analysis identified - birth during immediate post-intervention phase as well as that during the maintenance phase, birth weight > 1500g, children of low-parity mothers, receiving visit from FLW in the first week and/or receiving advice on extra care from FLW as predictors of survival during neonatal period among vLBW newborns. vLBW tracking was found to be a successful and sustainable intervention and has already been handed over to the Government.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2628
95495
Mentoring of Health Professionals to Ensure Better Child-Birth and Newborn Care in Bihar, India: An Intervention Study
Abstract:
AMANAT is an initiative, taken in collaboration with the Government of Bihar, aimed at improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal care services at Bihar’s public health facilities – those offering either the Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal care (BEmONC) or Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal care (CEmONC) services. The effectiveness of this program is evaluated by conducting cross-sectional assessments at the concerned facilities prior to (baseline) and following completion (endline) of intervention. Direct Observation of Delivery (DOD) methodology is employed for carrying out the baseline and endline assessments – through which key obstetric and neonatal care practices among the Health Care Providers (especially the nurses) are assessed quantitatively by specially trained nursing professionals. Assessment of vitals prior to delivery improved during all three phases of BEmONC and all four phases of CEmONC training with statistically significant improvement noted in: i) pulse measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (9% to 68%), 3 (4% to 57%) & 4 (14% to 59%) and CEmONC phase 2 (7% to 72%) and 3 (0% to 64%); ii) blood pressure measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (27% to 84%), 3 (21% to 76%) & 4 (36% to 71%) and CEmONC phase 2 (23% to 76%) and 3 (2% to 70%); iii) fetal heart rate measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (10% to 72%), 3 (11% to 77%) & 4 (13% to 64%) and CEmONC phase 1 (24% to 38%), 2 (14% to 82%) and 3 (1% to 73%); and iv) abdominal examination in BEmONC phase 2 (14% to 59%), 3 (3% to 59%) & 4 (6% to 56%) and CEmONC phase 1 (0% to 24%), 2 (7% to 62%) & 3 (0% to 62%). Regarding infection control, wearing of apron, mask and cap by the delivery conductors improved significantly in all BEmONC phases. Similarly, the practice of handwashing improved in all BEmONC and CEmONC phases. Even on disaggregation, the handwashing showed significant improvement in all phases but CEmONC phase-4. Not only the positive practices related to handwashing improved but also negative practices such as turning off the tap with bare hands declined significantly in the aforementioned phases. Significant decline was also noted in negative maternal care practices such as application of fundal pressure for hastening the delivery process and administration of oxytocin prior to delivery. One of the notable achievement of AMANAT is an improvement in active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL). The overall AMTSL (including administration of oxytocin or other uterotonics uterotonic in proper dose, route and time along with controlled cord traction and uterine massage) improved in all phases of BEmONC and CEmONC mentoring. Another key area of improvement, across phases, was in proper cutting/clamping of the umbilical cord. AMANAT mentoring also led to improvement in important immediate newborn care practices such as initiation of skin-to-skin care and timely initiation of breastfeeding. The next phase of the mentoring program seeks to institutionalize mentoring across the state that could potentially perpetuate improvement with minimal external intervention.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2627
95316
Clinical Outcome after in Vitro Fertilization in Women Aged 40 Years and Above: Reasonable Cut-Off Age for Successful Pregnancy
Abstract:
Advanced female age is associated with higher cycle cancelation rates, lower clinical pregnancy rate, increased miscarriage and aneuploidy rates in IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) cycles. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a Cha Fertility Center, Seoul Station. All fresh non-donor IVF cycles performed in women aged 40 years and above from January 2016 to December 2016 were reviewed. Donor/recipient treatment, PGD/PGS (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis/ Preimplantation Genetic Screening) were excluded from analysis. Of the 1,166 cycles from 753 women who completed ovulation induction, 1,047 were appropriate for the evaluation according to inclusion and exclusion criterion. IVF cycles were categorized according to age and grouped into the following 1-year age groups: 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 and > 46. The mean age of patients was 42.4 ± 1.8 years. The median AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) level was 1.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL. The mean number of retrieved oocytes was 4.9 ± 4.3. The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in women > 40 years significantly decreased with each year of advancing age (p < 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rate decreased from 21% at the age of 40 years to 0% at ages above 45 years. Live birth rate decreased from 12.3% to 0%, respectively. There were no clinical pregnancy outcomes among 95 patients aged above 45 years of age. The overall miscarriage rate was 40.7% (range, 36.7%-70%). The transfer of at least one good quality embryo was associated with about 4-9% increased chance of a clinical pregnancy rate. Therefore, IVF in old age women less than 46 had a reasonable chance for successful pregnancy outcomes especially when good quality embryo is transferred.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2626
