The Predictors of Head and Neck Cancer-Head and Neck Cancer-Related Lymphedema in Patients with Resected Advanced Head and Neck Cancer
The purpose of the study was to identify the factors associated with head and neck cancer-related lymphoedema (HNCRL)-related symptoms, body image, and HNCRL-related functional outcomes among patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer. A cross-sectional correlational design was conducted to examine the predictors of HNCRL-related functional outcomes in patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer. Eligible patients were recruited from a single medical center in northern Taiwan. Consecutive patients were approached and recruited from the Radiation Head and Neck Outpatient Department of this medical center. Eligible subjects were assessed for the Symptom Distress Scale–Modified for Head and Neck Cancer (SDS-mhnc), Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer (BCSQ-H&N), Body Image Scale–Modified (BIS-m), The MD Anderson Head and Neck Lymphedema Rating Scale (MDAHNLRS), The Foldi’s Stages of Lymphedema (Foldi’s Scale), Patterson’s Scale, UCLA Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA SRS), and Karnofsky’s Performance Status Index (KPS). The results showed that the worst problems with body HNCRL functional outcomes. Patients’ HNCRL symptom distress and performance status are robust predictors across over for overall HNCRL functional outcomes, problems with body HNCRL functional outcomes, and activity and social functioning HNCRL functional outcomes. Based on the results of this period research program, we will develop a Cancer Rehabilitation and Lymphedema Care Program (CRLCP) to use in the care of patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer.
Mindfulness, Acceptance and Meaning in Life for Adults with Cancer
Introduction: Supportive care for people affected by cancer is recognised as a priority for research but yet there is little solid evidence of the effectiveness of psychological treatments for those with advanced cancer. The literature suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be acceptable and beneficial for this population. This study aims to develop a mindfulness intervention to provide emotional support for advanced cancer population. The treatment package includes mindfulness meditation, developing an acceptance attitude and reflections on meaning in life. Methods: This study design is a one-group pre-post test with a mixed methods approach. Participants are recruited through public and private hospitals in Christchurch, NZ. Quantitative measures are the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Mindful Coping Scale and, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Qualitative semi-structured interviews enquire about emotional support before and after the diagnosis, participants’ thoughts about meaning in life, expectations and reflections on the mindfulness training. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis. Treatment consists of one to one 30 minutes session weekly for 4 weeks using a pre-recorded CD/podcast of the mindfulness training. This research is part of the presenter’s PhD study. Findings: This project is currently underway. The presenter will provide preliminary data on the acceptability of the mindfulness training package being delivered to participants along with the recruitment strategies. We anticipate that this novel treatment used as a self-management tool will reduce psychological distress and enable better coping for patients with advanced cancer.
Examining Views of Senior Students in Nursing School Related to the Education They Received
This research was carried out to examine views of senior students in nursing school related to the education they received. This descriptive research was carried out with 200 senior students receiving education in Gaziantep University and Trakya University Health Sciences Faculties between February and April 2015. As data collection tools, 'Individual Identification Form' and 'Informed Consent Form' were used. In analysis of research findings numeric values, number and percentage distribution and Chi-square test were used. Mean age of students was 21.87 ± 1.55 years; 50 % were educated through classical education system, whereas other 50 % received education through internship education system. 15 % of students in classical education system and 25 % of students in internship education system stated that they found the program of education system efficient in clinic applications; 36.1 % of students in classical education system and 61 % of students in internship education system thought education systems contribute to their professional care skills; 23 % of students in classical education system and 51 % of students in internship education system reported they developed working abilities consistent with nursing process. 74 % of students in classical education system and 73 % of students in internship education system pointed out the most inefficient thing in clinic area as 'excess of students working in the same clinic area.' In addition, 27 % of students in classical education system and 45 % of students in internship education system stated they felt ready for nursing profession. As a result of this study, it was observed that compared to students in classical education system, those students receiving education in internship education system thought the education they received was more beneficial in gaining professional data and skills but only approximately one-fourth of students in both groups found the education they received sufficient in clinic applications.
Clinical Audit on the Introduction of Apremilast into Ireland
Intoduction: Apremilast (Otezla®) is an oral phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor indicated for treatment of adult patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis who have contraindications to have failed or intolerant of standard systemic therapy and/or phototherapy; and adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis. Apremilast influences intracellular regulation of inflammatory mediators. Two randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating apremilast in 1426 patients with moderate to severe plague psoriasis (ESTEEM 1 and 2) demonstrated that the commonest adverse reactions (AE’s) leading to discontinuation were nausea (1.6%), diarrhoea (1.0%), and headaches (0.8%). The overall proportion of subjects discontinuing due to adverse reactions was 6.1%. At week 16 these trials demonstrated significant more apremilast-treated patients (33.1%) achieved the primary end point PASI-75 than placebo (5.3%). We began prescribing apremilast in July 2015.
Aim: To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of apremilast in an Irish teaching hospital psoriasis population. Methods: A proforma documenting clinical evaluation parameters, prior treatment experience and AE’s; was completed prospectively on all patients commenced on apremilast since July 2015 – July 2017. Data was collected at week 0,6,12,24,36 and week 52 with 20/71 patients having passed week 52. Efficacy was assessed using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). AE’s documented included GI effects, infections, changes in weight and mood. Retrospective chart review and telephone review was utilised for missing data. Results: A total of 71 adult subjects (38 male, 33 female; age range 23-57), with moderate to severe psoriasis, were evaluated. Prior treatment: 37/71 (52%) were systemic/biologic/phototherapy naïve; 14/71 (20%) has prior phototherapy alone;20/71 (28%) had previous systemic/biologic exposure; 12/71 (17%) had both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. PASI responses: mean baseline PASI was 10.1 and DLQI was 15.Week 6: N=71, n=15 (21%) achieved PASI 75. Week 12: N= 48, n=6 (13%) achieved a PASI 100%; n=16 (34.5%) achieved a PASI 75. Week 24: N=40, n=10 (25%) achieved a PASI 100; n=15 (37.5%) achieved a PASI 75. Week 52: N= 20, n=4 (20%) achieved a PASI 100; n= 16 (80%) achieved a PASI 75. (N= number of pts having passed the time point indicated, n= number of pts (out of N) achieving PASI or DLQI responses at that time). DLQI responses: week 24: N= 40, n=30 (75%) achieved a DLQI score of 0; n=5 (12.5%) achieved a DLQI score of 1; n=1 (2.5%) achieved a DLQI score of 10 (due to lack of efficacy). Adverse Events: The proportion of patients that discontinued treatment due to AE’s was n=7 (9.8%). One patient experienced nausea alleviated by dose reduction; another developed significant dysgeusia for certain foods, both continued therapy. Two patients lost 2-3 kg. Conclusion: Initial Irish patient experience of Apremilast appears comparable to that observed in trials with good efficacy and tolerability.
