Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53145

Medical and Health Sciences

2526
95503
Assessment of Very Low Birth Weight Neonatal Tracking and a High-Risk Approach to Minimize Neonatal Mortality in Bihar, India
Abstract:
In the absence of adequate well-equipped neonatal-care facilities serving rural Bihar, India, the practice of essential home-based newborn-care remains critically important for reduction of neonatal and infant mortality, especially among pre-term and small-for-gestational-age (Low-birth-weight) newborns. To improve the child health parameters in Bihar, ‘Very-Low-Birth-Weight (vLBW) Tracking’ intervention is being conducted by CARE India, since 2015, targeting public facility-delivered newborns weighing ≤2000g at birth, to improve their identification and provision of immediate post-natal care. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, 200 public health facilities were randomly selected from all functional public-sector delivery points in Bihar and various outcomes were tracked among the neonates born there. Thus far, one pre-intervention (Feb-Apr’2015-born neonates) and three post-intervention (for Sep-Oct’2015, Sep-Oct’2016 and Sep-Oct’2017-born children) follow-up studies were conducted. In each round, interviews were conducted with the mothers/caregivers of successfully-tracked children to understand outcome, service-coverage and care-seeking during the neonatal period. Data from 171 matched facilities common across all rounds were analyzed using SAS-9.4. Identification of neonates with birth-weight ≤ 2000g improved from 2% at baseline to 3.3%-4% during post-intervention. All indicators pertaining to post-natal home-visits by frontline-workers (FLWs) improved. Significant improvements between baseline and post-intervention rounds were also noted regarding mothers being informed about ‘weak’ child – at the facility (R1 = 25 to R4 = 50%) and at home by FLW (R1 = 19%, to R4 = 30%). Practice of ‘Kangaroo-Mother-Care (KMC)’– an important component of essential newborn care – showed significant improvement in postintervention period compared to baseline in both facility (R1 = 15% to R4 = 31%) and home (R1 = 10% to R4=29%). Increasing trend was noted regarding detection and birth weight-recording of the extremely low-birth-weight newborns (< 1500 g) showed an increasing trend. Moreover, there was a downward trend in mortality across rounds, in each birth-weight strata (< 1500g, 1500-1799g and >= 1800g). After adjustment for the differential distribution of birth-weights, mortality was found to decline significantly from R1 (22.11%) to R4 (11.87%). Significantly declining trend was also observed for both early and late neonatal mortality and morbidities. Multiple regression analysis identified - birth during immediate post-intervention phase as well as that during the maintenance phase, birth weight > 1500g, children of low-parity mothers, receiving visit from FLW in the first week and/or receiving advice on extra care from FLW as predictors of survival during neonatal period among vLBW newborns. vLBW tracking was found to be a successful and sustainable intervention and has already been handed over to the Government.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2525
95495
Mentoring of Health Professionals to Ensure Better Child-Birth and Newborn Care in Bihar, India: An Intervention Study
Abstract:
AMANAT is an initiative, taken in collaboration with the Government of Bihar, aimed at improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal care services at Bihar’s public health facilities – those offering either the Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal care (BEmONC) or Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal care (CEmONC) services. The effectiveness of this program is evaluated by conducting cross-sectional assessments at the concerned facilities prior to (baseline) and following completion (endline) of intervention. Direct Observation of Delivery (DOD) methodology is employed for carrying out the baseline and endline assessments – through which key obstetric and neonatal care practices among the Health Care Providers (especially the nurses) are assessed quantitatively by specially trained nursing professionals. Assessment of vitals prior to delivery improved during all three phases of BEmONC and all four phases of CEmONC training with statistically significant improvement noted in: i) pulse measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (9% to 68%), 3 (4% to 57%) & 4 (14% to 59%) and CEmONC phase 2 (7% to 72%) and 3 (0% to 64%); ii) blood pressure measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (27% to 84%), 3 (21% to 76%) & 4 (36% to 71%) and CEmONC phase 2 (23% to 76%) and 3 (2% to 70%); iii) fetal heart rate measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (10% to 72%), 3 (11% to 77%) & 4 (13% to 64%) and CEmONC phase 1 (24% to 38%), 2 (14% to 82%) and 3 (1% to 73%); and iv) abdominal examination in BEmONC phase 2 (14% to 59%), 3 (3% to 59%) & 4 (6% to 56%) and CEmONC phase 1 (0% to 24%), 2 (7% to 62%) & 3 (0% to 62%). Regarding infection control, wearing of apron, mask and cap by the delivery conductors improved significantly in all BEmONC phases. Similarly, the practice of handwashing improved in all BEmONC and CEmONC phases. Even on disaggregation, the handwashing showed significant improvement in all phases but CEmONC phase-4. Not only the positive practices related to handwashing improved but also negative practices such as turning off the tap with bare hands declined significantly in the aforementioned phases. Significant decline was also noted in negative maternal care practices such as application of fundal pressure for hastening the delivery process and administration of oxytocin prior to delivery. One of the notable achievement of AMANAT is an improvement in active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL). The overall AMTSL (including administration of oxytocin or other uterotonics uterotonic in proper dose, route and time along with controlled cord traction and uterine massage) improved in all phases of BEmONC and CEmONC mentoring. Another key area of improvement, across phases, was in proper cutting/clamping of the umbilical cord. AMANAT mentoring also led to improvement in important immediate newborn care practices such as initiation of skin-to-skin care and timely initiation of breastfeeding. The next phase of the mentoring program seeks to institutionalize mentoring across the state that could potentially perpetuate improvement with minimal external intervention.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2524
94791
Comparison of Incidence and Risk Factors of Early Onset and Late Onset Preeclampsia: A Population Based Cohort Study
Abstract:
Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy. Prediction and management of preeclampsia is a challenge for obstetricians. To our knowledge, no major progress has been achieved in the prevention and early detection of preeclampsia. There is very little known about the clear treatment path of this disorder. Preeclampsia puts both mother and baby at risk of several short term- and long term-health problems later in life. There is huge health service cost burden in the health care system associated with preeclampsia and its complications. Preeclampsia is divided into two different types. Early onset preeclampsia develops before 34 weeks of gestation, and late onset develops at or after 34 weeks of gestation. Different genetic and environmental factors, prognosis, heritability, biochemical and clinical features are associated with early and late onset preeclampsia. Prevalence of preeclampsia greatly varies all over the world and is dependent on ethnicity of the population and geographic region. To authors best knowledge, no published data on preeclampsia exist in Qatar. In this study, we are reporting the incidence of preeclampsia in Qatar. The purpose of this study is to compare the incidence and risk factors of both early onset and late onset preeclampsia in Qatar. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted using data from the hospital record of Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), from May 2014-May 2016. Data collection tool, which was approved by HMC, was a researcher made extraction sheet that included information such as blood pressure during admission, socio demographic characteristics, delivery mode, and new born details. A total of 1929 patients’ files were identified by the hospital information management when they apply codes of preeclampsia. Out of 1929 files, 878 had significant gestational hypertension without proteinuria, 365 had preeclampsia, 364 had severe preeclampsia, and 188 had preexisting hypertension with superimposed proteinuria. In this study, 78% of the data was obtained by hospital electronic system (Cerner) and the remaining 22% was from patient’s paper records. We have gone through detail data extraction from 560 files. Initial data analysis has revealed that 15.02% of pregnancies were complicated with preeclampsia from May 2014-May 2016. We have analyzed difference in the two different disease entities in the ethnicity, maternal age, severity of hypertension, mode of delivery and infant birth weight. We have identified promising differences in the risk factors of early onset and late onset preeclampsia. The data from clinical findings of preeclampsia will contribute to increased knowledge about two different disease entities, their etiology, and similarities/differences. The findings of this study can also be used in predicting health challenges, improving health care system, setting up guidelines, and providing the best care for women suffering from preeclampsia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2523
