Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54437

Nuclear and Quantum Engineering

200
98384
Using RASCAL and ALOHA Codes to Establish an Analysis Methodology for Hydrogen Fluoride Evaluation
Abstract:
In this study, the RASCAL and ALOHA codes are used to establish an analysis methodology for hydrogen fluoride (HF) evaluation. There are three main steps in this study. First, the UF6 data were collected. Second, one postulated case was analyzed by using the RASCAL and UF6 data. This postulated case assumes that fire occurring and UF6 is releasing from a building. Third, the results of RASCAL for HF mass were as the input data of ALOHA. Two postulated cases of HF were analyzed by using ALOHA code and the results of RASCAL. These postulated cases assume fire occurring and HF is releasing with no raining (Case 1) or raining (Case 2) condition. According to the analysis results of ALOHA, the HF concentration of Case 2 is smaller than Case 1. The results can be a reference for the preparing of emergency plans for the release of HF.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
199
97710
Cross Section Measurement for Formation of Metastable State of ¹¹¹ᵐCd through ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd Reaction Induced by Bremsstrahlung Generated through 6 MeV Electrons
Abstract:
Photon induced average reaction cross section of ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd reaction was experimentally determined for the bremsstrahlung energy spectrum of 6 MeV by utilizing the activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric techniques. The 6 MeV electron accelerator Racetrack Microtron of Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune was used for the experimental work. The bremsstrahlung spectrum generated by bombarding 6 MeV electrons on lead target was theoretically estimated by FLUKA code. Bremsstrahlung radiation can have energies exceeding the threshold of the particle emission, which is normally above 6 MeV. Photons of energies below the particle emission threshold undergo absorption into discrete energy levels, with possibility of exciting nuclei to excited state including metastable state. The ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd reaction cross sections were calculated at different energies of bombarding Photon by using the TALYS 1.8 computer code with a default parameter. The focus of the present work was to study the (γ,γ’) reaction for exciting ¹¹¹Cd nuclei to metastable states which have threshold energy below 3 MeV. The flux weighted average cross section was obtained from the theoretical values of TALYS 1.8 and TENDL 2017 and is found to be in good agreement with the present experimental cross section.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
198
94694
Risk Assessment of Radiation Hazard for a Typical WWER1000: Cancer Risk Analysis during a Hypothetical Accident
Abstract:
In this research, the WWER1000/V446 (a PWR Russian type reactor) is chosen as the case study. It is assumed that radioactive materials that release into the environment are more than allowable limit due to a complete failure of the ventilation system (reactor stack). In the following, the HOTSPOT and the RASCAL computational codes have been used and coupled with a developed program using MATLAB software to evaluate Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and cancer risk according to the BEIR equations for various human organs. In addition, effects of the containment spray system and climate conditions on the TEDE have been investigated. According to the obtained results, there is an inverse correlation between the received dose and the wind speed; the amount of the TEDE for wind speed 2 m/s and is more than wind speed for 14 m/s during the class A of the climate (2.168 and 0.444 mSv, respectively). Also, containment spray system can effect and reduce the amount of the fission products and TEDE. Furthermore, the probability of the cancer risk for women is more than men, and for children is more than adults. In addition, a specific emergency zonal planning is proposed. Results are promising in which the site selection of the WWER1000/V446 were considered safe for the public in this situation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
197
93254
Feasibility Study and Experiment of On-Site Nuclear Material Identification in Fukushima Daiichi Fuel Debris by Compact Neutron Source
Abstract:
After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor incident, there are a lot of unaccountable nuclear fuel debris in the reactor core area, which is subject to safeguard and criticality safety. Before the actual precise analysis is performed, preliminary on-site screening and mapping of nuclear debris activity need to be performed to provide a reliable data on the nuclear debris mass-extraction planning. Through a collaboration project with Japan Atomic Energy Agency, an on-site nuclear debris screening system by using dual energy X-Ray inspection and neutron energy resonance analysis has been established. By using the compact and mobile pulsed neutron source constructed from 3.95 MeV X-Band electron linac, coupled with Tungsten as electron-to-photon converter and Beryllium as a photon-to-neutron converter, short-distance neutron Time of Flight measurement can be performed. Experiment result shows this system can measure neutron energy spectrum up to 100 eV range with only 2.5 meters Time of Flightpath in regards to the X-Band accelerator’s short pulse. With this, on-site neutron Time of Flight measurement can be used to identify the nuclear debris isotope contents through Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA). Some preliminary NRTA experiments have been done with Tungsten sample as dummy nuclear debris material, which isotopes Tungsten-186 has close energy absorption value with Uranium-238 (15 eV). The results obtained shows that this system can detect energy absorption in the resonance neutron area within 1-100 eV. It can also detect multiple elements in a material at once with the experiment using a combined sample of Indium, Tantalum, and silver makes it feasible to identify debris containing mixed material. This compact neutron Time of Flight measurement system is a great complementary for dual energy X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) method that can identify atomic number quantitatively but with 1-mm spatial resolution and high error bar. The combination of these two measurement methods will able to perform on-site nuclear debris screening at Fukushima Daiichi reactor core area, providing the data for nuclear debris activity mapping.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