A Literature Review on Bladder Management in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury
Background: One of the most important medical complications that individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face are the neurogenic bladder. Objectives: To review methods used for management of neurogenic bladder and their effects. Methods: The study was conducted by searching CINAHL, Ebscohost, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, Web of Science, and ULAKBİM National Databases for studies published between 2005 and 2015. Key words used during the search included ‘spinal cord injury’, ‘bladder injury’, ‘nursing care’, ‘catheterization’ and ‘intermittent urinary catheter’. After examination of 551 studies, 21 studies which met inclusion criteria were included in the review. Results: Mean age of individuals in all study samples was 42 years. The most commonly used bladder management method was clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Compliance with CIC was found to be significantly related to spasticity, maximum cystometric capacity, and the person performing catheterization (p < .05). The main reason for changing the existing bladder management method was urinary tract infections (UTI). Individuals who performed CIC by themselves and who voided spontaneously had better life quality. Patient age, occupation status and whether they performed CIC by themselves or not were found to be significantly associated with depression level (p ≤ .05). Conclusion: As the most commonly used method for bladder management, CIC is a reliable and effective method, and reduces the risk of UTI development. Individuals with neurogenic bladder have a higher prevalence of depression symptoms than the normal population.
Multilingual Medical Information to Support Limited Japanese Proficient Women in Japan
Background: As part of a project to support communication between limited Japanese proficient (LJP) mothers and health workers during the postpartum in Japan. In this study, it was developed a multilingual digital text containing text and educational videos (breastfeeding methods, diaper changing, etc.). An interview was conducted to evaluate the utility of a multilingual health information to LJP women during the postpartum information by the tablet-type device. Methods: Ten women who agreed to participate in this study received the tablet-type device and were instructed to use them during postpartum hospitalization. A semi-structured interview was designed to collect information regarding this method of information provision, and the adequacy of the contents. Interviews were conducted after clinic staff had provided newborn care orientation to postpartum mothers Participants received information on the research and confidentiality issues. Results: Nine Chinese women and one Korean woman agreed to participate in this study, and they use the tablet-type device. The contents of digital text were displayed in English, Chinese and Korean, and all languages are displayed together with Japanese. For mothers who do not understand medical terminology, understanding of reading their explanations of their first language while listening to the Japanese explanation by Japanese medical staff was deepening. LJP women considered the tablet-type device information by their first language was effective. In addition, they thought that it was important to display tablet-type device together with Japanese. Videos were the preferred method of receiving information because they were easier to understand. Participants referred benefitting from the information on baby bathing before attending the clinic’s baby bath session. The tool also benefited the participants’ LJP mothers, who grasped better understanding of Japanese hospitals. Additionally, we found that in some Chinese communities, reading during immediate postpartum is considered detrimental to the health of the mother. Conclusion: Multilingual information support tools can improve the hospitalization experience of foreign mothers by guaranteeing timely provision of necessary newborn care information. However, LJP mothers need to be easy to understand and culturally appropriate, and medical staff have to support mothers.
Nurses' Views on Effective 'Nurse Leader' Characteristics in Iraq
This research explored nurses’ views about the characteristics of effective nurse leaders in the context of Iraq as a developing country where the delivery of health care continues to face disruption and change. It is well established that the provision of modern health care requires effective nurse leaders but in countries such as Iraq the lack of effective nurse leaders is noted as a major challenge. In a descriptive quantitative study, a survey questionnaire was administered to 210 ward nurses working in two public hospitals in Iraq during March –April, 2012. The participating nurses believed that to be effective leaders they needed to have the following characteristics: good clinical knowledge, effective communication skills and managerial skills, and to also hold high-level nursing qualifications, which was not necessarily the case in practice. Additionally, they identified the need for the personal qualities of politeness, ethical behaviour, and trustworthiness. It is concluded that the health care system needs to take into account these key characteristics to improve health care overall and recognise the role of the nurse leader in education, recruitment and the provision of effective care in the workplace.
The Personal Characteristics of Nurse Managers and the Personal and Professional Factors That Affect Them
Personal characteristics help people understand and recognize both themselves and other people. They are also known to have direct effects on managerial behaviors. Managers’ personalities indicate how they think, perceive reality and relate to others, and affect their decision-making and problem-solving methods. This descriptive study aims to determine the personal characteristics of nurse managers and the personal and professional factors that affect them since sufficient data does not exist on personal characteristics despite the focus on the leadership and managerial characteristics in nursing. The study population consisted of nurses working in administrative positions at hospitals affiliated with the public hospitals union, research and practice hospitals affiliated with universities and private hospitals in cities in the Marmara Region. The study sample consisted of nurse managers working in the hospitals that permitted conducting the study (excluding private branch hospitals). The data were collected after obtaining the approval of the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University (Approval date: 1.7.2015, Decision No: 2015-01) and written official permissions from the administrations of the hospitals included in the study. The data analysis was carried out using means and standard deviations (SD) as descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance for inter-group comparisons and the independent samples t-test for paired group comparisons. A significance threshold of p < 0.05 was used to evaluate the findings. The data were collected using the Five Factor Personality Inventory. The study included 900 nurse managers, who obtained the highest mean score on the conscientiousness dimension (X=4.22 ±0.35). This dimension was followed by their mean scores on the agreeableness (X=4.06±0.40), intelligence (X=4.05±0.37), extroversion (X=3.50±0.43), and emotional instability (X=2.07±0.53) dimensions. Statistically significant differences were found between the independent variables of age, gender, marital status, education level, work institution, professional experience, institutional experience, managerial experience, administrative position, work unit and managerial education when compared using the five factor personality inventory (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the nurse managers described themselves having high conscientiousness. Statistically significant differences were found between the five factor personality inventory mean scores and their personal and professional characteristics.
