Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 39602

Nutrition and Food Engineering

Effect of Different Flours on the Physical and Sensorial Characteristics of Meatballs
Stale breads and rusk flour are used traditionally in meatballs produced in Turkey as a structure enhancer. This study researches the possibilities of using retrograded wheat flour in the meatball production and compares the physical and sensorial characteristics of these meatballs with stale bread (traditional) and rusk (commercial) used meatballs. The cooking loss of meatballs produced with using retrograded flour was similar to that of commercial meatballs. These meatballs have an advantage with respect to cooking loss compared to traditional meatballs. Doses of retrograded flour from 5% to 20% led to a significant decrease in cooking loss, from 21.95% to 6.19%, and in the diameter of meatballs, from 18.60% to 12.74%, but to an increase in the thickness of meatballs, from 28.82% to 41.39%, respectively, compared to the control (0%). The springiness of the traditional meatballs was significantly higher than that of the other meatballs. This might have been due to the bread crumbs having a naturally springy structure. Moreover, the addition of retrograded flour in the meatballs significantly (P< 0.05) affected the hardness, springiness and cohesiveness of the meatballs with respect to textural properties. In conclusion, it is considered that the use of 10% retrograded flour is ideal to improve the sensorial values of meatballs and the properties of their structure.
Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices
The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.
Larvicidal Activity of Azadirachtin and Essential Oils from Thymus Capitatus against Prays oleae Bern (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae)
Prays oleae is a major insect of olive in the Mediterranean Region. In an effort to find effective and affordable ways of controlling this pest, larvicidal activity of essential oils from Tunisian Thymus capitatus were analyzed in comparison to Azadirachtin, a biologically active compound insecticide. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical composition was determined by gas liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. The main components of chemical components were oxygenated monoterpenes (60.24%). The most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes were carvacrol (54.11%). Monoterpenes hydrocarbons were much more abundant and dominated by the o-cymene (16.68%). Both active compounds of Azadirachtin and Thymus capitatus oil extracts exhibited significant larvicidal activity against P. oleae with LC50 values 81.30 ppm and 52.49 ppm respectively. Dose-response relationships were established with almost 100% mortality when using the highest dose 100 ppm of T. capitatus oil extracts and 80 ppm of Azadirachtin. At the lowest dose (10 ppm), T. capitatus oil extracts and Azadirachtin caused 60% and 76% larval mortality in 48 hours respectively. The larval mortality rate greatly decreased with increases of the dilution of both oil extract compounds. Larval development duration appeared to be prolonged to about 12 days for larvae feeding on control diet. The maximum antifeedant activity was shown by both T. capitatus oil extract and Azadirachtin at LC90 values (47.5 and 50.1 ppm respectively). Tunisian T. capitatus oil extract used at low concentrations could be considered as eco-friendly promising insecticide similar to Azadirachtin that has significant potential for the biological control of P. oleae.
Econometric Analysis of Organic Vegetable Production in Turkey
Reliable foods must be consumed in terms of healthy nutrition. The production and dissemination of diatom products in Turkey is rapidly evolving on the basis of preserving ecological balance, ensuring sustainability in agriculture and offering quality, reliable products to consumers. In this study, year in Turkey as (2002- 2015) to determine values of such as cultivated land of organic vegetable production, production levels, production quantity, number of products, number of farmers. It is intended to make the econometric analysis of the factors affecting the production of organic vegetable production (Number of products, Number of farmers and cultivated land). The main material of the study has created secondary data in relation to the 2002-2015 period as organic vegetable production in Turkey and regression analysis of the factors affecting the value of production of organic vegetable is determined by the Least Squares Method with EViews statistical software package.
Risk-Based Regulation as a Model of Control in the South African Meat Industry
South African control over meat safety is managed by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Veterinary services department in each of the nine provinces in the country is tasked with overseeing the farm and abattoir segments of the meat supply chain. Abattoirs are privately owned. The number of abattoirs over the years has increased. This increase has placed constraints on government resources required to monitor these abattoirs. This paper presents empirical research results on the hygienic processing of meat in high and low throughout abattoirs. This paper presents a case for the adoption of risk-based regulation as a method of government control over hygiene and safe meat processing at abattoirs in South Africa. Recommendations are made to the DAFF regarding policy considerations on risk-based regulation as a model of control in South Africa.
