The Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Metabolic Control in Children
Introduction: The most prevalent periodontal disease among children is gingivitis, and it usually becomes more severe in adolescence. A number of intervention studies suggested that resolution of periodontal inflammation can improve metabolic control in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Aim: to assess the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on glycemic control of children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Method: Twenty-eight children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were recruited with established diagnosis diabetes for at least 1 year. Informed consent and child assent form were obtained from children and parents prior to enrolment. The dental examination for the participants was performed on the same week directly following their annual medical assessment. All patients had their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) test one week prior to their annual medical and dental visit and 3 months following non-surgical periodontal therapy. All patients received a comprehensive periodontal examination The periodontal assessment included clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, plaque score, plaque index and gingival index. All patients were referred for non-surgical periodontal therapy, which included oral hygiene instruction and motivation followed by supra-gingival and subg-ingival scaling using ultrasonic and hand instruments. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science software (SPSS, Chicago, USA), version 18. Statistical analysis of clinical findings was performed to detect differences between the two groups in term of periodontal findings and HbA1c%. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed in order to examine which factors were significant in multivariate analysis after adjusting for confounding between effects. The regression model used the dependent variable ‘Improved glycemic control’, and the independent variables entered in the model were plaque index, gingival index, bleeding %, plaque Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Result: A total of 28 children. The mean age of the participants was 13.3±1.92 years. The study participants were divided into two groups; Compliant group (received dental scaling) and non-complaints group (received oral hygiene instructions only). No statistical difference was found between compliant and non-compliant group in age, gender distribution, oral hygiene practice and the level of diabetes control. There was a significant difference between compliant and non-compliant group in term of improvement of HBa1c before and after periodontal therapy. Mean gingival index was the only significant variable associated with improved glycemic control level. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that non-surgical mechanical periodontal therapy can improve HbA1c% control. The result of this study confirmed that children with diabetes mellitus who are compliant to dental care and have routine professional scaling may have better metabolic control compared to diabetic children who are erratic with dental care.
The Views of Health Care Professionals outside of the General Practice Setting on the Provision of Oral Contraception in Comparison to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception
Currently, there is limited research examining health care professionals (HCPs) views on long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) advice and prescription, particularly outside of the general practice (GP) setting. The aim of this study is to systematically review existing evidence around the barriers and enablers of oral contraception (OC) in comparison to LARC, as perceived by HCPs in non-GP settings. Five electronic databases were searched in April 2018 using terms related to LARC, OC, HCPs, and views, but not terms related to GPs. Studies were excluded if they concerned emergency oral contraception, male contraceptives, contraceptive use in conjunction with a health condition(s), developing countries, GPs and GP settings, were non-English or was not published before 2013. A total of six studies were included for systematic reviewing. Five key areas emerged, under which themes were categorised, including (1) understanding HCP attitudes and counselling practices towards contraceptive methods; (2) assessment of HCP attitudes and beliefs about contraceptive methods; (3) misconceptions and concerns towards contraceptive methods; and (4) influences on views, attitudes, and beliefs of contraceptive methods. Limited education and training of HCPs exists around LARC provision, particularly compared to OC. The most common misconception inhibiting HCPs contraceptive information delivery to women was the belief that LARC was inappropriate for nulliparous women. In turn, by not providing the correct information on a variety of contraceptive methods, HCP counselling practices were disempowering for women and restricted them from accessing reproductive justice. Educating HCPs to be able to provide accurate and factual information to women on all contraception is vital to encourage a woman-centered approach during contraceptive counselling and promote informed choices by women.
Characteristic and Prevalence of Cleft Lip and Palate Patient in Bandung Cleft Lip and Palate Center: A Descriptive Study
Cleft lip and palate are one of the most common congenital abnormalities in the face. It could happen to anyone, but mostly affect Asian population including Indonesia. Factors that influence the occurrence of cleft lip and palate vary from genetic to environmental factors. Children with cleft lip and palate will often have various problems such as airway disorders, eating disorders, speech and language developmental disorders, hearing disorders and psycho-social disorders, one of which is caused by appearance disorders. During his life, the child will experience multidisciplinary surgery and non-surgical treatment and can be accompanied by a psychological and financial burden on himself and his family. In Indonesia, there are no detailed scientific data on the prevalence and characteristic of cleft lip and palate patients. It was mainly caused by the absence of a national level organization, differences in geographical location, and the absence of national guidelines. This study aimed to describe the characteristic and prevalence of cleft lip and palate patients in Bandung Cleft Lip and Palate Center from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2017. A total of 560 patients were included in the study. The highest percentage of cases are left unilateral cleft lip and palate with higher number of female patient and labioplasty as the most often surgical procedure to be conducted in Bandung Cleft Lip and Palate Center. In order to improve quality of life in patients with cleft lip and palate, early recognition and early treatment based on actual comprehensive data should be conducted. The data from Bandung Cleft Lip and Palate Center as one of the largest center of cleft lip and palate in West Java Indonesia hopefully could provide a big step of further comprehensive data collection in Indonesia and for the better overall management of cleft lip and palate in the future.
Characteristics and Challenges of Post-Burn Contractures in Adults and Children: A Descriptive Study
Deep dermal or full thickness burns are inevitably lead to post-burn contractures. These contractures remain to be one of the most concerning late complications of burn injuries. Surgical management includes releasing the contracture followed by resurfacing the defect accompanied by post-operative rehabilitation. Optimal treatment of post-burn contractures depends on the characteristics of the contractures. This study is aimed to describe clinical characteristics, problems, and management of post-burn contractures in adults and children. A retrospective analysis was conducted from medical records of patients suffered from contractures after burn injuries admitted to Hasan Sadikin general hospital between January 2016 and January 2018. A total of 50 patients with post burn contractures were included in the study. There were 17 adults and 33 children. Most patients were male, whose age range within 15-59 years old and 5-9 years old. Educational background was mostly senior high school among adults, while there was only one third of children who have entered school. Etiology of burns was predominantly flame in adults (82.3%); whereas flame and scald were the leading cause of burn injury in children (11%). Based on anatomical regions, hands were the most common affected both in adults (35.2%) and children (48.5%). Contractures were identified in 6-12 months since the initial burns. Most post-burn hand contractures were resurfaced with full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) both in adults and children. There were 11 patients who presented with recurrent contracture after previous history of contracture release. Post-operative rehabilitation was conducted for all patients; however, it is important to highlight that it is still challenging to control splinting and exercise when patients are discharged and especially the compliance in children. In order to improve quality of life in patients with history of deep burn injuries, prevention of contractures should begin right after acute care has been established. Education for the importance of splinting and exercise should be administered as comprehensible as possible for adult patients and parents of pediatric patients.