93972
Strengthening Facility-Based Systems to Improve Access to In-Patient Care for Sick Newborns in Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana
Abstract:
Background: The Every Newborn Action Plan provides evidence–based interventions to end preventable deaths in high burden countries. Brong Ahafo Region is one of ten regions in Ghana with less than half of its district hospitals having sick newborn units. Facility-based neonatal care is not prioritized and under-funded, and there is also inadequate knowledge and competence to manage the sick. The aim of this intervention was to make available in–patient care for sick newborns in all 19 district hospitals through the strengthening of facility-based systems. Methods: With the development and dissemination of the National Newborn Strategy and Action Plan 2014-2018, the country was able to attract PATH which provided the region with basic resuscitation equipment, supported hospital providers’ capacity building in Helping Babies Breathe, Essential Care of Every Baby, Infection Prevention and Management and held a symposia on managing the sick newborn. Newborn advocacy was promoted through newborn champions at the facility and community levels. Hospital management was then able to mobilize resources from communities, corporate organizations and from internally generated funds; created or expanded sick newborn care units and provided essential medicines and equipment. Kangaroo Mother Care was initiated in 6 hospitals. Pediatric specialist outreach services initiated comprised telephone consultations, teaching ward rounds and participating in perinatal death audits meetings. Newborn data capture and management was improved through the provision and training on the use of standard registers provided from the national level. Results: From February 2015 to November 2017, hospitals with sick newborn units increased from 7 to 19 (37%-100%). 180 pieces each of newborn ventilation bags and masks size 0, 1 and penguin suction bulbs were distributed to the hospitals, in addition to 20 newborn mannequin sets and 90 small clinical reminder posters. 802 providers (96.9%) were trained in resuscitation, of which 96% were successfully followed up in 6 weeks, 91% in 6 months and 80% in 12 months post-training. 53 clinicians (65%) were trained and mentored to manage sick newborns. 56 specialist teaching ward rounds were conducted. Data completeness improved from 92.6% - 99.9%. Availability of essential medicines improved from 11% to 100%. Number of hospital cots increased from 116 to 248 (214%). Cot occupancy rate increased from 57.4% to 92.5%. Hospitals with phototherapy equipment increased from 0 to 12 (63%). Hospitals with incubators increased from 1 to 12 (5%-63%). Newborn deaths among admissions reduced from 6.3% to 5.4%. Conclusion: Access to in-patient care increased significantly. Newborn advocacy successfully mobilized resources required for strengthening facility –based systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2522
93959
Driving towards Better Health: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence and Correlates of Obesity among Commercial Drivers in East London, South Africa
Abstract:
Background: The unhealthy food choices and sedentary lifestyle of commercial drivers predisposes them to obesity and obesity related diseases. Yet, no attention has been paid to obesity burden among this high risk group in South Africa. This study examines the prevalence of obesity and its risk factors among commercial drivers in East London, South Africa. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized the WHO STEP wise approach to screen for obesity among 403 drivers in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), South Africa. Anthropometric, blood pressure and blood glucose measurements were taken following a standard procedure. Overweight and obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 kgm⁻²–29.9 kg/m² and≥ 30 kg/ m², respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the prevalence and determinants of obesity. Result: The mean age of the participants was 43.3 (SD12.5) years, mean height (cm) and weight (kg) were 170.1(6.2cm) and 83(SD18.7), respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 34.0% and 38.0%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, only age (OR 1.6, CI 1.0-2.7), hypertension (OR 3.6, CI 2.3-5.7) and non-smoking (OR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1) were independent predictors of obesity. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high among commercial drivers. Age, hypertension, and non-smoking were independent predictors of obesity among the sample. Measures aimed at promoting health and reducing obesity should be prioritized among this group.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2521
93840
Family and Community Care for the Elderly: An Implementation Research in Local Community, Thailand
Abstract:
Background: Proportion of population ageing in Thailand has been increased rapidly in the past decades according to living longer and the fertility rates have decreased. The most important challenge related to this situation is to consider how to improve quality and years of healthy of life. This study aimed to implement the older persons’ long term care (LTC) system for elderly care by family and community. Method: The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was employed for guiding and evaluating an implementation process in ageing care. The CFIR composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Results: most elderly participants were couples, educating primary school and living with children and grandchildren. More than half of them had chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Factor analysis revealed factors related to health care of older participants which consisted of exercise, diet, accidental prevention, relaxation, self-care capacity, joyfulness, family relationship, and personal hygiene. A pre-implementation phase showed intervention characteristics included facilities and services of the LTC policy from the Ministry of Public Health. The complexities of the LTC and relative advantages were explained. Community leaders, public health volunteers, care givers and health professionals had participated in the LTC activities. Outer and inner settings consisted of context of community, culture, and readiness. Characteristics of the individuals related to knowledge, self-efficacy, perceptions, and believes. The process consisted of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The implementation outcomes and service outcomes had been evaluated during-implementation phase. Conclusion: the participation of caregivers, community leaders, public health volunteers, and health professionals had supported the LTC services. Thus, family and community care could improve quality of life of the ageing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2520
93774
Need for a National Newborn Screening Programme in India: Pilot Study Data
Abstract:
Newborn screening (NBS) is a part of routine newborn care in many countries worldwide to detect early any rare treatable conditions and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). India has not started this program yet. In an attempt to understand the challenges in implementing a national newborn screening program in India, we initiated a pilot newborn screening project funded by the Government of Canada. Along with initiating the newborn screening at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal in South India, for screening six disorders (Congenital Hypothyroidism(CH), Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), Galactosemia, Biotinidase deficiency, Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency (G-6PD) and Phenylketonurea), we also studied the awareness of various stakeholders on the newborn screening. In a period of nine months from August 2017 to March 2018 we could screen 1915 newborns (999 male and 916 female). The result showed that there were seven babies screened positive. This interim result points to an incidence rate of 1 in 270 children for these rare disorders collectively. This includes three confirmed cases of CH, two cases of G-6PD deficiency, and one case each for Galctosemia and CAH. A questionnaire based study to understand the awareness among various stakeholders revealed that there is little awareness among parents, adolescents and anganwadi workers (public health worker). The interim data points to the need for a national newborn screening programme in India. There is also an immediate need to undertake large-scale awareness programme to create knowledge on NBS among the various stakeholders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2519