Managing Work–Family Conflict in Today's Nursing Profession: The Role of Supervisors
Many countries around the world are struggling to maintain an adequate number of nurses. Inadequate nursing staffing could compromise the quality of patient care. Among many factors that contribute to registered nurses (RN) turnover, the influence of work–family conflict (WFC) has gained little attention. WFC was found to be significantly associated with increased turnover intention (TI) among employees. Furthermore, WFC has been linked to a number of negative consequences, including lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, sleep insufficiency, insomnia symptoms, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sleep insufficiency, and high cholesterol. In an effort to find strategies to manage the consequences of WFC, many behavioral, psychological, and career scholars have focused on the role of supervisor support. Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB) has been found to be a promising approach contributing to the reduction of TI in employees’ experiencing WFC. Despite the importance of work–family issues and the influence of FSSB, limited studies have been conducted among the nursing population and none were found that included a sample from Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the main Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of FSSB on the relationship among WFC, Stress, and TI in Saudi Arabian registered nurses. Method: A cross-sectional study. Sample: Convenience sampling; 113 Saudi female nurse. Result: Fifty percent of nurses intended to leave their workplace, 68 % of nurses reported having a conflict between work and family, and 44% reported having a high level of stress. A significant positive correlation was found between WFC and TI (r= .43, P < 0.01). A negative correlation was found between FSSB and TI (r= -.53, P < 0.01). Both WFC and stress were associated with TI; however, these associations were buffered (weaken), when nurses had higher FSSB. Conclusion: The FSSB could be seen as a tool to help married, female nurses to demonstrate their professional role without compromising their family responsibilities. Nurses’ turnover is a complex issue that may require multiple prevention strategies; however, enhancing FSSB could be a key resource for maintaining a positive workplace environment and reducing TI.
Web-Based Learning in Nursing: The Sample of Delivery Lesson Program
Purpose: This research is organized to determine the influence of the web-based learning program. The program has been developed to gain information about normal delivery skill that is one of the topics of nursing students who take the woman health and illness. Material and Methods: The methodology of this study was applied as pre-test post-test single-group quasi-experimental. The pilot study consisted of 28 nursing student study groups who agreed to participate in the study. The findings were gathered via web-based technologies: student information form, information evaluation tests, Web Based Training Material Evaluation Scale and web-based learning environment feedback form. In the analysis of the data, the percentage, frequency and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were used. The Web Based Instruction Program was developed in the light of full learning model, Mayer's research-based multimedia development principles and Gagne's Instructional Activities Model. Findings: The average scores of it was determined in accordance with the web-based educational material evaluation scale: ‘Instructional Suitability’ 4.45, ‘Suitability to Educational Program’ 4.48, ‘Visual Adequacy’ 4.53, ‘Programming Eligibility / Technical Adequacy’ 4.00. Also, the participants mentioned that the program is successful and useful. A significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test results of the seven modules (p < 0.05). Results: According to pilot study data, the program was rated ‘very good’ by the study group. It was also found to be effective in increasing knowledge about normal labor.
Investigation of the Opinions and Recommendations of Participants Related to Operating Room Nursing Certified Course Program
Background and Aim: It is not possible to teach all the knowledge related to operating room nursing in the nursing education process. Certified courses are organized by the Ministry of Health to compensate the lack of postgraduate training and the theoretical and practical training needs of working nurses. In this study; It is aimed to investigate the participants’ opinions and recommendations attending the certified course of operating room nursing that organized in İKCU AtaturkTraining and Research Hospital. Method: Two operating room nursing courses were organized in 2016. The 1st Operating Room Nursing Certified Course Program was organized between March 07, 2016 and April 6, 2016and the 2nd Operating Room Nursing Certified Course Program was organized between 07 November 2016 - 06 December 2016 at the İKCU Ataturk Training and Research Hospital. The first program was accepted for 29 participants, the second program was accepted for 30 participants. In the collection of the data, the 'Operating Room Nursing Certified Training Program Evaluation Form', 'Operating Room Nursing Certified Training Program Theoretical Training Evaluation Form' were used. Three point Likert-type scale is used for responses in the 'Operating Room Nursing Certified Training Program Evaluation Form’ (1=verygood, 2=good, 3=poor). Data is collected in five areas related to training program, operation room practice, communication, responsibility, experiences of learning. Four point Likert-type scale is used for responses in the 'Operating Room Nursing Certified Training Program Theoretical Training Evaluation Form' (1=verysatisfied, 2=quitesatisfied, 3=satisfied, 4=dissatisfied). Data is collected in two areas include presentation and content. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 program. Findings and Conclusion: It was found that 93,22% of participants were female in addition, 62,7% had bachelor degree. It was seen that 33,87% of the work group had 1-5 years of experience in their field. It was found that; 88% of trainees participating in the first group to the operating room nursing-certified course program stated the training program was very good, 12% of them stated the training program was good. Nobody was signed the ‘poor’ choice. 81% of the trainees who participated in the 2nd group to the operating room nursing-certified course program stated the training program was very good, 19% of them stated the training program was good. Nobody was signed the ‘poor’ choice. It was found that there was no meaningful difference between the achievement ratios of the trainees and the learning status of the trainees when compared with the t test in the groups with success level of the operating room nursing certified course program according to the learning status of the participants (p ˃ 0,05). The trainees noted that the course was satisfied with theoretical and practical steps but the support services (lunch, coffee breaks etc.) were in adequate.
Analysis of Threats in Interoperability of Medical Devices
Interoperable medical devices (IMDs) face threats due to the increased attack surface accessible by interoperability and the corresponding infrastructure. Initiating networking and coordination functionalities primarily modify medical systems' security properties. Understanding the threats is a vital first step in ultimately crafting security solutions for such systems. The key to this problem is coming up with some common types of threats or attacks with those of security and privacy, and providing this information as a roadmap. This paper analyses the security issues in interoperability of devices and presents the main types of threats that have to be considered to build a secured system.