95308
Electronic Six-Minute Walk Test (E-6MWT): Less Manpower, Higher Efficiency, and Better Data Management
Abstract:
Six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a sub-maximal exercise test to assess aerobic capacity and exercise tolerance of patients with chronic respiratory disease and heart failure. This has been proven to be a reliable and valid tool and commonly used in clinical situations. Traditional 6MWT is labour-intensive and time-consuming especially for patients who require assistance in ambulation and oxygen use. When performing the test with these patients, one staff will assist the patient in walking (with or without aids) while another staff will need to manually record patient’s oxygen saturation, heart rate and walking distance at every minute and/or carry oxygen cylinder at the same time. Physiotherapist will then have to document the test results in bed notes in details. With the use of electronic 6MWT (E-6MWT), patients wear a wireless oximeter that transfers data to a tablet PC via Bluetooth. Real-time recording of oxygen saturation, heart rate, and distance are displayed. No manual work on recording is needed. The tablet will generate a comprehensive report which can be directly attached to the patient’s bed notes for documentation. Data can also be saved for later patient follow up. This study was carried out in North District Hospital. Patients who followed commands and required 6MWT assessment were included. Patients were assigned to study or control groups. In the study group, patients adopted the E-6MWT while those in control group adopted the traditional 6MWT. Manpower and time consumed were recorded. Physiotherapists also completed a questionnaire about the use of E-6MWT. Total 12 subjects (Study=6; Control=6) were recruited during 11-12/2017. An average number of staff required and time consumed in traditional 6MWT were 1.67 and 949.33 seconds respectively; while in E-6MWT, the figures were 1.00 and 630.00 seconds respectively. Compared to traditional 6MWT, E-6MWT required 67.00% less manpower and 50.10% less in time spent. Physiotherapists (n=7) found E-6MWT is convenient to use (mean=5.14; satisfied to very satisfied), requires less manpower and time to complete the test (mean=4.71; rather satisfied to satisfied), has better data management (mean=5.86; satisfied to very satisfied) and is recommended to be used clinically (mean=5.29; satisfied to very satisfied). It is proven that E-6MWT requires less manpower input with higher efficiency and better data management. It is welcomed by the clinical frontline staff.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2625
95306
Quick Response Codes in Physio: A Simple Click to Long-Term Oxygen Therapy Education
Abstract:
QR (Quick Response) Code is a matrix barcode. It enables users to open websites, photos and other information with mobile devices by just snapping the code. In usual Long Term Oxygen Therapy arrangement, piles of LTOT related information like leaflets from different oxygen service providers are given to patients to choose an appropriate plan according to their needs. If these printed materials are transformed into electronic format (QR Code), it would be more environmentally-friendly. More importantly, electronic materials including LTOT equipment operation and dyspnoea relieving techniques also empower patients in long-term disease management. The objective to this study is to investigate the effect of QR code in patient education on new LTOT users. This study was carried out in medical wards of North District Hospital. Adult patients and relatives who followed commands, were able to use smartphones with internet services and required LTOT arrangement on hospital discharge were recruited. In LTOT arrangement, apart from the usual LTOT education booklets which included patients’ personal information (e.g. oxygen titration and six-minute walk test results etc.), extra leaflets consisted of 1. QR codes of LTOT plans from different oxygen service providers, 2. Education materials of dyspnoea management and 3. Instructions on LTOT equipment operation were given. Upon completion of LTOT arrangement, a questionnaire about the use of QR code on patient education was filled in by patients or relatives. A total of 10 new LTOT users were recruited from November 2017 to January 2018. Initially, 70% of them did not know anything about the QR code, but all of them understood its operation after a simple demonstration. 70% of them agreed that it was convenient to use (20% strongly agree, 40% agree, 10% somewhat agree). 80% of them agreed that QR code could facilitate the retrieval of more LTOT related information (10% strongly agree, 70% agree) while 90% agreed that we should continue delivering QR code leaflets to new LTOT users in the future (30% strongly agree, 40% agree, 20% somewhat agree). It is proven that QR code is a convenient and environmentally-friendly tool to deliver information. It is also relatively easy to be introduced to new users. It has received welcoming feedbacks from current users.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2624