Implementation Research on the Singapore Physical Activity and Nutrition Program: A Mixed-Method Evaluation
Introduction: The Singapore Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (SPANS) aimed to assess the effects of a community-based intervention on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours as well as chronic disease risk factors for Singaporean women aged above 50 years. This article examines the participation, dose, fidelity, reach, satisfaction and reasons for completion and non-completion of the SPANS. Methods: The SPANS program integrated constructs of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and is composed of PA activities; nutrition workshops; dietary counselling coupled with motivational interviewing (MI) through phone calls; and text messages promoting healthy behaviours. Printed educational resources and health incentives were provided to participants. Data were collected via a mixed-method design strategy from a sample of 295 intervention participants. Quantitative data were collected using self-completed survey (n = 209); qualitative data were collected via research assistants’ notes, post feedback sessions and exit interviews with program completers (n = 13) and non-completers (n = 12). Results: Majority of participants reported high ‘satisfactory to excellent’ ratings for the program pace, suitability of interest and overall program (96.2-99.5%). Likewise, similar ratings for clarity of presentation; presentation skills, approachability, knowledge; and overall rating of trainers and program ambassadors were achieved (98.6-100%). Phone dietary counselling had the highest level of participation (72%) at less than or equal to 75% attendance rate followed by nutrition workshops (65%) and PA classes (60%). Attrition rate of the program was 19%; major reasons for withdrawal were personal commitments, relocation and health issues. All participants found the program resources to be colourful, informative and practical for their own reference. Reasons for program completion and maintenance were: desired health benefits; social bonding opportunities and to learn more about PA and nutrition. Conclusions: Process evaluation serves as an appropriate tool to identify recruitment challenges, effective intervention strategies and to ensure program fidelity. Program participants were satisfied with the educational resources, program components and delivery strategies implemented by the trainers and program ambassadors. The combination of printed materials and intervention components, when guided by the SCT and MI, were supportive in encouraging and reinforcing lifestyle behavioural changes. Mixed method evaluation approaches are integral processes to pinpoint barriers, motivators, improvements and effective program components in optimising the health status of Singaporean women.
Musculoskeletal Disorders among Employees of an Assembly Industrial Workshop: Biomechanical Constrain’s Semi-Quantitative Analysis
Background: During recent decades, mechanical and electrical industrial sector has greatly expanded with a significant employability potential. However, this sector faces the increasing prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders with heavy consequences associated with direct and indirect costs. Objective: The current intervention was motivated by large musculoskeletal upper limbs and back disorders frequency among the operators of an assembly workshop in a leader company specialized in sanitary equipment and water and gas connections. We aimed to identify biomechanical constraints among these operators through activity and biomechanical exposures semi-quantitative analysis based on video recordings and MUSKA-TMS software. Methods: We conducted, open observations and exploratory interviews at first, in order to overall understand work situation. Then, we analyzed operator’s activity through systematic observations and interviews. Finally, we conducted a semi-quantitative biomechanical constraints analysis with MUSKA-TMS software after representative activity period video recording. The assessment of biomechanical constrains was based on different criteria; biomechanical characteristics (work positions), aggravating factor (cold, vibration, stress, etc.) and exposure time (duration and frequency of solicitations, recovery phase); with a synthetic score of risk level variable from 1 to 4 (1: low risk of developing MSD and 4: high risk). Results: Semi-quantitative analysis objective many elementary operations with higher biomechanical constrains like high repetitiveness, insufficient recovery time and constraining angulation of shoulders, wrists and cervical spine. Among these risky elementary operations we sited the assembly of sleeve with the body, the assembly of axis, and the control on testing table of gas valves. Transformation of work situations were recommended, covering both the redevelopment of industrial areas and the integration of new tools and equipment of mechanical handling that reduces operator exposure to vibration. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders are complex and costly disorders. Moreover, an approach centered on the observation of the work can promote the interdisciplinary dialogue and exchange between actors with the objective to maximize the performance of a company and improve the quality of life of operators.
Hyperthyroidism in a Private Medical Services Center, Addis Ababa: A 5-Year Experience
Background: Hyperthyroidism is a common thyroid disorder especially in women and characterized by increased thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. The disorder manifests predominantly as Graves’ disease in iodine-sufficient areas and has increasing prevalence in iodine-deficient countries in patients with nodular thyroid disease and following iodine fortification. In Ethiopia, the magnitude of the disorder is unknown and, in Africa, due to scarcity of resources, its management remains suboptimal. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern and management of patients with hyperthyroidism at the United Vision Medical Services Center, Addis Ababa between August 30, 2013, and February 1, 2018. Patients and methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of medical records of all patients with hyperthyroidism at the United Vision Private Medical Services Center, Addis Ababa. A questionnaire was filled out; the collected data entered into a computer and statistically analyzed using the SPSS package. The results were tabulated and discussed with literature review. Results: A total of 589 patients were included in this study. The median age was 40 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.0:7.9. Most patients (93%) presented with goiter and the associated features of toxic goiter except weight loss, sweating and tachycardia were uncommon. Majority of patients presented more than two years after the onset of their presenting symptoms. The most common physical finding (91%), as well as diagnosis, was toxic nodular goiter. The most frequent (83%) derangement in the thyroid function tests was a low thyroid-stimulating hormone, and the most commonly (94%) used antithyroid drug was a propylthiouracil. The most common (96%) surgical procedure in 213 patients was a near-total thyroidectomy with a postoperative course without incident in 92% of all the patients. Conclusion: The incidence and prevalence of hyperthyroidism are apparently on the increase in Addis Ababa, which may be related to the existing severe iodine-deficiency and or the salt iodation program (iodine-induced hyperthyroidism). Hyperthyroidism predominantly affects women and, in surgical services, toxic nodular goiter is more common than diffuse goiter, and the treatment of choice in experienced hands is a near-total thyroidectomy.