A National Systematic Review on Determining Prevalence of Mobbing Exposure in Turkish Nurses
Objective: This systematic review aims to methodically analyze studies regarding mobbing behavior prevalence, individuals performing this behavior and the effects of mobbing on Turkish nurses. Background: Worldwide reports on mobbing cases have increased in the past years, a similar trend also observable in Turkey. It has been demonstrated that among healthcare workers, mobbing is significantly widespread in nurses. The number of studies carried out in this regard has also increased. Method: The main criteria for choosing articles in this systematic review were nurses located in Turkey, regardless of any specific date. In November 2014, a search using the keywords 'mobbing, bullying, psychological terror/violence, emotional violence, nurses, healthcare workers, Turkey' in PubMed, Science Direct, Ebscohost, National Thesis Centre database and Google search engine led to 71 studies in this field. 33 studies were not met the inclusion criteria specified for this study. Results: The findings were obtained using the results of 38 studies carried out in the past 13 years in Turkey, a large sample consisting of 8,877 nurses. Analysis of the incidences of mobbing behavior revealed a broad spectrum, ranging from none-slight experiences to 100% experiences. The most frequently observed mobbing behaviors include attacking personality, blocking communication and attacking professional and social reputation. Victims mostly experienced mobbing from their managers, the most common consequence of these actions being psychological effects. Conclusions: The results of studies with various scales indicate exposure of nurses to similar mobbing behavior. The high frequency of exposure of nurses to mobbing behavior in such a large sample highlights the importance of considering this issue in terms of individual and institutional consequences that adversely affect the performance of nurses.
A Meta Analysis of the Effects of Peer- or Partner-Led Supportive Interventions for Patients with Cancer
Problem Identification: To evaluate the effects of peer-led supportive interventions (PSIs) for patients with cancer. Literature search: Electronic databases, including EMBASE, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library CENTRAL, ProQuest Medical Library, and CINAHL, through February 2017. Data synthesis: We performed a meta-analysis of 18 trials that met our eligibility criteria. There were 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 nonRCTs that examined a total of 2575 patients with cancer. Patients who received PSIs were compared with those who received attentional control or usual care (no intervention). We synthesized the result of effect size (ES, i.e. standardized mean difference) of each trial according to cancer symptoms, coping, emotional health, quality of life, self-care, distress, self-efficacy, sexuality outcome, and social support. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that supportive interventions delivered by a lay person such as a survivor with similar disease or an intimate partner in an oncology care setting improved coping with a small effect size (ES, Cohen’s d =0.18, P=0.025) and quality of life with a small ES (Cohen’s d = 0.14, P=0.045), and self-efficacy with a medium ES (Cohen’s d = 0.34, P=0.013), and sexual outcomes (Cohen’s d=0.33, P=0.030) with a medium ES.
As a Little-Known Side a Passionate Statistician: Florence Nightingale
Background: Florence Nightingale, the modern founder of the nursing, is most famous for her role as a nurse. But not so much known about her contributions as a mathematician and statistician.
Aim: In this conceptual article it is aimed to examine Florence Nightingale's statistics education, how she used her passion for statistics and applied statistical data in nursing care and her scientific contributions to statistical science.
Design: Literature review method was used in the study. The databases of Istanbul University Library Search Engine, Turkish Medical Directory, Thesis Scanning Center of Higher Education Council, PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO Host, Web of Science were scanned to reach the studies. The keywords 'statistics' and 'Florence Nightingale' have been used in Turkish and English while being screened. As a result of the screening, totally 41 studies were examined from the national and international literature.
Results: Florence Nightingale has interested in mathematics and statistics at her early ages and has received various training in these subjects. Lessons learned by Nightingale in a cultured family environment, her talent in mathematics and numbers, and her religious beliefs played a crucial role in the direction of the statistics. She was influenced by Quetelet's ideas in the formation of the statistical philosophy and received support from William Farr in her statistical studies. During the Crimean War, she applied statistical knowledge to nursing care, developed many statistical methods and graphics, so that she made revolutionary reforms in the health field.
Conclusions: Nightingale's interest in statistics, her broad vision, the statistical ideas fused with religious beliefs, the innovative graphics she has developed and the extraordinary statistical projects that she carried out has been influential on the basis of her professional achievements. Florence Nightingale has also become a model for women in statistics. Today, using and teaching of statistics and research in nursing care practices and education programs continues with the light she gave.
Incidence and Risk Factors of Traumatic Lumbar Puncture in Newborns in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Background: Traumatic lumbar puncture (LP) is a common occurrence and causes substantial diagnostic ambiguity. There is paucity of data regarding its epidemiology. Objective: To assess the incidence and risk factors of traumatic LP in newborns. Design/Methods: In a prospective cohort study, all inborn neonates admitted in NICU and planned to undergo LP for a clinical indication of sepsis were included. Neonates with diagnosed intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of grade III and IV were excluded. The LP was done by operator - often a fellow or resident assisted by bedside nurse. The unit has policy of not routinely using any sedation/analgesia during the procedure. LP is done by 26 G and 0.5-inch-long hypodermic needle inserted in third or fourth lumbar space while the infant is in lateral position. The infants were monitored clinically and by continuous measurement of vital parameters using multipara monitor during the procedure. The occurrence of traumatic tap along with CSF parameters and other operator and assistant characteristics were recorded at the time of procedure. Traumatic tap was defined as presence of visible blood or more than 500 red blood cells on microscopic examination. Microscopic trauma was defined when CSF is not having visible blood but numerous RBCs. The institutional ethics committee approved the study protocol. A written informed consent from the parents and the health care providers involved was obtained. Neonates were followed up till discharge/death and final diagnosis was assigned along with treating team. Results: A total of 362 (21%) neonates out of 1726 born at the hospital were admitted during the study period (July 2016 to January, 2017). Among these neonates, 97 (26.7%) were suspected of sepsis. A total of 54 neonates were enrolled who met the eligibility criteria and parents consented to participate in the study. The mean (SD) birthweight was 1536 (732) grams and gestational age 32.0 (4.0) weeks. All LPs were indicated for late onset sepsis at the median (IQR) age of 12 (5-39) days. The traumatic LP occurred in 19 neonates (35.1%; 95% C.I 22.6% to 49.3%). Frank blood was observed in 7 (36.8%) and in the remaining, 12(63.1%) CSF was detected to have microscopic trauma. The preliminary risk factor analysis including birth weight, gestational age and operator/assistant and other characteristics did not demonstrate clinically relevant predictors. Conclusion: A significant number of neonates requiring lumbar puncture in our study had high incidence of traumatic tap. We were not able to identify modifiable risk factors. There is a need to understand the reasons and further reduce this issue for improving management in NICUs.
