Regulation Aspects for a Radioisotope Production Installation in Brazil
The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is the main manufacturer of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil. The Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN), located at Rio de Janeiro, is one of its main centers of research and production, attending public and private hospitals in the state. This radiopharmaceutical production is used in diagnostic and therapy procedures and allows one and a half million nuclear medicine procedures annually. Despite this, the country is not self-sufficient to meet national demand, creating the need for importation and consequent dependence on other countries. However, IEN facilities were designed in the 60's, and today its structure is inadequate in relation to the good manufacturing practices established by sanitary regulator (ANVISA) and radiological protection leading to the need for a new project. In order to adapt and increase production in the country, a new plant will be built and integrated to the existing facilities with a new 30 MeV Cyclotron that is actually in project detailing process. Thus, it is proposed to survey current CNEN and ANVISA standards for radiopharmaceutical production facilities, as well as the radiological protection analysis of each area of the plant, following good manufacturing practices recommendations adopted nationally besides licensing exigencies for radioactive facilities. In this way, the main requirements for proper operation, equipment location, building materials, area classification, and maintenance program have been implemented. The access controls, interlocks, segregation zones and pass-through boxes integrated into the project were also analyzed. As a result, IEN will in future have the flexibility to produce all necessary radioisotopes for nuclear medicine application, more efficiently by simultaneously bombarding two targets, allowing the simultaneous production of two different radioisotopes, minimizing radiation exposure and saving operating costs.
The Main Steamline Break Transient Analysis for Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Using TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP Codes
To confirm the reactor and containment integrity of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), we perform the analysis of main steamline break (MSLB) transient by using the TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP codes. The process of the research has four steps. First, the ABWR nuclear power plant (NPP) model is developed by using the above codes. Second, the steady state analysis is performed by using this model. Third, the ABWR model is used to run the analysis of MSLB transient. Fourth, the predictions of TRACE and PARCS are compared with the data of FSAR. The results of TRACE/PARCS and FSAR are similar. According to the TRACE/PARCS results, the reactor and containment integrity of ABWR can be maintained in a safe condition for MSLB.
Using TRACE and SNAP Codes to Establish the Model of Maanshan PWR for SBO Accident
In this research, TRACE code with the interface code-SNAP was used to simulate and analyze the SBO (station blackout) accident which occurred in Maanshan PWR (pressurized water reactor) nuclear power plant (NPP). There are four main steps in this research. First, the SBO accident data of Maanshan NPP were collected. Second, the TRACE/SNAP model of Maanshan NPP was established by using these data. Third, this TRACE/SNAP model was used to perform the simulation and analysis of SBO accident. Finally, the simulation and analysis of SBO with mitigation equipments was performed. The analysis results of TRACE are consistent with the data of Maanshan NPP. The mitigation equipments of Maanshan can maintain the safety of Maanshan in the SBO according to the TRACE predictions.
An Authentication Protocol for Quantum Enabled Mobile Devices
The quantum communication technology is an evolving
design which connects multiple quantum enabled devices to internet
for secret communication or sensitive information exchange. In
future, the number of these compact quantum enabled devices
will increase immensely making them an integral part of present
communication systems. Therefore, safety and security of such
devices is also a major concern for us. To ensure the customer
sensitive information will not be eavesdropped or deciphered, we
need a strong authentications and encryption mechanism. In this
paper, we propose a mutual authentication scheme between these
smart quantum devices and server based on the secure exchange of
information through quantum channel which gives better solutions
for symmetric key exchange issues. An important part of this
work is to propose a secure mutual authentication protocol over
the quantum channel. We show that our approach offers robust
authentication protocol and further our solution is lightweight,
scalable, cost-effective with optimized computational processing
Using RASCAL Code to Analyze the Postulated UF6 Fire Accident
In this research, the RASCAL code was used to simulate and analyze the postulated UF6 fire accident which may occur in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). There are four main steps in this research. In the first step, the UF6 data of INER were collected. In the second step, the RASCAL analysis methodology and model was established by using these data. Third, this RASCAL model was used to perform the simulation and analysis of the postulated UF6 fire accident. Three cases were simulated and analyzed in this step. Finally, the analysis results of RASCAL were compared with the hazardous levels of the chemicals. According to the compared results of three cases, Case 3 has the maximum danger in human health.
