Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50776

Medical and Health Sciences

2401
90197
Combined Cervical Headache Snag with Cervical Snag Half Rotation Techniques on Cervicogenic Headache Patients
Abstract:
Background: Cervicogenic headache is a major problem in many people suffering from upper cervical dysfunction with a great conflict in its physical therapy management. Objectives: To determine the effect of C1-C2 Mulligan SNAGs mobilizations on cervicogenic headache and associated dizziness symptoms. Methods: Forty-eight patients with cervicogenic headache included in the study; from the outpatient clinic of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, and New Cairo outpatient clinics, were randomly assigned into three equal groups; group A ( Headache SNAG), group B (C1-C2 SNAG rotation) and group C (combined). Their mean age was (29.37 ± 2.6), (29.31 ± 2.54) and (29.68 ± 2.65). Neck Disability Index used to examine neck pain intensity and CEH symptoms. 6 Items Headache Impact test '6-HIT' scale used to examine headache severity and its adverse effects on social life and functions. Flexion-Rotation Test 'FRT' also used to assess rotation ROM at the level of C1-C2 by 'CROM' device. Dizziness Handicap Inventory 'DHI' scale was used to evaluate dizziness symptoms. Evaluation is done pre and post treatment, and comparison between groups was quantified. Correlations between the examined parameters were also measured. Headache SNAG and C1-C2 Rotation SNAGs were done separately in group (A- B) and combined in group C as a treatment intervention. Results: Group C has Significant improvement in whole parameters compared to group A and B, positive correlation was found between NDI and 6-HIT scores compared to negative correlation between NDI and DHI scores. Conclusion: SNAGs mobilizations used in the study were effective in reducing cervicogenic headache and dizziness symptoms in all groups with a noticeable improvement in the combined group.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2400
88912
The Social Aspects of Mental Illness among Orthodox Christians of the Tigrinya Ethnic Group in Eritrea
Authors:
Abstract:
This study is situated within the religio-cultural milieu of Coptic Orthodox Christians of the Tigrinya ethnic group in Eritrea. With this ethnic group being conservative and traditionally bound, extended family structures dissected along various clans and expansive community networks are the distinguishing mark of its members. Notably, Coptic Tigrinya constitutes the largest percentage of all Christian denominations in Eritrea. As religious, cultural beliefs, rituals and teachings permeate in all aspects of social life, a distinct worldview and traditionalized health and illness conceptualization are common. Accordingly, this study argues that religio-culturally bound illness ideologies immensely determine the perception, help seeking behavior and healing preference of Coptic Tigrinya in Eritrea. The study bears significance in the sense that it bridges an important knowledge gap, given that it is ethno-linguistically (within the Tigrinya ethnic group), spatially (central region of Eritrea) and religiously (Coptic Christianity) specific. The conceptual framework guiding this research centered on the social determinants of mental health, and explores through the lens of critical theory how existing systems generate social vulnerability and structural inequality, providing a platform to reveal how the psychosocial model has the capacity to emancipate and empower those with mental disorders to live productive and meaningful lives. A case study approach was employed to explore the interrelationship between religio-cultural beliefs and practices and perception of common mental disorders of depression, anxiety, bipolar affective, schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorders and the impact of these perceptions on people with those mental disorders. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 41 participants representing seven diverse cohorts; people with common mental disorders, family caregivers, general community members, ex-fighters , priests, staff at St. Mary’s and Biet-Mekae Community Health Center; resulting in rich data for thematic analysis. Findings highlighted current religio-cultural perceptions, causes and treatment of mental disorders among Coptic Tigrinya result in widespread labelling, stigma and discrimination, both of those with mental disorders and their families. Traditional healing sources are almost exclusively tried, sometimes for many years, before families and sufferers seek formal medical assessment and treatment, resulting difficult to treat illness chronicity. Service gaps in the formal medical system result in the inability to meet the principles enshrined in the WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 to which the Eritrean Government is a signatory. However, the study found that across all participant cohorts, there was a desire for change that will create a culture whereby those with mental disorders will have restored hope, connectedness, healing and self-determination.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2399
88893
Management of Acute Appendicitis with Preference on Delayed Primary Suturing of Surgical Incision
Abstract:
Appendicitis is one of the most encountered abdominal emergencies worldwide. Proper clinical diagnosis and appendicectomy with minimal post operative complications are therefore priorities. Aim of this study was to ascertain the overall management of acute appendicitis in Sri Lanka in special preference to delayed primary suturing of the surgical site, comparing other local and international treatment outcomes. Data were collected prospectively from 155 patients who underwent appendicectomy following clinical and radiological diagnosis with ultrasonography. Histological assessment was done for all the specimens. All perforated appendices were managed with delayed primary closure. Patients were followed up for 28 days to assess complications. Mean age of patient presentation was 27 years; mean pre-operative waiting time following admission was 24 hours; average hospital stay was 72 hours; accuracy of clinical diagnosis of appendicitis as confirmed by histology was 87.1%; post operative wound infection rate was 8.3%, and among them 5% had perforated appendices; 4 patients had post operative complications managed without re-opening. There was no fistula formation or mortality reported. Current study was compared with previously published data: a comparison on management of acute appendicitis in Sri Lanka vs. United Kingdom (UK). The diagnosis of current study was equally accurate, but post operative complications were significantly reduced - (current study-9.6%, compared Sri Lankan study-16.4%; compared UK study-14.1%). During the recent years, there has been an exponential rise in the use of Computerised Tomography (CT) imaging in the assessment of patients with acute appendicitis. Even though, the diagnostic accuracy without using CT, and treatment outcome of acute appendicitis in this study match other local studies as well as with data compared to UK. Therefore CT usage has not increased the diagnostic accuracy of acute appendicitis significantly. Especially, delayed primary closure may have reduced post operative wound infection rate for ruptured appendices, therefore suggest this approach for further evaluation as a safer and an effective practice in other hospitals worldwide as well.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2398
88237
Mitochondrial Apolipoprotein A-1 Binding Protein Promotes Repolarization of Inflammatory Macrophage by Repairing Mitochondrial Respiration
Abstract:
Objective: Editing macrophage activation to dampen inflammatory diseases by promoting the repolarization of inflammatory (M1) macrophages to anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages is highly associated with mitochondrial respiration. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial apolipoprotein A-1 binding protein (APOA1BP) was essential for the cellular metabolite NADHX repair to NADH, which is necessary for the mitochondrial function. The exact role of APOA1BP in the repolarization of M1 to M2, however, is uncertain. Material and method: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with LPS (10 ng/ml) or/and IL-4 (100 U/ml) for 24 hours. Biochemical parameters of oxidative phosphorylation and M1/M2 markers were analyzed after overexpression of APOA1BP in cells. Results: Compared with control and IL-4-exposed M2 cells, APOA1BP was downregulated in M1 macrophages. APOA1BP restored the decline in mitochondrial function to improve metabolic and phenotypic reprogramming of M1 to M2 macrophages. Blocking oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin blunts the effects of APOA1BP on M1 to M2 repolarization. Mechanistically, LPS triggered the hydration of NADH and increased its hydrate NADHX which inhibit cellular NADH dehydrogenases, a key component of electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation. APOA1BP decreased the level of NADHX via converting R-NADHX to biologically useful S-NADHX. The mutant of APOA1BP aspartate188, the binding site of NADHX, fail to repair oxidative phosphorylation, thereby preventing repolarization. Conclusions: Restoring mitochondrial function by increasing mitochondrial APOA1BP might be useful to improve the reprogramming of inflammatory macrophages into anti-inflammatory cells to control inflammatory diseases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2397