Management of Mycotoxin Production and Fungicide Resistance by Targeting Stress Response System in Fungal Pathogens
Control of fungal pathogens, such as foodborne mycotoxin producers, is problematic as effective antimycotic agents are often very limited. Mycotoxin contamination significantly interferes with the safe production of foods or crops worldwide. Moreover, expansion of fungal resistance to commercial drugs or fungicides is a global human health concern. Therefore, there is a persistent need to enhance the efficacy of commercial antimycotic agents or to develop new intervention strategies. Disruption of the cellular antioxidant system should be an effective method for pathogen control. Such disruption can be achieved with safe, redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic derivatives are potent redox cyclers that inhibit fungal growth through destabilization of the cellular antioxidant system. The goal of this study is to identify novel, redox-active compounds that disrupt the fungal antioxidant system. The identified compounds could also function as sensitizing agents to conventional antimycotics (i.e., chemosensitization) to improve antifungal efficacy. Various benzo derivatives were tested against fungal pathogens. Gene deletion mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as model systems for identifying molecular targets of benzo analogs. The efficacy of identified compounds as potent antifungal agents or as chemosensitizing agents to commercial drugs or fungicides was examined with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute or the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Selected benzo derivatives possessed potent antifungal or antimycotoxigenic activity. Molecular analyses by using S. cerevisiae mutants indicated antifungal activity of benzo derivatives was through disruption of cellular antioxidant or cell wall integrity system. Certain benzo analogs screened overcame tolerance of Aspergillus signaling mutants, namely mitogen-activated protein kinase mutants, to fludioxonil fungicide. Synergistic antifungal chemosensitization greatly lowered minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of test compounds, including inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration. Of note, salicylaldehyde is a potent antimycotic volatile that has some practical application as a fumigant. Altogether, benzo derivatives targeting cellular antioxidant system of fungi (along with cell wall integrity system) effectively suppress fungal growth. Candidate compounds possess the antifungal, antimycotoxigenic or chemosensitizing capacity to augment the efficacy of commercial antifungals. Therefore, chemogenetic approaches can lead to the development of novel antifungal intervention strategies, which enhance the efficacy of established microbe intervention practices and overcome drug/fungicide resistance. Chemosensitization further reduces costs and alleviates negative side effects associated with current antifungal treatments.
Microfluidized Fiber Based Oleogels for Encapsulation of Lycopene
This study reports a facile approach to structure soft solids from microfluidizer lycopene-rich plant based structure and oil. First carotenoid-rich plant material (pumpkin was used in this study) processed with high-pressure microfluidizer to release lycopene molecules, then an emulsion was formed by mixing processed plant material and oil. While, in emulsion state lipid soluble carotenoid molecules were allowed to dissolve in the oil phase, the fiber material of plant material provided the network which was required for emulsion stabilization. Additional hydrocolloids (gelatin, xhantan, and pectin) up to 0.5% were also used to reinforce the emulsion stability and their impact on final product properties were evaluated via rheological, textural and oxidation studies. Finally, water was removed from emulsion phase by drying in a tray dryer at 40°C for 36 hours, and subsequent shearing resulted in soft solid (ole gel) structures. The microstructure of these systems was revealed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Effect of hydrocolloids on total lycopene and surface lycopene contents were also evaluated. The surface lycopene was lowest in gelatin containing oleo gels and highest in pectin-containing oleo gels. This study outlines the novel emulsion-based structuring method that can be used to encapsulate lycopene without the need of separate extraction of them.