93743
Comparison of the Effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhea Crude Protein Injections with Intravenous, Intracutaneous, and Subcutaneous
Abstract:
Gonorrhea is one of the sexually transmitted diseases by genito-genital, oro-genital and anogenital. Gonorrhea disease will cause complications if not treated properly. The diagnostic tool that has been used nowadays is microscopic. Thus a rapid diagnostic tool for gonorrhea is required, using polyclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of injections of intravenous, subcutaneous and intracutaneous crude protein gonorrhea. The research method used in this research is experimental explorative. This research was conducted in Molecular Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University for 3 months from April to June 2017. This study used 3 groups of rabbit with intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous injections. Each group was treated on days 1, 7, 21, and 28 with crude protein injection. After that, the examination of antibody levels held by using ELISA, followed by the antibody comparative tests contained in all three groups. The results examined by One Way ANOVA test on SPSS 21 and showed that there is no significant difference between intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous use p=0.69 (p < 0.05). However, there is an increased level (0.047 to 1.171) in antibodies from day 1 to day 14. In addition, subcutaneous use is preferred because it has minimal side effects compared to intravenous and intracutaneous use.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2518
93530
Attitudes and Behaviors of Pediatric Residents towards Care for Underserved Children in a Tertiary Government Hospital
Abstract:
Introduction: In most hospitals, pediatric residents are part of the frontline team who interacts with medically underserved patients. Despite of these daily encounters, little is known regarding their attitudes and behaviors towards caring for these underserved patients. Objectives: This study measured the pediatric resident physicians’ attitudes and behaviors towards underserved patients and determine its association. Methodology: The study utilized a cross-sectional mixed methodology, combining the use of a self-administered questionnaire survey using the Learner’s Needs Assessment tool, measuring both attitudes and behaviors towards the underserved. This is followed by a focus group discussion (FGD) involving a sample of residents at the Philippine General Hospital. Results: The response rate was 100% among 62 residents. Overall, 78% of pediatric residents acknowledged the issues of medically underserved to be very important. Volunteerism (behaviors) was only 27% during residency, and was projected to be 90% in future practice. No significant association was noted between their attitudes and behaviors. The FGD revealed that factors (i.e. burnout) causes strains in residents towards the underserved. Frustration from genuine concern for the underserved children was apparent. Conclusion: Among PGH pediatric residents, their attitudes and behaviors are noted to be positive towards the underserved. There was no significant correlation noted between having positive attitudes and volunteerism (behaviors) of the residents towards the underserved. Despite this, residents pointed out certain factors (i.e. burnout) that affect their attitudes and behaviors. The study results may serve as the basis for curriculum enhancements tailored to promote resident well-being, molding them to become the ‘5-star pediatricians’ who will genuinely be ready to serve the underserved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2517
93343
Problem Gambling in the Conceptualization of Health Professionals: A Qualitative Analysis of the Discourses Produced by Psychologists, Psychiatrists and General Practitioners
Abstract:
Different conceptualizations of disease affect patient care. This study aims to address this gap. It explores how health professionals conceptualize gambling problem, addiction and the goals of recovery process. In-depth, semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with Italian psychologists, psychiatrists, general practitioners, and support staff (N= 114), working within health centres for the treatment of addiction (public health services or therapeutic communities) or medical offices. A Lexical Correspondence Analysis (LCA) was applied to the verbatim transcripts. LCA allowed to identify two main factorial dimensions, which organize similarity and dissimilarity in the discourses of the interviewed. The first dimension labelled 'Models of relationship with the problem', concerns two different models of relationship with the health problem: one related to the request for help and the process of taking charge and the other related to the identification of the psychopathology underlying the disorder. The second dimension, labelled 'Organisers of the intervention' reflects the dialectic between two ways to address the problem. On the one hand, they are the gambling dynamics and its immediate life-consequences to organize the intervention (whatever the request of the user is); on the other hand, they are the procedures and the tools which characterize the health service to organize the way the professionals deal with the user’ s problem (whatever it is and despite the specify of the user’s request). The results highlight how, despite the differences, the respondents share a central assumption: understanding gambling problem implies the reference to the gambler’s identity, more than, for instance, to the relational, social, cultural or political context where the gambler lives. A passive stance is attributed to the user, who does not play any role in the definition of the goal of the intervention. The results will be discussed to highlight the relationship between professional models and users’ ways to understand and deal with the problems related to gambling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2516
92869
Dietary Gluten and the Balance of Gut Microbiota in the Dextran Sulphate Sodium Induced Colitis Model
Abstract:
Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota and host's health. Disruption of the balance among the microbiota, epithelial cells, and resident immune cells in the intestine is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To study the role of gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation, the microbiome of control mice (C57BL6) given a gluten-containing standard diet versus C57BL6 mice given the gluten-free (GF) feed (n=10 in each group) was examined. All mice received the 3% DSS for 5 days. Throughout the study, feces were collected and processed for DNA extraction and MiSeq Illumina sequencing of V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Alpha and beta diversities and compositional differences at phylum and genus levels were determined in intestinal microbiota. The mice receiving the GF diet showed a significantly increased abundance of Firmicutes and a decrease of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus at phylum level. Therefore, the gluten free diet led to reductions in beneficial gut bacteria populations. These findings indicate a role of wheat gluten in dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2515
92787
Exploring Attitudes and Experiences of the Cervical Screening Programme in Brighton, United Kingdom
Abstract:
Background: The UK cervical screening programme significantly reduces cancer mortality through the early detection of abnormal cells. Despite this, over a quarter of eligible women choose not to attend their appointment. Objective: To qualitatively explore patients’ barriers to attending cervical smear appointments and identify key trends of cervical screening behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes in primary and secondary care. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate smear services in Brighton and Hove using questionnaires in general practice and colposcopy. 226 patients participated in the voluntary questionnaire between 10/11/2017 and 02/02/2018. 118 patients were recruited from general practice surgeries and 108 from the colposcopy department. Women were asked about their smear knowledge, self-perceived risks factors, prior experiences and reasons for non-attendance. Demographic data was also collected. Results: Approximately a third of women did not engage in smear testing services. This was consistent across primary and secondary care groups. Over 90% were aware of the role of the screening process in relation to cervical cancer; however, over two thirds believed the smear was also a tool to screen for other pathologies. The most commonly cited reasons for non-attendance were negative emotions or previous experiences. Inconvenient appointment times were also commonly described. In a comparison of attenders versus non-attenders previous negative experiences (p < 0.01) and number of identified risk factors (p = 0.02) were statistically significant with non-attenders describing more prior negative smears and identifying more risk factors. Smear knowledge, risk perception and perceived importance of screening were not significant. Negative previous experiences were described in relation to poor bedside manner, pain, embarrassment and staff competency. Conclusions: In contrary to the literature, our white Caucasian cohort experienced significant barriers to accessing smear services. Women’s prior negative experiences are overriding their perceived importance to attend the screening programme; therefore, efforts need to focus on improving clinical experiences through auditing tools, training and providing a supportive appointment setting. Positive changes can also be expected by improving appointment availabilities with extended hours and self-booking systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2514
92734
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Faecal Carriage Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli among Hospitalized Patients in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Abstract:
Escherichia coli have been a major microorganisms associated with, and isolated from feacal samples either in adult or children all over the world. Strains of these organisms are resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients and FQs are the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial class in hospitals, and the level of resistant of E. coli to these antimicrobial agents is a risk factor that should be assessed. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli in hospitalized patients in Ado-Ekiti. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients in hospitals in the study area and FQ-resistant E. coli were isolated and identified by means of Nalidixic acid multi-disk and a 1-step screening procedure. Species identification and FQ resistance were confirmed by automated testing (Vitek, bioMerieux, USA). Individual colonies were subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine macro-restriction polymorphism after digestion of chromosomal DNA. FQ-resistant E. coli was detected in the stool sample of 37(62%) hospitalized patient. With multivariable analyses, the use of FQ before hospitalization was the only independent risk factor for FQ-resistant E. coli carriage and was consistent for FQ exposures for the 3-12 months of study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of FQ-resistant E. coli identified conal spread of 1(one) strain among 18 patients. Loss (9 patients) or acquisition (10 residents) of FQ-resistant E. coli was documented and was associated with de novo colonization with genetically distinct strains. It was concluded that FQ-resistant E. coli carriage was associated with clonal spread. The differential effects of individual fluoroquinolone on antimicrobial drug resistance are an important area for future study, as hospitals manipulate their formularies with regard to use of individual fluoroquinolone, often for economic reasons.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2513
92617
The Analysis of Personalized Low-Dose Computed Tomography Protocol Based on Cumulative Effective Radiation Dose and Cumulative Organ Dose for Patients with Breast Cancer with Regular Chest Computed Tomography Follow up
Authors:
Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate 2-year cumulative effective radiation dose and cumulative organ dose on regular follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with breast cancer and to establish personalized low-dose CT protocol. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on the patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed and managed consistently on the basis of routine breast cancer follow-up protocol between 2012-01 and 2016-06. Based on ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) 103, the cumulative effective radiation doses of each patient for 2-year follow-up were analyzed using the commercial radiation management software (Radimetrics, Bayer healthcare). The personalized effective doses on each organ were analyzed in detail by the software-providing Monte Carlo simulation. Results: A total of 3822 CT scans on 490 patients was evaluated (age: 52.32±10.69). The mean scan number for each patient was 7.8±4.54. Each patient was exposed 95.54±63.24 mSv of radiation for 2 years. The cumulative CT radiation dose was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.00). The HER-2 positive patients were more exposed to radiation compared to estrogen or progesterone receptor positive patient (p = 0.00). There was no difference in the cumulative effective radiation dose with different age groups. Conclusion: To acknowledge how much radiation exposed to a patient is a starting point of management of radiation exposure for patients with long-term CT follow-up. The precise and personalized protocol, as well as iterative reconstruction, may reduce hazard from unnecessary radiation exposure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2512
92585
Impact of Tobacco Control Policy to Cancer Mortalities in South Africa
Abstract:
This paper investigates the effectiveness of tobacco control policy (TCP) in averting cancer mortalities in both educated and uneducated segments of the South African population. A two-stage least squares model (2SLS) was used covering the period 2009-2013. The results show that the TCP caused a 26 percent average decrease in cancer mortalities in both educated and uneducated segment of the population. However, limiting the sales of cheap and illegal tobacco cigarettes is necessary for advancing the effectiveness of TCP in averting cancer mortalities in the uneducated population — as the paper noted an insignificant decrease in cancer mortalities in 2012-2013 due to the presence of cheaper cigarettes. The paper also discovered evidence of persisting tobacco purchases of branded cigarettes in the educated population group which limited the effectiveness of TCP in 2009-2011. Hikes in real tobacco tax to a 0.8 USD price level in 2012 limited tobacco consumption in the educated group resulting in a 29 percent decrease in cancer mortalities. Other developing countries may learn from the South African case and strive to limit the sales of cheap illegal cigarettes while hiking real tobacco tax of branded cigarettes as a key strategy to improve cancer deaths across educated and uneducated population groups.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2511
92330
Non-Invasive Assessment of Peripheral Arterial Disease: Automated Ankle Brachial Index Measurement and Pulse Volume Analysis Compared to Ultrasound Duplex Scan
Abstract:
Introduction: There is, at present, a clear and recognized need to optimize the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), particularly in non-specialist settings such as primary care, and this arises from several key facts. Firstly, PAD is a highly prevalent condition. In 2010, it was estimated that globally, PAD affected more than 202 million people and furthermore, this prevalence is predicted to further escalate. The disease itself, although frequently asymptomatic, can cause considerable patient suffering with symptoms such as lower limb pain, ulceration, and gangrene which, in worse case scenarios, can necessitate limb amputation. A further and perhaps the most eminent consequence of PAD arises from the fact that it is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and therefore is a powerful predictor of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Objective: This cross sectional study aimed to individually and cumulatively compare sensitivity and specificity of the (i) ankle brachial index (ABI) and (ii) pulse volume waveform (PVW) recorded by the same automated device, with the presence or absence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) being verified by an Ultrasound Duplex Scan (UDS). Methods: Patients (n = 205) referred for lower limb arterial assessment underwent an ABI and PVW measurement using volume plethysmography followed by a UDS. Presence of PAD was recorded for ABI if < 0.9 (noted if > 1.30) if PVW was graded as 2, 3 or 4 or a hemodynamically significant stenosis > 50% with UDS. Outcome measure was agreement between measured ABI and interpretation of the PVW for PAD diagnosis, using UDS as the reference standard. Results: Sensitivity of ABI was 80%, specificity 91%, and overall accuracy 88%. Cohen’s kappa revealed good agreement between ABI and UDS (k = 0.7, p < .001). PVW sensitivity 97%, specificity 81%, overall accuracy 84%, with a good level of agreement between PVW and UDS (k = 0.67, p < .001). The combined sensitivity of ABI and PVW was 100%, specificity 76%, and overall accuracy 85% (k = 0.67, p < .001). Conclusions: Combing these two diagnostic modalities within one device provided a highly accurate method of ruling out PAD. Such a device could be utilized within the primary care environment to reduce the number of unnecessary referrals to secondary care with concomitant cost savings, reduced patient inconvenience, and prioritization of urgent PAD cases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2510