Using RASCAL and ALOHA Codes to Establish an Analysis Methodology for Hydrogen Fluoride Evaluation
In this study, the RASCAL and ALOHA codes are used to establish an analysis methodology for hydrogen fluoride (HF) evaluation. There are three main steps in this study. First, the UF6 data were collected. Second, one postulated case was analyzed by using the RASCAL and UF6 data. This postulated case assumes that fire occurring and UF6 is releasing from a building. Third, the results of RASCAL for HF mass were as the input data of ALOHA. Two postulated cases of HF were analyzed by using ALOHA code and the results of RASCAL. These postulated cases assume fire occurring and HF is releasing with no raining (Case 1) or raining (Case 2) condition. According to the analysis results of ALOHA, the HF concentration of Case 2 is smaller than Case 1. The results can be a reference for the preparing of emergency plans for the release of HF.
Cross Section Measurement for Formation of Metastable State of ¹¹¹ᵐCd through ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd Reaction Induced by Bremsstrahlung Generated through 6 MeV Electrons
Photon induced average reaction cross section of ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd reaction was experimentally determined for the bremsstrahlung energy spectrum of 6 MeV by utilizing the activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric techniques. The 6 MeV electron accelerator Racetrack Microtron of Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune was used for the experimental work. The bremsstrahlung spectrum generated by bombarding 6 MeV electrons on lead target was theoretically estimated by FLUKA code. Bremsstrahlung radiation can have energies exceeding the threshold of the particle emission, which is normally above 6 MeV. Photons of energies below the particle emission threshold undergo absorption into discrete energy levels, with possibility of exciting nuclei to excited state including metastable state. The ¹¹¹Cd (γ, γ`) ¹¹¹ᵐCd reaction cross sections were calculated at different energies of bombarding Photon by using the TALYS 1.8 computer code with a default parameter. The focus of the present work was to study the (γ,γ’) reaction for exciting ¹¹¹Cd nuclei to metastable states which have threshold energy below 3 MeV. The flux weighted average cross section was obtained from the theoretical values of TALYS 1.8 and TENDL 2017 and is found to be in good agreement with the present experimental cross section.
Current Approach in Biodosimetry: Electrochemical Detection of DNA Damage
At present, electrochemical methods are used in various research fields, especially for analysis of biological molecules. The fact offers the possibility of using the detection of oxidative damage induced indirectly by γ rays in DNA in biodosimentry. The main goal of our study is to optimize the detection of 8-hydroxyguanine by differential pulse voltammetry. The level of this stable and specific indicator of DNA damage could be determined in DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes, plasma or urine of irradiated individuals. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carboxy-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes were utilized for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of 8-hydroxyguanine. Electrochemical oxidation of 8-hydroxoguanine monitored by differential pulse voltammetry was found pH-dependent and the most intensive signal was recorded at pH 7. After recalculating the current density, several times higher sensitivity was attained in comparison with already published results, which were obtained using screen-printed carbon electrodes with unmodified carbon ink. Subsequently, the modified electrochemical technique was used for the detection of 8-hydroxoguanine in calf thymus DNA samples irradiated by 60Co gamma source in the dose range from 0.5 to 20 Gy using by various types of sample pretreatment and measurement conditions. This method could serve for fast retrospective quantification of absorbed dose in cases of accidental exposure to ionizing radiation and may play an important role in biodosimetry.