A Comparison of the Environmental Impacts of Edible and Non-Edible Oil Crops in Biodiesel Production
The demand for food and energy of mankind has been increasing every passing day. Renewable energy sources have been pushed to forefront since fossil fuels will be run out in the near future and their negative effects to the environment. As in every sector, the transport sector benefits from biofuel (biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel) one of the renewable energy sources as well. The edible oil crops are used in production of biodiesel. Utilizing edible oil crops as renewable energy source may raise a debate in the view of that there is a shortage in raw material of edible oil crops in Turkey. Researches related to utilization of non-edible oil crops as biodiesel raw materials have been recently increased, and especially studies related to their vegetative production and adaptation have been accelerated in Europe. In this review edible oil crops are compared to non-edible oil crops for biodiesel production in the sense of biodiesel production, some features of non-edible oil crops and their harmful emissions to environment are introduced. The data used in this study, obtained from articles, thesis, reports relevant to edible and non edible oil crops in biodiesel.
Comparative Study on Soil Tillage Using Rotary Tiller and Power Harrow
Farmers try to reduce steps of soil preparation by using subsoiler and then following by equipment for soil pulverization such as a rotary tiller and a power harrow which take advantage of using a power take-off of a tractor. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the tilling performances of a rotary tiller and a power harrow applying after subsoiling. The results showed that both the rotary tiller and the power harrow had negative slip, indicating that they generated force to push a tractor. The rotary tiller created negative vertical force to lift up the tractor whereas opposite result was found when using the power harrow. Since working depths were different, vertical forces, torques and PTO powers for two equipment types were significantly different. However, no significant differences were found for the forward speeds, slips, drawbar pulls and drawbar powers. Comparative analysis showed that two equipment types had no significant effect on PTO power to working depth, drawbar power to working depth, specific drawbar power and specific PTO power while they significantly affected on soil pulverization.
Effect of Acetic Acid Fermentation on Bioactive Components and Anti-Xanthine Oxidase Activities in Vinegar Brewed from Monascus-Fermented Soybeans
Vinegars have been used as an alternative remedy for treating gout, but the scientific basis remains to be elucidated. In this study, acetic acid fermentation was applied for the first time to Monascus-fermented soybeans to examine its effect on the bioactive components together with the xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity of the soy vinegar. The content of total phenols (0.47~0.97 mg gallic acid equivalents/mL) and flavonoids (0.18~0.39 mg quercetin equivallents/mL) were spectrophotometrically determined, and the content of organic acid (10.22~59.76 mg/mL) and isoflavones (6.79~7.46 mg/mL) were determined using HPLC-UV. The analytical method for ubiquinones (0.079~0.276 μg/mL) employed saponification before solvent extraction and quantification using LC-MS. Soy vinegar also showed significant XOI (95.3%) after 20 days of acetic acid fermentation at 30 °C. The results suggest that soy vinegar has potential as a novel medicinal food.
Determining the Awareness Level of Chefs and Students on Food Safety and Allergens in Kano State, Nigeria and Ankara City in Turkey
This study is aimed at determining the level of awareness of chefs and students of food science and technology on food safety in general and allergens in particular. To get appropriate data, a questionnaire comprising of 19 questions covering many food safety issues and allergens in foods were used to collect information for the study through face to face interviews. Interviews were conducted for 284 people in Nigeria and Turkey. Sixty-eight percent of respondents from Turkey; 31.3% were students and 68.7% were chefs. Thirty-one percent of respondents from Nigeria include 33.7% students and 66.3% chefs. The result of the study indicated that most of the findings of scientific studies on food safety issues have not been directly applied by the people working in the food sector. Additionally, the knowledge level of the gastronomy and culinary arts students on food safety and allergens are significantly higher than the restaurant chefs that prepare the food and serve it to the public. The study, therefore, concluded that proper training of food business operators is critical to ensuring the safety of foods and control of allergens.