196
92505
CFD Simulation for Flow Behavior in Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Upper Pool under Decommissioning Condition
Abstract:
In order to respond the policy decision of non-nuclear homes, Tai Power Company (TPC) will provide the decommissioning project of Kuosheng Nuclear power plant (KSNPP) to meet the regulatory requirement in near future. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology has been employed to develop a flow prediction model for boiling water reactor (BWR) with upper pool under decommissioning stage. The model can be utilized to investigate the flow behavior as the vessel combined with upper pool and continuity cooling system. At normal operating condition, different parameters are obtained for the full fluid area, including velocity, mass flow, and mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and upper pool. Through the efforts of the study, an integrated simulation model will be developed for flow field analysis of decommissioning KSNPP under normal operating condition. It can be expected that a basis result for future analysis application of TPC can be provide from this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
195
92485
DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation
Abstract:
Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
194
92352
Dose Evaluations with SNAP/RADTRAD for Loss of Coolant Accidents in a BWR6 Nuclear Power Plant
Abstract:
In this study, we build RADionuclide Transport, Removal And Dose Estimation/Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package (SNAP/RADTRAD) model of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant which is based on the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSAR) and other data of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant. It is used to estimate the radiation dose of the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB), the Low Population Zone (LPZ), and the control room following ‘release from the containment’ case in Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The RADTRAD analysis result shows that the evaluation dose at EAB, LPZ, and the control room are close to the FSAR data, and all of the doses are lower than the regulatory limits. At last, we do a sensitivity analysis and observe that the evaluation doses increase as the intake rate of the control room increases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
193
92159
Production of Neutrons by High Intensity Picosecond Laser Interacting with Thick Solid Target at XingGuangIII
Abstract:
This work describes the experiment to produce high-intensity pulsed neutron beams on XingGuangIII laser facility. The high-intensity laser is utilized to drive protons and deuterons, which hit a thick solid target to produce neutrons. The pulse duration of the laser used in the experiment is about 0.8 ps, and the laser energy is around 100 J. Protons and deuterons are accelerated from a 10-μm-thick deuterated polyethylene (CD₂) foil and diagnosed by a Thomson parabola ion-spectrometer. The energy spectrum of neutrons generated via ⁷Li(d,n) and ⁷Li(p,n) reaction when proton and deuteron beams hit a 5-mm-thick LiF target is measured by a scintillator-based time-of-flight spectrometer. Results from the neuron measurements show that the maximum neutron energy is about 12.5 MeV and the neutron yield is up to 2×10⁹/pulse. The high-intensity pulsed neutron beams demonstrated in this work can provide a valuable neutron source for material research, fast neutron induced fission research, and so on.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
192
92156
Simulation and Characterization of Compact Magnetic Proton Recoil Spectrometer for Fast Neutron Spectra Measurements
Abstract:
Neutron spectrometry has contributed much to the development of nuclear physics since 1932 and has also become an importance tool in several other fields, notably nuclear technology, fusion plasma diagnostics and radiation protection. Compared with neutron fluxes, neutron spectra can provide more detailed information on the internal physical process of neutron sources, such as fast neutron reactors, fusion plasma, fission-fusion hybrid reactors, and so on. However, high performance neutron spectrometer is not so commonly available as it requires the use of large and complex instrumentation. This work describes the development and characterization of a compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer for high-resolution measurements of fast neutron spectra. The compact MPR spectrometer is featured by its large recoil angle, small size permanent analysis magnet, short beam transport line and dual-purpose detector array for both steady state and pulsed neutron spectra measurement. A 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle transport code is developed to simulate the response function of the spectrometer. Simulation results illustrate that the performance of the spectrometer is mainly determined by n-p recoil foil and proton apertures, and an overall energy resolution of 3% is achieved for 14 MeV neutrons. Dedicated experiments using alpha source and mono-energetic neutron beam are employed to verify the simulated response function of the compact MPR spectrometer. These experimental results show a good agreement with the simulated ones, which indicates that the simulation code possesses good accuracy and reliability. The compact MPR spectrometer described in this work is a valuable tool for fast neutron spectra measurements for the fission or fusion devices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
191
91547
Using ALOHA Code to Evaluate CO2 Concentration for Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant
Abstract:
ALOHA code was used to calculate the concentration under the CO2 storage burst condition for Maanshan nuclear power plant (NPP) in this study. There are five main data needed to key in ALOHA code including location, building, chemical, atmospheric, and source data. The data from Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and some reports were used in this study. The ALOHA results compared with the failure criteria of R.G. 1.78 to confirm the habitability of control room. The result of comparison presents that the ALOHA result is below the R.G. 1.78 criteria. This implies that the habitability of control room can be maintained in this case. The sensitivity study for atmospheric parameters were performed in this study. The results of sensitivity study show that the wind speed has the larger effect in the concentration calculation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
190
90867
The Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies Simulation for Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant
Abstract:
In this research, a Fukushima-like conditions is simulated with TRACE and RELAP5. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) occurred the disaster which caused by the earthquake and tsunami. This disaster caused extended loss of all AC power (ELAP). Hence, loss of ultimate heat sink (LUHS) happened finally. In order to handle Fukushima-like conditions, Taiwan Atomic Energy Council (AEC) commanded that Taiwan Power Company should propose strategies to ensure the nuclear power plant safety. One of the diverse and flexible coping strategies (FLEX) is a different water injection strategy. It can execute core injection at 20 Kg/cm2 without depressurization. In this study, TRACE and RELAP5 were used to simulate Maanshan nuclear power plant, which is a three loops PWR in Taiwan, under Fukushima-like conditions and make sure the success criteria of FLEX. Reducing core cooling ability is due to failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) in extended loss of all AC power situation. The core water level continues to decline because of the seal leakage, and then FLEX is used to save the core water level and make fuel rods covered by water. The result shows that this mitigation strategy can cool the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) as soon as possible under Fukushima-like conditions, and keep the core water level higher than Top of Active Fuel (TAF). The FLEX can ensure the peak cladding temperature (PCT) below than the criteria 1088.7 K. Finally, the FLEX can provide protection for nuclear power plant and make plant safety.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
189
89927
Mapping Tunnelling Parameters for Global Optimization in Big Data via Dye Laser Simulation
Authors:
Abstract:
One of the biggest challenges has emerged from the ever-expanding, dynamic, and instantaneously changing space-Big Data; and to find a data point and inherit wisdom to this space is a hard task. In this paper, we reduce the space of big data in Hamiltonian formalism that is in concordance with Ising Model. For this formulation, we simulate the system using dye laser in FORTRAN and analyse the dynamics of the data point in energy well of rhodium atom. After mapping the photon intensity and pulse width with energy and potential we concluded that as we increase the energy there is also increase in probability of tunnelling up to some point and then it starts decreasing and then shows a randomizing behaviour. It is due to decoherence with the environment and hence there is a loss of ‘quantumness’. This interprets the efficiency parameter and the extent of quantum evolution. The results are strongly encouraging in favour of the use of ‘Topological Property’ as a source of information instead of the qubit.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
188
89789
Design Optimization of the Primary Containment Building of a Pressurized Water Reactor
Abstract:
Primary containment structure is one of the five safety layers of a nuclear facility which is needed to be designed in such a manner that it can withstand the pressure and excessive radioactivity during accidental situations. It is also necessary to ensure minimization of cost with maximum possible safety in order to make the design economically feasible and attractive. This paper attempts to identify the optimum design conditions for primary containment structure considering both mechanical and radiation safety keeping the economic aspects in mind. This work takes advantage of commercial simulation software to identify the suitable conditions without the requirement of costly experiments. Generated data may be helpful for further studies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
187
89638
Quinazoline Analogue as a Pet Tracer for Imaging PDE10A: Radiosynthesis and Biological Evaluation
Abstract:
The family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) plays a critical role in control of the level, localization, and duration of intracellular 3’-5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3’-5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signals by specifically hydrolyzing these cyclic nucleotides. As the involvement of cyclic nucleotide second messengers in cell signaling and homeostasis is established, the regulation of these pathways in the brain by various PDE isoforms is an area of considerable interest, as they are involved in nearly all brain functions and in the etiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. The PDE10A isoform, isolated from different species and characterized regarding structure and function, has received much attention in recent years, particularly in the context of schizophrenia and Huntington’s disease, which are both related to a role of PDE10A in the regulation of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Quinazoline analogue 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, was evaluated as specific PET marker for phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of [11C]2 and the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]2 as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging PDE10A in the central nervous system (CNS). The radiosynthesis of [11C]2 was achieved by O-methylation of the corresponding des-methyl precursor with [11C]methyl iodide. [11C]2 was obtained with ∼50% radiochemical yield. PET imaging studies in rat brain displayed initial specific uptake with very rapid clearance of [11C]2 from brain. Though [11C]2 is not an ideal radioligand for clinical imaging of PDE10A in the CNS. Modified analogue of quinazoline having a higher potency for inhibiting PDE10A and improved pharmacokinetic properties will be necessary for imaging this enzyme with PET.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