Nanoparticles of Hyaluronic Acid for Radiation Induced Lung Damages
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a simple linear, unbranched polysaccharide with a lot of exceptional physiological and chemical properties such as high biocompatibility and biodegradability, strong hydration and viscoelasticity that depend on the size of the molecule. It plays the important role in a variety of molecular events as tissue hydration, mechanical protection of tissues and as well as during inflammation, leukocyte migration, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Also, HA-based biomaterials, including HA scaffolds, hydrogels, thin membranes, matrix grafts or nanoparticles are widely use in various biomedical applications. Our goal is to determine the radioprotective effect of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HA NPs). We are investigating effect of ionizing radiation on stability of HA NPs, in vitro relative toxicity of nanoscale as well as effect on cell lines and specific surface receptors and their response to ionizing radiation. An exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) can irreversibly damage various cell types and may thus have implications for the level of the whole tissue. Characteristic manifestations are formation of over-granulated tissue, remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) and abortive wound healing. Damages are caused by either direct interaction with DNA and IR proteins or indirectly by radicals formed during radiolysis of water Accumulation and turnover of ECM are a hallmark of radiation induces lung injury, characterized by inflammation, repair or remodeling health pulmonary tissue. HA is a major component of ECM in lung and plays an important role in regulating tissue injury, accelerating tissue repair, and controlling disease outcomes. Due to that, HA NPs were applied to in vivo model (C57Bl/6J mice) before total body or partial thorax irradiation. This part of our research is targeting on effect of exogenous HA on the development and/or mitigating acute radiation syndrome and radiation induced lung injuries.
Calculation of Detection Efficiency of Horizontal Large Volume Source Using Exvol Code
To calculate the full energy (FE) absorption peak efficiency for arbitrary volume sample, we developed and verified the EXVol (Efficiency calculator for EXtended Voluminous source) code which is based on effective solid angle method. EXVol is possible to describe the source area as a non-uniform three-dimensional (x, y, z) source. And decompose and set it into several sets of volume units. Users can equally divide (x, y, z) coordinate system to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position of a cylindrical volume source. By determining the detection efficiency for differential volume units, the total radiative absolute distribution and the correction factor of the detection efficiency can be obtained from the nondestructive measurement of the source. In order to check the performance of the EXVol code, Si ingot of 20 cm in diameter and 50 cm in height were used as a source. The detector was moved at the collimation geometry to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position and compared with the experimental values. In this study, the performance of the EXVol code was extended to obtain the detection efficiency distribution at a specific position in a large volume source.
Quantum Graph Approach for Energy and Information Transfer through Networks of Cables
High-frequency cables commonly connect modern devices and sensors. Interestingly, the proportion of electric components is rising fast in an attempt to achieve lighter and greener devices. Modelling the propagation of signals through these cable networks in the presence of parameter uncertainty is a daunting task. In this work, we study the response of high-frequency cable networks using both Transmission Line and Quantum Graph (QG) theories. We have successfully compared the two theories in terms of reflection spectra using measurements on real, lossy cables. We have derived a generalisation of the vertex scattering matrix to include non-uniform networks – networks of cables with different characteristic impedances and propagation constants. The QG model implicitly takes into account the pseudo-chaotic behavior, at the vertices, of the propagating electric signal. We have successfully compared the asymptotic growth of eigenvalues of the Laplacian with the predictions of Weyl law. We investigate the nearest-neighbour level-spacing distribution of the resonances and compare our results with the predictions of Random Matrix Theory (RMT). To achieve this, we will compare our graphs with the generalisation of Wigner distribution for open systems. The problem of scattering from networks of cables can also provide an analogue model for wireless communication in highly reverberant environments. In this context, we provide a preliminary analysis of the statistics of communication capacity for communication across cable networks, whose eventual aim is to enable detailed laboratory testing of information transfer rates using software defined radio. We specialise this analysis in particular for the case of MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) protocols. We have successfully validated our QG model with both TL model and laboratory measurements. The growth of Eigenvalues compares well with Weyl’s law and the level-spacing distribution agrees so well RMT predictions. The results we achieved in the MIMO application compares favourably with the prediction of a parallel on-going research (sponsored by NEMF21.)
Risk Assessment of Radiation Hazard for a Typical WWER1000: Cancer Risk Analysis during a Hypothetical Accident
In this research, the WWER1000/V446 (a PWR Russian type reactor) is chosen as the case study. It is assumed that radioactive materials that release into the environment are more than allowable limit due to a complete failure of the ventilation system (reactor stack). In the following, the HOTSPOT and the RASCAL computational codes have been used and coupled with a developed program using MATLAB software to evaluate Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and cancer risk according to the BEIR equations for various human organs. In addition, effects of the containment spray system and climate conditions on the TEDE have been investigated. According to the obtained results, there is an inverse correlation between the received dose and the wind speed; the amount of the TEDE for wind speed 2 m/s and is more than wind speed for 14 m/s during the class A of the climate (2.168 and 0.444 mSv, respectively). Also, containment spray system can effect and reduce the amount of the fission products and TEDE. Furthermore, the probability of the cancer risk for women is more than men, and for children is more than adults. In addition, a specific emergency zonal planning is proposed. Results are promising in which the site selection of the WWER1000/V446 were considered safe for the public in this situation.