Forensic Nursing in the Emergency Department: The Overlooked Roles
The emergency services are usually the first places to encounter forensic cases. Hence, it is important to consider forensics from the perspective of the emergency services staff and the physiological and psychological consequences that may arise as a result of behaviour by itself or another person. Accurate and detailed documentation of the situation in which the patient first arrives at the emergency service and preservation of the forensic findings is pivotal for the subsequent forensic investigation. The first step in determining whether or not a forensic case exists is to perform a medical examination of the patient. For each individual suspected to be part of a forensic case, police officers should be informed at the same time as the medical examination is being conducted. Violent events are increasing every year and with an increase in the number of forensic cases, emergency service workers have increasing responsibility and consequently play a key role in protecting, collecting and arranging the forensic evidence. In addition, because the emergency service workers involved in forensic events typically have information about the accused and/or victim, as well as evidence related to the events and the cause of injuries, police officers often require their testimony. However, both nurses and other health care personnel do not typically have adequate expertise in forensic medicine. Emergency nurses should take an active role for determining that whether any patient admitted to the emergency services is a clinical forensic patient the emergency service with injury and requiring possible punishment and knowing of their roles and responsibilities in this area provides legal protection as well as the protection of the judicial affair. Particularly, in emergency services, where rapid patient turnover and high workload exists, patient registration and case reporting may not exist. In such instances, the witnesses, typically the nurses, are often consulted for information. Knowledge of forensic medical matters plays a vital role in achieving justice. According to the Criminal Procedure Law, Article 75, Paragraph 3, ‘an internal body examination or the taking of blood or other biological samples from the body can be performed only by a doctor or other health professional member’. In favour of this item, the clinic nurse and doctor are mainly responsible for evaluating forensic cases in emergency departments, performing the examination, collecting evidence, and storing and reporting data. The courts place considerable importance on determining whether a suspect is the victim or accused and, thus, in terms of illuminating events, it is crucial that any evidence is gathered carefully and appropriately. All the evidence related to the forensic case including the forensic report should be handed over to the police officers. In instances where forensic evidence cannot be collected and the only way to obtain the evidence is the hospital environment, health care personnel in emergency services need to have knowledge about the diagnosis of forensic evidence, the collection of evidence, hiding evidence and provision of the evidence delivery chain.
Determination of the Knowledge Level of Healthcare Professional's Working at the Emergency Services in Turkey and Their Approaches to Common Forensic Cases
Emergency nurses are the first health care professional to generally observe the patients, communicate patients’ family or relatives, touch the properties of patients and contact to laboratory sample of patients. Also, they are the encounter incidents related crime, people who engage in violence or suspicious injuries frequently. So, documentation of patients’ condition came to the hospital and conservation of evidence are important in the inquiry of forensic medicine. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge level of healthcare professional working at the emergency services regarding their approaches to common forensic cases. The study was comprised of 404 healthcare professional working (nurse, emergency medicine technician, health officer) at the emergency services of 6 state hospitals, 6 training and 6 research hospitals and 3 university hospitals in Ankara. Data was collected using questionnaire form which was developed by researches in the direction of literature. Questionnaire form is comprised of two sections. The first section includes 17 questions related demographic information about health care professional and 4 questions related Turkish laws. The second section includes 43 questions to the determination of knowledge level of health care professional’s working in the emergency department, about approaches to frequently encountered forensic cases. For the data evaluation of the study; Mann Whitney U test, Bonferroni correction Kruskal Wallis H test and Chi Square tests have been used. According to study, it’s said that there is no forensic medicine expert in the foundation by 73.4% of health care professionals. Two third (66%) of participants’ in emergency department reported daily average 7 or above forensic cases applied to the emergency department and 52.1% of participants did not evaluate incidents came to the emergency department as a forensic case. Most of the participants informed 'duty of preservation of evidence' is health care professionals duty related forensic cases. In result, we determinated that knowledge level of health care professional working in the emergency department, about approaches to frequently encountered forensic cases, is not the expected level. Because we found that most of them haven't received education about forensic nursing.Postgraduates participants, educated health professional about forensic nursing, staff who applied to sources about forensic nursing and staff who evaluated emergency department cases as forensic cases have significantly higher level of knowledge. Moreover, it’s found that forensic cases diagnosis score is the highest in health officer and university graduated. Health care professional’s deficiency in knowledge about forensic cases can cause defects in operation of the forensic process because of mistakes in collecting and conserving of evidence. It is obvious that training about the approach to forensic nursing should be arranged.