92275
Assessment of Work Postures and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Diamond Polishers in Botswana: A Case Study
Abstract:
Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are reported to be amongst the leading contributing factors of low productivity in many industries across the world, and the most affected being New Emerging Economies (NEC) such as Botswana. This is due to lack of expertise and resources to deal with existing ergonomics challenges. This study was aimed to evaluate occupational postures and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among diamond polishers in a diamond company in Botswana. A case study was conducted with about 106 diamond polishers in Gaborone, Botswana. A case study was chosen because it can investigate and explore an issue thoroughly and deeply, and record behaviour over time so changes in behaviour can be identified. The Corlett and Bishop Body Map was used to determine frequency of MSDs symptoms in different body parts of the workers. This was then followed by the use of the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) to evaluate the occupational postural risks of MSDs. Descriptive statistics, chi square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results of the study reveal that workers experienced pain in the upper back, lower back, shoulders, neck, and wrists with the most pain reported in the upper back (44.6%) and lower back (44.2%). However, the mean REBA score of 6.07 suggests that sawing, bruiting and polishing were the most dangerous processes in diamond polishing. The study recommends that a redesign of the diamond polishing workstations is necessary to accommodate the anthropometry characteristic of Batswana (people from Botswana) to prevent the development of MSDs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2509
91998
Catered Lunch Suspected Outbreak in a Garment Factory, Sleman District, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 2017
Abstract:
On October 19, 2017, Yogyakarta Islamic Hospital reported 38 garment employees with nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhea after they had lunch on October 18, 2017, to Sleman District Health Office. Objectives of this study were to ensure the outbreak and identify source and route of transmission. Case-control study was conducted to analyze food items that caused the outbreak. A case was defined as a person who got symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea with/without vomiting, fever, and headache after they had lunch on October 18, 2017. Samples included leftover lunch box, vomit, tap water and drinking water had been sent to the laboratory. Data were analyzed descriptively as frequency table and analyzed by using chi-square in bivariate analysis. All of 196 garment employee was included in this study. The common symptoms of this outbreak were abdominal pain (84.4%), diarrhea (72.8%), nausea (61.6%), headache (52.8%), vomiting (12.8%), and fever (6.4%) with median incubation period 13 hours (range 1-34 hours). Highest attack rate and odds ratio was found in grilled chicken (Attack Rate 58,49%) with Odds Ratio 11,023 (Confidence Interval 95% 1.383 - 87.859; p value 0,005). Almost all samples showed mold, except drinking water. Based on its sign and symptoms, also incubation period, diarrheal Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens were suspected to be the causative agent of the outbreak. Limitation of this study was improper sample handling and no sample of food handler and stools in the food caterer. Outbreak investigation training needed to be given to the hospital worker, and monitoring should be done to the food caterer to prevent another outbreak.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2508
91959
Postpartum Depression Screening and Referrals for Lower-Income Women in North Carolina, USA
Abstract:
Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a leading cause of postpartum morbidity. PPD affects 7.1% of postpartum women and 19.2% of postpartum women when including minor depression. Lower-income women and ethnic minorities are more at risk for developing PPD and face multiple attitudinal and institutional barriers to receiving care. This study aims to identify PPD among low-income women and connect them to appropriate services in order to reduce the illness burden and enhance access to care. Screenings were conducted in two Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, from April 2017 to April 2018. WIC is a supplemental nutrition program that provides healthcare and nutrition to low-income pregnant women, breastfeeding women, and children under the age of 5. Additionally, a qualitative study was conducted to better understand the PPD continuum of care in order to identify opportunities for improvement. Mothers with infants were screened for depression risk using the PHQ-2. Mothers who scored ≥ 2 completed two additional standardized screening tools (PHQ-7, to complete the PHQ-9, and the Edinburgh) to assess depressive symptomatology. If indicated they may be suffering from depression, women were referred for case management services. Open-ended questions were used to understand treatment barriers. Four weeks after the initial survey, a follow-up telephone call was made to see if women had received care. Seven focus groups with WIC staff and managers, referral agency staff, local behavioral health professionals, and students examining the screenings, are being conducted March - April, 2018 to gather information related to current screening practices, referrals, follow up and treatment. Mothers (n = 231 as of February, 2018) were screened in English (65%) or Spanish (35%). According to preliminary results, 29% of mothers screened were at risk for postpartum depression (PHQ-2 ≥ 2). There were significant differences in preliminary screening results based on survey language (
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2507
91930
University Students' Perspectives on a Mindfulness-Based App for Weight, Weight Related Behaviors, and Stress: A Qualitative Focus Group Study
Abstract:
Introduction: A novel method of delivering mindfulness interventions for populations at risk of weight gain and stress-related eating, in particular, college students, is through mHealth. While there have been qualitative studies on mHealth for weight loss, there has not been a study on mHealth for weight loss using mindfulness that has explored student perspectives on a student centred mindfulness app and mindfulness-based text messages for eating and stress. Student perspective data will provide valuable information for creating a specific purpose weight management app and mindfulness-based text messages (for the Mindfulness App study). Methods: A qualitative focus group study was undertaken at St Lucia campus at the University of Queensland in March 2017. Students over the age of 18 were eligible to participate. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. One week following the focus group, students were sent sample mindfulness-based text messages based on their responses. Students provided written feedback via email. Data were analysed using N Vivo software. Results: The key themes in a future mindfulness-based app are a simple design interface, a focus on education/practical tips, and real-life practical exercises. Social media should be avoided. Key themes surrounding barriers include the perceived difficulty of mindfulness and a lack of proper guidance or knowledge. The mindfulness-based text messages were received positively. Key themes were creating messages with practical tips about how to be mindful and how to integrate mindful reflection of both one’s body and environment while on campus. Other themes including creating positive, inspirational messages. There was lack of agreement on the ideal timing for messages. Discussion: This is the first study that explored student perspectives on a mindfulness-app and mindfulness-based text messages for stress and weight management as a pre-trial study for the Mindfulness App trial for stress, lifestyle, and weight in students. It is important to consider maximizing the potential facilitators of use and minimize potential identified barriers when developing and designing a future mHealth mindfulness-based intervention tailored to the student consumer. Conclusion: Future mHealth studies may consider integrating mindfulness-based text messages in their interventions for weight and stress as this is a novel feature that appears to be acceptable for participants. The results of this focus group provide the basis to develop content for a specific purpose student app for weight management.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2506