A Dual-Mode Infinite Horizon Predictive Control Algorithm for Load Tracking in PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor
The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP), Malaysia reached its first criticality on June 28, 1982, with power capacity 1MW thermal. The Feedback Control Algorithm (FCA) which is conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, was used for present power control method to control fission process in RTP. It is important to ensure the core power always stable and follows load tracking within acceptable steady-state error and minimum settling time to reach steady-state power. At this time, the system could be considered not well-posed with power tracking performance. However, there is still potential to improve current performance by developing next generation of a novel design nuclear core power control. In this paper, the dual-mode predictions which are proposed in modelling Optimal Model Predictive Control (OMPC), is presented in a state-space model to control the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, OMPC, and control rods selection algorithm. The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on neutronic models, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The dual-mode prediction in OMPC for transient and terminal modes was based on the implementation of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) in designing the core power control. The combination of dual-mode prediction and Lyapunov which deal with summations in cost function over an infinite horizon is intended to eliminate some of the fundamental weaknesses related to MPC. This paper shows the behaviour of OMPC to deal with tracking, regulation problem, disturbance rejection and caters for parameter uncertainty. The comparison of both tracking and regulating performance is analysed between the conventional controller and OMPC by numerical simulations. In conclusion, the proposed OMPC has shown significant performance in load tracking and regulating core power for nuclear reactor with guarantee stabilising in the closed-loop.
Transfer Function Model-Based Predictive Control for Nuclear Core Power Control in PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor
The 1MWth PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) in Malaysia Nuclear Agency has been operating more than 35 years. The existing core power control is using conventional controller known as Feedback Control Algorithm (FCA). It is technically challenging to keep the core power output always stable and operating within acceptable error bands for the safety demand of the RTP. Currently, the system could be considered unsatisfactory with power tracking performance, yet there is still significant room for improvement. Hence, a new design core power control is very important to improve the current performance in tracking and regulating reactor power by controlling the movement of control rods that suit the demand of highly sensitive of nuclear reactor power control. In this paper, the proposed Model Predictive Control (MPC) law was applied to control the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, MPC, and control rods selection algorithm. The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on point kinetics model, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The proposed MPC was presented in a transfer function model of the reactor core according to perturbations theory. The transfer function model-based predictive control (TFMPC) was developed to design the core power control with predictions based on a T-filter towards the real-time implementation of MPC on hardware. This paper introduces the sensitivity functions for TFMPC feedback loop to reduce the impact on the input actuation signal and demonstrates the behaviour of TFMPC in term of disturbance and noise rejections. The comparisons of both tracking and regulating performance between the conventional controller and TFMPC were made using MATLAB and analysed. In conclusion, the proposed TFMPC has satisfactory performance in tracking and regulating core power for controlling nuclear reactor with high reliability and safety.
Feasibility Study and Experiment of On-Site Nuclear Material Identification in Fukushima Daiichi Fuel Debris by Compact Neutron Source
After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor incident, there are a lot of unaccountable nuclear fuel debris in the reactor core area, which is subject to safeguard and criticality safety. Before the actual precise analysis is performed, preliminary on-site screening and mapping of nuclear debris activity need to be performed to provide a reliable data on the nuclear debris mass-extraction planning. Through a collaboration project with Japan Atomic Energy Agency, an on-site nuclear debris screening system by using dual energy X-Ray inspection and neutron energy resonance analysis has been established. By using the compact and mobile pulsed neutron source constructed from 3.95 MeV X-Band electron linac, coupled with Tungsten as electron-to-photon converter and Beryllium as a photon-to-neutron converter, short-distance neutron Time of Flight measurement can be performed. Experiment result shows this system can measure neutron energy spectrum up to 100 eV range with only 2.5 meters Time of Flightpath in regards to the X-Band accelerator’s short pulse. With this, on-site neutron Time of Flight measurement can be used to identify the nuclear debris isotope contents through Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA). Some preliminary NRTA experiments have been done with Tungsten sample as dummy nuclear debris material, which isotopes Tungsten-186 has close energy absorption value with Uranium-238 (15 eV). The results obtained shows that this system can detect energy absorption in the resonance neutron area within 1-100 eV. It can also detect multiple elements in a material at once with the experiment using a combined sample of Indium, Tantalum, and silver makes it feasible to identify debris containing mixed material. This compact neutron Time of Flight measurement system is a great complementary for dual energy X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) method that can identify atomic number quantitatively but with 1-mm spatial resolution and high error bar. The combination of these two measurement methods will able to perform on-site nuclear debris screening at Fukushima Daiichi reactor core area, providing the data for nuclear debris activity mapping.