88136
Ring FingerPortein 2 (RNF2) Targeting by miRNAs in Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Abstract:
Ring Finger Protein 2 (RNF2) is a member of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), which is one of the epigenetic regulators in the genome. When RNF2 combines with other PRC1 members, it mediates the mono-ubiquitination of Histon2A (H2A). In breast cancer, RNF2 is commonly overexpressed, and also it promotes metastasis and invasion in other aggressive tumors like melanoma, prostate, and hepatocarcinoma. The role of RNF2 in the metastasis and invasion of breast cancer has not yet been elucidated. Our aim is to observe the role of RNF2 in metastasis and invasion in this study by miRNA mediated RNF2 gene silencing in breast cancer cell lines. We selected miRNAs, targeting to RNF2 by searching online databases. miR-17-5p, miR20a-5p, and miR-106b-5p were transfected to breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3, and ZR-75-1), and also we used normal breast epithelial cell line (hTERT-HME1) to compare RNF2 gene expression level. After 48-72 hours post-transfection, mRNAs were isolated from the cells, and gene expressions were measured by RT-qPCR after from cDNA syntheses. We observed that RNF2 was highly expressed in SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines opposite to MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cell lines. RNF2 was downregulated 5, 5 and 7 fold by miR17-5p, miR20a-5p and miR106b-5p respectively in MCF-7. However, in SK-BR-3 and ZR-75-1 cell lines, miRNAs did not affect significantly RNF2 gene expression level. miR20a-5p decreased RNF2 3 fold and miR17-5p and miR106b-5p did not affect MDA-MB-231. After gene expression analysis, we performed metastasis and invasion assay in MCF-7 cells. For metastasis, we used both wound healing assay and Transwell Cell Migration Assay, and we used Transwell Cell Invasion Assay for invasion. The data of this assay showed that miR17-5p and miR20a-5p decreased both invasion and metastasis level, but miR106b-5p has no effect. We would like to conclude that RNF2 can be targeted by miR17-5p, miR20a-5p and miR106b-5p in MCF-7 cells and also RNF2, which is one of the upregulated genes in aggressive tumor, can be decreased by using these miRNAs. In future, we would like to confirm these results at the protein level and also whether these miRNAs are direct target of RNF2 or not.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2396
87857
Estimated Number of Mothers Suffering from Postnatal Depression
Abstract:
Background: Mental illnesses after childbirth are common. After childbirth, women may experience a variety of postpartum complications such as developing depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. Postpartum depression might increases the risk of developing major depression in the future. The most common is postnatal depression also known as postpartum depression that is believed to affect between 10% – 15% of mothers and the most serious, puerperal psychosis (affecting less than 1%). Purpose: This research simply applies the predictions to the population of Dubai, without any adjustment for local conditions. It is intended to help stakeholders to discuss the scale of the issue locally. Method: Applying the above rates of postnatal depression prevalence (10%–15%) to the number of total live births in Dubai 2014. Setting: Birth registry for Dubai 2011/14. Key findings: it is estimated there would be approximately 2,928–4,392 mothers suffering from postnatal depression in 2014 of which 858–1,287 were nationals and 2,070–3,105 were non–nationals. These figures are likely to fluctuate depending on the number of mothers who have twin births, and these estimates of the level of postnatal depression do not take into account related factors such as the age of the mother and education. Recommendations: To establish mother-infant psychiatric care to target women suffering from depression during pregnancy and puerperium.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2395
87845
The Effects of a Hippotherapy Simulator in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study
Abstract:
Background: Hippotherapy considered as global techniques used in rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy as it improved gait pattern, balance, postural control, balance and gross motor skills development but it encounters some problems (such as the excess of the cost of horses' care, nutrition, housing). Hippotherapy simulator is being developed in recent years to overcome these problems. These devices aim to create the effects of hippotherapy made with a real horse on patients by simulating the movements of a real horse. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of hippotherapy simulator on gross motor functions, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Fourteen children with CP, aged 6–15 years, seven with a diagnosis of spastic hemiplegia, five of diplegia, two of triplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System level I-III. The Horse Riding Simulator (HRS), including four-speed program (warm-up, level 1-2-3), was used for hippotherapy simulator. Firstly, each child received Neurodevelopmental Therapy (NDT; 45min twice weekly eight weeks). Subsequently, the same children completed HRS+NDT (30min and 15min respectively, twice weekly eight weeks). Children were assessed pre-treatment, at the end of 8th and 16th week. Gross motor function, sitting postural control, dynamic sitting and standing balance were evaluated by Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88, Dimension B, D, E and Total Score), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Pedalo® Sensamove Balance Test and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) respectively. Unit of Scientific Research Project of Marmara University supported our study. Results: All measured variables were a significant increase compared to baseline values after both intervention (NDT and HRS+NDT), except for dynamic sitting balance evaluated by Pedalo®. Especially HRS+NDT, increase in the measured variables was considerably higher than NDT. After NDT, the Total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline 62,2 ± 23,5; mean NDT: 66,6 ± 22,2; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 12,1 ± 3; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 39,6 ± 12,9; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 92,3 ± 5,2; p > 0,05) and Pedalo® standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 82,5 ± 11,5; p < 0,05) increased by 7,1%, 2%, 3,9%, 5,2% and 6 % respectively. After HRS+NDT treatment, the total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline: 62,2 ± 23,5; mean HRS+NDT: 71,6 ± 21,4; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 15,6 ± 2,9; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 42,5 ± 12; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 93,8 ± 3,7; p > 0,05) and standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 86,2 ± 5,6; p < 0,05) increased by 15,2%, 6%, 7,3%, 6,4%, and 11,9%, respectively, compared to the initial values. Conclusion: Neurodevelopmental therapy provided significant improvements in gross motor functions, sitting postural control, sitting and standing balance of children with CP. When the hippotherapy simulator added to the treatment program, it was observed that these functions were further developed (especially with gross motor functions and dynamic balance). As a result, this pilot study showed that the hippotherapy simulator could be a useful alternative to neurodevelopmental therapy for the improvement of gross motor function, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with CP.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2394
87720
Pharmacokinetics of First-Line Tuberculosis Drugs in South African Patients from Kwazulu-Natal: Effects of Pharmacogenetic Variation on Rifampicin and Isoniazid Concentrations
Abstract:
Background: Despite efforts to introduce new drugs and shorter drug regimens for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), the standard first-line treatment has not changed in over 50 years. Rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide are critical components of the current standard treatment regimens. Some studies suggest that microbiologic failure and acquired drug resistance are primarily driven by low drug concentrations that result from pharmacokinetic (PK) variability independent of adherence to treatment. Wide between-patient pharmacokinetic variability for rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide has been reported in prior studies. There may be several reasons for this variability. However, genetic variability in genes coding for drug metabolizing and transporter enzymes have been shown to be a contributing factor for variable tuberculosis drug exposures. Objective: We describe the pharmacokinetics of first-line TB drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide and assess the effect of genetic variability in relevant selected drug metabolizing and transporter enzymes on pharmacokinetic parameters of isoniazid and rifampicin. Methods: We conducted the randomized-controlled Improving retreatment success TB trial in Durban, South Africa. The drug regimen included rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide. Drug concentrations were measured in plasma, and concentration-time data were analysed using nonlinear-mixed-effects models to quantify the effects of relevant covariates and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP’s) of drug metabolizing and transporter genes on rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide exposure. A total of 25 SNP’s: four NAT2 (used to determine acetylator status), four SLCO1B1, three Pregnane X receptor (NR1), six ABCB1 and eight UGT1A, were selected for analysis in this study. Genotypes were determined for each of the SNP’s using a TaqMan® Genotyping OpenArray™. Results: Among fifty-eight patients studied; 41 (70.7%) were male, 97% black African, 42 (72.4%) HIV co-infected and 40 (95%) on efavirenz-based ART. Median weight, fat-free mass (FFM), and age at baseline were 56.9 kg (interquartile range, IQR: 51.1-65.2), 46.8 kg (IQR: 42.5-50.3) and 37 years (IQR: 31-42), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of rifampicin and pyrazinamide was best described using one-compartment models with first-order absorption and elimination, while for isoniazid two-compartment disposition was used. The median (interquartile range: IQR) AUC (h·mg/L) and Cmax (mg/L) for rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide were; 25.62 (23.01-28.53) and 4.85 (4.36-5.40), 10.62 (9.20-12.25) and 2.79 (2.61-2.97), 345.74 (312.03-383.10) and 28.06 (25.01-31.52), respectively. Eighteen percent of patients were classified as rapid acetylators, and 34% and 43% as slow and intermediate acetylators, respectively. Rapid and intermediate acetylator status based on NAT 2 genotype resulted in 2.3 and 1.6 times higher isoniazid clearance than slow acetylators. We found no effects of the SLCO1B1 genotypes on rifampicin pharmacokinetics. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide were low overall in our patients. Isoniazid clearance was high overall and as expected higher in rapid and intermediate acetylators resulting in lower drug exposures. In contrast to reports from previous South African or Ugandan studies, we did not find any effects of the SLCO1B1 or other genotypes tested on rifampicin PK. However, our findings are in keeping with more recent studies from Malawi and India emphasizing the need for geographically diverse and adequately powered studies. The clinical relevance of the low tuberculosis drug concentrations warrants further investigation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2393
87698
Sterilization Incident Analysis by the Association of Litigation and Risk Management Method
Abstract:
The hospital risk management department is firstly involved in the methodological analysis of grade zero sterilization incidents. The system is based on a subsequent analysis process in compliance with the ongoing requirements of the Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) for a reactive approach to risk, allowing to identify failures and start the appropriate preventive and corrective measures. The use of the association of litigation and risk management (ALARM) method makes easier the grade zero analysis and brings to light the team or institutional, organizational, temporal, individual factors representative of undesirable effects. Two main factors come out again from this analysis, pre-disinfection step of the emergency block unsupervised instrumentalist intern was poorly done since she did not remove the battery from micro air motor. At the sterilization unit, the worker who was not supervised by the nurse did the conditioning of the motor without having checked it if it still contained the battery. The main cause is that the management of human resources was inadequate at both levels, the instrumental trainee in the block who was not supervised by his supervisor and the worker of the sterilization unit who was not supervised by the responsible nurse. There is a lack of research help, advice, and collaboration. The difficulties encountered during this type of analysis are multiple. The first is based on its necessary acceptance by the various actors of care involved, which should not perceive it as a tool leading to individual punishment, but rather as a means to improve their practices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2392
87423
Application of Host Factors as Biomarker in Early Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Abstract:
Introduction: On the basis of available literature we know that various host factors play a role in outcome of Tuberculosis (TB) infection by modulating innate immunity. One such factor is Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (iNOS) which help in the production of Nitric Oxide (NO), an antimicrobial agent. Expression of iNOS is in control of various host factors in which Vitamin D along with its nuclear receptor Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is one of them. Vitamin D along with its receptor also produces cathelicidin (antimicrobicidal agent). With this background, we attempted to investigate the levels of Vitamin D and NO along with their associated molecules in tuberculosis patients and household contacts as compared to healthy controls and assess the implication of these findings in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). Study subjects and methods: 100 active TB patients, 75 household contacts, and 70 healthy controls were taken. VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were studied using real-time PCR. Serum VDR, cathelicidin, iNOS levels were measured using ELISA. Serum Vitamin D levels were measured in serum samples using chemiluminescence based immunoassay. NO was measured using colorimetry based kit. Results: VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were found to be lower in active TB group compared to household contacts and healthy controls (P=0.0001 and 0.005 respectively). The serum levels of Vitamin D were also found to be lower in active TB group as compared to healthy controls (P =0.001). Levels of cathelicidin and NO was higher in patient group as compared to other groups (p=0.01 and 0.5 respectively). However, the expression of VDR and iNOS and levels of vitamin D was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in household contacts compared to both active TB and healthy control groups. Inference: Higher levels of Vitamin D along with VDR and iNOS expression in household contacts as compared to patients suggest that vitamin D might have a protective role against TB which prevents activation of the disease. From our data, we can conclude that decreased vitamin D levels could be implicated in disease progression and we can use cathelicidin and NO as a biomarker for early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2391
87285
Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents in Mendefera Community, Eritrea
Abstract:
Introduction: Epidemiological research is important to draw need-based rational public health policy. However, research on child and adolescent mental health in low and middle income countries, where socioeconomic, political, cultural, biological and other mental health hazards are in abundance, is almost nonexistent. To the author's knowledge, there is no published research in this field in Eritrea, whose child and adolescent population constitutes 53% of its total population. Study Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and identify their socio-demographic correlates among children and adolescents in Mendefera, Eritrea. The study aims to provide local information to public health policymakers to guide policy in service development. Methodology: In a cross-sectional two stage procedure, both the Parent and Child versions of the SDQ were used to screen 314 children and adolescents aged 4-17 years, recruited by a multi-stage random sampling method. All parents/adult guardians also completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. All children and adolescents who screened positive for any of the SDQ abnormality sub-classes were selected for the second stage interview, which was conducted using the K-SADS-PL 2009 Working Draft version to generate specific DSM-IV diagnoses. All data gathered was entered into CSPro version 6.2 and was then transported in to and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Results: Prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders was found to be 13.1%. Adolescents 11-17 years old and males had higher prevalence than children 4-10 years old and females, respectively. Behavioral disorders were the commonest disorders (9.9%), followed by affective disorders (3.2%) and anxiety disorders (2.5). Chronic medical illness in the child, poor academic performance, difficulties with teachers in school, psychopathology in a family member and parental conflict were found to be independently associated with these disorders. Conclusion: Prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in Eritrea is high. Promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation for child and adolescent mental health services need to be made widely available in the country. The socio-demographic correlates identified by this study can be targeted for intervention. The need for further research is emphasized.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2390