Soil Stress State under Tractive Tire and Compaction Model
Soil compaction induced by a tractor towing trailer becomes a major problem associated with sugarcane productivity. The soil beneath the tractor’s tire is not only under compressing stress but also shearing stress. Therefore, in order to help understand such the effects on soil, this research aimed to determine stress state in soil and predict compaction of soil under a tractive tire. The octahedral stress ratios under the tires were higher than one and much higher under higher draft forces. Moreover, the ratio was increasing with an increase of a number of tire’s passage. Soil compaction model was developed using data acquired from triaxial tests. The model was then used to predict soil bulk density under tractive tire. The maximum error was about 4% at 15 cm depth under lower draft force and tended to increase with depth and draft force. At a depth of 30 cm and under higher draft force the maximum error was about 16%.
Micronutrients and Macronutrients Contents of Whole Rice, Rifined Rice, and Bran Rice in Five Indonesia Cultivars of Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Indonesia has a particularly high biodiversity of food crops, namely rice. Rice in Indonesia is divided into several types based on the aleurone pigment constituent, called rice with white rice, red and black. Black rice potential to developed as functional food because of its high micronutrients and macronutrients contents. This study was done to determine the contents of tocopherol, β-carotene, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), carbohydrate, protein, and lipid in the whole rice, rice bran, and refined rice. Samples obtained from rice farmers are rice cultivars Wajolaka Nusa Tenggara Timur, Toraja from Lampung, Cempo Ireng from Sayegan, Melik from Bantul and Wedomartani from Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Rice was separated into components, those are whole rice, rice bran, and refined rice. The method used to test the levels of tocopherol and β-carotene is spectrophotometry, Ca, Fe, and Zn tested by Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid contents tested by proximate analysis by different, micro-kjeldahl, and soxhletation method. Variance analysis performed through ANOVA test on SPSS-23 with a significance level of 5%. The results of the analysis showed tocopherol content of black rice cultivars Wajolaka, Toraja, Cempo Ireng, Melik and Wedomartani sequentially by 1,478; 0,862; 0.651; 1.617 and 1.618%, the content of β-Carotene in sequence at 912.93; 409.80; 1013.23; 1315.62; and 1463.88 μg/100g. The highest of mineral Ca content in cultivars Toraja is 244.4 μg/gram, the highest of mineral Fe and Zn is cultivar Wedomartani each 39.47 and 25.07 μg/gram. The carbohydrate, protein, and lipid of black rice in a series between 61.80 – 65.58 %, 7.13 – 9.10 %, and 1.98 – 3.23 %. The carbohydrate in refined rice between 62.71 – 67.89 %, in rice bran the protein and lipid contents 10.95 – 11.48 % and 5.70 – 6.86 %. Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that tocopherol, β-carotene, Ca, Fe, Zn, carbohydrate, protein, and lipid contents are variated between black rice cultivars Wajolaka, Toraja, Cempo Ireng, Melik and Wedomartani. The highest tocopherol, β-carotene, Ca, Fe, Zn, protein dan lipid contents were found in the bran rice, whereas the highest carbohydrate content was found in refined rice.
Effects of Bitter Gourd Supplemented Muffins on Satiety and Glycemic Responses before and after a Meal in Healthy Young
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a common vegetable praised for its role in glycemic control; however, the same role of food products containing this valuable vegetable is not much explored. The present study examined the effects of muffins supplemented with different levels of bitter gourd aqueous extract (BGAE) on subjective appetite, blood glucose (BG) and insulin before and after a pizza meal consumed by healthy young men through a randomized, crossover, repeated measures experiment. Twenty-four healthy body-weight young males consumed two fixed servings (125g) of muffins without BGAE (control) or with added BGAE (5%), starch or with added BGAE (10%). An ad libitum pizza meal was served at 120min following treatments. Subjective appetite, glucose, insulin and food intake were measured at intervals from baseline to 170min. Post-treatment (0-120min) glucose, but not insulin, decreased more after muffins with both BGAE 5% and 10% compared to the control (P < 0.0001). However, post-meal glucose (140 min) was lower only after muffins with BGAE (10%) compared to the control. No differences were observed in subjective appetite and food intake among the treatments. In conclusion, baked foods supplemented with bitter gourd extract up to 10% carry the potential to regulate postprandial glycemic responses without a disproportionate increase in insulin concentration, but not appetite.