CFD Simulation for Flow Behavior in Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Upper Pool under Decommissioning Condition
In order to respond the policy decision of non-nuclear homes, Tai Power Company (TPC) will provide the decommissioning project of Kuosheng Nuclear power plant (KSNPP) to meet the regulatory requirement in near future. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology has been employed to develop a flow prediction model for boiling water reactor (BWR) with upper pool under decommissioning stage. The model can be utilized to investigate the flow behavior as the vessel combined with upper pool and continuity cooling system. At normal operating condition, different parameters are obtained for the full fluid area, including velocity, mass flow, and mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and upper pool. Through the efforts of the study, an integrated simulation model will be developed for flow field analysis of decommissioning KSNPP under normal operating condition. It can be expected that a basis result for future analysis application of TPC can be provide from this study.
DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation
Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.
Dose Evaluations with SNAP/RADTRAD for Loss of Coolant Accidents in a BWR6 Nuclear Power Plant
In this study, we build RADionuclide Transport, Removal And Dose Estimation/Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package (SNAP/RADTRAD) model of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant which is based on the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSAR) and other data of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant. It is used to estimate the radiation dose of the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB), the Low Population Zone (LPZ), and the control room following ‘release from the containment’ case in Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The RADTRAD analysis result shows that the evaluation dose at EAB, LPZ, and the control room are close to the FSAR data, and all of the doses are lower than the regulatory limits. At last, we do a sensitivity analysis and observe that the evaluation doses increase as the intake rate of the control room increases.
Production of Neutrons by High Intensity Picosecond Laser Interacting with Thick Solid Target at XingGuangIII
This work describes the experiment to produce high-intensity pulsed neutron beams on XingGuangIII laser facility. The high-intensity laser is utilized to drive protons and deuterons, which hit a thick solid target to produce neutrons. The pulse duration of the laser used in the experiment is about 0.8 ps, and the laser energy is around 100 J. Protons and deuterons are accelerated from a 10-μm-thick deuterated polyethylene (CD₂) foil and diagnosed by a Thomson parabola ion-spectrometer. The energy spectrum of neutrons generated via ⁷Li(d,n) and ⁷Li(p,n) reaction when proton and deuteron beams hit a 5-mm-thick LiF target is measured by a scintillator-based time-of-flight spectrometer. Results from the neuron measurements show that the maximum neutron energy is about 12.5 MeV and the neutron yield is up to 2×10⁹/pulse. The high-intensity pulsed neutron beams demonstrated in this work can provide a valuable neutron source for material research, fast neutron induced fission research, and so on.
Simulation and Characterization of Compact Magnetic Proton Recoil Spectrometer for Fast Neutron Spectra Measurements
Neutron spectrometry has contributed much to the development of nuclear physics since 1932 and has also become an importance tool in several other fields, notably nuclear technology, fusion plasma diagnostics and radiation protection. Compared with neutron fluxes, neutron spectra can provide more detailed information on the internal physical process of neutron sources, such as fast neutron reactors, fusion plasma, fission-fusion hybrid reactors, and so on. However, high performance neutron spectrometer is not so commonly available as it requires the use of large and complex instrumentation. This work describes the development and characterization of a compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer for high-resolution measurements of fast neutron spectra. The compact MPR spectrometer is featured by its large recoil angle, small size permanent analysis magnet, short beam transport line and dual-purpose detector array for both steady state and pulsed neutron spectra measurement. A 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle transport code is developed to simulate the response function of the spectrometer. Simulation results illustrate that the performance of the spectrometer is mainly determined by n-p recoil foil and proton apertures, and an overall energy resolution of 3% is achieved for 14 MeV neutrons. Dedicated experiments using alpha source and mono-energetic neutron beam are employed to verify the simulated response function of the compact MPR spectrometer. These experimental results show a good agreement with the simulated ones, which indicates that the simulation code possesses good accuracy and reliability. The compact MPR spectrometer described in this work is a valuable tool for fast neutron spectra measurements for the fission or fusion devices.