95129
Evaluating the Educational Intervention Based on Web and Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction to Promote Physical Activities and HS-CRP Factor among Nurses
Abstract:
Introduction: Inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. According to the study prevalence of inactivity in Iran, about 67.5% and in the staff, and especially nurses, are similar. The inflammatory index (HS-CRP) is highly predictive of the progression of these diseases. Physical activity education is very important in preventing these diseases. One of the modern educational methods is web-based theory-based education. Methods: This is a semi-experimental interventional study which was conducted in Isfahan and Kurdistan universities of medical sciences in two stages. A cross-sectional study was done to determine the status of physical activity and its predictive factors. Then, intervention was performed, and six months later the data were retrieved. The data was collected using a demographic questionnaire, an integrative model of behavior prediction constructs, a standard physical activity questionnaire and (HS-CRP) test. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Physical activity was low in 66.6% of nurses, 25.4% were moderate and 8% severe. According to Pearson correlation matrix, the highest correlation was found between behavioral intention and skill structures (0.553**), subjective norms (0.222**) and self-efficacy (0.198**). The relationship between age and physical activity in the first study was reverse and significant. After intervention, there was a significant change in attitudes, self-efficacy, skill and behavioral intention in the intervention group. This change was significant in attitudes, self-efficacy and environmental conditions of the control group. HS-CRP index decreased significantly after intervention in both groups, but there was not a significant relationship between inflammatory index and physical activity score. The change in physical activity level was significant only in the control group. Conclusion: Despite the effect of educational intervention on attitude, self-efficacy, skill, and behavioral intention, the results showed that if factors such as environmental factors are not corrected, training and changing structures cannot lead to physical activity behavior. On the other hand, no correlation between physical activity and HS-CRP showed that this index can be influenced by other factors, and this should be considered in any intervention to reduce the HS-CRP index.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2623
94922
Eosinopenia: Marker for Early Diagnosis of Enteric Fever
Abstract:
Enteric Fever is caused by gram negative bacilli Salmonella typhi and paratyphi. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely initiation of treatment is a crucial step for prevention of any complications. Cultures of body fluids are diagnostic, but not always conclusive or practically feasible in most centers. Moreover, the results of cultures delay the treatment initiation. Serological tests lack diagnostic value. The blood counts can offer a promising option in diagnosis. A retrospective study to find out the relevance of leucopenia and eosinopenia was conducted on 203 culture proven enteric fever patients and 159 culture proven non-enteric fever patients in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. The patient details were retrieved from the electronic medical records section of the hospital. Absolute eosinopenia was considered as absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of less than 40/mm³ (normal level: 40-400/mm³) using LH-750 Beckman Coulter Automated machine. Leucopoenia was defined as total leucocyte count (TLC) of less than 4 X 10⁹/l. Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT FA plus automated blood culture system before first antibiotic dose was given. Case and control groups were compared using Pearson Chi square test. It was observed that absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of 0-19/mm³ was a significant finding (p < 0.001) in enteric fever patients, whereas leucopenia was not a significant finding (p=0.096). Using Receiving Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, it was observed that patients with both AEC < 14/mm³ and TCL < 8 x 10⁹/l had 95.6% chance of being diagnosed as enteric fever and only 4.4% chance of being diagnosed as non-enteric fever. This result was highly significant with p < 0.001. This is a very useful association of AEC and TLC found in enteric fever patients of this study which can be used for the early initiation of treatment in clinically suspected enteric fever patients.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2622
94889
Transcriptomic Analysis of Acanthamoeba castellanii Virulence Alteration by Epigenetic DNA Methylation
Abstract:
Background: Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae which lives as a free-living in nature or as a human pathogen that causes severe brain and eye infections. Virulence potential of Acanthamoeba is not constant and can change with growth conditions. DNA methylation, an epigenetic process which adds methyl groups to DNA, is used by eukaryotic cells, including several human parasites to control their gene expression. We used qPCR, siRNA gene silencing, and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to study DNA-methyltransferase gene family (DNMT) in order to indicate the possibility of its involvement in programming Acanthamoeba virulence potential. Methods: A virulence-attenuated Acanthamoeba isolate (designation: ATCC; original isolate: ATCC 50492) was subjected to mouse passages to restore its pathogenicity; a virulence-reactivated isolate (designation: AC/5) was generated. Several established factors associated with Acanthamoeba virulence phenotype were examined to confirm the succession of reactivation process. Differential gene expression of DNMT between ATCC and AC/5 isolates was performed by qPCR. Silencing on DNMT gene expression in AC/5 isolate was achieved by siRNA duplex. Total RNAs extracted from ATCC, AC/5, and siRNA-treated (designation: si-146) were subjected to RNA-Seq for comparative transcriptomic analysis in order to identify the genome-wide effect of DNMT in regulating Acanthamoeba gene expression. qPCR was performed to validate the RNA-Seq results. Results: Physiological and cytophatic assays demonstrated an increased in virulence potential of AC/5 isolate after mouse passages. DNMT gene expression was significantly higher in AC/5 compared to ATCC isolate (p ≤ 0.01) by qPCR. si-146 duplex reduced DNMT gene expression in AC/5 isolate by 30%. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified the differentially expressed genes, with 3768 genes in AC/5 vs ATCC isolate; 2102 genes in si-146 vs AC/5 isolate and 3422 genes in si-146 vs ATCC isolate, respectively (fold-change of ≥ 2 or ≤ 0.5, p-value adjusted (padj) < 0.05). Of these, 840 and 1262 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in si-146 vs AC/5 isolate. Eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) assignments revealed a higher percentage of downregulated gene expression in si-146 compared to AC/5 isolate, were related to posttranslational modification, signal transduction and energy production. Gene Ontology (GO) terms for those downregulated genes shown were associated with transport activity, oxidation-reduction process, and metabolic process. Among these downregulated genes were putative genes encoded for heat shock proteins, transporters, ubiquitin-related proteins, proteins for vesicular trafficking (small GTPases), and oxidoreductases. Functional analysis of similar predicted proteins had been described in other parasitic protozoa for their survival and pathogenicity. Decreased expression of these genes in si146-treated isolate may account in part for Acanthamoeba reduced pathogenicity. qPCR on 6 selected genes upregulated in AC/5 compared to ATCC isolate corroborated the RNA sequencing findings, indicating a good concordance between these two analyses. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and its effects on gene expression in Acanthamoeba spp. The present data indicate that DNA methylation has substantial effect on global gene expression, allowing further dissection of the genome-wide effects of DNA-methyltransferase gene in regulating Acanthamoeba pathogenicity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2621
94791
Comparison of Incidence and Risk Factors of Early Onset and Late Onset Preeclampsia: A Population Based Cohort Study
Abstract:
Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy. Prediction and management of preeclampsia is a challenge for obstetricians. To our knowledge, no major progress has been achieved in the prevention and early detection of preeclampsia. There is very little known about the clear treatment path of this disorder. Preeclampsia puts both mother and baby at risk of several short term- and long term-health problems later in life. There is huge health service cost burden in the health care system associated with preeclampsia and its complications. Preeclampsia is divided into two different types. Early onset preeclampsia develops before 34 weeks of gestation, and late onset develops at or after 34 weeks of gestation. Different genetic and environmental factors, prognosis, heritability, biochemical and clinical features are associated with early and late onset preeclampsia. Prevalence of preeclampsia greatly varies all over the world and is dependent on ethnicity of the population and geographic region. To authors best knowledge, no published data on preeclampsia exist in Qatar. In this study, we are reporting the incidence of preeclampsia in Qatar. The purpose of this study is to compare the incidence and risk factors of both early onset and late onset preeclampsia in Qatar. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted using data from the hospital record of Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), from May 2014-May 2016. Data collection tool, which was approved by HMC, was a researcher made extraction sheet that included information such as blood pressure during admission, socio demographic characteristics, delivery mode, and new born details. A total of 1929 patients’ files were identified by the hospital information management when they apply codes of preeclampsia. Out of 1929 files, 878 had significant gestational hypertension without proteinuria, 365 had preeclampsia, 364 had severe preeclampsia, and 188 had preexisting hypertension with superimposed proteinuria. In this study, 78% of the data was obtained by hospital electronic system (Cerner) and the remaining 22% was from patient’s paper records. We have gone through detail data extraction from 560 files. Initial data analysis has revealed that 15.02% of pregnancies were complicated with preeclampsia from May 2014-May 2016. We have analyzed difference in the two different disease entities in the ethnicity, maternal age, severity of hypertension, mode of delivery and infant birth weight. We have identified promising differences in the risk factors of early onset and late onset preeclampsia. The data from clinical findings of preeclampsia will contribute to increased knowledge about two different disease entities, their etiology, and similarities/differences. The findings of this study can also be used in predicting health challenges, improving health care system, setting up guidelines, and providing the best care for women suffering from preeclampsia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2620
94742
Effects of Oral L-Carnitine on Liver Functions after Trans arterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients
Abstract:
Introduction: Trans arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually followed by hepatic dysfunction that limits its efficacy. L-carnitine is recently studied as hepatoprotective agent. Our aim is to evaluate the L-carnitine effects against the deterioration of liver functions after TACE. Method: 53 patients with intermediate stage HCC were assigned into two groups; L-carnitine group (26 patients) who received L-carnitine 300 mg tablet twice daily from 2 weeks before to 12 weeks after TACE and control group (27 patients) without L-carnitine therapy. 28 of studied patients received branched chain amino acids granules. Results: There were significant differences between L-carnitine Vs. control group in mean serum albumin change from baseline to 1 week and 4 weeks after TACE (p < 0.05). L-Carnitine maintained Child-Pugh score at 1 week after TACE and exhibited improvement at 4 weeks after TACE (p < 0.01 Vs 1 week after TACE). Control group has significant Child-Pugh score deterioration from baseline to 1 week after TACE (p < 0.05) and 12 weeks after TACE (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between L-carnitine and control groups in mean Child-Pugh score change from baseline to 4 weeks (p < 0.05) and 12 weeks after TACE (p < 0.05). L-carnitine displayed improvement in (PT) from baseline to 1 week, 4 w (p < 0.05) and 12 weeks after TACE. PT in control group declined less than baseline along all follow up intervals. Total bilirubin in L-carnitine group decreased at 1 week post TACE while in control group, it significantly increased at 1 week (p = 0.01). ALT and C-reactive protein elevation were suppressed at 1 week after TACE in Lcarnitine group. The hepatoprotective effects of L-carnitine were enhanced by concomitant use of branched chain amino acids. Conclusion: L-carnitine and BCAA combination therapy offer a novel supportive strategy after TACE in HCC patients.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2619
94741
Biochemical Effects of Low Dose Dimethyl Sulfoxide on HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line
Abstract:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hepatocellular tumor commonly found on the surface of the chronic liver. HepG2 is the most commonly used cell type in HCC studies. The main proteins remaining in the blood serum after separation of plasma fibrinogen are albumin and globulin. The fact that the albumin showed hepatocellular damage and reflect the synthesis capacity of the liver was the main reason for our use. Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) is an albumin-like structural embryonic globulin found in the embryonic cortex, cord blood, and fetal liver. It has been used as a marker in the follow-up of tumor growth in various malign tumors and in the efficacy of surgical-medical treatments, so it is a good protein to look at with albumins. We have seen the morphological changes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on HepG2 and decided to investigate its biochemical effects. We examined the effects of DMSO, which is used in cell cultures, on albumin, AFP and total protein at low doses. Material Method: Cell Culture: Medium was prepared in cell culture using Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Media (DMEM), Fetal Bovine Serum Dulbecco's (FBS), Phosphate Buffered Saline and trypsin maintained at -20 ° C. Fixation of Cells: HepG2 cells, which have been appropriately developed at the end of the first week, were fixed with acetone. We stored our cells in PBS at + 4 ° C until the fixation was completed. Area Calculation: The areas of the cells are calculated in the ImageJ (IJ). Microscope examination: The examination was performed with a Zeiss Inverted Microscope. Daytime photographs were taken at 40x, 100x 200x and 400x. Biochemical Tests: Protein (Total): Serum sample was analyzed by a spectrophotometric method in