Level of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Plasma in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis
Purpose: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) promotes B-cell development, immunoglobulin formation, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, then regulate the immune response and inflammation. As IGF-I and their receptor also exist in the periodontal tissue, they may affect the immune response caused by periodontal pathogens in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients. The function of IGF is regulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP-3 is known to most abundant in plasma. The aim of the present study was to assess the concentration of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in AgP patients and to find out their association. Methods: Nine patients with AgP (test group) and nine healthy subjects (control group) were included in this study. None of the subjects had a history of systemic disease, smoking or steroids medication. GCF samples were collected by microcapillary pipettes and plasma samples were obtained by venipuncture. Probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. Samples were assayed for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels using ELISA. Results: Mean IGF-I level in GCF was higher in the test group than control. Mean IGF-I level in plasma and IGFBP-3 level in GCF and plasma in control group were higher than that of the test group. However, there was no statistical significance (p > 0.05). The mean level of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in GCF was lower than those in plasma. Mean IGF-I level in plasma showed a negative correlation with PD and CAL (p < 0.05) in both groups. The levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in GCF seemed to be negatively correlated with BOP in the test group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The difference in the level of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 between AgP and healthy subjects was not significant. Further studies that explain the mechanism of the protective role of IGF-I with more samples are needed.
Imaging Spectrum of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Correlation with Clinical and Microbiological Results
Aims and Objectives: Intracranial tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most devastating manifestations of TB and a challenging public health issue of considerable importance and magnitude world over. This study elaborates on the imaging spectrum of neurotuberculosis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 29 clinically suspected cases from a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The prospective hospital based evaluation of MR imaging features of neuro-tuberculosis in 29 clinically suspected cases was carried out in Department of Radio-diagnosis, Indira Gandhi Medical Hospital from July 2017 to August 2018. MR Images were obtained on a 1.5 T Magnetom Avanto machine and were analyzed to identify any abnormal meningeal enhancement or parenchymal lesions. Microbiological and Biochemical CSF analysis was performed in radio-logically suspected cases and the results were compared with the imaging data. Clinical follow up of the patients started on anti-tuberculous treatment was done to evaluate the response to treatment and clinical outcome. Results: Age range of patients in the study was between 1 year to 73 years. The mean age of presentation was 11.5 years. No significant difference in the distribution of cerebral tuberculosis was noted among the two genders. Imaging findings of neuro-tuberculosis obtained were varied and non specific ranging from lepto-meningeal enhancement, cerebritis to space occupying lesions such as tuberculomas and tubercular abscesses. Complications presenting as hydrocephalus (n= 7) and infarcts (n=9) was noted in few of these patients. 29 patients showed radiological suspicion of CNS tuberculosis with meningitis alone observed in 11 cases, tuberculomas alone were observed in 4 cases, meningitis with parenchymal tuberculomas in 11 cases. Tubercular abscess and cerebritis were observed in one case each. Tuberculous arachnoiditis was noted in one patient. Gene expert positivity was obtained in 11 out of 29 radiologically suspected patients; none of the patients showed culture positivity. Meningeal form of the disease alone showed higher positivity rate of gene Xpert (n=5) followed by combination of meningeal and parenchymal forms of disease (n=4). The parenchymal manifestation of disease alone showed least positivity rates (n= 3) with gene xpert testing. All 29 patients were started on anti tubercular treatment based on radiological suspicion of the disease with clinical improvement observed in 27 treated patients. Conclusions: In our study, higher incidence of neuro- tuberculosis was noted in paediatric population with predominance of the meningeal form of the disease. Gene Xpert positivity obtained was low due to paucibacillary nature of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with even lower positivity of CSF samples in parenchymal form of the manifestation. MRI showed high accuracy in detecting CNS lesions in neuro-tuberculosis. Hence, it can be concluded that MRI plays a crucial role in the diagnosis because of its inherent sensitivity and specificity and is an indispensible imaging modality. It caters to the need of early diagnosis owing to poor sensitivity of microbiological tests more so in the parenchymal manifestation of the disease.
Life Stories: High Quality of Life until the End with the Narrative Medicine and the Storytelling
Background: A hospice narrative interview aims at putting the sick at the core of disease and treatment allowing them to explore their most intimate facets. The aim of this work is to favor authentic narration by leading towards awareness and acceptance of terminality and to face death with serenity. Narration in palliative care aims at helping to reduce the chaos generated by the disease and to elaborate interpretations on the course of reality, besides, the narration delivered to the doctor is fundamental and communicates the meaning given to symptoms. Methods: The narrative interview has become a regular activity in the Castellini Foundation since 2017. Patients take part every week, and for more days, in one hour sessions, in a welcoming and empathic setting and the interaction with the operator leads to a gradual awareness of their terminality. Patients are submitted with free answer questions with the purpose of facilitating and stimulating self-narration. Narration has not always been linear, but patients are left free to shift in time to revisit their disease process by making use of different tools, such as digital storytelling. Results: The answers provided by the patients show to which extent the narrative interview is an instrument allowing the analysis of the stories and gives the possibility to better understand and deepen the different implications of patient and caregiver’s background. Conclusion: The narration work in the hospice demonstrates that narrative medicine is an added value. This instrument has proven useful not only in the support of patients but also for the palliative doctor to identify wishes for accompanying them to the end with dignity and serenity. The narrative interview favors the construction of an authentic therapeutic relationship. The sick are taken wholly in charge, and they are guaranteed a high quality of life until their very last instant.