Using ALOHA Code to Evaluate CO2 Concentration for Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant
ALOHA code was used to calculate the concentration under the CO2 storage burst condition for Maanshan nuclear power plant (NPP) in this study. Five main data are input into ALOHA code including location, building, chemical, atmospheric, and source data. The data from Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and some reports were used in this study. The ALOHA results are compared with the failure criteria of R.G. 1.78 to confirm the habitability of control room. The result of comparison presents that the ALOHA result is below the R.G. 1.78 criteria. This implies that the habitability of control room can be maintained in this case. The sensitivity study for atmospheric parameters was performed in this study. The results show that the wind speed has the larger effect in the concentration calculation.
The Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies Simulation for Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant
In this research, a Fukushima-like conditions is simulated with TRACE and RELAP5. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) occurred the disaster which caused by the earthquake and tsunami. This disaster caused extended loss of all AC power (ELAP). Hence, loss of ultimate heat sink (LUHS) happened finally. In order to handle Fukushima-like conditions, Taiwan Atomic Energy Council (AEC) commanded that Taiwan Power Company should propose strategies to ensure the nuclear power plant safety. One of the diverse and flexible coping strategies (FLEX) is a different water injection strategy. It can execute core injection at 20 Kg/cm2 without depressurization. In this study, TRACE and RELAP5 were used to simulate Maanshan nuclear power plant, which is a three loops PWR in Taiwan, under Fukushima-like conditions and make sure the success criteria of FLEX. Reducing core cooling ability is due to failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) in extended loss of all AC power situation. The core water level continues to decline because of the seal leakage, and then FLEX is used to save the core water level and make fuel rods covered by water. The result shows that this mitigation strategy can cool the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) as soon as possible under Fukushima-like conditions, and keep the core water level higher than Top of Active Fuel (TAF). The FLEX can ensure the peak cladding temperature (PCT) below than the criteria 1088.7 K. Finally, the FLEX can provide protection for nuclear power plant and make plant safety.
Mapping Tunnelling Parameters for Global Optimization in Big Data via Dye Laser Simulation
One of the biggest challenges has emerged from the ever-expanding, dynamic, and instantaneously changing space-Big Data; and to find a data point and inherit wisdom to this space is a hard task. In this paper, we reduce the space of big data in Hamiltonian formalism that is in concordance with Ising Model. For this formulation, we simulate the system using dye laser in FORTRAN and analyse the dynamics of the data point in energy well of rhodium atom. After mapping the photon intensity and pulse width with energy and potential we concluded that as we increase the energy there is also increase in probability of tunnelling up to some point and then it starts decreasing and then shows a randomizing behaviour. It is due to decoherence with the environment and hence there is a loss of ‘quantumness’. This interprets the efficiency parameter and the extent of quantum evolution. The results are strongly encouraging in favour of the use of ‘Topological Property’ as a source of information instead of the qubit.
Design Optimization of the Primary Containment Building of a Pressurized Water Reactor
Primary containment structure is one of the five safety layers of a nuclear facility which is needed to be designed in such a manner that it can withstand the pressure and excessive radioactivity during accidental situations. It is also necessary to ensure minimization of cost with maximum possible safety in order to make the design economically feasible and attractive. This paper attempts to identify the optimum design conditions for primary containment structure considering both mechanical and radiation safety keeping the economic aspects in mind. This work takes advantage of commercial simulation software to identify the suitable conditions without the requirement of costly experiments. Generated data may be helpful for further studies.