186
89587
Effect of Modeling of Hydraulic Form Loss Coefficient to Break on Emergency Core Coolant Bypass
Abstract:
Emergency Core Coolant Bypass (ECC Bypass) has been regarded as an important phenomenon to peak cladding temperature of large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents (LBLOCA) in nuclear power plants (NPP). A modeling scheme to address the ECC Bypass phenomena and the calculation of LBLOCA using that scheme are discussed in the present paper. A hydraulic form loss coefficient (HFLC) from the reactor vessel downcomer to the broken cold leg is predicted by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with a variation of the void fraction incoming from the downcomer. The maximum, mean, and minimum values of FLC are derived from the CFD results and are incorporated into the LBLOCA calculation using a system thermal-hydraulic code, MARS-KS. As a relevant parameter addressing the ECC Bypass phenomena, the FLC to the break and its range are proposed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
185
89586
Pakistan Nuclear Security: Threats from Non-State Actors
Abstract:
The recent rise of powerful terrorist groups such as ISIS and Al-Qaeda brings up concerns about nuclear terrorism as well as a focus on nuclear security, specifically the physical security of nuclear weapons and fissile material storage sites in countries where powerful nonstate actors are present. Particularly because these non-state actors, who lack their own sovereign territory, cannot be ‘deterred’ in the traditional sense. In light of the current threat environment, it’s necessary to now rethink these strategies in the 21st century – a multipolar world with the presence of powerful non-state actors. As a country in the spotlight for its low ranking on the Nuclear Threat Initiative’s (NTI) Nuclear Security Index, Pakistan is a relevant example to explore the question of whether the presence of non-state actors poses a real risk to nuclear security today. It’s necessary to take a look at their nuclear security policies to determine if they’re robust enough to deal with political instability and violence in the country. After carrying out interviews with experts in May 2017 in Islamabad on nuclear security and nuclear terrorism, this paper aims to highlight findings by providing a Pakistan-centric view on the subject and give experts there a chance to counter criticism. Western media would have us fearful of nuclear security mechanisms in Pakistan after reports that areas such as cybersecurity and accounting and control of materials are weak, as well as sensitive nuclear material being transported in unmarked, unguarded vehicles. Also reported are cases where terrorist groups carried out targeted attacks against Pakistani military bases or secure sites where nuclear material is stored. One specific question asked of each interviewee in Islamabad was Do you feel the threat of nuclear terrorism calls into question the reliance on deterrence? Their responses will be elaborated on in the longer paper, but overall they demonstrate views that deterrence still serves a purpose for state-to-state security strategy, but not for a state in countering nonstate threats. If nuclear security is lax enough for these non-state actors to get their hands on either an intact nuclear weapon or enough military-grade fissile material to build a nuclear weapon, then what would stop them from launching a nuclear attack? As deterrence is a state-centric strategy, it doesn’t work to deter non-state actors from carrying out an attack on another state, as they lack their own territory, and as such, are not fearful of a reprisal attack. Deterrence will need to be addressed, and its relevance analyzed to determine its utility in the current security environment. The aim of this research is to demonstrate the real risk of nuclear terrorism by pointing to weaknesses in global nuclear security, particularly in Pakistan. The research also aims to provoke thought on the weaknesses of deterrence as a whole. Original thinking is needed as we attempt to adequately respond to the 21st century’s current threat environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
184
89570
Robotic Solution for Nuclear Facility Safety and Monitoring System
Abstract:
An effective identification of breakdowns is of premier importance for the safe and reliable operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) and its associated facilities. A great number of monitoring and diagnosis methodologies are applied and used worldwide in areas such as industry, automobiles, hospitals, and power plant to detect and reduce human disasters. The potential consequences of several hazardous activities may harm the society using nuclear and its associated facilities. Hence, one of the most popular and effective methods to ensure safety and monitor the entire nuclear facility and imply risk-free operation without human interference during the hazardous situation is using a robot. Therefore, in this study, an advanced autonomous robot has been designed and developed that can monitor several parameters in the NPP to ensure the safety and do some risky job in case of nuclear disaster. The robot consisted of autonomous track following unit, data processing and transmitting unit can follow a straight line and take turn as the bank greater than 90 degrees. The developed robot can analyze various parameters such as temperature, altitude, radiation, obstacle, humidity, detecting fire, measuring distance, ultrasonic scan and taking the heat