Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 39602

Medical and Health Sciences

Stigma Associated with Living in a Care Home: Perspectives of Older Residents Living in Care Homes in Thailand
Background: High prevalence of depression has been reported among older adults living in care homes in Thailand, associated with physical impairment, low social support, low self-esteem and particularly stigma associated with living in a care home. However, little is understood about how such stigma is experienced among Thai care home residents. This study examines residents’ perceptions of stigma and their strategies for coping with stigma. Method/Design: Case study research was used to gain an in-depth view about the stigma of residents’ perspectives and experiences from two care homes in the northeast of Thailand by conducting an in-depth interview and non-participant observation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 older residents (aged >60 years), purposively sampled from both care homes. Non-participant observation was conducted in various public spaces of the care homes, including the dining room, corridors, and activities areas for approximately one to two hours per day at different times; morning and afternoon including weekdays and weekend in both care homes for one month. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: The study identified three major themes related to the causes of stigma, the reactions towards stigma and the mitigating factors. Negative beliefs about care homes, negative attitudes, and stereotypes toward the elderly and perceptions of unequal power relations between staff and residents were the main factors precipitating stigma. Consequently, residents exhibited negative emotions and behaviours, including depressive symptoms, while living in care homes. Residents reported the use of particular coping strategies, including accessing support from the public and staff and engaging in care home activities which these helped them to cope with their perception of stigma. Conclusion: Improved understanding of the underlying factors behind perceived stigma in care home residents may help to prevent depression and reduce perceptions of stigma associated with living in a care home, by informing strategy, supportive intervention and guidelines for appropriate care for older Thai residents.
Job Satisfaction among Brigadista in Nicaragua: A Lesson to Be Considered for Task-Shifting
Success of primary health care goals of health promotion and disease prevention may well be determined by community based health workers’ overall job satisfaction. It is also important to understand the ways community health workers perceive their jobs and the importance they give to the various factors influencing their job satisfaction, which is critical before making a decision for task-shifting and for expanding their scope of work. Although brigadistas are unpaid volunteers, they are formally recognized and receive support and supervision from the Ministry of Health in Nicaragua. Brigadistas are responsible for classifying and diagnosing illnesses, administering treatment, counseling mothers and care givers within the community, encouraging referral in case of serious illness and making follow-up visits at home. Some brigadistas provide more technically advanced services, including treatment for pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria and tuberculosis and/or distribution of contraceptives. Expanding brigadistas’ duties could threaten their heretofore ‘job satisfaction’. This study primarily aims to report on job satisfaction of brigadistas in Nicaragua before expanding the scope of their work by adding more responsibilities. The study was guided by the following research questions: 1) What aspects of their job made the brigadistas satisfied or dissatisfied? 2) What is the job satisfaction level of brigadistas in Nicaragua? This cross-sectional study was conducted during March – July 2014, to assess brigadistas’ job satisfaction, prior to deciding on inclusion of care for sick newborns and young infants (
The Characteristics of Withhold Resuscitation in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Introduction: Information as patient characteristics, resuscitation scene, resuscitation provider perspectives and families wish affects on resuscitation decision-making for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). There is no consistency consensus on how families and emergency physicians approach this decision. The main purpose of our study is to evaluate the characteristics of withholding resuscitation efforts arrival at the hospital. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with OHCA without pre-hospital return-of-spontaneous circulation (ROSC) who was sent to our emergency department (ED) between January 2014 and December 2015. Baseline characteristics, pre-hospital course, and causes of the cardiopulmonary arrest among patients were compared. Results: In 2 years, total 155 arrest patients without pre-hospital ROSC was included. 33(21.3%) patients withhold the resuscitation efforts in ED with mean resuscitation duration 4.45 ± 7.04 minutes after ED arrival. In withholding group, the initial rhythm of arrests was all non-shockable. 9 of them received endotracheal intubation before decision-making. None of the patients in withhold resuscitation group survived to discharge. There was no significant difference among gender, underlying cardiovascular disease, malignancy, chronic renal disease, nor witness collapse between withhold and continue resuscitation groups. Univariate analysis showed there was lower percentage of bystander resuscitation (32.3% vs. 50.4%, p=0.071), and the lower percentage of transport via emergency medical service (EMS) (78.8% vs. 91.8%, p=0.054) in withholding group. Multivariate analysis showed old age (adjusted odds ratio=1.06, 95% C.I.=[1.02-1.11], p< 0.05), with underlying respiratory insufficiency (adjusted odds ratio=12.16, 95% C.I.=[3.34-44.29], p< 0.05), living at home compared with nursing home (adjusted odds ratio=37.75, 95% C.I.=[1.09-1110.70], p< 0.05) were more likely to withhold resuscitation. Transport via EMS was more likely to continue resuscitation (adjusted odds ratio=0.11, 95% C.I.=[0.02-0.71], p< 0.05). Conclusion: The decision-making for families and emergency physicians to withhold or continue resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is complex and multi-factorial. Continue resuscitation efforts in nursing home residents is high, and further study among this population is warranted.
Self-Management among the Ethnic Groups with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thailand
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been rising all over the world. Self-management is required for diabetes mellitus patients. The objective of this study is to explore the self-management among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thailand, an upper middle-income country which is located in South East Asia. The ethnic groups in Thailand are a minority group which has limited education and a different culture, language, costume and lifestyle from Thai people. The qualitative exploratory study was used in this study. In-depth interviews with semi-structured open questions were conducted by 20 participants from purposive sampling. These participants were the ethnic groups who have type 2 diabetes mellitus, received the services from a region hospital, understood Thai and were willing to participate. Content analysis was adopted for the study. The results showed that all of the participants controlled their diet before the appointment day and never miss their appointment. Only 3 participants did their exercise while 2 participants stated that they occasionally forgot to take medicine. 10 participants use the herbs for reducing the sugar level. 12 participants drank a lot of water after a lapse in the diet because they believed that water could dilute the sugar. The findings identified 5 themes; ‘controlling diet before appointment day’; ‘drinking water after a lapse in diet’; ‘medication being a vital importance’; ‘exercise is unimportant’; and ‘taking herbs for sugar reduction’. The results of this study are important to the health professionals to understand the self-management of Ethnic groups and use the data to create the appropriate intervention for promoting health among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thailand. The findings will lead to the revision of health policy and the procedure for promoting health in this special ethnic groups.