Quinazoline Analogue as a Pet Tracer for Imaging PDE10A: Radiosynthesis and Biological Evaluation
The family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) plays a critical role in control of the level, localization, and duration of intracellular 3’-5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3’-5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signals by specifically hydrolyzing these cyclic nucleotides. As the involvement of cyclic nucleotide second messengers in cell signaling and homeostasis is established, the regulation of these pathways in the brain by various PDE isoforms is an area of considerable interest, as they are involved in nearly all brain functions and in the etiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. The PDE10A isoform, isolated from different species and characterized regarding structure and function, has received much attention in recent years, particularly in the context of schizophrenia and Huntington’s disease, which are both related to a role of PDE10A in the regulation of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Quinazoline analogue 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, was evaluated as specific PET marker for phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of [11C]2 and the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]2 as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging PDE10A in the central nervous system (CNS). The radiosynthesis of [11C]2 was achieved by O-methylation of the corresponding des-methyl precursor with [11C]methyl iodide. [11C]2 was obtained with ∼50% radiochemical yield. PET imaging studies in rat brain displayed initial specific uptake with very rapid clearance of [11C]2 from brain. Though [11C]2 is not an ideal radioligand for clinical imaging of PDE10A in the CNS. Modified analogue of quinazoline having a higher potency for inhibiting PDE10A and improved pharmacokinetic properties will be necessary for imaging this enzyme with PET.
Effect of Modeling of Hydraulic Form Loss Coefficient to Break on Emergency Core Coolant Bypass
Emergency Core Coolant Bypass (ECC Bypass) has been regarded as an important phenomenon to peak cladding temperature of large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents (LBLOCA) in nuclear power plants (NPP). A modeling scheme to address the ECC Bypass phenomena and the calculation of LBLOCA using that scheme are discussed in the present paper. A hydraulic form loss coefficient (HFLC) from the reactor vessel downcomer to the broken cold leg is predicted by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with a variation of the void fraction incoming from the downcomer. The maximum, mean, and minimum values of FLC are derived from the CFD results and are incorporated into the LBLOCA calculation using a system thermal-hydraulic code, MARS-KS. As a relevant parameter addressing the ECC Bypass phenomena, the FLC to the break and its range are proposed.
Pakistan Nuclear Security: Threats from Non-State Actors
The recent rise of powerful terrorist groups such as ISIS and Al-Qaeda brings up concerns about nuclear terrorism as well as a focus on nuclear security, specifically the physical security of nuclear weapons and fissile material storage sites in countries where powerful nonstate actors are present. Particularly because these non-state actors, who lack their own sovereign territory, cannot be ‘deterred’ in the traditional sense. In light of the current threat environment, it’s necessary to now rethink these strategies in the 21st century – a multipolar world with the presence of powerful non-state actors. As a country in the spotlight for its low ranking on the Nuclear Threat Initiative’s (NTI) Nuclear Security Index, Pakistan is a relevant example to explore the question of whether the presence of non-state actors poses a real risk to nuclear security today. It’s necessary to take a look at their nuclear security policies to determine if they’re robust enough to deal with political instability and violence in the country. After carrying out interviews with experts in May 2017 in Islamabad on nuclear security and nuclear terrorism, this paper aims to highlight findings by providing a Pakistan-centric view on the subject and give experts there a chance to counter criticism. Western media would have us fearful of nuclear security mechanisms in Pakistan after reports that areas such as cybersecurity and accounting and control of materials are weak, as well as sensitive nuclear material being transported in unmarked, unguarded vehicles. Also reported are cases where terrorist groups carried out targeted attacks against Pakistani military bases or secure sites where nuclear material is stored. One specific question asked of each interviewee in Islamabad was Do you feel the threat of nuclear terrorism calls into question the reliance on deterrence? Their responses will be elaborated on in the longer paper, but overall they demonstrate views that deterrence still serves a purpose for state-to-state security strategy, but not for a state in countering nonstate threats. If nuclear security is lax enough for these non-state actors to get their hands on either an intact nuclear weapon or enough military-grade fissile material to build a nuclear weapon, then what would stop them from launching a nuclear attack? As deterrence is a state-centric strategy, it doesn’t work to deter non-state actors from carrying out an attack on another state, as they lack their own territory, and as such, are not fearful of a reprisal attack. Deterrence will need to be addressed, and its relevance analyzed to determine its utility in the current security environment. The aim of this research is to demonstrate the real risk of nuclear terrorism by pointing to weaknesses in global nuclear security, particularly in Pakistan. The research also aims to provoke thought on the weaknesses of deterrence as a whole. Original thinking is needed as we attempt to adequately respond to the 21st century’s current threat environment.