Nurses' Perception and Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness: A Study from the Western Region of Turkey
Aim: To identify nurses’ perceived competencies for disaster preparedness. Background: Recently, the number of disasters has increased worldwide. Since disasters often strike without warning, healthcare providers, especially nurses must be prepared with appropriate competencies for disaster procedures. Nurses’ perceptions of their own competencies for disaster preparedness need to be evaluated to aid in the creation of effective national plans and educational programs. Design: This study was conducted with a descriptive and cross-sectional design. Methods: Nurses’ perceptions were assessed using the 13-item Demographic Profile Questionnaire that is based on previous literature and the 45-item Nurses’ Perception of Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness Scale (NPCDPS). Data were collected from June to September 2014 from 406 (79.9% return rate) Turkish nurses working in the western region of Turkey. Results: At the end of the study, it was found that out of the nurses whose mean age was 31.27 ± 5.86 and mean of working time was 8.07 ± 6.60 by the time vast majority of the nurses were women (85.7%), married (59.4%), bachelor’s degree holder (88.2%) and service nurses (56.2%). The most potential disaster that nurses think is an earthquake (70.9%) by the time majority of nurses consider having a role as a nurse at every stage of disasters. The mean total point score of nurses’ perception of disaster preparedness was 4.62. The mean total point score of the nurses from the Nurses’ Perception of Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness Scale was 133.96. When the subscales’ mean scores are examined, the highest average of the mean score is for Technical Skills (44.52), and the lowest is for Critical Thinking Skills (10.47). When the subscales of Nurses’ Perception of Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness Scale compared with sex, marital status and education level out of independent variable of nurses there is no significant difference (p > 0.05); compared with age group, working years, duty and being with a disaster out of independent variable of nurses there is a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Nurses generally perceive themselves as sufficient at a ‘medium level’ in terms of meeting the core competencies that are required for disaster preparedness. Nurses are not adequately prepared for disasters, but they are aware of the need for such preparation and disaster education. Disaster management training should be given to all nurses in their basic education.
The Effect of Values on Social Innovativeness in Nursing and Medical Faculty Students
Background: Social innovativeness contains the procurement of a sustainable benefit for a number of problems from working conditions to education, social development, health, and from environmental control to climate change, as well as the development of new social productions and services.
Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the correlation between the social innovation tendency of nursing and medical faculty students and value types.
Methods and participants: The population of this correlational study consisted of third-year students studying at a medical faculty and a nursing faculty in a public university in Istanbul. Ethics committee approval and permission from the school administrations were obtained in order to conduct the study and voluntary participation of the students in the study was ensured. 524 questionnaires were obtained with a total return rate of 57.1% (65.0% in nurse student and 52.1% in physic students). The data of the study were collected by using the Portrait Values Questionnaire and a questionnaire containing the Social Innovativeness Scale.
Results: The effect of the subscale scores of Portrait Values Questionnaire on the total score of Social Innovativeness Scale was 26.6%. In the model where a significance was determined (F=37.566; p< 0.01), the highest effect was observed in the subscale of universalism. The effect of subscale scores obtained from the Portrait Values Questionnaire, as well as age, gender and number of siblings was 25% on the Social Innovativeness in nursing students and 30.8% in medical faculty students. In both models where a significance was determined (p< 0.01), the nursing students had the values of power, universalism and kindness, whereas the medical faculty students had the values of self-direction, stimulation, hedonism and universalism showed the highest effect in both models.
Conclusions: Universalism is the value with the highest effect upon the social innovativeness in both groups, which is an expected result by the nature of professions. The effect of the values of independent thinking and self-direction, as well as openness to change involving quest for innovation (stimulation), which are observed in medical faculty students, also supports the literature of innovative behavior. These results are thought to guide educators and administrators in terms of developing socially innovative behaviors.
Public Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Self-Medication with Antibiotic in Turkey
Self-medication is defined as to use drugs in order to treat oneself without getting professional advice. It is reported that self-medication rate is constantly increasing worldwide. Turkey is among the developed countries where the antibiotic usage has the highest rate. Therefore, Turkish Ministry of Health decided that require a national approach related to inappropriate use of antibiotic in 2015. This research was carried out to determine public knowledge and attitudes regarding self medication with antibiotic. It was completed with 2057 partipicants as a descriptive study between January and May 2016. It was identified that the mean age of participants was 27.86 ± 1.10 years, 51.3% were women and 69.7% had sufficient income. It was identified that 49.3% of the participants started using self medication with antibiotic. 60.4% of the participants used antibiotics in the past year and 35.3% within the last month. It was identified that 49.3% of the students started using antibiotics by their own. The reasons for starting antibiotics were as follows; common cold and flu; sore throat; fever; cough; abdominal pain; weakness; urinary burning and skin infection. When the factors that affected starting using antibiotics by their own without getting doctor’s advice were scrutinized, they found to be using the same antibiotic prescribed by doctor in previous similar conditions; there was not time to visit the doctor; using the drug advised by close friends and relatives; want not to pay the examination and test fees; and to consult the drug with pharmacist it was identified that 56.4% have maintained antibiotic at home in case it might be necessary in the future. It was identified that 62.0% have read its prospectus before using antibiotic; 70.6% have used antibiotic at the prescribed dose and timeframe; 51.6% have thought that antibiotic would be harmful; 29.6% have advised antibiotic therapy to the surrounding; 43.8% have received information about use of antibiotics; 15.1% have used self medication with antibiotic on her/his children; 25.7% have accepted that the decision to start antibiotic must be made together with a doctor. Also It was identified that 20.0% have heard the term of antibiotic resistance previously; only 58.5% have defined antibiotic resistance correctly.
Exploring Spiritual Needs of Taiwanese Inpatients with Advanced Cancer and Their Family Caregivers
This study explores the spiritual needs of inpatients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers in one southern regional teaching hospital in Taiwan and elucidates the differences and similarities of spiritual needs between them. Little research reports the different phases of spiritual needs and the potential impact of Chinese cultural values on the spiritual needs. Qualitative inquiry was used. Twenty-one patients with advanced cancer and twenty-two family caregivers were recruited. During hospitalization, all participants identified spiritual needs both the palliative phase and the dying phase: (a) the need to foster faith/confidence and hope for medicine and/or God; (b) to understand the meaning and values of life; (c) to experience more reciprocal human love and forgiveness; and (d) to obey God’s/Heaven will. Furthermore, the differences of spiritual needs between patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers are as follows: (a) family caregivers emphasized the need to inform relatives and say goodbye in order to die peacefully; (b) patients highlighted a need to maintain a certain physical appearance in order to preserve their dignity; nurture one’s willpower; learn about the experiences of cancer survivors; and identify one’s own life experience for understanding the meaning and values of life. Moreover, the dissimilarity of spiritual needs is that the patients pointed out the need to understand God’s will during the palliative treatment phase. However, the family caregivers identified the need to forgive each other, and inform relatives and say goodbye to patients in the dying phase. This research has shown that the needs of meaning/values of life and facing death peacefully are different between two groups. Health professionals will be encouraged to detect and to develop individualized care strategies to meet spiritual needs.