Nursing and Allied Health Perception of Desirable Junior Doctor Attributes for Effective Collaboration and Teamwork
The ability of a junior doctor to deliver complex multi-disciplinary care to patients in a paradigm of respect and collaboration requires a multitude of interpersonal skills and competencies. A short survey was used to explore the perspective of allied health staff on the desirable attributes of a junior doctor which are conducive to good teamwork. 23 allied health professionals (14 nurses, 4 physiotherapists, 2 dietitians, 1 occupational therapist, 1 speech therapist and 1 audiologist) responded to this 17-item survey. There were 17 females. The mean age of the respondents was 34.9 ± 10.1 years. The salient findings of our survey are that 95% of our respondents rated friendliness and non-clinical small talk with average importance or greater. 45% of them viewed these 2 items as very important or absolutely essential. A single respondent viewed these 2 items with little importance. The other criteria which were rated with high levels of importance were the acknowledgment of allied health suggestions and good ward organizational skills. Training these collaborative skills is challenging, and an enhanced understanding of interprofessional perspectives will help a junior doctor to achieve better clinical outcomes. It is hoped that this paper will further stimulate discussion in this area and will encourage junior doctors to engage in non-clinical conversations with allied health staff in the spirit of promoting effective teamwork.
Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Recipients of Antiretroviral Therapy at HIV Clinics in Botswana
Background: Factors associated with overweight and obesity among antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients have not been sufficiently studied in Botswana. We aimed to study (i) the prevalence and trends in overweight/obesity by duration of exposure to ART among recipients, (ii) changes in body mass index (BMI) categories among recipients before ART initiation (BMI-1) and after ART initiation (BMI-2), (iii) associations between ART and overweight/obesity and (iv) factors associated with BMI changes among ART recipients. Methods: A 12 years retrospective record-based review was conducted. Factors potentially associated with BMI change among patients after at least three years of ART exposure were examined using multiple regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. ART regimens, duration of exposure to ART, and recipients’ demographic and biomedical characteristics including the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus related comorbidities (DRC) were investigated as potential factors associated with overweight/obesity. Results: Twenty-nine percent of recipients were overweight, 16.6% had obesity of whom 2.4% were morbidly-obese at the last clinic visit. Overweight/obesity recipients were more likely to be female, to have DRC and less likely to have nadir CD4 count or CD4 count between 201 – 249 cells/mm³. Neither the first-line nor the second-, third-line ART regimens predicted overweight/obesity more than the other and neither did the duration of exposure to ART. No significant linear trends were observed in the prevalence of overweight/obesity by the duration of exposure to ART. Conclusions: These results indicate that overweight/obesity seen among ART recipients is not directly induced by ART. ART used CD4 and/or DRC pathway to induce overweight/obesity seen among recipients; suggesting that, weight gain documented herein is likely a reflection of improved health status that mirrors trends in the general population or a DRC related effect. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.
Molecular Detection of Viruses Causing Hemorrhagic Fevers in Rodents in the South-West of Korea
Background: Many pathogens causing hemorrhagic fevers of medical and veterinary importance have been identified and isolated from rodents in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Objective: We investigated the prevalence of emerging viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and flaviviruses, from wild rodents. Methods: Striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius, (n=39) were captured during 2014-2015 in the south-west of ROK. Using molecular methods, lung samples were evaluated for SFTS virus, HFRS virus and flavivirus, and seropositivity was evaluated in the blood. Results: A high positive rate of Hantavirus (46.2%) was detected in A.agrarius lungs by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-N-PCR). The monthly prevalence of HFRS virus was 16.7% in October, 86.7% in November and 25% in August of the following year (p < 0.001). Moreover, 17.9% of blood samples were serologically positive for Hantavirus antibodies. The most prevalent strain in A. agrarius was Hantaan virus. All samples were positive for neither SFTS nor flavivirus. Conclusion: Hantan virus was detected in 86.7% of A. agrarius in November (autumn), and thus, virus shedding from A. agrarius can increase the risk of humans contracting HFRS. These findings may help to predict and prevent disease outbreaks in ROK.
Molecular Detection of Helicobacter Pylori and Its Association with TNFα-308 Polymorphism in Cardiovascular Diseases
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important cause of death in industrialized and developing countries such as Iran. The most important risk factors for the CVD, genetic factors and chronic infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori, can be mentioned. The TNFα gene is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines that can affect the sensitivity, efficacy, and ability of the immune response to chronic infections. Some TNF-α gene polymorphisms, including the replacement of the G nucleotide G with A at position 308 in the promoter region of TNF-α, increase the transcription of cytokines in the target cells and thus predispose a person to chronic infections. This study examines the TNF-α 308 polymorphism and its association with Helicobacter pylori infection in this disease. This study was a case-control study in which 154 patients were examined as cases or patients with symptoms of myocardial infarction or angina and 160 as controls or healthy subjects. All of the subjects at different ages were given venous blood and age, BMI, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were determined. DNA was extracted from the specimens, and the cagA gene from H. pylori and the TNF-α-308 polymorphism were determined by PCR in patients and healthy subjects. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi Info software. The results showed that the frequency of H. pylori infection in the patients and healthy group were 53.23% (82 out of 154) and 47.5% (76 out of 160). There was no significant difference in H. pylori outbreak between the two groups. The frequencies of TNF-α-308 genotype for GG, GA, and AA in patients were 0.17, 0.49, and 0.34, respectively, whereas for controls 0.47, 0.35, and 0.18 for GG, GA, and AA, respectively. The frequency of genotype analysis of TNF-α-308 polymorphisms in both patients and healthy groups showed that there was a significant difference in the frequency of genotypes and the AA genotype was higher in the affected individuals. Also, there was a significant relationship between the genotype and the contamination with H. pylori and changes in cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were observed. The results of the study indicate that H. pylori detection in individuals with AA genotype in people under 50 years of age can play an important role in early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
A Prospective Review of Axillary Drainage in Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Breast Conservation Cancer Surgery
Objective: Patients undergoing axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for metastatic lymph nodes in our hospital usually have drains placed in their axilla for a period of 6-10 days. We evaluated the post-op course of patients who underwent breast conservation surgery (BCS) along with ALND. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at Shaukat Khanam Memorial Cancer Hospital from April 2017 to August 2017 including all lymph node positive breast cancer patients undergoing BCS with ALND. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A had no axillary drain while in Group B a drain was placed in axilla. Results: A total of 76 patients were included. 41 patients were included in group A and 35 patients in Group B. Median number of LNs dissected in group A was 17 and in group B was 15 (p value 0.443). Median operative time in group A was 84 min and in group B was 79 min (p value 0.223). Median hospital stay in both groups was 1 day (p value 0.78). At 2 weeks all patients in group A developed seroma as compared to none in group B (p value < 0.001). 3 of these patients in group A required aspiration of seroma due to pressure effects. Rest were managed conservatively. At 6 weeks only 50% patients had a seroma radiologically in Group A as compared to 33% in group B (p value 0.023). No intervention was required in any patients at week 6. QOL at 2 weeks was much better in Group A (7/41 patients had unsatisfactory response) as compared to group B (10/31 had unsatisfactory response). Results were statistically significant (p value 0.045). However, there wasn’t much difference in QOL at 6 weeks. Only 1 patient in group A had an unsatisfactory response. Average pain score at 2 weeks was similar in both groups (4.2 v/s 4.1 p value 0.73). Infection was seen in 1 patient in each group at 2 weeks (p value 0.668) and in only 1 patient in group A at 6 weeks (p value 0.067). Conclusion: We conclude from our study that there isn’t much difference in drain and no drain group in terms of wound infection and pain scores. No drain group is however associated with a better QOL in early post-op period.