Analysis of Active Compounds in Thai Herbs by near Infrared Spectroscopy
This study aims to develop a new method to detect active compounds in Thai herbs (1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in mulberry leave, anthocyanin in Mao and curcumin in turmeric) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs). NIRs is non-destructive technique that rapid, non-chemical involved and low-cost determination. By NIRs and chemometrics technique, it was found that the DNJ prediction equation conducted with partial least square regression with cross-validation had low accuracy R2 (0.42) and SEP (31.87 mg/100g). On the other hand, the anthocyanin prediction equation showed moderate good results (R2 and SEP of 0.78 and 0.51 mg/g) with Multiplication scattering correction at wavelength of 2000-2200 nm. The high absorption could be observed at wavelength of 2047 nm and this model could be used as screening level. For curcumin prediction, the good result was obtained when applied original spectra with smoothing technique. The wavelength of 1400-2500 nm was created regression model with R2 (0.68) and SEP (0.17 mg/g). This model had high NIRs absorption at a wavelength of 1476, 1665, 1986 and 2395 nm, respectively. NIRs showed prospective technique for detection of some active compounds in Thai herbs.
Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Proteolysis of Non-Fat Probiotic Yogurt Supplemented with Sodium Caseinate and Peppermint Extract
The present study evaluated the proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activities of non-fat probiotic yogurt supplemented with sodium caseinate (0 –4%), and peppermint extract (Menthapiperita, 0-0.4 %) during 20 days of storage time. Milk proteins can generate peptides having biological activity during fermentation. A good correlation between Lactobacillus casei LFTI® L26 growth and ACE inhibition was found in all samples (r=0.90), whereas low correlation was observed with proteolysis and ACE inhibition. Caseinate supplementation did not increase ACE inhibition at 20th day of storage time. Treatment 4 containing 0.4% peppermint and treatment 5 containing 4% sodium caseinate showed IC50 values of 0.12 and 0.02 mg⁄ml respectively. The results showed that the addition of sodium caseinate had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on increasing of pH, proteolysis and the viability of L.casei. and leading to enhanced ACE-inhibitory activity in 4th day and decreased in 20th day of storage period. Moreover, the addition of M. piperita extract was shown decreased on pH and increased viability of Lactobacillus casei and ACE-inhibitory activity (P < 0.05). Refrigerated storage caused increased in pH and decreased acidity and syneresis (P < 0.05). L. casei viability and ACE-inhibitory activity increased by increasing the amount of sodium caseinate (P < 0.05). 4% of sodium caseinate and 0.4% of peppermint extract resulted in higher probiotic viability (1.3×107cfu/g) at the 20th day of storage period.
Processing Methods for Increasing the Yield, Nutritional Value and Stability of Coconut Milk
Coconut has two edible parts, that is, a white kernel (solid endosperm) and coconut water (liquid endosperm). The white kernel is generally used in fresh or dried form for culinary purposes. Coconut testa, is the brown skin, covering the coconut kernel. It is removed by paring of wet coconut and obtained as a by-product in coconut processing industries during the production of products such as desiccated coconut, coconut milk, whole coconut milk powder and virgin coconut oil. At present, it is used as animal feed component after drying and recovering the residual oil (by expelling). Experiments were carried out on expelling of coconut milk for shredded coconut with and without testa removal, in order to explore the possibility of increasing the milk yield and value addition in terms of increased polyphenol content. The color characteristics of coconut milk obtained from the grating without removal of testa were observed to be L* 82.79, a* 0.0125, b* 6.245, while that obtained from grating with removal of testa were L* 83.24, a* -0.7925, b* 3.1. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of coconut milk obtained from the grating with testa (833.8 µl/ml) when compared to that from without testa (521.3 µl/ml). However, significant difference was not observed in protein content of coconut milk obtained from the grating with and without testa (4.9 and 5.0% w/w, respectively). Coconut milk obtained from grating without removal of testa showed higher milk yield (62% w/w) when compared to that obtained from grating with removal of testa (60% w/w). The fat content in coconut milk was observed to be 32% (w/w), and it is unstable due to such a high fat content. Therefore, several experiments were carried out for examining its stability by adjusting the fat content at different levels (32, 28, 24, and 20% w/w). It was found that the coconut milk was more stable with a fat content of 24 % (w/w). Homogenization and ultrasonication and their combinations were used for exploring the possibility of increasing the stability of coconut milk. The microscopic study was carried out for analyzing the size of fat globules and the degree of their uniform distribution.