of any particular object. It has an ability to broadcast live stream and can record the document to its own server memory. There is a separate control unit constructed with a baseboard which processes the recorded data and a transmitter which transmits the processed data. To make the robot user-friendly, the code is developed such a way that a user can control any of robotic arm as per types of work. To control at any place and without the track, there is an advanced code has been developed to take manual overwrite. Through this process, administrator who has logged in permission to Dynamic Host Client Protocol (DHCP) can make the handover of the control of the robot. In this process, this robot is provided maximum nuclear security from being hacked. Not only NPP, this robot can be used to maximize the real-time monitoring system of any nuclear facility as well as nuclear material transportation and decomposition system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
183
89156
The Concentration Analysis of CO2 Using ALOHA Code for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant
Abstract:
Not only radiation materials, but also the normal chemical material stored in the power plant can cause a risk to the residents. In this research, the ALOHA code was used to perform the concentration analysis under the CO2 storage burst or leakage conditions for Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP). The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and data were used in this study. Additionally, the analysis results of ALOHA code were compared with the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria in order to confirm the control room habitability. The comparison results show that the ALOHA result for burst case was 0.923 g/m3 which was below the criteria. However, the ALOHA results for leakage case was 11.3 g/m3.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
182
89094
Calculational-Experimental Approach of Radiation Damage Parameters on VVER Equipment Evaluation
Abstract:
The problem of ensuring of VVER type reactor equipment integrity is now most actual in connection with justification of safety of the NPP Units and extension of their service life to 60 years and more. First of all, it concerns old units with VVER-440 and VVER-1000. The justification of the VVER equipment integrity depends on the reliability of estimation of the degree of the equipment damage. One of the mandatory requirements, providing the reliability of such estimation, and also evaluation of VVER equipment lifetime, is the monitoring of equipment radiation loading parameters. In this connection, there is a problem of justification of such normative parameters, used for an estimation of the pressure vessel metal embrittlement, as the fluence and fluence rate (FR) of fast neutrons above 0.5 MeV. From the point of view of regulatory practice, a comparison of displacement per atom (DPA) and fast neutron fluence (FNF) above 0.5 MeV has a practical concern. In accordance with the Russian regulatory rules, neutron fluence F(E > 0.5 MeV) is a radiation exposure parameter used in steel embrittlement prediction under neutron irradiation. However, the DPA parameter is a more physically legitimate quantity of neutron damage of Fe based materials. If DPA distribution in reactor structures is more conservative as neutron fluence, this case should attract the attention of the regulatory authority. The purpose of this work was to show what radiation load parameters (fluence, DPA) on all VVER equipment should be under control, and give the reasonable estimations of such parameters in the volume of all equipment. The second task is to give the conservative estimation of each parameter including its uncertainty. Results of recently received investigations allow to test the conservatism of calculational predictions, and, as it has been shown in the paper, combination of ex-vessel measured data with calculated ones allows to assess unpredicted uncertainties which are results of specific unique features of individual equipment for VVER reactor. Some results of calculational-experimental investigations are presented in this paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
181
88936
An Object-Oriented Modelica Model of the Water Level Swell during Depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel of the Boiling Water Reactor
Abstract:
Prediction of the two-phase water mixture level during fast depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) resulting from an accident scenario is an important issue from the view point of the reactor safety. Since the level swell may influence the behavior of some passive safety systems, it has been recognized that an assumption which at the beginning may be considered as a conservative one, not necessary leads to a conservative result. This paper discusses outcomes obtained during simulations of the water dynamics and heat transfer during sudden depressurization of a vessel filled up to a certain level with liquid water under saturation conditions and with the rest of the vessel occupied by saturated steam. In case of the pressure decrease e.g. due to the main steam line break, the liquid water evaporates abruptly, being a reason thereby, of strong transients in the vessel. These transients and the sudden emergence of void in the region occupied at the beginning by liquid, cause elevation of the two-phase mixture. In this work, several models calculating the water collapse and swell levels are presented and validated against experimental data. Each of the models uses different approach to calculate void fraction. The object-oriented models were developed with the Modelica modelling language and the OpenModelica environment. The models represent the RPV of the Integral Test Facility Karlstein (INKA) – a dedicated test rig for simulation of KERENA – a new Boiling Water Reactor design of Framatome. The models are based on dynamic mass and energy equations. They are divided into several dynamic volumes in each of which, the fluid may be single-phase liquid, steam or a two-phase mixture. The heat transfer between the wall of the vessel and the fluid is taken into account. Additional heat flow rate may be applied to the first volume of the vessel in order to simulate the decay heat of the reactor core in a similar manner as it is simulated at INKA. The comparison of the simulations results against the reference data shows a good agreement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