Extending ACOSOG Z0011 to Encompass Mastectomy Patients: A Retrospective Review
Introduction: Axillary nodal status in breast cancer patients is a paramount prognosticator, next to primary tumor size and grade. It has been well established that patients with negative sentinel lymph node biopsy can safely avoid axillary lymph node dissection. A positive sentinel lymph node has traditionally required subsequent axillary dissection. According to ACOSOG Z11 trial, patients who underwent axillary dissection with 3 or more positive sentinel nodes or opted for observation in case of negative sentinel lymph node, did not find any difference in Overall Survival (OS) and Disease Free Survival (DFS). The Z11 trial included patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and excluded patients with mastectomies. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Z0011 can be applied to mastectomy patients as well in 1-3 positive sentinel lymph nodes and avoid unnecessary ALND. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted at Shaukat Khanam Memorial Cancer Hospital Pakistan from Jan 2015 to Dec 2017 including patients who were treated for invasive breast cancer and required upfront mastectomy. They were clinically node negative, so sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Patients underwent ALND with positive sentinel lymph node. A total of 156 breast cancer patients with mastectomies were reviewed. Results: 95% of the patients were female while 3% were male. Average age was 44 years. There was no difference in race, comorbidities, histology, T stage, N stage, and overall stage, use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. 64 patients underwent ALND for positive lymph node while 92 patients were spared of axillary dissection due to negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Out of 64 patients, 38 patients (59%) had only 1 lymph node positive which was the sentinel node. 18 patients (28%) had 2 lymph nodes positive including the sentinel node while only 8 patients (13%) had 3 or more positive nodes. Conclusion: Keeping in mind the complications related to ALND, above results clearly show that ALND could have been avoided in 87% of patients in the setting of adjuvant radiation, possibly avoiding the morbidity associated with axillary lymphadenectomy although a prospective randomized trial needs to confirm these results.
Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth
Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.
Assessment of the Association between Serum Thrombospondin-1 Levels at the Time of Admission and the Severity of Neurological Deficit in Patients with Ischemic Stroke
Introduction: Despite improvements in stroke management, it remains the leading cause of disability worldwide. It has been suggested that enhancing brain angiogenesis after stroke will improve stroke outcome. Promoting post stroke angiogenesis requires the upregulation of angiogenic factors with a simultaneous reduction of anti-angiogenic factors. Thrombospondin-1 is the main anti-angiogenic protein in the living cells. Counterintuitively, it has been shown that animals with Thrombospondin-1 knockdown will have better stroke outcome. Data about the clinical significance of Thrombspondin-1 levels at the time of admission is still lacking. The objective of this work is to assess the association between serum Thrombospondin-1 levels measured at the time of admission and baseline neurologic severity after stroke. Patients and Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) with ischemic stroke at the time of admission and serum Thrombopsondin-1 levels were measured using ELISA. Patients neurologic severity was evaluated using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Results: Samples from 50 patients admitted between January 2016 and December 2016 were collected. The median age of participants was 68 years and the median NIHSS was 3. Multinomial regression identified serum Thrombospondin-1 as an independent predictor of stroke outcome (p=0.003). Baseline serum Thrombsopondin-1 was negatively associated with NIHSS at the time of admission (spearman rho correlation coefficient=0.272, p=0.032). Conclusion: Serum Thrombospondin-1 at the time of admission may be a useful marker of stroke severity that predicts more severe neurologic severity.
Assessment of the Neuroprotective Effect of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke
Introduction: Diabetes is a chronic health problem and a major risk factor of stroke. A number of therapeutic modalities exist for diabetes management. It’s still unknown whether the different oral hypoglycemic agents would ameliorate the detrimental effect of diabetes on stroke severity. The objective of this work is to assess the effect of pretreatment with oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin and their combination on stroke severity at presentation. Patients and Methods: Patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH)-Jordan with ischemic stroke between January 2015 and December 2016 were evaluated and their comorbid diseases, treatment on admission and their neurologic severity was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were documented. Stroke severity was compared for non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients treated with different antidiabetic agents. Results: Data from 324 patients with acute stroke was documented. The median age of participants was 69 years. Diabetes was documented in about 50% of the patients. Multinomial regression analysis identified diabetes treatment status as an independent predictor of neurological severity of stroke (p=0.032). Patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents had a significantly lower NIHSS as compared to nondiabetic patients and insulin treated patients (p < 0.02). The positive effect of oral hypoglycemic agents was blunted by insulin co-treatment. Insulin did not alter the severity of stroke as compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Oral hypoglycemic agents may reduce the severity of neurologic deficit of ischemic stroke and may have neuroprotective effect.