Development, Evaluation and Scale-Up of a Mental Health Care Plan (MHCP) in Nepal
Globally, there is a significant gap between the number of individuals in need of mental health care and those who actually receive treatment. The evidence is accumulating that mental health services can be delivered effectively by primary health care workers through community-based programs and task-sharing approaches. Changing the role of specialist mental health workers from service delivery to building clinical capacity of the primary health care (PHC) workers could help in reducing treatment gap in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We developed a comprehensive mental health care plan in 2012 and evaluated its feasibility and effectiveness over the past three years. Initially, a mixed method formative study was conducted for the development of mental health care plan (MHCP). Routine monitoring and evaluation data, including client flow and reports of satisfaction, were obtained from beneficiaries (n=135) during the pilot-testing phase. Repeated community survey (N=2040); facility detection survey (N=4704) and the cohort study (N=576) were conducted for evaluation of the MHCP. The resulting MHCP consists of twelve packages divided over the community, health facility, and healthcare organization platforms. Detection of mental health problems increased significantly after introducing MHCP. Service implementation data support the real-life applicability of the MHCP, with reasonable treatment uptake. Currently, MHCP has been implemented in the entire Chitwan district where over 1400 people (438 people with depression, 406 people with psychosis, 181 people with epilepsy, 360 people with alcohol use disorder and 51 others) have received mental health services from trained health workers. Key barriers were identified and addressed, namely dissatisfaction with privacy, perceived burden among health workers, high drop-out rates and continue the supply of medicines. The results indicated that involvement of PHC workers in detection and management of mental health problems is an effective strategy to minimize treatment gap on mental health care in Nepal.
Functional Outcome of Speech, Voice and Swallowing Following Excision of Glomus Jugulare Tumor
Background: Glomus jugulare tumors arise within the jugular foramen and are commonly seen in females particularly on the left side. Surgical excision of the tumor may cause lower cranial nerve deficits. Cranial nerve involvement produces hoarseness of voice, slurred speech, and dysphagia along with other physical symptoms, thereby affecting the quality of life of individuals. Though oncological clearance is mainly emphasized on while treating these individuals, little importance is given to their communication, voice and swallowing problems, which play a crucial part in daily functioning. Objective: To examine the functions of voice, speech and swallowing outcomes of the subjects, following excision of glomus jugulare tumor. Methods: Two female subjects aged 56 and 62 years had come with a complaint of change in voice, inability to swallow and reduced clarity of speech following surgery for left glomus jugulare tumor were participants of the study. Their surgical information revealed multiple cranial nerve palsies involving the left facial, left superior and recurrent branches of the vagus nerve, left pharyngeal, left soft palate, left hypoglossal and vestibular nerves. Functional outcomes of voice, speech and swallowing were evaluated by perceptual and objective assessment procedures. Assessment included the examination of oral structures and functions, dysarthria by Frenchey dysarthria assessment, cranial nerve functions and swallowing functions. MDVP and Dr. Speech software were used to evaluate acoustic parameters of voice and quality of voice respectively. Results: The study revealed that both the subjects, subsequent to excision of glomus jugulare tumor, showed a varied picture of affected oral structure and functions, articulation, voice and swallowing functions. The cranial nerve assessment showed impairment of the vagus, hypoglossal, facial and glossopharyngeal nerves. Voice examination indicated vocal cord paralysis associated with breathy quality of voice, weak voluntary cough, reduced pitch and loudness range, and poor respiratory support. Perturbation parameters as jitter, shimmer were affected along with s/z ratio indicative of voice fold pathology. Reduced MPD(Maximum Phonation Duration) of vowels indicated that disturbed coordination between respiratory and laryngeal systems. Hypernasality was found to be a prominent feature which reduced speech intelligibility. Imprecise articulation was seen in both the subjects as the hypoglossal nerve was affected following surgery. Injury to vagus, hypoglossal, gloss pharyngeal and facial nerves disturbed the function of swallowing. All the phases of swallow were affected. Aspiration was observed before and during the swallow, confirming the oropharyngeal dysphagia. All the subsystems were affected as per Frenchey Dysarthria Assessment signifying the diagnosis of flaccid dysarthria. Conclusion: There is an observable communication and swallowing difficulty seen following excision of glomus jugulare tumor. Even with complete resection, extensive rehabilitation may be necessary due to significant lower cranial nerve dysfunction. The finding of the present study stresses the need for involvement of as speech and swallowing therapist for pre-operative counseling and assessment of functional outcomes.
Adaptation and Validation of Voice Handicap Index in Telugu Language
Background: Voice is multidimensional which convey emotion, feelings, and communication. Voice disorders have an adverse effect on the physical, emotional and functional domains of an individual. Self-rating by clients about their voice problem helps the clinicians to plan intervention strategies. Voice handicap index is one such self-rating scale contains 30 questions that quantify the functional, physical and emotional impacts of a voice disorder on a patient’s quality of life. Each subsection has 10 questions. Though adapted and validated versions of VHI are available in other Indian languages but not in Telugu, which is a Dravidian language native to India. It is mainly spoken in Andhra Pradesh and neighbouring states in southern India. Objectives: To adapt and validate the English version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) into Telugu language and evaluate its internal consistency and clinical validate in Telugu speaking population. Materials: The study carried out in three stages. First stage was a forward translation of English version of VHI, was given to ten experts, who were well proficient in writing and reading Telugu and five speech-language pathologists to translate into Telugu. Second Stage was backward translation where translated version of Telugu was given to a different group of ten experts (who were well proficient in writing and reading Telugu) and five speech-language pathologists who were native Telugu speakers and had good proficiency in Telugu and English. The third stage was an administration of translated version on Telugu to the targeted population. Totally 40 clinical subjects and 40 normal controls served as participants, and each group had 26 males and 14 females’ age range of 20 to 60 years. Clinical group comprised of individuals with laryngectomee with the Tracheoesophageal puncture (n=18), laryngitis (n=11), vocal nodules (n=7) and vocal fold palsy (n=4). Participants were asked to mark of their each experience on a 5 point equal appearing scale (0=never, 1=almost never, 2=sometimes, 3=almost always, 4=always) with a maximum total score of 120. Results: Statistical analysis was made by using SPSS software (22.0.0 Version). Mean, standard deviation and percentage (%) were calculated all the participants for both the groups. Internal consistency of VHI in Telugu was found to be excellent with the consistency scores for all the domains such as physical, emotional and functional are 0.742, 0.934and 0.938. The validity of scores showed a significant difference between clinical population and control group for domains like physical, emotional and functional and total scores. P value found to be less than 0.001( < 0.001). Negative correlation found in age and gender among self-domains such as physical, emotional and functional total scores in dysphonic and control group. Conclusion: The present study indicated that VHI in Telugu is able to discriminate participants having voice pathology from normal populations, which make this as a valid tool to collect information about their voice from the participants.