87267
The Immunology Evolutionary Relationship between Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Genes from Three Different Shrimp Species in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection
Abstract:
Unlike the common presence of both innate and adaptive immunity in vertebrates, crustaceans, in particular, shrimps, have been discovered to possess only innate immunity. This further emphasizes the importance of innate immunity within shrimps in pathogenic resistance. Under the study of pathogenic immune challenge, different shrimp species actually exhibit varying degrees of immune resistance towards the same pathogen. Furthermore, even within the same shrimp species, different batches of challenged shrimps can have different strengths of immune defence. Several important pathways are activated within shrimps during pathogenic infection. One of them is JAK-STAT pathway that is activated during bacterial, viral and fungal infections by which STAT(Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) gene is the core element of the pathway. Based on theory of Central Dogma, the genomic information is transmitted in the order of DNA, RNA and protein. This study is focused in uncovering the important evolutionary patterns present within the DNA (non-coding region) and RNA (coding region). The three shrimp species involved are Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei which all possess commercial significance. The shrimp species were challenged with a famous penaeid shrimp virus called white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) which can cause serious lethality. Tissue samples were collected during time intervals of 0h, 3h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 36h and 48h. The DNA and RNA samples were then extracted using conventional kits from the hepatopancreas tissue samples. PCR technique together with designed STAT gene conserved primers were utilized for identification of the STAT coding sequences using RNA-converted cDNA samples and subsequent characterization using various bioinformatics approaches including Ramachandran plot, ProtParam and SWISS-MODEL. The varying levels of immune STAT gene activation for the three shrimp species during WSSV infection were confirmed using qRT-PCR technique. For one sample, three biological replicates with three technical replicates each were used for qRT-PCR. On the other hand, DNA samples were important for uncovering the structural variations within the genomic region of STAT gene which would greatly assist in understanding the STAT protein functional variations. The partially-overlapping primers technique was used for the genomic region sequencing. The evolutionary inferences and event predictions were then conducted through the Bayesian Inference method using all the acquired coding and non-coding sequences. This was supplemented by the construction of conventional phylogenetic trees using Maximum likelihood method. The results showed that adaptive evolution caused STAT gene sequence mutations between different shrimp species which led to evolutionary divergence event. Subsequently, the divergent sites were correlated to the differing expressions of STAT gene. Ultimately, this study assists in knowing the shrimp species innate immune variability and selection of disease resistant shrimps for breeding purpose. The deeper understanding of STAT gene evolution from the perspective of both purifying and adaptive approaches not only can provide better immunological insight among shrimp species, but also can be used as a good reference for immunological studies in humans or other model organisms.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2389
86514
The Predictive Significance of Metastasis Associated in Colon Cancer-1 (MACC1) in Primary Breast Cancer
Abstract:
MACC1 (metastasis associated in colon cancer-1) is a prognostic biomarker for tumor progression, metastasis, and survival of a variety of solid cancers. MACC1 also causes tumor growth in xenograft models and acts as a master regulator of the HGF/MET signaling pathway. In breast cancer, the expression of MACC1 determined by immunohistochemistry was significantly associated with positive lymph node status and advanced clinical stage. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the prognostic or predictive value of MACC1 expression in breast cancer using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The results of our study have shown that high MACC1 expression in breast cancer is associated with shorter disease-free survival, especially in node-negative tumors. The MACC1 might be a suitable biomarker to select patients with a higher probability of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Our results support a biologic role and potentially open the perspective for the use of MACC1 as predictive biomarker for treatment decision in breast cancer patients.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2388
86135
Comparative Vector Susceptibility for Dengue Virus and Their Co-Infection in A. aegypti and A. albopictus
Abstract:
Dengue is now a globally important arboviral disease. Extensive vector surveillance has already established A.aegypti as a primary vector, but A.albopictus is now accelerating the situation through gradual adaptation to human surroundings. Global destabilization and gradual climatic shift with rising in temperature have significantly expanded the geographic range of these species These versatile vectors also host Chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever virus. Biggest challenge faced by endemic countries now is upsurge in co-infection reported with multiple serotypes and virus co-circulation. To foster vector control interventions and mitigate disease burden, there is surge for knowledge on vector susceptibility and viral tolerance in response to multiple infections. To address our understanding on transmission dynamics and reproductive fitness, both the vectors were exposed to single and dual combinations of all four dengue serotypes by artificial feeding and followed up to third generation. Artificial feeding observed significant difference in feeding rate for both the species where A.albopictus was poor artificial feeder (35-50%) compared to A.aegypti (95-97%) Robust sequential screening of viral antigen in mosquitoes was followed by Dengue NS1 ELISA, RT-PCR and Quantitative PCR. To observe viral dissemination in different mosquito tissues Indirect immunofluorescence assay was performed. Result showed that both the vectors were infected initially with all dengue(1-4)serotypes and its co-infection (D1 and D2, D1 and D3, D1 and D4, D2 and D4) combinations. In case of DENV-2 there was significant difference in the peak titer observed at 16th day post infection. But when exposed to dual infections A.aegypti supported all combinations of virus where A.albopictus only continued single infections in successive days. There was a significant negative effect on the fecundity and fertility of both the vectors compared to control (PANOVA < 0.001). In case of dengue 2 infected mosquito, fecundity in parent generation was significantly higher (PBonferroni < 0.001) for A.albopicus compare to A.aegypti but there was a complete loss of fecundity from second to third generation for A.albopictus. It was observed that A.aegypti becomes infected with multiple serotypes frequently even at low viral titres compared to A.albopictus. Possible reason for this could be the presence of wolbachia infection in A.albopictus or mosquito innate immune response, small RNA interference etc. Based on the observations it could be anticipated that transovarial transmission may not be an important phenomenon for clinical disease outcome, due to the absence of viral positivity by third generation. Also, Dengue NS1 ELISA can be used for preliminary viral detection in mosquitoes as more than 90% of the samples were found positive compared to RT-PCR and viral load estimation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2387
86026
Local and Systemic Complications after Resection of Rectal Cancer in the Department of General and Abdominal Surgery University Clinical Center Maribor between 2004 and 2014
Abstract:
Background: In Department of Abdominal and General Surgery of University Medical Centre Maribor, we treated 578 patients for rectal cancer between 2004 and 2014. During and after treatment we especially concentrated on monitoring local and systemic complications. Methods: For analysis, we used data gathered from preoperative diagnostic tests, reports gathered during operation, reports from the pathohistologic review, and reports on complications after surgery and follow up. Results: In the case of 573 (out of 578) patients (99.1%) we performed resection. R0 was achieved in 551 patients (96,1%). R1 was achieved in 8 patients (1,4%). R2 was achieved in 14 patients (2,4%). Local complications were reported in 78 (13.5%) patients and systemic complications were reported in 68 (11.7%). We would like to point out the low number of local and systemic complications. Conclusions: With advances in surgical techniques, with a multimodal-multidisciplinary approach and with the use of total mesorectal excision we experienced a significant improvement in reducing the number of local and systemic complications in patients with rectal cancer. However, there still remains the question for truly optimal care for each patient with rectal cancer and his quality of life after surgical treatment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2386
86005
Self-Selected Intensity and Discounting Rates of Exercise in Comparison with Food and Money in Healthy Adults
Abstract:
Background: Exercise is widely acknowledged as a highly important health behavior, which reduces risks related to lifestyle diseases like type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease. However, exercise adherence is low in high-risk groups and sedentary lifestyle is more the norm than the exception. Expressed reasons for exercise participation are often based on delayed outcomes related to health threats and benefits but also enjoyment. Whether exercise is perceived as rewarding is well established in animal literature but the evidence is sparse in humans. Additionally, the question how stable any reward is perceived with time delays is an important question influencing decision-making (in favor or against a behavior). For the modality exercise, this has not been examined before. We, therefore, investigated the discounting of pre-established self-selected exercise compared with established rewards of food and money with a computer-based discounting paradigm. We hypothesized that exercise will be discounted like an established reward (food and money); however, we expect that the discounting rate is similar to a consumable reward like food. Additionally, we expected that individuals’ characteristics like preferred intensity, physical activity and body characteristics are associated with discount rates. Methods: 71 participants took part in four sessions. The sessions were designed to let participants select their preferred exercise intensity on a treadmill. Participants were asked to adjust their speed for optimizing pleasantness over an exercise period of up to 30 minutes, heart rate and pleasantness rating was measured. In further sessions, the established exercise intensity was modified and tested on perceptual validity. In the last exercise session rates of perceived exertion was measured on the preferred intensity level. Furthermore, participants filled in questionnaires related to physical activity, mood, craving, and impulsivity and answered choice questions on a bespoke computer task to establish discounting rates of their preferred exercise (kex), their favorite food (kfood) and a value-matching amount of money (kmoney). Results: Participants self-selected preferred speed was 5.5±2.24 km/h, at a heart rate of 120.7±23.5, and perceived exertion scale of 10.13±2.06. This shows that participants preferred a light exercise intensity with low to moderate cardiovascular strain based on perceived pleasantness. Computer assessment of discounting rates revealed that exercise was quickly discounted like a consumable reward, no significant difference between kfood and kex (kfood =0.322±0.263; kex=0.223±0.203). However, kmoney (kmoney=0.080±0.02) was significantly lower than the rates of exercise and food. Moreover, significant associations were found between preferred speed and kex (r=-0.302) and between physical activity levels and preferred speed (r=0.324). Outcomes show that participants perceived and discounted self-selected exercise like an established reward (food and money) but was discounted more like consumable rewards. Moreover, exercise discounting was quicker in individuals who preferred lower speeds, being less physically active. This may show that in a choice conflict between exercise and food the delay of exercise (because of distance) might disadvantage exercise as the chosen behavior particular in sedentary people. Conclusion: exercise can be perceived as a reward and is discounted quickly in time like food. Pleasant exercise experience is connected to low to moderate cardiovascular and perceptual strain.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2385
85974
Need for Eye Care Services, Clinical Characteristics, Surgical Outcome and Prognostic Predictors of Cataract in Adult Participants with Intellectual Disability
Abstract:
Background and significance: Uncorrected refractive errors and cataracts are the main visually debilitating ophthalmological abnormalities in adult participants with intellectual disability (ID). However, not all adult participants with ID may receive a regular and timely ophthalmological assessment. Consequently, some of the ocular diseases may not be diagnosed until late, thereby causing unnecessary ocular morbidity. In addition, recent clinical practice and researches have also suggested that eye-care services for this group are neglected. Purpose: To investigate the unmet need for eye care services, clinical characteristics of cataract, visual function, surgical outcome and prognostic predictors in adult participants with ID at Taipei City Hospital in Taiwan. Methods: This is a one-year prospective clinical study. We recruited about 120 eyes of 60 adult participants with ID who were received cataract surgery. Caregivers of all participants received a questionnaire on current eye care services. Clinical demographic data, such as age, gender, and associated systemic diseases or syndromes, were collected. All complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed 1 month preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, including ocular biometry, visual function, refractive status, morphology of cataract, associated ocular features, anesthesia methods, surgical types, and complications. Morphology of cataract, visual and surgical outcome was analyzed. Results: A total of 60 participants with mean age 43.66 ± 13.94 years, including 59.02% male and 40.98% female, took part in comprehensive eye-care services. The prevalence of unmet need for eye care services was high (about 70%). About 50% of adult participants with ID have bilateral cataracts at the time of diagnosis. White cataracts were noted in about 30% of all adult participants with ID at the time of presentation. Associated ocular disorders were included myopic maculopathy (4.54%), corneal disorders (11.36%), nystagmus (20.45%), strabismus (38.64%) and glaucoma (2.27%). About 26.7% of adult participants with ID underwent extracapsular cataract extraction whereas a phacoemulsification was performed in 100% of eyes. Intraocular lens implantation was performed in all eyes. The most common postoperative complication was posterior capsular opacification (30%). The mean best-corrected visual acuity was significantly improved from preoperatively (mean log MAR 0.48 ± 0.22) to at 3 months postoperatively (mean log MAR 0.045 ± 0.22) (p < .05). Conclusions: Regular follow up will help address the need for eye-care services in participants with ID. A high incidence of bilateral cataracts, as well as white cataracts, was observed in adult participants with ID. Because of early diagnosis and early intervention of cataract, the visual and surgical outcomes of cataract are good, but the visual outcomes are suboptimal due to associated ocular comorbidities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2384
85960
Prevalent Features of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017
Abstract:
Since the first human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in early 2013, 1533 cases of laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) virus infections were reported and confirmed as of September 13, 2017. The fifth epidemic was defined as starting from September 1, 2016, and the number of A(H7N9) cases has surged since the end of December in 2016. On February 18, 2017, the A(H7N9) cases who were infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was reported from Southern China. The HPAI A(H7N9) cases were identified and then an investigation and analyses were conducted to assess whether disease severity in humans has changed with HPAI A(H7N9) compared with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infection. Methods: All confirmed cases with A(H7N9) virus infections reported throughout mainland China from September 1, 2016, to September 13, 2017, were included. Cases' information was extracted from field investigation reports and the notifiable infectious surveillance system to describe the demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were used to compare HPAI A(H7N9) cases with all LPAI A(H7N9) cases reported during the fifth epidemic. Results: A total of 27 cases of HPAI A(H7N9) virus were identified infection from five provinces, including Guangxi (44%), Guangdong (33%), Hunan (15%), Hebei (4%) and Shangxi (4%). The median age of cases of HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection was 60 years (range, 15 to 80) and most of them were male (59%) and lived in rural areas (78%). All 27 cases had live poultry related exposures within 10 days before their illness onset. In comparison with LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were significantly more likely to live in rural areas (78% vs. 51%; p = 0.006), have exposure to the sick or dead poultry (56% vs. 19%; p = 0.000), and be hospitalized earlier (median 3 vs. 4 days; p = 0.007). No significant differences were observed in median age, sex, prevalence of underlying chronic medical conditions, median time from illness onset to first medical service seeking, starting antiviral treatment, and diagnosis. Although the median time from illness onset to death (9 vs. 13 days) was shorter and the overall case-fatality proportion (48% vs. 38%) was higher for HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients than for LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection was associated with exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas when visited live poultry market or in the backyard. In the fifth epidemic in mainland China, HPAI A (H7N9) case-patients were hospitalized earlier than LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the mortality of HPAI A (H7N9) case-patients was obviously higher than that of LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, indicating a potential severity change of HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2383
85916
The First Import of Yellow Fever Cases in China and Its Revealing Suggestions for the Control and Prevention of Imported Emerging Diseases
Abstract:
Background: In 2016, yellow fever had been first ever discovered in China, soon after the yellow fever epidemic occurred in Angola. After the discovery, China had promptly made the national protocol of control and prevention and strengthened the surveillance on passenger and vector. In this study, a descriptive analysis was conducted to summarize China’s experiences of response towards this import epidemic, in the hope of providing experiences on prevention and control of yellow fever and other similar imported infectious diseases in the future. Methods: The imported cases were discovered and reported by General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and several hospitals. Each clinically diagnosed yellow fever case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). The data of the imported yellow fever cases were collected by local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through field investigations soon after they received the reports. Results: A total of 11 imported cases from Angola were reported in China, during Angola’s yellow fever outbreak. Six cases were discovered by the AQSIQ, among which two with mild symptom were initiative declarations at the time of entry. Except for one death, the remaining 10 cases all had recovered after timely and proper treatment. All cases are Chinese, and lived in Luanda, the capital of Angola. 73% were retailers (8/11) from Fuqing city in Fujian province, and the other three were labors send by companies. 10 cases had experiences of medical treatment in Luanda after onset, among which 8 cases visited the same local Chinese medicine hospital (China Railway four Bureau Hospital). Among the 11 cases, only one case had an effective vaccination. The result of emergency surveillance for mosquito density showed that only 14 containers of water were found positive around places of three cases, and the Breteau Index is 15. Conclusions: Effective response was taken to control and prevent the outbreak of yellow fever in China after discovering the imported cases. However, though the similar origin of Chinese in Angola has provided an easy access for disease detection, information sharing, health education and vaccination on yellow fever; these conveniences were overlooked during previous disease prevention methods. Besides, only one case having effective vaccination revealed the inadequate capacity of immunization service in China. These findings will provide suggestions to improve China’s capacity to deal with not only yellow fever but also other similar imported diseases in China.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2382
85909
Association of a Genetic Polymorphism in Cytochrome P450, Family 1 with Risk of Developing Esophagus Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Abstract:
Background Esophageal cancer has been reported as the eighth most common cancer universal and the seventh cause of cancer-related death in men .recent studies have revealed that cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1, which plays a role in metabolizing xenobiotics, is associated with different cancers. Therefore in the present study, we investigated the impact of CYP1B1-rs1056836 on esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Method: 317 subjects, with and without ESCC were recruited. DNA was extracted and genotyped via Real-time PCR-Based Taq Man. Kaplan Meier curves were utilized to assess overall and progression-free survival. To evaluate the relationship between patients clinicopathological data, genotypic frequencies, disease prognosis, and patients survival, Pearson chi-square and t-test were used. Logistic regression was utilized to assess the association between the risk of ESCC and genotypes. Results: the genotypic frequency for GG, GC, and CC are respectively 58.6% , 29.8%, 11.5% in the healthy group and 51.8%, 36.14% and 12% in ESCC group. With respect to the recessive genetic inheritance model, an association between the GG genotype and stage of ESCC were found. Also, statistically significant results were not found for this variation and risk of ESCC. Patients with GG genotype had a decreased risk of nodal metastasis in comparison with patients with CC/CG genotype, although this link was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our findings illustrated the correlation of CYP1B1-rs1056836 as a potential biomarker for ESCC patients, supporting further studies in larger populations in different ethnic groups. Moreover, further investigations are warranted to evaluate the association of emerging marker with dietary intake and lifestyle.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2381
85904
A Description Analysis of Mortality Rate of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in China
Abstract:
Background: Since the first human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) case was reported in China on 31 March 2013, five epidemics have been observed in China through February 2013 and September 2017. Though the overall mortality rate of H7N9 has remained as high as around 40% throughout the five epidemics, the specific mortality rate in Mainland China varied by provinces. We conducted a descriptive analysis of mortality rates of H7N9 cases to explore the various severity features of the disease and then to provide clues of further analyses of potential factors associated with the severity of the disease. Methods: The data for analysis originated from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Report and Surveillance System (NNIDRSS). The surveillance system and identification procedure for H7N9 infection have not changed in China since 2013. The definition of a confirmed H7N9 case is as same as previous reports. Mortality rates of H7N9 cases are described and compared by time and location of reporting, age and sex, and genetic features of H7N9 virus strains. Results: The overall mortality rate, the male and female specific overall rates of H7N9 is 39.6% (608/1533), 40.3% (432/1072) and 38.2% (176/461), respectively. There was no significant difference between the mortality rates of male and female. The age-specific mortality rates are significantly varied by age groups (χ²=38.16, p < 0.001). The mortality of H7N9 cases in the age group between 20 and 60 (33.17%) and age group of over 60 (51.16%) is much higher than that in the age group of under 20 (5.00%). Considering the time of reporting, the mortality rates of cases which were reported in the first (40.57%) and fourth (42.51%) quarters of each year are significantly higher than the mortality of cases which were reported in the second (36.02%) and third (27.27%) quarters (χ²=75.18, p < 0.001). The geographic specific mortality rates vary too. The mortality rates of H7N9 cases reported from the Northeast China (66.67%) and Westeast China (56.52%) are significantly higher than that of H7N9 cases reported from the remained area of mainland China. The mortality rate of H7N9 cases reported from the Central China is the lowest (34.38%). The mortality rates of H7N9 cases reported from rural (37.76%) and urban (38.96%) areas are similar. The mortality rate of H7N9 cases infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (48.15%) is higher than the rate of H7N9 cases infected with the low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (37.57%), but the difference is not statistically significant. Preliminary analyses showed that age and some clinical complications such as respiratory failure, heart failure, and septic shock could be potential risk factors associated with the death of H7N9 cases. Conclusions: The mortality rates of H7N9 cases varied by age, sex, time of reporting and geographical location in mainland China. Further in-depth analyses and field investigations of the factors associated with the severity of H7N9 cases need to be considered.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2380