A Case Report on Anesthetic Considerations in a Neonate with Isolated Oesophageal Atresia with Radiological Fallacy
Esophageal atresia is a disorder of maldevelopment of esophagus with or without a connection to the trachea. Radiological reviews are needed in consultation with the pediatric surgeon and neonatologist and we report a rare case of esophageal atresia associated with atrial septal defect-patent ductus arteriosus complex. A 2-day old female baby born at term, weighing 3.010kg, admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with respiratory distress and excessive oral secretions. On examination, continuous murmur and cyanosis were seen. Esophageal atresia was suspected, after a failed attempt to pass a nasogastric tube. Chest radiograph showed coiling of the nasogastric tube and absent gas shadow in the abdomen. Echocardiography confirmed Patent Ductus Arteriosus with Atrial Septal Defect not in failure and was diagnosed with esophageal atresia with suspected fistula posted for surgical repair. After preliminary management with oxygenation, suctioning in prone position and antibiotics, investigations revealed Hb 17gms serum biochemistry, coagulation profile and C-Reactive Protein Test normal. The baby was premedicated with 5mcg of fentanyl and 100 mcg of midazolam and a rapid awake laryngoscopy was done to rule out difficult airway followed by induction with o2 air, sevo and atracurium 2 mg. Placement of a 3.5 tube was uneventful at first attempt and after confirming bilateral air entry positioned in the lateral position for Right thoracotomy. A pulse oximeter, Echocardiogram, Non-invasive Blood Pressure, temperature and a precordial stethoscope in left axilla were essential monitors. During thoracotomy, both the ends of the esophagus and the fistula could not be located after thorough search suggesting an on table finding of type A esophageal atresia. The baby was repositioned for gastrostomy, and cervical esophagostomy ventilated overnight and extubated uneventful. Absent gas shadow was overlooked and the purpose of this presentation is to create an awareness between the neonatologist, pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologist regarding variation of typing of Tracheoesophageal fistula pre and intraoperatively. A need for imaging modalities warranted for a definitive diagnosis in the presence of a gasless stomach.
The Role of Oral and Intestinal Microbiota in European Badgers
This study investigates the oral and intestinal microbiomes of wild-living European badgers (Meles meles) and will relate inter-individual differences to social contact networks, somatic and reproductive fitness, varying susceptibility to bovine tuberculous (bTB) and to the olfactory advertisement. Badgers are an interesting model for this research, as they have great variation in body condition, despite living in complex social networks and having access to the same resources. This variation in somatic fitness, in turn, affects breeding success, particularly in females. We postulate that microbiota have a central role to play in determining the successfulness of an individual. Our preliminary results, characterising the microbiota of individual badgers, indicate unique compositions of microbiota communities within social groups of badgers. This basal information will inform further questions related to the extent microbiota influence fitness. Hitherto, the potential role of microbiota has not been considered in determining host condition, but also other key fitness variables, namely; communication and resistance to disease. Badgers deposit their faeces in communal latrines, which play an important role in olfactory communication. Odour profiles of anal and subcaudal gland secretions are highly individual-specific and encode information about group-membership and fitness-relevant parameters, and their chemical composition is strongly dependent on symbiotic microbiota. As badgers sniff/ lick (using their Vomeronasal organ) and over-mark faecal deposits of conspecifics, these microbial communities can be expected to vary with social contact networks. However, this is particularly important in the context of bTB, where badgers are assumed to transmit bTB to cattle as well as conspecifics. Interestingly, we have found that some individuals are more susceptible to bTB than are others. As acquired immunity and thus potential susceptibility to infectious diseases are known to depend also on symbiotic microbiota in other members of the mustelids, a role of particularly oral microbiota can currently not be ruled out as a potential explanation for inter-individual differences in infection susceptibility of bTB in badgers. Tri annually badgers are caught in the context of a long-term population study that began in 1987. As all badgers receive an individual tattoo upon first capture, age, natal as well as previous and current social group-membership and other life history parameters are known for all animals. Swabs (subcaudal ‘scent gland’, anal, genital, nose, mouth and ear) and fecal samples will be taken from all individuals, stored at -80oC until processing. Microbial samples will be processed and identified at Wayne State University’s Theis (Host-Microbe Interactions) Lab, using High Throughput Sequencing (16S rRNA-encoding gene amplification and sequencing). Acknowledgments: Gas-Chromatography/ Mass-spectrometry (in the context of olfactory communication) analyses will be performed through an established collaboration with Dr. Veronica Tinnesand at Telemark University, Norway.
Xiaflex (Collagenase) Impact on the Management of Dupuytren's Disease: Making the Case for Treatment in a Public Healthcare System
Dupuytren’s contractures are a debilitating condition affecting the palmar fascia of the hand reducing its function. This case series looks at the minimally-invasive technique of Xiaflex injections and the outcome in a public health setting. 15 patients undertook collagenase injection (Xiaflex, C. histolyticum) injection over the period from September 2015 to May 2017 at Fairfield Hospital, NSW. Their reported outcome post injection and in follow-up was recorded as well as their satisfaction and likelihood to request the procedure in the future. Other treatment modalities include percutaneous needle aponeurotomy, limited palmar fasciotomy, and palmar fasciectomy. A literature review of cost-effectiveness was performed to compare Xiaflex suitability for waitlist reduction in a public setting given average waiting times in the public setting extend past 365 days.
Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein-3 rs12252-CC Associated with the Progress of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Up-Regulating the Expression of Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3
Background and Aims: Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a component of ISG (Interferon-Stimulated Gene) family. IFITM3 has been recognized as a key signal molecule regulating cell growth in some tumors. However, the function of IFITM3 rs12252-CC genotype in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown to author’s best knowledge. A cohort study was employed to clarify the relationship between IFITM3 rs12252-CC genotype and HCC progression, and cellular experiments were used to investigate the correlation of function of IFITM3 and the progress of HCC. Methods: 336 candidates were enrolled in study, including 156 with HBV related HCC and 180 with chronic Hepatitis B infections or liver cirrhosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to determine the gene polymorphism of IFITM3. The functions of IFITM3 were detected in PLC/PRF/5 cell with different treated:LV-IFITM3 transfected with lentivirus to knockdown the expression of IFITM3 and LV-NC transfected with empty lentivirus as negative control. The IFITM3 expression, proliferation and migration were detected by Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), QuantiGene Plex 2.0 assay, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, Cell Counting Kit(CCK)-8 and wound healing respectively. Six samples (three infected with empty lentiviral as control; three infected with LV-IFITM3 vector lentiviral as experimental group ) of PLC/PRF/5 were sequenced at BGI (Beijing Genomics Institute, Shenzhen,China) using RNA-seq technology to identify the IFITM3-related signaling pathways and chose PI3K/AKT pathway as related signaling to verify.
Results: The patients with HCC had a significantly higher proportion of IFITM3 rs12252-CC compared with the patients with chronic HBV infection or liver cirrhosis. The distribution of CC genotype in HCC patients with low differentiation was significantly higher than that in those with high differentiation. Patients with CC genotype found with bigger tumor size, higher percentage of vascular thrombosis, higher distribution of low differentiation and higher 5-year relapse rate than those with CT/TT genotypes. The expression of IFITM3 was higher in HCC tissues than adjacent normal tissues, and the level of IFITM3 was higher in HCC tissues with low differentiation and metastatic than high/medium differentiation and without metastatic. Higher RNA level of IFITM3 was found in CC genotype than TT genotype. In PLC/PRF/5 cell with knockdown, the ability of cell proliferation and migration was inhibited. Analysis RNA sequencing and verification of RT-PCR found out the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin(PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway was associated with knockdown IFITM3.With the inhibition of IFITM3, the expression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was blocked and the expression of vimentin was decreased. Conclusions: IFITM3 rs12252-CC with the higher expression plays a vital role in the progress of HCC by regulating HCC cell proliferation and migration. These effects are associated with PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
Adequacy of Second-Generation Laryngeal Mask Airway during Prolonged Abdominal Surgery
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the adequacy of second-generation laryngeal mask airway use during prolonged abdominal surgery in respect of ventilation, oxygenation, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC), and postoperative non-pulmonary complications on living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) surgery. Methods: In total, 257 recipients who underwent LDKT using either laryngeal mask airway-ProSeal (LMA-P) or endotracheal tube (ETT) were retrospectively analyzed. Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen (PFR) during surgery were compared between two groups. In addition, PPC including pulmonary aspiration and postoperative non-pulmonary complications including nausea, vomiting, hoarseness, vocal cord palsy, delirium, and atrial fibrillation were also compared. Results: PaCO2 and PFR during surgery were not significantly different between the two groups. PPC was also not significantly different between the two groups. Interestingly, the incidence of delirium was significantly lower in the LMA-P group than the ETT group (3.0% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.029). Conclusions: During prolonged abdominal surgery such as LDKT, second-generation laryngeal mask airway offers adequate ventilation and oxygenation and can be considered a suitable alternative to ETT.
Role of Glutamine-Rich Region of Candida albicans Tec1p in Mediating Morphological Transition, Invasive Growth and Shock Resistance
Hyphal growth and the transcriptional regulation to the host environment are key issues during the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Tec1p is the C. albicans homolog of a TEA transcription factor family, which share a conserved DNA-binding TEA domain in their N-terminal. In order to define a structure-function relationship of the C. albicans Tec1p protein, we constructed several mutations on the N terminal, C terminal or in the TEA binding domain itself by homologous recombination technology. The modifications in the open reading frame of TEC1 were tested for reconstitution of the morphogenetic development of the tec1/tec1 mutant strain CaAS12. Mutation in the TEA consensus sequence did not confer transition to hyphae whereas the reconstitution of the full-length Tec1p has reconstituted hyphal development. A deletion in one of glutamine-rich regions either in the Tec1p N-terminal or the C-terminal in regions of 53-212 or 637–744 aa, respectively, did not restore morphological development in mutant CaAS12 strain. Whereas, the reconstitution with Tec1p mutants other than the glutamate-rich region has restored the morphogenetic switch. Additionally, the deletion of glutamine-rich region has attenuated the invasive growth and the heat shock resistance of C. albicans. In conclusion, we show that a glutamine-rich region of Tec1p is essential for the hyphal development and mediating adaptation to the host environment of C. albicans.
Determinants of Youth Engagement with Health Information on Social Media Platforms in United Arab Emirates
Since most social media platforms are accessible anytime and anywhere where Internet connections and smartphones are available, the invisibility of the reader raises questions about accuracy, appropriateness and comprehensibility of social media communication. Furthermore, the identity and motives of individuals and organizations who post articles on social media sites are not always transparent. In the health sector, through socially networked platforms constitute a common source of health-related information, given their purported wealth of information. Nevertheless, fake blogs and sponsored postings for marketing 'natural cures' pervade most commonly used social media platforms, thus complicating readers’ abilities to access and understand trustworthy health-related information. This purposive sampling study of 120 participants aged 18-35 year in UAE was conducted between September and December 2017, and explored commonly used social media platforms, frequency of use of social media for accessing health related information, and approaches for assessing the trustworthiness of health information on social media platforms. Results indicate that WhatsApp (95%), Instagram (87%) and Youtube (82%) were the most commonly used social media platforms among respondents. Majority of respondents (81%) indicated that they regularly access social media to get health-associated information. More than half of respondents (55%) with non-chronic health status relied on unsolicited messages to obtain health-related information. Doctors’ health blogs (21%) and social media sites of international healthcare organizations (20%) constitute the most trusted source of health information among respondents, with UAE government health agencies’ social media accounts trusted by 15% of respondents. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension were the most commonly searched topics on social media (29%), followed by nutrition (20%) and skin care (16%). Majority of respondents (41%) rely on reliability of hits on Google search engines, 22% check for health information only from 'reliable' social media sites, while 8% utilize 'logic' to ascertain reliability of health information. As social media has rapidly become an integral part of the health landscape, it is important that health care policy makers, healthcare providers and social media companies collaborate to promote the positive aspects of social media for young people, whilst mitigating the potential negatives. Utilizing popular social media platforms for posting reader-friendly health information will achieve high coverage. Improving youth digital literacy will facilitate easier access to trustworthy information on the internet.