The Analysis of Questionnaires about the Health Condition of Students Involved in the Korean Medicine Doctors` Visiting School Program (Kmdvsp) -Cohort Study: Middle & High School Participator of Seong-Nam-
The aim of this study was to build base-line data for the Korean Medicine Doctors` Visiting School Program (KMDVSP) by analyzing a student health survey filled out by the students. Korean medicine doctors assigned to 20 middle and high schools in Seong-nam visited these schools eight times in five months. During each visit, the assigned doctors performed health consultations and Korean medicine treatment, and taught health education classes. 12115 students answered self-reported questionnaires about their own physical condition at the beginning of the program. In a question about pain, 7080(58%) reported having a headache, while 4048(33%) said they had a backache, nuchal pain/shoulder pain was reported by 5993(49%), dyspepsia was present in 2736(23%), rhinitis/sinusitis was reported by 4176(34%), coughing/dyspnea by 7102(59%), itching/skin rash by 2840(23%), and constipation was reported by 1091(9%), while 2264(18%) said they had diarrhea. Increased urinary frequency/feeling of residual urine was reported by 569 students (5%), and 3324(27%) said they had insomnia/fitful sleep/morning fatigue. When asked about menstruation, 4450(83%) of the female students reported irregular menstruation or said they experienced menstrual pain. Understanding the health condition of adolescent students is the starting point to determining national health policy to prevent various diseases in the future. We have developed the pilot project of KMDVSP and collected research about students’ health. Based on this data, further studies should be performed in order to develop a cooperative program between schools and the Korean medical center.
Parental Drinking and Risky Alcohol Related Behaviors: Predicting Binge Drinking Trajectories and Their Influence on Impaired Driving among College Students
Background: Alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and binge drinking are major health concerns among college students. Although the link between binge drinking and AID is well established, knowledge regarding binge drinking patterns, the factors influencing binge drinking, and the associations between consumption patterns and alcohol-related risk behaviors is lacking. Aims: To examine heterogeneous trajectories of binge drinking during college and tests factors that might predict class membership as well as class membership outcomes. Methods: Data were obtained from a sample of 1,265 college students (Mage = 18.5, SD = .66) as part of the Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women (N = 1,265; 59.3% female; 69.2% white). Analyses were completed in three stages. First, a growth curve analysis was conducted to identify trajectories of binge drinking over time. Second, growth curve mixture modeling analyses were pursued to assess unobserved growth trajectories of binge drinking without predictors. Lastly, parental drinking variables were added to the model as predictors of class membership, and AID and being a passenger of a drunk driver were added to the model as outcomes. Results: Three binge drinking trajectories were identified: high-convex, medium concave and low-increasing. Parental drinking was associated with being in high-convex and medium-concave classes. Compared to the low-increasing class, the high convex and medium concave classes reported more AID and being a passenger of a drunk driver more frequently. Conclusions: Parental drinking may affect children’s later engagement in AID. Efforts should focus on parents' education regarding the consequences of parental modeling of alcohol consumption.
Maternal and Neonatal Outcome Analysis in Preterm Abdominal Delivery Underwent Umbilical Cord Milking Compared to Early Cord Clamping
Preterm birth and anemia of prematurity are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, and anemia of the preterm neonates has become a major issue. The timing of umbilical cord clamping after a baby is born determines the amount of blood transferred from the placenta to fetus, Delayed Cord Clamping (DCC) has proven to prevent anemia in the neonates but it is constrained concern regarding the delayed in neonatal resuscitation. Umbilical Cord Milking (UCM) could be an alternative method for clamping the umbilical cord due to the active blood transfer from the placenta to the fetus. The aim of this study was to analyze the difference between maternal and neonatal outcome in preterm abdominal delivery who underwent UCM compared to ECC. This was an experimental study with randomized post-test only control design. Analyzed maternal and neonatal outcomes, significant P values (P < 0.05). Statistical comparison was carried out using Paired Samples t-test (α two tailed 0,05). The result was the mean of preoperative mother’s hemoglobin in UCM group compared to ECC (10,9 + 0,9 g/dL vs 10,4 + 0,9 g/dL) and postoperative (11,1 + 1,1 g/dL vs 10,5 + 0,7 g/dL), the delta was (0,2 + 0,7 vs 0,1 + 0,6.). It showed no significant difference (P=0,395 vs 0,627). The mean of 3rd phase labor duration in UCM group vs ECC was (20,5 + 3,5 second vs 21,1 + 3,3 second), showed insignificant difference (P=0,634). The amount of bleeding after delivery in UCM group compared to ECC has the median of 190 cc (100-280cc) vs 210 cc (150-330 cc) showed insignificant difference (P=0,083) so the incidence of post-partum bleeding was not found. The mean of the neonates hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocytes of UCM group compared to ECC was (19,3 + 0,7 vs 15,9 + 0,8 g/dl), (57,1 + 3,6 % vs 47,2 + 2,8 %), and (5,4 + 0,4 g/dl vs 4,5 + 0,3 g/dl) showed significant difference (P< 0,0001). There was no baby in UCM group received blood transfusion and one baby in the control ECC group received blood transfusion was found. Umbilical Cord Milking has shown to increase the baby’s blood component such as hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocytes 6 hours after birth as well as lowering the incidence of blood transfusions. Maternal and neonatal morbidity were not found. Umbilical Cord Milking was the act of clamping the umbilical cord that was more beneficial to the baby and no adverse or negative effects on the mother.
Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder: A Case Study of Office Computer Users in Nigerian Content Development and Monitoring Board, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Rapid growth in the use of electronic data has affected both the employee and work place. Our experience shows that jobs that have multiple risk factors have a greater likelihood of causing Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WRMSDs), depending on the duration, frequency and/or magnitude of exposure to each. The study investigated musculoskeletal disorder among office workers. Thus, it is important that ergonomic risk factors be considered in light of their combined effect in causing or contributing to WRMSDs. Fast technological growth in the use of electronic system; have affected both workers and the work environment. Awkward posture and long hours in front of these visual display terminals can result in work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD). The study shall contribute to the awareness creation on the causes and consequences of WRMSDs due to lack of ergonomics training. The study was conducted using an observational cross-sectional design. A sample of 109 respondents was drawn from the target population through purposive sampling method. The sources of data were both primary and secondary. Primary data were collected through questionnaires and secondary data were sourced from journals, textbooks, and internet materials. Questionnaires were the main instrument for data collection and were designed in a YES or NO format according to the study objectives. Content validity approval was used to ensure that the variables were adequately covered. The reliability of the instrument was done through test-retest method, yielding a reliability index at 0.84. The data collected from the field were analyzed with a descriptive statistics of chart, percentage and mean. The study found that the most affected body regions were the upper back, followed by the lower back, neck, wrist, shoulder and eyes, while the least affected body parts were the knee calf and the ankle. Furthermore, the prevalence of work-related 'musculoskeletal' malfunctioning was linked with long working hours (6 - 8 hrs.) per day, lack of back support on their seats, glare on the monitor, inadequate regular break, repetitive motion of the upper limbs, and wrist when using the computer. Finally, based on these findings some recommendations were made to reduce the prevalent of WRMSDs among office workers.
The Epigenetic Background Depended Treatment Planning for Glioblastoma Multiforme
Glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), is the most frequent and malignant form of brain tumor, the genetic background of the GBM is highly variable. The tumor mass of a GBM is multilayered and every tumor layer shows distinct characteristics with a different cell population. The treatment planning of GBM should be focused on the tumor genetic characteristics. The cornerstone of the GBM is the IDH1 mutations which were described in 2009. In this study, we screened primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a population-based study for MGMT and RARβ methylation and IDH1 mutation correlated them with clinical data and treatment. MGMT-promoter methylation did not correlate with overall survival (OS; p > 0.05). The overall survival time of the patients with methylated RARβ was statistically (OS;p < 0,05) significance between the patients who were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Our data are still insufficient for definite ascertainment and our preliminary results suggest IDH1 status shows an association with younger age and there is a lack of association between IDH1 mutation and survival time. Furthermore, MGMT promoter methylation had no prognostic value and lower frequency in primary glioblastomas, but then the RARβ gene could be a new prognostic and predictive candidate marker to designate the treatment protocol for primary GBMs.
Antiinflamatuar Effects of Some Polyphenols on Cytokine Production of A549 Cells Activated Mycobacterium Tuberculosis H37Rv
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a principally pulmonary pathogen causing 3 million deaths annually worldwide. Recent reports have demonstrated the importance of natural products with activity against M. tuberculosis. In this study, we compared the antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of some polyphenols such as curcumin, gallic acid, resveratrol, ferulic acid on M. tuberculosis H37Rv stimulated A549 cell line. Antituberculotic effects of some polyphenols drugs were evaluated on M. tuberculosis H37Rv by micro broth dilution test. Cytokine levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-α in A549 cells stimulated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were determined by Cytometric Bead Array. Furthermore, cytokines data were analyzed by the FCAP analysis program. The results demonstrated that IL-8 levels were increased by polyphenols and particularly, curcumin significantly induced IL-8.
Social Anxiety, Parental Criticism and the Mediating Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas
Social anxiety is a chronic and debilitating condition characterized by fear and avoidance of social situations. Several risk factors have emerged, which emphasize the role of early childhood experiences in the development of this condition. As such, the current study tested the hypothesis that early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) mediate the relationship between retrospectively reported parental criticism and social anxiety whilst controlling the effects of depression. Three hundred and thirty-four non-clinical participants completed an online questionnaire consisting of self-report measures of parental criticism, EMSs of disconnection and rejection, and symptoms of social anxiety and depression. The mediation analysis confirmed the hypothesized model, indicating that EMSs mediated the relationship between parental criticism and social anxiety symptoms when controlling for depression. Whilst the current study is limited due to its cross-sectional design, the findings lend support to the developmental formulations of social anxiety and have important therapeutic implications for treatment.
Increase Women's Knowledge and Attitude about Breast Cancer and Screening: Using an Educational Intervention in Community
Breast cancer is a health concern in worldwide. All women have not adequate information about breast cancer, resulting in undetected some tumors until advanced stages. Therefore awareness of people was recommended as a strategy to control that. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an educational intervention on women's knowledge and attitude about breast cancer and screening. This study was conducted in 2016 on 191 women. All women living in one of big cities were invited to enroll in training classes. Inclusion criteria consisted women who were 20 - 69 years and not participated in any educational intervention. The lecture with group discussion was used as educational methods. Data collection tool was a structured questionnaire which filled out before and after intervention. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined by Cronbach's alpha. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. The average age was 44/4 ± 11.5 and 42.6% of the women had obtained high school. Of the 191 women, 70(36.6%) and 76(39.8%) had low and medium level of knowledge respectively and half of them, 95(50%) had medium level of attitude in before intervention. There was significant difference between mean scores of knowledge and attitude before and after the intervention by Paired T test (p < 0/001). It seems applying effective educational interventions can increase knowledge and attitude women about breast cancer particularly in community that they have insufficient levels. Moreover, the lecture method along with group discussion can be proposed as effective and conventional methods for this purpose.
Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Children under 5 Years of Age before Introduction of Pneumococcal Vaccine (PCV 10) in Urban and Rural Sindh
Pneumococcal Vaccine -10 (PCV 10) was included in the Expanded Program of immunization (EPI) in Sindh, Pakistan in February 2013. This study was carried out immediately before the introduction of PCV 10 to establish baseline pneumococcal carriage and prevalent serotypes in naso-pharynx of children 3-11 months of age in an urban and rural community in Sindh, Pakistan. An additional sample of children aged 12 to 59 months was drawn from the urban community. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from a random sample of children. Samples were processed in a central laboratory in Karachi. Pneumococci were cultured on 5% Sheep Blood Agar and serotyping was performed using CDC standardized sequential multiplex PCR assay on bacterial colonies. Serotypes were then categorized into vaccine (PCV-10 and PCV-13) type and non-vaccine types. A total of 670 children were enrolled. Carriage rate for pneumococcus based on culture positivity was 74% and 79.5 % in the infant group in Karachi and Matiari respectively. Carriage rate was 78.2% for children aged 12 to 59 months in Karachi. Proportion of PCV 10 serotypes in infants was 38.8% and 33.5% in Karachi and Matiari respectively. In the older age group in Karachi, the proportion was 30.6%. Most common serotypes were 6A, 6B, 23F, 19A and 18C. This survey establishes vaccine and non-vaccine serotype carriage rate in a vaccine-naïve pediatric population among rural and urban communities in Sindh province. Annually planned surveys in the same communities will inform change in carriage rate after the introduction and uptake of PCV 10 in these communities.
The Effects of Giving on Knowledge about Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis in Bangsaen Beach Venders, Chonburi, Thailand
Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is an acute infection caused by the adenovirus symptoms of eye irritation, tearing an incubation period of 7-9 days from the respiratory tract into the eye and often cohesion in the community who work in the school's pool as well as a shopping mall. After infection can cause symptoms within 1-2 days chance to infect others up to two weeks. In some cases when red-eye better they had potential complications of the eye, inflammation occurs 7-10 days after conjunctivitis. It could be for several more months to recover. This study is a cross-sectional study with one hundred and eleven beach venders, and purpose of the research was to assess the knowledge, that knowledge has improved much. By comparing before and after the knowledge of the use of questionnaires and test your knowledge. The statistics used for data analysis percent, arithmetic mean and T-test. The statistics used to analyze data at the level of statistical p ≤ 0.05. Result of this study; mostly female (83.8%), most age 19-35 years (42.3%). Hometown is mostly in Chonburi 74.8%. 20.7% had epidemic keratoconjunctivitis within one year. Compared between before and after gave knowledge; after gave knowledge is better than before gave knowledge p=0.00.
Evaluation of the Gamma-H2AX Expression as a Biomarker of DNA Damage after X-Ray Radiation in Angiography Patients
Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common and deadliest diseases. A coronary angiography is an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Because angiography is performed by exposure to ionizing radiation, it can lead to harmful effects. Ionizing radiation induces double-stranded breaks in DNA, which is a potentially life-threatening injury. The purpose of the present study is an investigation of the phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the location of the double-stranded break in Peripheral blood lymphocytes as an indication of Biological effects of radiation on angiography patients. Materials and Methods: This method is based on measurement of the phosphorylation of histone (gamma-H2AX, gH2AX) level on serine 139 after formation of DNA double-strand break. 5 cc of blood from 24 patients with angiography were sampled before and after irradiation. Blood lymphocytes were removed, fixed and were stained with specific ϒH2AX antibodies. Finally, ϒH2AX signal as an indicator of the double-strand break was measured with Flow Cytometry Technique. Results and discussion: In all patients, an increase was observed in the number of breaks in double-stranded DNA after irradiation (20.15 ± 14.18) compared to before exposure (1.52 ± 0.34). Also, the mean of DNA double-strand break was showed a linear correlation with DAP. However, although induction of DNA double-strand breaks associated with radiation dose in patients, the effect of individual factors such as radiosensitivity and regenerative capacity should not be ignored. If in future we can measure DNA damage response in every patient angiography and it will be used as a biomarker patient dose, will look very impressive on the public health level. Conclusion: Using flow cytometry readings which are done automatically, it is possible to detect ϒH2AX in the number of blood cells. Therefore, the use of this technique could play a significant role in monitoring patients.
The Effect of Vertical Integration on Operational Performance: Evaluating Physician Employment in Hospitals
This study investigated whether vertical integration of hospitals and physicians is associated with better care for patients with cardiac conditions. A dramatic change in the U.S. hospital industry is the integration of hospital and physicians through hospital acquisition of physician practices. Yet, there is little evidence regarding whether this form of vertical integration leads to better operational performance of hospitals. The study was conducted as an observational investigation based on a pooled, cross-sectional database. The study sample comprised over hospitals in the State of California. The time frame for the study was 2010 to 2012. The key performance measure was hospitals’ degree of compliance with performance criteria set out by the federal government for managing patients with cardiac conditions. These criteria relate to the types of clinical tests and medications that hospitals should follow for cardiac patients but hospital compliance requires the cooperation of a hospital’s physicians. Data for this measure was obtained from a federal website that presents performance scores for U.S. hospitals. The key independent variable was the percentage of cardiologists that a hospital employs (versus cardiologists who are affiliated but not employed by the hospital). Data for this measure was obtained from the State of California which requires hospitals to report financial and operation data each year including numbers of employed physicians. Other characteristics of hospitals (e.g., information technology for cardiac care, volume of cardiac patients) were also evaluated as possible complements or substitutes for physician employment by hospitals. Additional sources of data included the American Hospital Association and the U.S. Census. Empirical models were estimated with generalized estimating equations (GEE). Findings suggest that physician employment is positively associated with better hospital performance for cardiac care. However, findings also suggest that information technology is a substitute for physician employment.
Relevance of Brain Stem Evoked Potential in Diagnosis of Central Demyelination in Guillain Barre’ Syndrome
Guillain Barre’ syndrome (GBS) is an auto-immune mediated demyelination poly-radiculo-neuropathy. Clinical features include progressive symmetrical ascending muscle weakness of more than two limbs, areflexia with or without sensory, autonomic and brainstem abnormalities, the purpose of this study was to determine subclinical neurological changes of CNS with GBS and to establish the presence of central demyelination in GBS. The study was prospective and conducted in the Department of Physiology, Pt. B. D. Sharma Post-graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India to find out early central demyelination in clinically diagnosed patients of GBS. These patients were referred from the department of Medicine of our Institute to our department for electro-diagnostic evaluation. The study group comprised of 40 subjects (20 clinically diagnosed GBS patients and 20 healthy individuals as controls) aged between 6-65 years. Brain Stem evoked Potential (BAEP) were done in both groups using RMS EMG EP mark II machine. BAEP parameters included the latencies of waves I to IV, inter peak latencies I-III, III-IV & I-V. Statistically significant increase in absolute peak and inter peak latencies in the GBS group as compared with control group was noted. Results of evoked potential reflect impairment of auditory pathways probably due to focal demyelination in Schwann cell derived myelin sheaths that cover the extramedullary portion of auditory nerves. Early detection of the sub-clinical abnormalities is important as timely intervention reduces morbidity.