180
88571
Radiative Reactions Analysis at the Range of Astrophysical Energies
Authors:
Abstract:
Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model and single folding model at the beam energies up to 17 MeV. We could enhance the optical potential parameters using Esis88 Code, as well as SPI GENOA Code. Linear relationship between volume real potential (V0) and proton energy (Ep) has been obtained. Also, surface imaginary potential WD is proportional to the proton energy (Ep) in the range 0.400 and 17 MeV. The radiative reaction 10B(p,γ)11C has been analyzed using potential model. A comparison between 10B(p,γ)11C and 6Li(p,γ)7Be has been made. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental results in the whole range of energy. The radiative resonance reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be has been studied.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
179
88481
Long Time Oxidation Behavior of Machined 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel in Primary Water Reactor
Abstract:
Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in nuclear industry to manufacture critical components owing to their excellent corrosion resistance at high temperatures. Almost all the components used in nuclear power plants are produced by surface finishing (surface cold work) such as milling, grinding and so on. The change of surface states induced by machining has great influence on the corrosion behavior. In the present study, long time oxidation behavior of machined 316 austenitic stainless steel exposed to simulated pressure water reactor environment was investigated considering different surface states. Four surface finishes were produced by electro-polishing (P), grinding (G), and two milling (M and M1) processes respectively. Before oxidation, the surface Vickers micro-hardness, surface roughness of each type of sample was measured. Corrosion behavior of four types of sample was studied by using oxidation weight gain method for six oxidation periods. The oxidation time of each period was 120h, 216h, 336h, 504h, 672h and 1344h, respectively. SEM was used to observe the surface morphology of oxide film in several period. The results showed that oxide film on austenitic stainless steel has a duplex-layer structure. The inner oxide film is continuous and compact, while the outer layer is composed of oxide particles. The oxide particle consisted of large particles (nearly micron size) and small particles (dozens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers). The formation of oxide particle could be significantly affected by the machined surface states. The large particle on cold worked samples (grinding and milling) appeared earlier than electro-polished one, and the milled sample has the largest particle size followed by ground one and electro-polished one. For machined samples, the large particles were almost distributed along the direction of machining marks. Severe exfoliation was observed on one milled surface (M) which had the most heavily cold worked layer, while rare local exfoliation occurred on the ground sample (G) and the other milled sample (M1). The electro-polished sample (P) entirely did not exfoliate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
178
88370
Analysis of Possible Causes of Fukushima Disaster
Abstract:
Fukushima disaster is one of the most publicly exposed accidents in a nuclear facility which has changed the outlook of people towards nuclear power. Some have used it as an example to establish nuclear energy as an unsafe source, while others have tried to find the real reasons behind this accident. Many papers have tried to shed light on the possible causes, some of which are purely based on assumptions while others rely on rigorous data analysis. To our best knowledge, none of the works can say with absolute certainty that there is a single prominent reason that has paved the way to this unexpected incident. This paper attempts to compile all the apparent reasons behind Fukushima disaster and tries to analyze and identify the most likely one.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
177
87816
Electrohydrodynamic Study of Microwave Plasma PECVD Reactor
Abstract:
The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.The present work is dedicated to study a three–dimensional (3D) self-consistent fluid simulation of microwave discharges of argon plasma in PECVD reactor. The model solves the Maxwell’s equations, continuity equations for charged species and the electron energy balance equation, coupled with Poisson’s equation, and Navier-Stokes equations by finite element method, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. In this study, the simulations yield the profiles of plasma components as well as the charge densities and electron temperature, the electric field, the gas velocity, and gas temperature. The results show that the microwave plasma reactor is outside of local thermodynamic equilibrium.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
176
87289
Luminescent Properties of Plastic Scintillator with Large Area Photonic Crystal Prepared by a Combination of Nanoimprint Lithography and Atomic Layer Deposition
Abstract:
Plastic scintillators play an important role in the measurement of a mixed neutron/gamma pulsed radiation, neutron radiography and pulse shape discrimination technology. In some research, these luminescent properties are necessary that photons produced by the interactions between a plastic scintillator and radiations can be detected as much as possible by the photoelectric detectors and more photons can be emitted from the scintillators along a specific direction where detectors are located. Unfortunately, a majority of these photons produced are trapped in the plastic scintillators due to the total internal reflection (TIR), because there is a significant light-trapping effect when the incident angle of internal scintillation light is larger than the critical angle. Some of these photons trapped in the scintillator may be absorbed by the scintillator itself and the others are emitted from the edges of the scintillator. This makes the light extraction of plastic scintillators very low. Moreover, only a small portion of the photons emitted from the scintillator easily can be detected by detectors effectively, because the distribution of the emission directions of this portion of photons exhibits approximate Lambertian angular profile following a cosine emission law. Therefore, enhancing the light extraction efficiency and adjusting the emission angular profile become the keys for improving the number of photons detected by the detectors. In recent years, photonic crystal structures have been covered on inorganic scintillators to enhance the light extraction efficiency and adjust the angular profile of scintillation light successfully. However, that, preparation methods of photonic crystals will deteriorate performance of plastic scintillators and even destroy the plastic scintillators, makes the investigation on preparation methods of photonic crystals for plastic scintillators and luminescent properties of plastic scintillators with photonic crystal structures inadequate. Although we have successfully made photonic crystal structures covered on the surface of plastic scintillators by a modified self-assembly technique and achieved a great enhance of light extraction efficiency without evident angular-dependence for the angular profile of scintillation light, the preparation of photonic crystal structures with large area (the diameter is larger than 6cm) and perfect periodic structure is still difficult. In this paper, large area photonic crystals on the surface of scintillators were prepared by nanoimprint lithography firstly, and then a conformal layer with material of high refractive index on the surface of photonic crystal by atomic layer deposition technique in order to enhance the stability of photonic crystal structures and increase the number of leaky modes for improving the light extraction efficiency. The luminescent properties of the plastic scintillator with photonic crystals prepared by the mentioned method are compared with those of the plastic scintillator without photonic crystal. The results indicate that the number of photons detected by detectors is increased by the enhanced light extraction efficiency and the angular profile of scintillation light exhibits evident angular-dependence for the scintillator with photonic crystals. The mentioned preparation of photonic crystals is beneficial to scintillation detection applications and lays an important technique foundation for the plastic scintillators to meet special requirements under different application backgrounds.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
175
86958
Two-Dimensional Modeling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using FLUENT
Abstract:
In a nuclear reactor, an array of fuel rods containing stacked uranium dioxide pellets clad with zircalloy is the heat source for a thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion from heat to electricity. After fuel is used in a nuclear reactor, the assemblies are stored underwater in a spent nuclear fuel pool at the nuclear power plant while heat generation and radioactive decay rates decrease before it is placed in packages for dry storage or transportation. A computational model of a Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assembly is modeled using FLUENT, the computational fluid dynamics package. Heat transfer simulations were performed on the two-dimensional 9x9 spent fuel assembly to predict the maximum cladding temperature for different input to the FLUENT model. Uncertainty quantification is used to predict the heat transfer and the maximum temperature profile inside the assembly.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
174
86807
Application Research of Stilbene Crystal for the Measurement of Accelerator Neutron Sources
Abstract:
Stilbene, C₁₄H₁₂, is well known as one of the most useful organic scintillators for pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for its good scintillation properties. An on-line acquisition system and an off-line acquisition system were developed with several CAMAC standard plug-ins, NIM plug-ins, neutron/γ discriminating plug-in named 2160A and a digital oscilloscope with high sampling rate respectively for which stilbene crystals and photomultiplier tube detectors (PMT) as detector for accelerator neutron sources measurement carried out in China Institute of Atomic Energy. Pulse amplitude spectrums and charge amplitude spectrums were real-time recorded after good neutron/γ discrimination whose best PSD figure-of-merits (FoMs) are 1.756 for D-D accelerator neutron source and 1.393 for D-T accelerator neutron source. The probability of neutron events in total events was 80%, and neutron detection efficiency was 5.21% for D-D accelerator neutron sources, which were 50% and 1.44% for D-T accelerator neutron sources after subtracting the background of scattering observed by the on-line acquisition system. Pulse waveform signals were acquired by the off-line acquisition system randomly while the on-line acquisition system working. The PSD FoMs obtained by the off-line acquisition system were 2.158 for D-D accelerator neutron sources and 1.802 for D-T accelerator neutron sources after waveform digitization off-line processing named charge integration method for just 1000 pulses. In addition, the probabilities of neutron events in total events obtained by the off-line acquisition system matched very well with the probabilities of the on-line acquisition system. The pulse information recorded by the off-line acquisition system could be repetitively used to adjust the parameters or methods of PSD research and obtain neutron charge amplitude spectrums or pulse amplitude spectrums after digital analysis with a limited number of pulses. The off-line acquisition system showed equivalent or better measurement effects compared with the online system with a limited number of pulses which indicated a feasible method based on stilbene crystals detectors for the measurement of prompt neutrons neutron sources like prompt accelerator neutron sources emit a number of neutrons in a short time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