Postpartum Depression and Its Association with Food Insecurity and Social Support among Women in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda
Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major psychiatric disorder that affects women soon after birth and in some cases, is a continuation of antenatal depression. Food insecurity (FI) and social support (SS) are known to be associated with major depressive disorder, and vice versa. This study was conducted to examine the interrelationships among FI, SS, and PPD among postpartum women in Gulu, a post-conflict region in Uganda. Methods: Cross-sectional data from postpartum women on depression symptoms, FI and SS were, respectively, obtained using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, Individually Focused FI Access scale (IFIAS) and Duke-UNC functional social support scale. Standard regression methods were used to assess associations among FI, SS, and PPD. Results: A total of 239 women were studied, and 40% were found to have any PPD, i.e., with depressive symptom scores of ≥ 17. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for FI score and SS scores were 6.47 ± 5.02 and 19.11 ± 4.23 respectively. In adjusted analyses, PPD symptoms were found to be positively associated with FI (unstandardized beta and standardized beta of 0.703 and 0.432 respectively, standard errors =0.093 and p-value < 0.0001) and negatively associated with SS (unstandardized beta and standardized beta of -0.263 and -0.135 respectively, standard errors = 0.111 and p-value = 0.019). Conclusions: Many women in this post-conflict region reported experiencing PPD. In addition, this data suggest that food security and psychosocial support interventions may help mitigate women’s experience of PPD or its severity.
Gender Estimation by Means of Quantitative Measurements of Foramen Magnum: An Analysis of CT Head Images
The foramen magnum is more prone to protect than other skeletal remains during high impact and severe disruptive injuries. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore whether these measurements can be used to determine the human gender which is vital in forensic and anthropological studies. The idea was to find out the ability to use quantitative measurements of foramen magnum as an anatomical indicator for human gender estimation and to evaluate the gender-dependent variations of foramen magnum using quantitative measurements. Randomly selected 113 subjects who underwent CT head scans at Sri Jayawardhanapura General Hospital of Sri Lanka within a period of six months, were included in the study. The sample contained 58 males (48.76 ± 14.7 years old) and 55 females (47.04 ±15.9 years old). Maximum length of the foramen magnum (LFM), maximum width of the foramen magnum (WFM), minimum distance between occipital condyles (MnD) and maximum interior distance between occipital condyles (MxID) were measured. Further, AreaT and AreaR were also calculated. The gender was estimated using binomial logistic regression. The mean values of all explanatory variables (LFM, WFM, MnD, MxID, AreaT, and AreaR) were greater among male than female. All explanatory variables except MnD (p=0.669) were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Significant bivariate correlations were demonstrated by AreaT and AreaR with the explanatory variables. The results evidenced that WFM and MxID were the best measurements in predicting gender according to binomial logistic regression. The estimated model was: log (p/1-p) =10.391-0.136×MxID-0.231×WFM, where p is the probability of being a female. The classification accuracy given by the above model was 65.5%. The quantitative measurements of foramen magnum can be used as a reliable anatomical marker for human gender estimation in the Sri Lankan context.
The Effect of Footrest Height on Muscle Fatigue and Discomfort in Prolonged Standing Activities
Work which requires prolonged standing, especially in a fixed position can cause discomfort and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of height footrest in discomfort and fatigue lower extremities during long-standing activities. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 15 students with a mean (SD) age of 21.5 ± (2.3) and mean height of 163 ± (2.8). Participants attended 3 sessions each lasting one hour. They stood on three different surfaces: ceramic, footrest 10 and 25 cm. Surface electromyography was used to assess muscle fatigue. Body map and visual analog scale were employed to evaluate discomfort ratings of the lower extremities and the back. Data analyses were performed using ANOVA-R. Based on the results of electromyography there was no difference between soleus, anterior tibial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles fatigue and type of surfaces. There was a significant variation between the surfaces (p < 0.05) and different areas of the body discomfort level; so that the ceramic had the highest discomfort rating, while the lowest ratings were related to the footrest. Further investigations are recommended on the properties of the footrest.
Survey of the Relationship between Functional Movement Screening Tests and Anthropometric Dimensions in Healthy People, 2018
Introduction: Movement function is considered as the ability to produce and maintain balance, stability, and movement throughout the movement chain. Having a score of 14 and above on 7 sub-tests in the functional movement screening (FMS) test shows agility and optimal movement performance. On the other hand, the person's body is an important factor in physical fitness and optimal movement performance. The aim of this study was to identify effective anthropometric dimensions in increasing motor function. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study using simple random sampling. FMS test and 25 anthropometric dimensions and subcutaneous in five body regions measured in 139 healthy students of Bam University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and univariate tests and linear regressions at a significance level of 0.05. Results: 139 students were enrolled in the study, 51.1% (71 subjects) and the rest were female. The mean and standard deviation of age, weight, height, and arm subcutaneous fat were 21.5 ± 1.45, 12.6 ± 64.3, 168.7 ± 9.8, 15.3 ± 7, respectively. 17 subjects (12.2%) of the participants in the study have a score of less than 14, and the rest were above 14. Using regression analysis, it was found that exercise and arm subcutaneous fat are predictive variables associated with obtaining a high score in the FMS test. Conclusion: Exercise and weight loss are effective factors for increasing the movement performance of individuals, and this factor is independent of the size of other physical dimensions.