Qualitative Analysis of Emotional Thoughts in the Perspective of Nurses Who Have Been Working Experience in Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Unit
Aim: In this study, it was aimed to qualitatively analyze the feelings, thoughts and meanings of the nurses who had experience in child hematology in the past. Method: In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 nurses between 29 and 53 years of age who had previously worked in child hematology-oncology unit. Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview form. Each interview lasted 20-30 minute. Some of the questions are: ‘What kind of experiences do you experience when you think about the periods you are working in hematology-oncology service?’ ‘Do you explain the reason for living these feelings?’ The data were analyzed with QSR NVivo 7 software. Results: From the perspective of the nurses who had experience working in the pediatric hematology-oncology service in the past, five main themes and sub-themes related to emotions and thoughts towards this experiment were identified in the study. 1) Positive and negative emotions: (a) fear and anxiety, (b) desperation, pity, guilt, (c) burnout, (d) longing; 2) Being coping 3) Professional implications 4) Meaning of life 5) Unmet needs and suggestions. Conclusions: Working in hematology should be viewed as a multidimensional situation that affects the way nurses view their profession and life, leading to a wide range of emotional lives. Data obtained from this study can be used to strengthen hematologic nurses.
Pre-Cancerigene Injuries Related to Human Papillomavirus: Importance of Cervicography as a Complementary Diagnosis Method
The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of Digital Cervicography (DC) in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions related to Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, of evaluative type, held in a health unit linked to the Pro Dean of Extension of the Federal University of Ceará, in the period of July to August 2015 with a sample of 33 women. Data collecting was conducted through interviews with enforcement tool. Franco (2005) standardized the technique used for DC. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to identify high-risk HPV genotypes. DC were evaluated and classified by 3 judges. The results of DC and PCR were classified as positive, negative or inconclusive. The data of the collecting instruments were compiled and analyzed by the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) with descriptive statistics and cross-references. Sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables were analyzed through absolute frequencies (N) and their respective percentage (%). Kappa coefficient (κ) was applied to determine the existence of agreement between the DC of reports among evaluators with PCR and also among the judges about the DC results. The Pearson's chi-square test was used for analysis of sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables with the PCR reports. It was considered statistically significant (p< 0.05). Ethical aspects of research involving human beings were respected, according to 466/2012 Resolution. Regarding the socio-demographic profile, the most prevalent ages and equally were those belonging to the groups 21-30 and 41-50 years old (24.2%). The brown color was reported in excess (84.8%) and 96.9% out of them had completed primary and secondary school or studying. 51.5% were married, 72.7% Catholic, 54.5% employed and 48.5% with income between one and two minimum wages. As for the sexual and reproductive characteristics, prevailed heterosexual (93.9%) who did not use condoms during sexual intercourse (72.7%). 51.5% had a previous history of Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI), and HPV the most prevalent STI (76.5%). 57.6% did not use contraception, 78.8% underwent examination Cancer Prevention Uterus (PCCU) with shorter time interval or equal to one year, 72.7% had no cases of Cervical Cancer in the family, 63.6% were multiparous and 97% were not vaccinated against HPV. DC identified good level of agreement between raters (κ=0.542), had a specificity of 77.8% and sensitivity of 25% when compared their results with PCR. Only the variable race showed a statistically significant association with CRP (p=0.042). DC had 100% acceptance amongst women in the sample, revealing the possibility of other experiments in using this method so that it proves as a viable technique. The DC positivity criteria were developed by nurses and these professionals also perform PCCU in Brazil, which means that DC can be an important complementary diagnostic method for the appreciation of these professional’s quality of examinations.
Health Literacy for Self-Care by Female Patients Diagnosed with Diabetes at a Selected Hospitals in Limpopo Province of South Africa
Inadequate health literacy can cause difficulties in understanding and compliance to treatment plan. With diabetic condition, self-care activities include behaviours of following a diet plan, avoiding high fat foods, increased exercise, self-glucose monitoring, and foot care. Patients with poor health literacy have difficulty interpreting medication warning labels, following directions on a prescription label and identifying their medications. Difficulties in understanding and performing self-care and health-related activities may ultimately lead to poor health outcomes. The study explored and described factors affecting health literacy and self-care to diabetic regimen by female patients at selected hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Qualitative and explorative research design was used. Female patients who were admitted and diagnosed with diabetes in female medical ward constituted the study population. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select 20 female patients diagnosed with diabetes, who were above 18 years and admitted during April–November 2014. An in-depth face-to-face, unstructured interview was used to collect data. Data were analysed using open coding method. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Findings revealed factors affecting health literacy for diabetic self-care activities amongst patients were; patient, family, disease and facility related. Proposed recommendations were; to strengthen diabetes education and patient-provider partnership. This is important and must be transferred to strengthen self-care activities to fully benefit the patient.
An Analytical Approach for Medication Protocol Errors from Pediatric Nurse Curriculum
The main focus of this research is to consider the objective of nursing curriculum in concern with pediatric nurses in respect to various parameters such as causes, reporting and prevention of medication protocol errors. A design or method selected for the study is the descriptive and cross sectional with respect to analytical study. Nurses were selected from inpatient pediatric wards of 5 hospitals in Gujarat, as a population. 126 pediatric nurses gave approval to participate in the research and completed with quarter questionnaires. The actual data was collected and analyzed. The actual data was collected and analyzed. The medium age of the nurses was 25.7 ± 3.68 years; the maximum was lady (97.6%) pediatric nurses stated that the most common causes of medication protocol errors were large work time (69.2%) and a huge ratio of patient: nurse (59.9%). Even though the highest number of nurses (89%) made use of a medication protocol errors notification system, or else they use to check it before. Many errors were not reported and nurses cited abeyant claims of nurses in case of adverse and opposite output for patient (53.97%), distrust (52.45%), and fear of various/different protocol for mediations (42%) among the causes of insufficient of notification in concern to ignorance, nurses most commonly noted the requirement for efficient data concerning the safe use of medications (47.5%). This is the frequent study made by researcher in Gujarat about the pediatric nurse curriculum regarding medication protocol errors. The outputs debate that there is a requirement for ongoing coaching of pediatric nurses regarding safe & secure medication observation and that the causes and post reporting of medication protocol errors by hand further survey.