91910
Increased Expression Levels of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Obese and Its Modulation by Physical Exercise
Abstract:
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an emerging therapeutic target in several chronic states that have inflammation as a common underlying cause such as immunometabolic diseases. Indeed, sEH is known to play a pro-inflammatory role by metabolizing anti-inflammatory, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to pro-inflammatory diols. Recently, it was shown sEH to be linked to diet and microbiota interaction in rat models of obesity. Nevertheless, the functional contribution of sEH and its anti-inflammatory substrates EETs in obesity remain poorly understood. In the current study, we compared the expression pattern of sEH between lean and obese nondiabetic human subjects using subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Using RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, we show here that the level of sEH mRNA and protein to be significantly increased in obese subjects with concomitant increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress components (GRP78 and ATF6α) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6) when compared to lean controls. The observation that sEH was overexpressed in obese subjects’ prompt us to investigate whether physical exercise could reduce its expression. In this study, we report here 3-months supervised physical exercise significantly attenuated the expression of sEH in both the SAT and PBMCs, with a parallel decrease in the expression of ER stress markers along with attenuated inflammatory response. On the other hand, homocysteine, a sulfur containing amino acid deriving from the essential amino acid methionine was shown to be directly associated with insulin resistance. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes cells were treated with homocysteine our results show increased sEH levels along with ER stress markers. Collectively, our data suggest that sEH upregulation is strongly linked to ER stress in adiposity and that physical exercise modulates its expression. This gives further evidence that exercise might be useful as a strategy for managing obesity and preventing its associated complications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2505
91847
Perspectives of Healthcare Workers on Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
Research Objectives and Goal: The main aim of the current study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare workers on Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and infection control measures in a tertiary care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia. As per our knowledge, this is perhaps the first qualitative study on HAI to be done in Saudi Arabia. The goal of the study was to understand the perspectives of the healthcare workers on the current protocol and guidelines for HAI and infections control measures in the hospital, the effectiveness of the current protocol for HAI and infection control measures and ways of reducing the incidence of HAI and improve infection control measures. Methods used: A qualitative research design was used to collect the data from 25 healthcare workers consisting of doctors and nurses, recruited by Snowball strategy via semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim immediately. An interview guide consisting of open-ended questions about the existing HAI and infection control practices in the healthcare facility, the awareness of the healthcare workers about HAI and the need for safe infection control measures were used to collect the data. The transcribed data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Results: Using thematic analysis four themes were identified.1.Knowledge of HAI and infection control 2. Infection control measures in practice 3. The gap in infection control measures and HAI 4. Required Implementations. The first theme covered the participants' knowledge on HAI, its definition, the types of HAI and the infection control measures.Most of the participants were aware of HAI and had some idea of the definition of HAI, its significance and the dangers posed by HAI, but few residents had no idea of the types of HAI. The second theme was focussed on the infection control measures in practice. Most of the participants were aware of the importance of infection control measures like hand hygiene, catheter care, and waste disposal. The nurses were responsible for most of the disinfection and sterilization measures and practiced it effectively. However, some doctors and residents had no inkling about these measures. The third theme emphasized that although most of the participants were aware of HAI and infection control measures and were in practice. There were some lacunae regarding their knowledge of the different types of HAI, Personal Protective Equipment practices, communication among the healthcare personnel and the hospital administrations and the means of waste disposal. The fourth and the final theme identified that most of the participants felt the need for implementations of changes regarding existing protocols, workshops/seminars, methods of waste disposal and sterilization and disinfection practices. Conclusion: The current qualitative study concluded that there is a need for better educational programs and hands-on training for all the healthcare personnel including the paramedical staff as well. The residents should have adequate knowledge of infection control practices to guide the nurses and should share the responsibility with the nurses in the practice of effective infection control measures
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2504
91841
Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Health Sector in India
Abstract:
Introduction: Due to the rapid pace of urbanization, the urban health issues have become one of the significant threats to future development in India. It also poses serious repercussions on the citizen’s health. As urbanization in India is increasing at an unprecedented rate and it has generated the urban health crisis among the city dwellers especially the urban poor. The increasing proportion of the urban poor and vulnerable to the health indicators worse than the rural counterparts, they face social and financial barriers in accessing healthcare services and these conditions make human health at risk. The Local as well as the State and National governments are alike tackling with the challenges of urbanization as it has become very essential for the government to provide the basic necessities and better infrastructure that make life in cities safe and healthy. Thus, the paper argues that if no major realistic steps are taken with immediate effect, the citizens will face a huge burden of health hazards. Aim: This paper attempts to analyze the current infrastructure, government planning, and its future policy, it also discusses the challenges and outcomes of urbanization on health and its impact on it and it will also predict the future trend with regard to disease burden in the urban areas. Methods: The paper analyzes on the basis of the secondary data by taking into consideration the connection between the Rapid Urbanization and Public Health Challenges, health and health care system and its services delivery to the citizens especially to the urban poor. Extensive analyses of government census reports, health information and policy, the government health-related schemes, urban development and based on the past trends, the future status of urban infrastructure and health outcomes are predicted. The social-economic and political dimensions are also taken into consideration from regional, national and global perspectives, which are incorporated in the paper to make realistic predictions for the future. Findings and Conclusion: The findings of the paper show that India suffers a lot due to the double burden of rapidly increasing in diseases and also growing health inequalities and disparities in health outcomes. Existing tools of governance of urban health are falling short to provide the better health care services. They need to strengthen the collaboration and communication among the state, national and local governments and also with the non-governmental partners. Based on the findings the policy implications are then described and areas for future research are defined.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2503
91693
Data-Driven Approach to Predict Inpatient's Estimated Discharge Date
Abstract:
To facilitate discharge planning, doctors are presently required to assign an Estimated Discharge Date (EDD) for each patient admitted to the hospital. This assignment of the EDD is largely based on the doctor’s judgment. This can be difficult for cases which are complex or relatively new to the doctor. It is hypothesized that a data-driven approach would be able to facilitate the doctors to make accurate estimations of the discharge date. Making use of routinely collected data on inpatient discharges between January 2013 and May 2016, a predictive model was developed using machine learning techniques to predict the Length of Stay (and hence the EDD) of inpatients, at the point of admission. The predictive performance of the model was compared to that of the clinicians using accuracy measures. Overall, the best performing model was found to be able to predict EDD with an accuracy improvement in Average Squared Error (ASE) by -38% as compared to the first EDD determined by the present method. It was found that important predictors of the EDD include the provisional diagnosis code, patient’s age, attending doctor at admission, medical specialty at admission, accommodation type, and the mean length of stay of the patient in the past year. The predictive model can be used as a tool to accurately predict the EDD.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2502
91666
The Cooperation among Insulin, Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones in Morbid Obese Children and Metabolic Syndrome
Abstract:
Obesity, a disease associated with a low-grade inflammation, is a risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). So far, MetS risk factors such as parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolisms as well as blood pressure were considered for the evaluation of this disease. There are still some ambiguities related to the characteristic features of MetS observed particularly in pediatric population. Hormonal imbalance is also important, and quite a lot information exists about the behaviour of some hormones in adults. However, the hormonal profiles in pediatric metabolism have not been cleared yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the profiles of cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormones in children with MetS. The study population was composed of morbid obese (MO) children without (Group 1) and with (Group 2) MetS components. WHO BMI-for age and sex percentiles were used for the classification of obesity. The values above 99 percentile were defined as morbid obesity. Components of MetS (central obesity, glucose intolerance, high blood pressure, high triacylglycerol levels, low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol) were determined. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Ratios as well as obesity indices were calculated. Insulin, cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T3 and free T4 analyses were performed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Data were evaluated by statistical package for social sciences program. p&lt;0.05 was accepted as the degree for statistical significance. The mean ages&plusmn;SD values of Group 1 and Group 2 were 9.9&plusmn;3.1 years and 10.8&plusmn;3.2 years, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) values were calculated as 27.4&plusmn;5.9 kg/m2 and 30.6&plusmn;8.1 kg/m2, successively. There were no statistically significant differences between the ages and BMI values of the groups. Insulin levels were statistically significantly increased in MetS in comparison with the levels measured in MO children. There was not any difference between MO children and those with MetS in terms of cortisol, T3, T4 and TSH. However, T4 levels were positively correlated with cortisol and negatively correlated with insulin. None of these correlations were observed in MO children. Cortisol levels in both MO as well as MetS group were significantly correlated. Cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormones are essential for life. Cortisol, called the control system for hormones, orchestrates the performance of other key hormones. It seems to establish a connection between hormone imbalance and inflammation. During an inflammatory state, more cortisol is produced to fight inflammation. High cortisol levels prevent the conversion of the inactive form of the thyroid hormone T4 into active form T3. Insulin is reduced due to low thyroid hormone. T3, which is essential for blood sugar control- requires cortisol levels within the normal range. Positive association of T4 with cortisol and negative association of it with insulin are the indicators of such a delicate balance among these hormones also in children with MetS.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2501
91663
Evaluation of Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index in Obese Children
Abstract:
Systemic immune-inflammation (SII) index, which is used to predict prognosis and clinical outcome in patients with various cancers, is derived from platelet count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Elevated SII index is also associated with a poor outcome in patients with solid tumors. Association of body mass index (BMI), diet-related factors and outcome in patients with several cancers is under investigation. A growing list of cancers might be influenced by obesity. Obesity is associated with an increased risk for the occurrence and development of some cancers. Inflammation can lead to cancer. It is one of the characteristic features of cancer and plays a critical role in cancer development. C-reactive protein (CRP) is under evaluation related to the new and simple prognostic factors in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. Obesity can predict and promote systemic inflammation in healthy adults. BMI is correlated with hs-CRP. In this study, SII index and CRP values were evaluated in children with normal BMI and those within the range of different obesity grades to detect the tendency towards cancer in pediatric obesity. A total of one hundred and ninety-four children; thirty five children with normal BMI, twenty overweight (OW), forty-seven obese (OB) and ninety-two morbid obese (MO) participated in the study. WHO BMI-for age percentiles were used to form age- and sex-matched groups. Informed consent forms and the Ethics Committee approval were obtained. Anthropometric measurements were performed. The complete blood count test was performed. C-reactive protein analysis was performed. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The degree for statistical significance was p≤0.05. SII index values were progressively increasing starting from normal weight (NW) to MO children. There is a statistically significant difference between NW and OB as well as MO children. No significant difference was observed between NW and OW children, however, a correlation was observed between NW and OW children. MO constitutes the only group, which exhibited a statistically significant correlation between SII index and CRP. Obesity-related bladder, kidney, cervical, liver, colorectal, endometrial cancers are still being investigated. Obesity, characterized as a chronic low-grade inflammation, is a crucial risk factor for colon cancer. Elevated childhood BMI values may be indicative of processes leading to cancer, initiated early in life. Prevention of childhood adiposity may decrease the cancer incidence in adults. To authors’ best knowledge, this study is the first to introduce SII index values during obesity of varying degrees of severity. It is suggested that this index seems to affect all stages of obesity with an increasing tendency and may point out the concomitant status of obesity and cancer starting from very early periods of life.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2500
91650
Personal Data Protection: A Legal Framework for Health Law in Turkey
Abstract:
Every patient who needs to get a medical treatment should share health-related personal data with healthcare providers. Therefore, personal health data plays an important role to make health decisions and identify health threats during every encounter between a patient and caregivers. In other words, health data can be defined as privacy and sensitive information which is protected by various health laws and regulations. In many cases, the data are an outcome of the confidential relationship between patients and their healthcare providers. Globally, almost all nations have own laws, regulations or rules in order to protect personal data. There is a variety of instruments that allow authorities to use the health data or to set the barriers data sharing across international borders. For instance, Directive 95/46/EC of the European Union (EU) (also known as EU Data Protection Directive) establishes harmonized rules in European borders. In addition, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will set further common principles in 2018. Because of close policy relationship with EU, this study provides not only information on regulations, directives but also how they play a role during the legislative process in Turkey. Even if the decision is controversial, the Board has recently stated that private or public healthcare institutions are responsible for the patient call system, for doctors to call people waiting outside a consultation room, to prevent unlawful processing of personal data and unlawful access to personal data during the treatment. In Turkey, vast majority private and public health organizations provide a service that ensures personal data (i.e. patient’s name and ID number) to call the patient. According to the Board’s decision, hospital or other healthcare institutions are obliged to take all necessary administrative precautions and provide technical support to protect patient privacy. However, this application does not effectively and efficiently performing in most health services. For this reason, it is important to draw a legal framework of personal health data by stating what is the main purpose of this regulation and how to deal with complicated issues on personal health data in Turkey. The research is descriptive on data protection law for health care setting in Turkey. Primary as well as secondary data has been used for the study. The primary data includes the information collected under current national and international regulations or law. Secondary data include publications, books, journals, empirical legal studies. Consequently, privacy and data protection regimes in health law show there are some obligations, principles and procedures which shall be binding upon natural or legal persons who process health-related personal data. A comparative approach presents there are significant differences in some EU member states due to different legal competencies, policies, and cultural factors. This selected study provides theoretical and practitioner implications by highlighting the need to illustrate the relationship between privacy and confidentiality in Personal Data Protection in Health Law. Furthermore, this paper would help to define the legal framework for the health law case studies on data protection and privacy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2499
91634
Radiographic Evaluation of Odontogenic Keratocyst: A 14 Years Retrospective Study
Abstract:
INTRODUCTION: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) remain as a controversial pathologic entity under the scrutiny of many researchers and maxillofacial surgeons alike. The high recurrence rate and relatively aggressive nature of this lesion demand a meticulous analysis of the radiographic characteristic of OKC leading to the formulation of an accurate diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the radiographic characteristic of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) using conventional radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients histopathologically diagnosed as OKC from 2003 to 2016 by Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographs of these cases from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry Mahidol University were retrieved. Assessment of the location, shape, border, cortication, locularity, the relationship of lesion to embedded tooth, displacement of adjacent tooth, root resorption and bony expansion of the lesion were conducted. RESULTS: Radiographs of 91 patients (44 males, 47 females) with the mean age of 31 years old (10 to 84 years) were analyzed. Among all patients, 5 cases were syndromic patients. Hence, a total of 103 OKCs were studied. The most common location was at the ramus of mandible (32%) followed by posterior maxilla (29%). Most cases presented as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated border. The lesion was in associated with embedded tooth in 48 lesions (47%). Eighty five percent of embedded tooth are impacted 3rd molar. Thirty-seven percentage of embedded tooth were entirely encapsulated in the lesion. The lesion attached to the embedded tooth at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in 40% and extended to part of root in 23% of cases. Teeth displacement and root resorption were found in 29% and 6% of cases, respectively. Bony expansion in bucco-lingual dimension was seen in 63% of cases. CONCLUSION: OKCs were predominant in the posterior region of the mandible with radiographic features of a well-defined, unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated margin. The lesions might relate to an embedded tooth by surrounding an entire tooth, attached to the CEJ level or extending to part of root. Bony expansion could be found but teeth displacement and root resorption were not common. These features might help in giving the differential diagnosis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2498
91569
Peculiarities of Microflora of Odontogenic Inflammatory Processes in the Central Kazakhstan Region
Abstract:
Background: Odontogenic phlegmons are ranked the first among pyoinflammatory processes in the frequency of hospitalization in maxillofacial surgery in the post-Soviet countries. The main role in etiology is played by obligate anaerobes and aerobes. According to numerous data, the structure of aerobic pathogens is dominated by staphylococci and gram-negative bacteria. Aim: The research aim is to study the microflora of the purulent discharge odontogenic inflammatory processes. Materials and methods: A total of 220 patients have been examined, of which 120 patients aged 25-59 years have been included in the research who did not have comorbidity hospitalized in the maxillofacial hospital in Karaganda (Kazakhstan) from January 2016 to July 2017. The bacteriological research has been carried out on the basis of the multiaccess laboratory of the KSMU, through the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) apparatus. The material sample was pus from the inflammation focus, taken during the operating period. Results: According to the research among 120 patients (100%), 15 patients (12.5%) have had microorganisms not grown. From 105 (87.5%) bacteriological results, it has been revealed the following 1) Streptococcus: 51 (42.5%): Streptococcus beta-haemolytic: 17 (14.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae: 12 (10%), Streptococcus anginosus: 8 (6.6%), Streptococcus oralis: 8 (6.6%), Streptococcus constellatus: 6 (5.0%); 2) Staphylococci: 27 (22.5%): Staphylococci aureus: 14 (11.7%) and Staphylococci epidermidis: 13 (10.8%); 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 12 (10%); 4) Neisseria: 11 (9.1%): Neisseria mucosa: 5 (4.1%) and Neisseria macacae: 6 (5.0%); 5) Klebsiella pneumoniae: 2 (1.7%); 6) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: 2 (1.7%). 15 patients (12.5%) experienced complications in the form of 1) The dissemination of the process in 10 patients (8.4%). 2) Osteomyelitis in 3 (2.5%). 3) Mediastinitis in 1 (0.8%). 4) Sinusitis in 1 (0.8%). 15 patients (100%) were carried out repeated bacteriological examination, the following was revealed: 1) Streptococcus: 10 (66.7%): Streptococcus beta-haemolytic: 4 (26.7%), Streptococcus pneumoniae: 2 (13.3%), Streptococcus аnginosus: 2 (13.3%), Streptococcus oralis: 1 (6.7%), Streptococcus constellatus: 1 (6.7%); 2) Staphylococci: 4 (26.7%): Staphylococci aureus: 3 (20%) and Staphylococci epidermidis: 1 (6.7%); 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 1 (6.7%). Conclusions: Thus, according to our research data, streptococci predominate in the odontogenic processes microflora in aerobic flora in the central Kazakhstan region, which refutes the leading role of staphylococci in the development of odontogenic inflammatory processes, thus creating prerequisites for studying new treatment approaches.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2497
91528
Challenges to Tuberculosis Control in Angola: The Narrative of Medical Professionals
Abstract:
Background: There is a tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in Angola that has been getting worse for more than a decade despite the active implementation of the DOTS strategy. The aim of this study was to directly interrogate healthcare workers involved in TB control on what they consider to be the drivers of the TB epidemic in Angola. Methods: Twenty four in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with medical staff working in this field in the provinces of Luanda and Benguela. Results: The healthcare professionals see the migrant working poor as a particular problem for the control of TB. These migrants are constructed as ‘Rural People’ and are seen as non-compliant and late-presenting. This is a stigmatized and marginal group contending with the additional stigma associated with TB infection. The healthcare professionals interviewed also see the interruption of treatment and self medication generally as a better explanation for the TB epidemic than urbanization or lack of medication. Conclusions: The local narrative is in contrast to previous explanations used elsewhere in the developing world. To be effective policy must recognize the local issues of the migrant workforce, interruption of treatment and the stigma associated with TB in Angola.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):