85863
Current Concepts of Male Aesthetics: Facial Areas to Be Focused and Prioritized with Botulinum Toxin and Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Fillers Combination Therapies, Recommendations on Asian Patients
Abstract:
Objective: Men represent only a fraction of the medical aesthetic practice. They are increasingly becoming more cosmetically-inclined. The primary objective is to harmonize facial proportion by prioritizing and focusing on forehead nose, cheek and chin complex. Introduction: Despite tremendous variability, diverse population of the Indian subcontinent, the male skull is unique in its overall larger size, and shape. Men tend to have a large forehead with prominent supraorbital ridges, wide glabella, square orbit, and a prominent protruding mandible. Men have increased skeletal muscle mass, with less facial subcutaneous fat. Facial aesthetics is evolving rapidly. Commonly published canons of facial proportions usually represent feminine standards and are not applicable to males. Strict adherence to these norms is therefore not necessary to obtain satisfying results in male patients. Materials and Methods: Male patients age group 30-60 years have been enrolled. Botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid fillers were used to update consensus recommendations for facial rejuvenation using these two types of products alone and in combination. Results: There are specific recommendations by facial area, focusing on relaxing musculature, restoring volume, recontouring using toxin and dermal fillers alone and in combination. For upper face, though botulinum toxin remains the cornerstone of treatment, temples and forehead fillers are recommended for optimal results. In Mid face, these fillers are placed more laterally to maintain the masculine look. Botulinum toxin and fillers in combination can improve outcomes in the lower face. Chin augmentation remains the center point for lower face. Conclusions: Males are more likely to have shorter doctor visits, less likely to ask questions, have a lower attention to bodily changes. The physician must patiently gauge male patients’ aging and cosmetic goals. Clinicians can also benefit from ongoing guidance on products, tailoring treatments, treating multiple facial areas, and using combinations of products. An appreciation that rejuvenation is 3-dimensional process involving muscle control, volume restoration and recontouring helps.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2379
85814
Effectiveness of Imagery Compared with Exercise Training on Hip Abductor Strength and EMG Production in Healthy Adults
Abstract:
Imagery training could be an important treatment for muscle function improvements in patients who are facing limitations in exercise training by pain or other adverse symptoms. However, recent studies are mostly limited to small muscle groups and are often contradictory. Moreover, a possible bilateral transfer effect of imagery training has not been examined. We, therefore, investigated the effectiveness of unilateral imagery training in comparison with exercise training on hip abductor muscle strength and EMG. Additionally, both limbs were assessed to investigate bilateral transfer effects. Healthy individuals took part in an imagery or exercise training intervention for two weeks and were assesses pre and post training. Participants (n=30), after randomization into an imagery and an exercise group, trained 5 times a week under supervision with additional self-performed training on the weekends. The training consisted of performing, or to imagine, 5 maximal isometric hip abductor contractions (= one set), repeating the set 7 times. All measurements and trainings were performed laying on the side on a dynamometer table. The imagery script combined kinesthetic and visual imagery with internal perspective for producing imagined maximal hip abduction contractions. The exercise group performed the same number of tasks but performing the maximal hip abductor contractions. Maximal hip abduction strength and EMG amplitudes were measured of right and left limbs pre- and post-training period. Additionally, handgrip strength and right shoulder abduction (Strength and EMG) were measured. Using mixed model ANOVA (strength measures) and Wilcoxen-tests (EMGs), data revealed a significant increase in hip abductor strength production in the imagery group on the trained right limb (~6%). However, this was not reported for the exercise group. Additionally, the left hip abduction strength (not used for training) did not show a main effect in strength, however, there was a significant interaction of group and time revealing that the strength increased in the imagery group while it remained constant in the exercise group. EMG recordings supported the strength findings showing significant elevation of EMG amplitudes after imagery training on right and left side, while the exercise training group did not show any changes. Moreover, measures of handgrip strength and shoulder abduction showed no effects over time and no interactions in both groups. Experiments showed that imagery training is a suitable method for effectively increasing functional parameters of larger limb muscles (strength and EMG) which were enhanced on both sides (trained and untrained) confirming a bilateral transfer effect. Indeed, exercise training did not reveal any increases in the parameters above omitting functional improvements. The healthy individuals tested might not easily achieve benefits from exercise training within the time tested. However, it is evident that imagery training is effective in increasing the central motor command towards the muscles and that the effect seems to be segmental (no increase in handgrip strength and shoulder abduction parameters) and affects both sides (trained and untrained). In conclusion, imagery training was effective in functional improvements in limb muscles and produced a bilateral transfer on strength and EMG measures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2378
85752
Antimicrobial Action and Its Underlying Mechanism by Methanolic Seed Extract of Syzygium cumini on Bacillus subtilis
Abstract:
The development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is increasing at an alarming rate, and this is considered as one of the most serious threats in the history of medicine, and an alternative solution should be derived so as to tackle this problem. In many countries, people use the medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases as these are cheaper, easily available and least toxic. Syzygium cumini is used for the treatment of various kinds of diseases but their mechanism of action is not reported. The antimicrobial activity of Syzygium cumini was tested by the well diffusion assay and zone of inhibition was reported to be 20.06 mm as compared to control with MIC of 0.3 mg/ml. Genomic DNA fragmentation of Bacillus subtilis revealed apoptosis and FE-SEM indicate cell wall cracking on several intervals of time. Propidium iodide staining results showed that few bacterial cells were stained in the control and population of stained cells increase after exposing them for various period of time. Flow cytometric kinetic data analysis on the membrane permeabilization in bacterial cell showed the significant contribution of antimicrobial potential of the seed extract on antimicrobial-induced permeabilization. Two components of Syzygium cumini methanolic seed extract was found to be quite active against four enzymes like PDB ID- 1W5D, 4OX3, 3MFD and 5E2F which have a very crucial role in membrane synthesis in Bacillus subtilis by in silico analysis. Through in silico analysis, lupeol showed highest binding energy for macromolecule 1W5D and 4OX3 whereas stigmasterol showed the highest binding energy for macromolecule 3MFD and 5E2F respectively. It showed that methanolic seed extract of Syzygium cumini can be used for the inhibition of foodborne infections caused by Bacillus subtilis and also as an alternative of prevalent antibiotics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2377
85725
Screening of Risk Phenotypes among Metabolic Syndrome Subjects in Adult Pakistani Population
Abstract:
Background: Metabolic Syndrome is a clustering of multiple risk factors including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. These risk phenotypes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalent world-wide, Therefore we aimed to identify the frequency of risk phenotypes among metabolic syndrome subjects in local adult Pakistani population. Methods: Screening of subjects visiting out-patient department of medicine, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad was performed to assess the occurrence of risk phenotypes among MetS subjects in Pakistani population. The Metabolic Syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anthropometric and biochemical assay results were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (16.0). Results: Our results showed that dyslipidemia (31.50%) and hyperglycemia (30.50%) was most population specific risk phenotypes of MetS. The results showed the order of association of metabolic risk phenotypes to MetS as follows hyperglycemia>dyslipidemia>obesity >hypertension. Conclusion: The hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were found be the major risk phenotypes among the MetS subjects and have greater chances of deceloping MetS among Pakistani Population.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2376
85626
Attempt Survivor Families’ Views on Criminalizing Attempted Suicide in Ghana
Abstract:
Decriminalizing suicide is one of the major goals of suicide prevention worldwide. In Ghana, suicide is legally prescribed and there is a wide-spread societal condemnation of the act, the survivor and families share the stigma. Evidence and advocacy continue to mount towards pressuring the government, the legal fraternity and lawmakers to consider decriminalizing the act. However, within this discourse, the views of families of attempt survivors are absent. The purpose of this study was to explore from relatives of suicide attempters their reactions towards the criminality of suicide attempt in the country. A total of 10 relatives of suicide attempters were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. We found that there were divergent views from families on decriminalizing suicide. We generated two major themes; Out-group bias versus In-group bias. Half of the participants opined that suicide attempt should not be decriminalized and others advocated for help and mental health care for victims of the suicide attempt. It was generally observed that although all 10 participants were cognizant that suicide attempt is a crime in Ghana, they preferred their relatives were spared from prosecution. The findings indicate incongruity, especially when participants want their relatives to avoid jail term but want the law that criminalizes suicide to remain. Findings are explained using the Fundamental Attribution Error and the concept of Kin selection. Implications for public education on decriminalization and advocacy are addressed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2375
85588
Comparison of the Use of Vaccines or Drugs against Parasitic Diseases
Abstract:
The viewpoint toward the use of drugs or vaccines against avian parasitic diseases is one of the most striking challenges in avian medical parasitology. This includes many difficulties associated with drug resistance and in developing prophylactic vaccines. In many instances, the potential success of vaccination in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry is well-documented. However, some medical, technical and financial limitations are still paramount. On the other hand, chemotherapy is not very well-recommended due to a number of medical limitations. But in the absence of an effective vaccine, drugs are used against parasitic diseases. This paper sheds light on some advantages and disadvantages of using vaccination and drugs in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry species. The usage of chemotherapeutic drugs is discussed with some examples. Then, more light will be shed on using vaccines as a potentially effective and promising control tool.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2374
85569
International Classification of Primary Care as a Reference for Coding the Demand for Care in Primary Health Care
Abstract:
Introduction: The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) is part of the morbidity classification system. It had 17 chapters, and each is coded by an alphanumeric code: the letter corresponds to the chapter, the number to a paragraph in the chapter. The objective of this study is to show the utility of this classification in the coding of the reasons for demand for care in Primary health care (PHC), its advantages and limits. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 4 PHC in Ariana district. Data on the demand for care during 2 days in the same week were collected. The coding of the information was done according to the CISP. The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: A total of 523 demands for care were investigated. The patients who came for the consultation are predominantly female (62.72%). Most of the consultants are young with an average age of 35 ± 26 years. In the ICPC, there are 7 rubrics: 'infections' is the most common reason with 49.9%, 'other diagnoses' with 40.2%, 'symptoms and complaints' with 5.5%, 'trauma' with 2.1%, 'procedures' with 2.1% and 'neoplasm' with 0.3%. The main advantage of the ICPC is the fact of being a standardized tool. It is very suitable for classification of the reasons for demand for care in PHC according to their specificity, capacity to be used in a computerized medical file of the PHC. Its current limitations are related to the difficulty of classification of some reasons for demand for care. Conclusion: The ICPC has been developed to provide healthcare with a coding reference that takes into account their specificity. The CIM is in its 10th revision; it would gain from revision to revision to be more efficient to be generalized and used by the teams of PHC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2373
85468
Detection of Helicobacter Pylori by PCR and ELISA Methods in Patients with Hyperlipidemia
Abstract:
Hyperlipidemia refers to any of several acquired or genetic disorders that result in a high level of lipids circulating in the blood. Helicobacter pylori infection is a contributing factor in the progression of hyperlipidemia with serum lipid changes. The aim of this study was to detect of Helicobacter pylori by PCR and serological methods in patients with hyperlipidemia. In this case-control study, 174 patients with hyperlipidemia and 174 healthy controls were studied. Also, demographics, physical and biochemical parameters were performed in all samples. The DNA extracted from blood specimens was amplified by H pylori cagA specific primers. The results show that H. pylori cagA positivity was detected in 79% of the hyperlipidemia and in 56% of the control group by ELISA test and 49% of the hyperlipidemia and in 24% of the control group by PCR test. Prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in hyperlipidemia as compared to controls. In addition, patients with hyperlipidemia had significantly higher values for triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C, waist to hip ratio, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and lower levels of HDL-C than control participants (all p < 0.0001). Our result detected the ELISA was a rapid and cost-effective detection and considering the high prevalence of cytotoxigenic H. pylori strains, cag A is suggested as a promising target for PCR and ELISA tests for detection of infection with toxigenic strains. In general, it can be concluded that molecular analysis of H. pylori cagA and clinical parameters are important in early detection of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis with H. pylori infection by PCR and ELISA tests.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2372
85460
Anesthetic Considerations for Carotid Endarterectomy: Prospective Study Based on Clinical Trials
Abstract:
Introduction: The aim of this review is based on clinical research that studies the changes in middle cerebral artery velocity using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and cerebral oxygen saturation using cerebral oximetry in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) surgery under local anesthesia (LA). Patients with or without neurological symptoms during the surgery are taking a role in this study using triplet method of cerebral oximetry, transcranial doppler and awake test in detecting any cerebral ischemic symptoms. Methods: about one hundred patients took part during their CEA surgeries under local anesthesia, using triple assessment mentioned method, Patients requiring general anesthesia be excluded from analysis. All data were recorded at eight surgery stages separately to serve this study. Results: In total regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity, and pulsatility index were significantly decreased during carotid artery clamping step in CEA procedures on the targeted carotid side. With most observed changes in MCA velocity during the study. Discussion: Cerebral oxygen saturation and middle cerebral artery velocity were significantly decreased during clamping step of the procedures on the targeted side. The team with neurological symptoms during the procedures showed higher changes of rSO2 and MCA velocity than the team without neurological symptoms. Cerebral rSO2 and MCA velocity significantly increased directly after de-clamping of the internal carotid artery on the affected side.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):