A Retrospective Analysis of the Impact of the Choosing Wisely Canada Campaign on Emergency Department Imaging Utilization for Head Injuries
Head injuries are a commonly encountered presentation in emergency departments (ED) and the Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) campaign was released in June 2015 in an attempt to decrease imaging utilization for patients with minor head injuries. The impact of the CWC campaign on imaging utilization for head injuries has not been explored in the ED setting. In our study, we describe the characteristics of patients with head injuries presenting to a tertiary care academic ED and the impact of the CWC campaign on CT head utilization. This retrospective cohort study used linked databases from the province of Ontario, Canada to assess emergency department visits with a primary diagnosis of head injury made between June 1, 2014 and Aug 31, 2016 at the University Health Network in Toronto, Canada. We examined the number of visits during the study period, the proportion of patients that had a CT head performed before and after the release of the CWC campaign, as well as mode of arrival, and disposition. There were 4,322 qualifying visits at our site during the study period. The median presenting age was 44.12 years (IQR 27.83,67.45), the median GCS was 15 (IQR 15,15) and the majority of patients presenting had intermediate acuity (CTAS 3). Overall, 43.17% of patients arrived via ambulance, 49.24 % of patients received a CT head and 10.46% of patients were admitted. Compared to patients presenting before the CWC campaign release, there was no significant difference in the rate of CT heads after the CWC (50.41% vs 47.68%, P = 0.07). There were also no significant differences between the two groups in mode of arrival (ambulance vs ambulatory) (42.94% vs 43.48%, P = 0.72) or admission rates (9.85% vs 11.26%, P = 0.15). However, more patients belonged to the high acuity groups (CTAS 1 or 2) in the post CWC campaign release group (12.98% vs 8.11% P < 0.001). Visits for head injuries make up a significant proportion of total ED visits and approximately half of these patients receive CT imaging in the ED. The CWC campaign did not seem to impact imaging utilization for head injuries in the 14 months following its launch. Further efforts, including local quality improvement initiatives, are likely needed to increase adherence to its recommendation and reduce imaging utilization for head injuries.
Plaque Removal Efficacy of Different Dental Care Products during Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Therapy
Plaque removal efficacy of different dental brushes and mouth wash during fixed orthodontic appliance therapy was evaluated in this single-blind, crossover and prospective study. Thirty orthodontic patients aged 18 and over undergoing fixed appliance therapy at the end of leveling stage were divided into three groups. Subjects brushed their teeth with a toothbrush under standardized conditions for a period of 30 days prior to inter-dental care products. The same procedure was repeated each time with a different, randomly assigned inter-dental care products in a crossover design. (Inter-dental brush, powered inter-dental brush and mouth wash). At start and end of each removal period, plaque indexes of participants were scored. Each brush achieved statistically significant plaque removal; however, there were no statistical differences among groups for all surfaces of teeth when the plaque score was evaluated. The mouth wash group presented significant improvement in reduction of visible plaque on mesial and distal surfaces of posterior teeth. (-60.9 %, P< .001) Plaque removal for right and left side of mouth showed no significant differences within groups, only mouth wash was more efficient in right side than left side. It is concluded that effectiveness of plaque removal may not be related to the kind of inter-dental products directly. However, toothbrush when used with inter-dental care products is significantly better at removing plaque deposits from fixed appliance patients.
Segmenting 3D Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using a Kalman Filter
Over the past two decades or so, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used to diagnose retina and optic nerve diseases. The retinal nerve fibre layer, for example, is a powerful diagnostic marker for detecting and staging glaucoma. With the advances in optical imaging hardware, the adoption of OCT is now commonplace in clinics. More and more OCT images are being generated, and for these OCT images to have clinical applicability, accurate automated OCT image segmentation software is needed. Oct image segmentation is still an active research area, as OCT images are inherently noisy, with the multiplicative speckling noise. Simple edge detection algorithms are unsuitable for detecting retinal layer boundaries in OCT images. Intensity fluctuation, motion artefact, and the presence of blood vessels also decrease further OCT image quality. In this paper, we introduce a new method for segmenting three-dimensional (3D) OCT images. This involves the use of a Kalman filter, which is commonly used in computer vision for object tracking. The Kalman filter is applied to the 3D OCT image volume to track the retinal layer boundaries through the slices within the volume and thus segmenting the 3D image. Specifically, after some pre-processing of the OCT images, points on the retinal layer boundaries in the first image are identified, and curve fitting is applied to them such that the layer boundaries can be represented by the coefficients of the curve equations. These coefficients then form the state space for the Kalman Filter. The filter then produces an optimal estimate of the current state of the system by updating its previous state using the measurements available in the form of a feedback control loop. The results show that the algorithm can be used to segment the retinal layers in OCT images. One of the limitations of the current algorithm is that the curve representation of the retinal layer boundary does not work well when the layer boundary is split into two, e.g., at the optic nerve, the layer boundary split into two. This maybe resolved by using a different approach to representing the boundaries, such as b-splines or level sets. The use of a Kalman filter shows promise to developing accurate and effective 3D OCT segmentation methods.