Efficacy of Single-Dose Azithromycin Therapy for the Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in Patients Evaluated for Child Sexual Abuse in an Urban Health Center 2006-16
Introduction: According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) there are different weight-based recommendations for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in patients who are being evaluated for sexual assault. Current AAP Red Book guidelines recommend that uncomplicated C. trachomatis anogenital infection in prepubertal patients weighing less than = 45 kg are Azithromycin 1 gm PO once. Our study objective was to determine the efficacy of single-dose Azithromycin therapy for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in patients weighing less than 50 kg who were evaluated for child sexual abuse in an urban setting. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of historical medical records (paper and electronic) patients weighing less than 50 kg who were evaluated for child sexual abuse and subsequently treated for C. trachomatis infection with Azithromycin (20 mg/kg PO once up to a maximum 1 gm) and received a Test of Cure (TOC) from 2006-2016. Qualitative variables were expressed as percentages. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean values (+/- standard deviation [SD]) if they followed a normal distribution or as median values (interquartile range[IQR]) if they did not. Wilcoxson two-sample test was used to compare means of Azithromycin Dose, mg/kg, and TOC timing between treatment responders and non-responders. Results: We reviewed records of 34 patients, average age (SD) was 5.4 (2.0) years, 33 (97%) were treated for CT and 1(3%) for both GC and CT. 25 (74%) were females. Urine PCR was the most commonly used test at evaluation and as TOC with 13 (38%) patients completing both tests. The average (SD) dose of Azithromycin at treatment was 470 (136) mg and average (SD) mg/kg dose of 20 (1.9) mg/kg for all patients. Median (IQR) timing for TOC testing was 19 (14-26) days. Of the 33 with complete data 25 (74%) had a negative TOC. When compared with treatment non-responders (TOC failures), treatment responders received higher doses (average dose (SD) received 495 (139) vs 401(110), P 0.06)); similar average (SD) weight base dosing received (20.8(2.0) vs 19.7 (1.5), P 0.15)), and earlier average (SD)TOC test timing (18.8 (5.6) vs 32 (28.6) P 0.02)). Conclusion: Azithromycin dosing appears to be efficacious in the treatment of CT post sexual assault as majority of patients responded. Although treatment responders and non-responders received similar weight based doses, there is need for additional studies to understand variances and predictors of response.
Experiences during the First Year of Practice among New Nurses
Transition from student to staff nurse can be difficult for nurses beginning their nursing profession. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the transition experiences during the first year of practice among new nurses in Thailand. Methods: A descriptive design using a survey questionnaire was used. One hundred seventy-eight new graduate nurses from one tertiary hospital in Thailand participated in this study. Data were collected using paper-and-pencil format of the Revised Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Survey. Results: Participants reported three types of difficulties they were experiencing during the first year of practice including role expectation, lack of confidence, and workload. New nurses reported uncomfortable to perform high risk skills such as code/emergency, ventilator care, EKG, and chest tube care. Organizing, prioritizing and communication were rated as difficult tasks during 12-month transition period. New nurses satisfied the benefit package they received from the institution, however, salary was lowest satisfied. Conclusion: Results inform transition program development for new nurses. Initiative of systems that support for the graduate nurse during the first year of practice is suggested.
Development and Evaluation of Preceptor Training Program for Nurse Preceptors in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital
Preceptorship represents an important aspect in new nurse orientation. However, there was no formal preceptor training program developed for nurse preceptor in Thailand. The purposes of this study were to develop and evaluate formal preceptor training program for nurse preceptors in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. A research and development study design was utilized in this study. Participants were 37 nurse preceptors. The program contents were delivered by e-learning material, class lecture, group discussion followed by simulation training. Knowledge of the participants was assessed pre and post program. Skill and critical thinking were assessed using Preceptor Skill and Decision Making Evaluation form at the end of program. Statistical significant difference in knowledge regarding preceptor role and coaching strategies between pre and post program were found. All participants had satisfied skill and decision making score after completed the program. Most of participants perceived benefits of preceptor training course. In conclusion, The results of this study reveal that the newly developed preceptorship course is an effective formal training course for nurse preceptors.
The Effects of Absenteeism on Nurses That Remain at Work at the Mankweng Hospital in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province in South Africa
Absenteeism is a global problem in the working force and this is no exception in the nursing profession. A lot of attention has been drawn to factors that contribute to absenteeism however little attention has been placed on the effects of absenteeism on the remaining workers/nurses being left behind in the workplace by their colleagues. Nurses absent themselves leaving behind their colleagues to do their work. Nurses who are committed to their work often find themselves working under strenuous conditions due to inadequate staff. These may lead to poor patient care provision, nurses feeling overworked and sick due to the increased workload. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of absenteeism on nurses that remained at work at Mankweng Hospital in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative research design was conducted to determine if there were any effects of absenteeism on nurses remaining at work. Data collection was done using structured questionnaires. The respondents (n=107), consisted of different categories of registered nurses (professional nurses (n=43), auxiliary nurses (n=40) and staff nurses (n=24)) who participated in this study. The findings indicated that most nurses (76, 6%) are demotivated and they struggle with completion of duties when their colleagues are absent. Patient care that nurses provided when their colleagues were absent was of poor quality as set standards and principles were not adhered to. Individualized patient care was not being implemented due to absenteeism. This simply implies that routine work is being done to cover basic duties. Most nurses (74, 8%) believed that favoritism and lack of appreciation of nurse’s skills and capabilities are being displayed by managers and that this contributes to absenteeism. Nurses who are loyal sacrifice their time and work overtime for absent colleagues and this led to fatigue and stress. From the study findings, it is recommended that nurses be trained frequently to upgrade their studies to motivate them to work. The government can provide this training to improve their skills as this will motivate nurses to work harder and be committed to their work. Training can be offered after a stipulated period. For example, after every five years, a nurse can be provided with a new skill. Team building events must be encouraged for the whole hospital to motivate staff. In conclusion, the study revealed that absenteeism poses detrimental effects on nurses, the hospital and patients. More and more nurses end up changing workplace due to these effects.