autoanalyzer. Albumin: Serum sample was analyzed by a spectrophotometric method in autoanalyzer. Alpha-fetoprotein: Serum sample was analyzed by ECLIA method. Results: When liver cancer cells were cultured in medium with 1% DMSO for 4 weeks, a significant difference was observed when compared with the control group. As a result, we have seen that DMSO can be used as an important agent in the treatment of liver cancer. Cell areas were reduced in the DMSO group compared to the control group and the confluency ratio increased. The ability to form spheroids was also significantly higher in the DMSO group. Alpha-fetoprotein was lower than the values of an ordinary liver cancer patient and the total protein amount increased to the reference range of the normal individual. Because the albumin sample was below the specimen value, the numerical results could not be obtained on biochemical examinations. We interpret all these results as making DMSO a caretaking aid. Since each one was not enough alone we used 3 parameters and the results were positive when we refer to the values of a normal healthy individual in parallel. We hope to extend the study further by adding new parameters and genetic analyzes, by increasing the number of samples, and by using DMSO as an adjunct agent in the treatment of liver cancer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2618
94698
Insulin Resistance in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Upper Egypt Experience
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: In the last few years, factors such as insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis have been linked to progression of hepatic fibrosis.Patients with chronic liver disease, and cirrhosis in particular, are known to be prone to IR. However, chronic HCV (hepatitis C) infection may induce IR, regardless of the presence of liver cirrhosis. Our aims are to study insulin resistance (IR) assessed by HOMA-IR (Homeostatic Model Assessment Insulin Resistance) as a possible risk factor in disease progression in cirrhotic patients and to evaluate the role of IR in hepatic fibrosis progression. The correlations of HOMA-IR values to laboratory, virological and histopathological parameters of chronic HCV are also examined. Methods: The study included 50 people divided into 30 adult chronic hepatitis C patients diagnosed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) within previous 6 months and 20 healthy controls. The functional and morphological status of the liver were evaluated by ultrasonography and laboratory investigations including liver function tests and by liver biopsy. Fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin levels were measured and body mass index and insulin resistance were calculated. Patients having HOMA-IR >2.5 were labeled as insulin resistant. Results: Chronic hepatitis C patients with IR showed significantly higher mean values of BMI (body mass index) and fasting insulin than those without IR (P < 0.000). Patients with IR were more likely to have steatosis (p = 0.006), higher necroinflammatory activity (p = 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: HOMA-IR measurement could represent a novel marker to identify the cirrhotic patients at greater risk for the progression of liver disease. As IR is a potentially modifiable risk factor, these findings may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Assessment of IR by HOMA-IR and improving insulin sensitivity are recommended in patients with HCV and related chronic liver disease.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2617
94695
Relationship of Silent Myocardial Ischemia to Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Abstract:
Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), and microvascular complications that contribute to the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). On the other hand, silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is more common in diabetic patients and is a strong predictor of cardiac events and mortality in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Recently, Multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) has become a reliable non-invasive imaging modality for screening diabetic patients for SMI. We aim to evaluate the presence of SMI using (MDCT-CA) in patients with type 2DM having ED. Methods: This study evaluated 20 patients (mean age 61.45 ± 10.7 years), with DM and ED without any history of angina or angina equivalent. ED was tested with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men score, erection hardness score (EHS), and maximal penile circumferential change by an erect meter. Results: Of twenty studied patients, coronary artery stenosis was detected in 13 (65%) patients in the form of one-vessel disease (n = 6, 30%), two-vessel disease (n = 2, 10%), and three-vessel disease (n = 5, 25%). Maximum coronary artery stenosis was positively correlated with age (P < 0.016,) and negatively correlated with EHS (P < 04). Multivariate regression analysis using age and EHS showed that age was the only independent predictor of SMI (P < 04). Conclusion: MDCT-CA is a useful tool to identify SMI in patients with diabetes mellitus and ED. One should consider the possibility of SMI especially in elderly patients with DM who have ED.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):