Physical Activity Levels in Qatar: A Pedometer-Based Assessment
Background: Walking is the most common form of physical activity which can promote a healthy well-being among people of different age groups. In this regard, pedometers are becoming more popular within research and are considered useful tools in monitoring physical activity levels based on individuals’ daily steps. A value of ˂5,000 steps/day is identified as a sedentary lifestyle index where individuals are physically inactive. Those achieving 5,000-7,499 steps/day have a low active lifestyle as they do not meet the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations. Moreover, individuals achieving ≥7,500 steps/day are classified as physically active. The objective of this study is to assess the physical activity levels of adult population in Qatar through a pedometer-based program over a one-year period. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis, as part of a longitudinal study, was carried out over one year to assess the daily step count. “Step into Health” is a community-based program launched by Aspire as an approach for the purpose of improving physical activity across the population of Qatar. The program involves distribution of pedometers to registered members which is supported by a self-monitoring online account and linked to a web database. Daily habitual physical activity (daily total step count) was assessed through Omron HJ-324U pedometer. Analyses were done on data extracted from the web database. Results: A total of 1,988 members were included in this study (males: n=1,143, 57%; females: n=845, 43%). Average age was 37.8±10.9 years distributed as 60% of age between age 25-54 (n=1,186), 27% of age 45-64 (n=546), and 13% of age 18-24 years (n=256). Majority were non-Qataris, 81% (n=1,609) compared with 19% of the Qatari nationality (n=379). Average body mass index (BMI) was 27.8±6.1 (kg/m2) where most of them (41%, n=809) were found to be overweight, between 25-30 kg/m2. Total average step count was 5,469±3,884. Majority were found to be sedentary (n=1110, 55.8%). Middle aged individuals were more active than the other two age groups. Males were seen as more active than females. Those who were less active had a higher BMI. Older individuals were more active. There was a variation in the physical activity level throughout the year period. Conclusion: It is essential to further develop the available intervention programs and increase their physical activity behavior. Planning such physical activity interventions for female population should involve aspects such as time, environmental variables and aerobic steps.
Cost Analysis of Neglected Tropical Disease in Nigeria: Implication for Programme Control and Elimination
Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are most predominant among the poor and rural populations and are endemic in 149 countries. These diseases are the most prevalent and responsible for infecting 1.4 billion people worldwide. There are 17 neglected tropical diseases recognized by WHO that constitute the fourth largest disease health and economic burden of all communicable diseases. Five of these 17 diseases are considered for the cost analysis of this paper: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, schistosomiasis, and soil transmitted helminth infections. WHO has proposed a roadmap for eradication and elimination by 2020 and treatments have been donated through the London Declaration by pharmaceutical manufacturers. The paper estimates the cost of NTD control programme and elimination for each NTD disease and total in Nigeria. This is necessary as it forms the bases upon which programme budget and expenditure could be based. Again, given the opportunity cost the resources for NTD face it is necessary to estimate the cost so as to provide bases for comparison. Cost of NTDs control and elimination programme is estimated using the population at risk for each NTD diseases and for the total. The population at risk is gotten from the national master plan for the 2015 - 2020, while the cost per person was gotten for similar studies conducted in similar settings and ranges from US$0.1 to US$0.5 for Mass Administration of Medicine (MAM) and between US$1 to US$1.5 for each NTD disease. The combined cost for all the NTDs was estimated to be US$634.88 million for the period 2015-2020 and US$1.9 billion for each NTD disease for the same period. For the purpose of sensitivity analysis and for robustness of the analysis the cost per person was varied and all were still high. Given that health expenditure for Nigeria (% of GDP) averages 3.5% for the period 1995-2014, it is very clear that efforts have to be made to improve allocation to the health sector in general which is hoped could trickle to NTDs control and elimination. Thus, the government and the donor partners would need to step-up budgetary allocation and also to be aware of the costs of NTD control and elimination programme since they have alternative uses. Key Words: Neglected Tropical Disease, Cost Analysis, NTD Programme Control and Elimination, Cost per Person
The Effect of Tooth Brushing with Whithening and Non-Whitening Tooth Paste on Surface Roughness of Coated and Uncoated GIC
Background: Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration`s surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. It can be prevented by mechanically clean the tooth surface by brushing the teeth using toothpaste. Toothpaste may contain abrasives materials that usually found in whitening toothpaste. Those abrasive materials could increase the roughness of the restoration`s surface. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is one of the restorative material widely used to this day. GC America has made an innovation called EQUIA to improve their wear resistance by coating the surface of GIC using G-Coat Plus. Objective: To determine the effect of teeth was brushing with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste to the surface roughness of coated and uncoated restoration (GIC). Methods: This research was a laboratory experimental with pretest-posttest group design. There were 28 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with non-whitening toothpaste. Each group was divided into group which coated by G-Coat Plus and group which left uncoated. The value of surface roughness was measured by using Roughness Tester. The data was analyzed by using independent t-test to determine differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste. Result: It was found that average roughness differences before and after being brushed by whitening toothpaste were smaller in coated samples than in uncoated samples (0.07 ± 0.09 < 0.12 ± 0.02 ). Similar results were also found in samples brushed by non-whitening toothpaste (0.02 ± 0.01 < 0.03 ± 0.01). The differences of average roughness in samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste was smaller than samples brushed with whitening toothpaste. Conclusion: The data showed there were statistically significant differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste (p< 0.05) but the was no statistically significant to samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste (p>0.05).
Phylogenetic Analysis of Klebsiella Species from Clinical Specimens from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital in Mthatha, South Africa
Rapid and discriminative genotyping methods are useful for determining the clonality of the isolates in nosocomial or household outbreaks. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a nucleotide sequence-based approach for characterising bacterial isolates. The genetic diversity and the clinical relevance of the drug-resistant Klebsiella isolates from Mthatha are largely unknown. For this reason, prospective, experimental study of the molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella isolates from patients being treated in Mthatha over a three-year period was analysed. Methodology: PCR amplification and sequencing of the drug-resistance-associated genes, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using 7 housekeeping genes mdh, pgi, infB, FusAR, phoE, gapA and rpoB were conducted. A total of 32 isolates were analysed. Results: The percentages of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistance (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) isolates were; MDR 65.6 % (21) and XDR and PDR with 0 % each. In this study, K. pneumoniae was 19/32 (59.4 %). MLST results showed 22 sequence types (STs) were identified, which were further separated by Maximum Parsimony into 10 clonal complexes and 12 singletons. The most dominant group was Klebsiella pneumoniae with 23/32 (71.8 %) isolates, Klebsiella oxytoca as a second group with 2/32 (6.25 %) isolates, and a single (3.1 %) K. varricola as a third group while 6 isolates were of unknown sequences. Conclusions/significance: A phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of the 7 housekeeping genes showed that strains of K. pneumoniae form a distinct lineage within the genus Klebsiella, with K. oxytoca and K. varricola its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. With the analysis of 7 genes were determined 1 K. variicola, which was mistakenly identified as K. pneumoniae by phenotypic methods. Two misidentifications of K. oxytoca were found when phenotypic methods were used. No significant differences were observed between ESBL blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV groups in the distribution of Sequence types (STs) or Clonal complexes (CCs).