Robotic Solution for Nuclear Facility Safety and Monitoring System
An effective identification of breakdowns is of premier importance for the safe and reliable operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) and its associated facilities. A great number of monitoring and diagnosis methodologies are applied and used worldwide in areas such as industry, automobiles, hospitals, and power plant to detect and reduce human disasters. The potential consequences of several hazardous activities may harm the society using nuclear and its associated facilities. Hence, one of the most popular and effective methods to ensure safety and monitor the entire nuclear facility and imply risk-free operation without human interference during the hazardous situation is using a robot. Therefore, in this study, an advanced autonomous robot has been designed and developed that can monitor several parameters in the NPP to ensure the safety and do some risky job in case of nuclear disaster. The robot consisted of autonomous track following unit, data processing and transmitting unit can follow a straight line and take turn as the bank greater than 90 degrees. The developed robot can analyze various parameters such as temperature, altitude, radiation, obstacle, humidity, detecting fire, measuring distance, ultrasonic scan and taking the heat of any particular object. It has an ability to broadcast live stream and can record the document to its own server memory. There is a separate control unit constructed with a baseboard which processes the recorded data and a transmitter which transmits the processed data. To make the robot user-friendly, the code is developed such a way that a user can control any of robotic arm as per types of work. To control at any place and without the track, there is an advanced code has been developed to take manual overwrite. Through this process, administrator who has logged in permission to Dynamic Host Client Protocol (DHCP) can make the handover of the control of the robot. In this process, this robot is provided maximum nuclear security from being hacked. Not only NPP, this robot can be used to maximize the real-time monitoring system of any nuclear facility as well as nuclear material transportation and decomposition system.
The Concentration Analysis of CO2 Using ALOHA Code for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant
Not only radiation materials, but also the normal chemical material stored in the power plant can cause a risk to the residents. In this research, the ALOHA code was used to perform the concentration analysis under the CO2 storage burst or leakage conditions for Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP). The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and data were used in this study. Additionally, the analysis results of ALOHA code were compared with the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria in order to confirm the control room habitability. The comparison results show that the ALOHA result for burst case was 0.923 g/m3 which was below the criteria. However, the ALOHA results for leakage case was 11.3 g/m3.
Calculational-Experimental Approach of Radiation Damage Parameters on VVER Equipment Evaluation
The problem of ensuring of VVER type reactor equipment integrity is now most actual in connection with justification of safety of the NPP Units and extension of their service life to 60 years and more. First of all, it concerns old units with VVER-440 and VVER-1000. The justification of the VVER equipment integrity depends on the reliability of estimation of the degree of the equipment damage. One of the mandatory requirements, providing the reliability of such estimation, and also evaluation of VVER equipment lifetime, is the monitoring of equipment radiation loading parameters. In this connection, there is a problem of justification of such normative parameters, used for an estimation of the pressure vessel metal embrittlement, as the fluence and fluence rate (FR) of fast neutrons above 0.5 MeV. From the point of view of regulatory practice, a comparison of displacement per atom (DPA) and fast neutron fluence (FNF) above 0.5 MeV has a practical concern. In accordance with the Russian regulatory rules, neutron fluence F(E > 0.5 MeV) is a radiation exposure parameter used in steel embrittlement prediction under neutron irradiation. However, the DPA parameter is a more physically legitimate quantity of neutron damage of Fe based materials. If DPA distribution in reactor structures is more conservative as neutron fluence, this case should attract the attention of the regulatory authority. The purpose of this work was to show what radiation load parameters (fluence, DPA) on all VVER equipment should be under control, and give the reasonable estimations of such parameters in the volume of all equipment. The second task is to give the conservative estimation of each parameter including its uncertainty. Results of recently received investigations allow to test the conservatism of calculational predictions, and, as it has been shown in the paper, combination of ex-vessel measured data with calculated ones allows to assess unpredicted uncertainties which are results of specific unique features of individual equipment for VVER reactor. Some results of calculational-experimental investigations are presented in this paper.