173
86729
An Introduction to the Radiation-Thrust Based on Alpha Decay and Spontaneous Fission
Abstract:
As the key system of the spacecraft, various propelling system have been developing rapidly, including ion thrust, laser thrust, solar sail and other micro-thrusters. However, there still are some shortages in these systems. The ion thruster requires the high-voltage or magnetic field to accelerate, resulting in extra system, heavy quantity and large volume. The laser thrust now is mostly ground-based and providing pulse thrust, restraint by the station distribution and the capacity of laser. The thrust direction of solar sail is limited to its relative position with the Sun, so it is hard to propel toward the Sun or adjust in the shadow.In this paper, a novel nuclear thruster based on alpha decay and spontaneous fission is proposed and the principle of this radiation-thrust with alpha particle has been expounded. Radioactive materials with different released energy, such as 210Po with 5.4MeV and 238Pu with 5.29MeV, attached to a metal film will provides various thrust among 0.02-5uN/cm2. With this repulsive force, radiation is able to be a power source. With the advantages of low system quantity, high accuracy and long active time, the radiation thrust is promising in the field of space debris removal, orbit control of nano-satellite array and deep space exploration. To do further study, a formula lead to the amplitude and direction of thrust by the released energy and decay coefficient is set up. With the initial formula, the alpha radiation elements with the half life period longer than a hundred days are calculated and listed. As the alpha particles emit continuously, the residual charge in metal film grows and affects the emitting energy distribution of alpha particles. With the residual charge or extra electromagnetic field, the emitting of alpha particles performs differently and is analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, three more complex situations are discussed. Radiation element generating alpha particles with several energies in different intensity, mixture of various radiation elements, and cascaded alpha decay are studied respectively. In combined way, it is more efficient and flexible to adjust the thrust amplitude. The propelling model of the spontaneous fission is similar with the one of alpha decay, which has a more complex angular distribution. A new quasi-sphere space propelling system based on the radiation-thrust has been introduced, as well as the collecting and processing system of excess charge and reaction heat. The energy and spatial angular distribution of emitting alpha particles on unit area and certain propelling system have been studied. As the alpha particles are easily losing energy and self-absorb, the distribution is not the simple stacking of each nuclide. With the change of the amplitude and angel of radiation-thrust, orbital variation strategy on space debris removal is shown and optimized.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
172
86190
Numerical Solution of Transient Natural Convection in Vertical Heated Rectangular Channel between Two Vertical Parallel MTR-Type Fuel Plates
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to perform, by mean of the finite volume method, a numerical solution of the transient natural convection in a narrow rectangular channel between two vertical parallel Material Testing Reactor (MTR)-type fuel plates, imposed under a heat flux with a cosine shape to determine the margin of the nuclear core power at which the natural convection cooling mode can ensure a safe core cooling, where the cladding temperature should not reach a specific safety limits (90 °C). For this purpose, a computer program is developed to determine the principal parameters related to the nuclear core safety, such as the temperature distribution in the fuel plate and in the coolant (light water) as a function of the reactor core power. Throughout the obtained results, we noticed that the core power should not reach 400 kW, to ensure a safe passive residual heat removing from the nuclear core by the upward natural convection cooling mode.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
171
85856
Using Squeezed Vacuum States to Enhance the Sensitivity of Ground Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers beyond the Standard Quantum Limit
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper reviews the impact of quantum noise on modern gravitational wave interferometers and explains how squeezed vacuum states are used to push the noise below the standard quantum limit. With the first detection of gravitational waves from a pair of colliding black holes in September 2015 and subsequent detections including that of gravitational waves from a pair of colliding neutron stars, the ground-based interferometric gravitational wave observatories LIGO and VIRGO have opened the era of gravitational-wave and multi-messenger astronomy. Improving the sensitivity of the detectors is of paramount importance to increase the number and quality of the detections, fully exploiting this new information channel about the universe. Although still in the commissioning phase and not at nominal sensitivity, these interferometers are designed to be ultimately limited by a combination of shot noise and quantum radiation pressure noise, which define an envelope known as the standard quantum limit. Despite the name, this limit can be beaten with the use of advanced quantum measurement techniques, with the use of squeezed vacuum states being currently the most mature and promising. Different strategies for implementation of the technology in the large-scale detectors, in both their frequency-independent and frequency-dependent variations, are presented, together with an analysis of the main technological issues and expected sensitivity gain.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):