Control of an Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in a Tunisian Teaching Hospital in 2016
Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to public health and motivates to improve prevention and control programs both at international (WHO) and national levels. Despite their low pathogenicity, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are common nosocomial pathogens in several countries. The high potential for transmission of VRE between patients and the threat to send its resistance genes to other bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus already resistant to meticilin, justify strict control measures. Indeed, in Europe, the proportion of Enterococcus faecium responsible for invasive infections, varies from 1% to 35% in 2011 and less than 5% were resistant to vancomycin. In addition, it represents the second cause of urinary tract and wound infections and the third cause of nosocomial bacteremia in the United States. The nosocomial outbreaks of VRE have been mainly described in intensive care services, hematology-oncology and haemodialysis. An epidemic of VRE has affected our hospital and the objective of this work is to describe the measures put in place. Materials/Methods: Following the alert given by the service of plastic surgery concerning a patient carrier of VRE, a team of the prevention and healthcare security service (doctor + technician) made an investigation. A review of files was conducted to draw the synoptic table and the table of cases. Results: By contacting the microbiology laboratory, we have identified four other cases of VRE and who were hospitalized in Medical resuscitation department (2 cases, one of them was transferred to the Physical rehabilitation department), and Nephrology department (2 cases). The visit has allowed to detect several malfunctions in professional practice. A crisis cell has allowed to validate, coordinate and implement control measures following the recommendations of the Technical Center of nosocomial infections. In fact, the process was to technically isolate cases in their sector of hospitalization, to restrict the use of antibiotics, to strength measures of basic hygiene, and to make a screening by rectal swab for both cases and contacts (other patients and health staff). These measures have helped to control the situation and no other case has been reported for a month. 2 new cases have been detected in the intensive care unit after a month. However, these are short-term strategies, and other measures in the medium and long term should be taken into account in order to face similar outbreaks. Conclusion: The efforts to control the outbreak were not efficient since 2 new cases have been reported after a month. Therefore, a continuous monitoring in order to detect new cases earlier is crucial to minimize the dissemination of VRE.
Structure Modification of Leonurine to Improve Its Potency as Aphrodisiac
An aphrodisiac is a substance contained in food or drug that can arouse sexual instinct and increase pleasure while working, these substances derived from plants, animals, and minerals. When consuming substances that have aphrodisiac activity and duration can improve the sexual instinct. The natural aphrodisiac effect can be obtained through plants, animals, and minerals. Leonurine compound has aphrodisiac activity, these compounds can be isolated from plants of Leonurus Sp, Sundanese people is known as deundereman, this plant is empirical has aphrodisiac activity and based on the isolation of active compounds from plants known to contain compounds leonurine, so that the compound is expected to have activity aphrodisiac. Leonurine compound can be isolated from plants or synthesized chemically with material dasa siringat acid. Leonurine compound can be obtained commercial and derivatives of these compounds can be synthesized in an effort to increase its activity. This study aims to obtain derivatives leonurine better aphrodisiac activity compared with the parent compound, modified the structure of the compounds in the form leonurin guanidino butyl ester group with butyl amin and bromoetanol. ArgusLab program version 4.0.1 is used to determine the binding energy, hydrogen bonds and amino acids involved in the interaction of the compound PDE5 receptor. The in vivo test leonurine compounds and derivatives as an aphrodisiac ingredients and hormone testosterone levels using 27 male rats Wistar strain and 9 female mice of the same species, ages ranged from 12 weeks rats weighing + 200 g / tail. The test animal is divided into 9 groups according to the type of compounds and the dose given. Each treatment group was orally administered 2 ml per day for 5 days. On the sixth day was observed male rat sexual behavior and taking blood from the heart to measure testosterone levels using ELISA technique. Statistical analysis was performed in this study is the ANOVA test Least Square Differences (LSD) using the program Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS). Aphrodisiac efficacy of the leonurine compound and its derivatives have proven in silico and in vivo test, the in silico testing leonurine derivatives have smaller binding energy derivatives leonurine so that activity better than leonurine compounds. Testing in vivo using rats of wistar strain that better leonurine derivative of this compound shows leonurine that in silico studies in parallel with in vivo tests. Modification of the structure in the form of guanidine butyl ester group with butyl amin and bromoethanol increase compared leonurine compound for aphrodisiac activity, testosterone derivatives of compounds leonurine experienced a significant improvement especial is 1RD compounds especially at doses of 100 and 150 mg/bb. The results showed that the compound leonurine and its compounds contain aphrodisiac activity and increase the amount of testosterone in the blood. The compound test used in this study acts as a steroid precursor resulting in increased testosterone.
Vitamin D Status in Relation to Body Mass Index: Population of Carpathian Region
The present research has attempted to link a higher body weight with a lower vitamin D status. Objective: Vitamin D status of Carpathian region population in Ukraine was studied to examine whether serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data collected from 302 adults (18–84 years) were analyzed. Variables measured included serum 25(OH)D, weight and height used to determine BMI status. Results: Mean 25(OH)D level was 23.2 ± 8.1 ng/mL for the group; 26.3 ± 8.4 ng/mL and 22.8 ± 9.1 ng/mL for males and females, respectively. Based on BMI, 3.6% were underweight, 21.2% had a normal weight, 46.4% were overweight and 28.8% obese. Only in 28 cases (9.3%), content of 25(ОН)D in the serum of blood was within the normal limits, and there were vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency observed in other cases (90.7%). Thus, severe vitamin D deficiency was revealed in 1.7% of the inspected. A significant interrelation between levels of 25(OH)D in blood and BMI was found among persons with BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2. Mean value of 25(OH)D levels among persons with obesity did not differ to a significant extent from indexes in persons with normal body weight. Conclusion: Status of vitamin D among the population of Carpathian region remains far from optimal and requires urgent measures in correction and prevention. Results confirmed a poor inverse relationship between vitamin D status and BMI. Intercommunication between maintenance of vitamin D and BMI requires further investigations.