Shelf-Life of Beef Sausage Packed in Rice Starch-Gelatin Film Incorporated with Tannic Acid Kept at 4 ± 2°C
Beef sausage (34±0.2 g) obtained from a commercial plant were packed in 0.45 % tannic acid incorporated rice starch-fish gelatin film and stored in a controlled humidity (6 % R.H) chamber at 4±2 °C for 4 weeks with the objective of evaluating the performance of the rice starch-gelatin film with tannic acid incorporation as an alternative biodegradable/edible film to the normal plastic film. Sampling of the packaged beef sausages was carried out weekly for quality attributes such as moisture, instrumental color, pH, rancidity, total microbial count and the head space of the package. Beef sausages from the same batch packed in LDPE from the same factory were taken as the control. Visual observations were also carried out. Sausages packed in LDPE had slime formation as early as 21 days but not in the tannic acid incorporated rice starch-gelatin films. The visual observation scores for color and odor for control samples were unacceptable after day 25 and day 21, respectively, but not for samples packed in the tannic acid incorporated films. Moisture loss in controlled was lower as compared to those in tannic acid incorporated packages. Only slight changes of pH and water activity for both packed samples were noted during storage. No significant change in the microbial count for LDPE packed samples; however, significant decrease in the microbial count during storage was obtained for the samples packed in tannic acid incorporated rice starch-gelatin films. The measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the headspace of the films indicated that tannic acid incorporated film was able to delay the permeability of carbon dioxide into the headspace of the package. Therefore based on the overall quality attributes measured, biodegradable/edible film developed with 0.45 % tannic acid increased the shelf-life of sausage from 14 days (control) to 28 days at 4±2 °C.
Amylase Activities of Mould Isolated from Spoilt Ogi and Eko: Two (2) Fermented Maize Products
“Ogi” is a fermented cereal gruel prepared from maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) or guinea corn (Sorghum bicolour). It could be boiled to give a thicker consistency wrapped in leaf allowed to cool and set to a gel known as “eko”. The objective of this study is to determine the amylase activities of mould associated with the spoilage of Ogi and eko. Moulds were isolated from spoilt Ogi and eko samples using standard microbiological procedures. The isolate was then screened for amylase production using starch agar medium. Positive isolates were used for amylase production by solid state fermentation (SFF) using rice bran as the medium. An alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activity of the crude enzyme was determined using the DNS method. The mean mold Population ranged from 1.15 X 105cfu/g for raw Ogi to 6.25 X 105cfu/g for Eko (wrapped in Leaves). Twenty-seven (27) moulds isolated from the sample include A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Rhizopus species and Penicillium species. Aspergillus flavus had the highest percentage (51.9%) of incidence while Penicillium species had the least (3.7%). Out of the 27 isolates screened, 19 were found to be amylase positive by showing a clear zone around their colony after flooding with iodine solution. Diameter of clear zone ranged from 3.00mm (Aspergillus niger, C4) to 22.00mm (Aspergillus flavus, A1). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in leaf has the highest percentage alpha-amylase activity (30.8%) and Aspergillus flavus isolated from spoilt raw ogi has the lowest activity (11.4%). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in nylon produces the highest glucoamylase activity (240U/ml) while penicillium specie isolated from spoilt cooked ogi has the lowest activity (100U/ml). This study shows that moulds associated with spoilage of ogi and eko can produce amylase.
Impact of HIV/AIDS on Food Security in Pala Sub-Location Bondo District Kenya
Background: HIV/AIDS is leading to the loss of labor through sickness and subsequent death, this is leading to neglect of farm and off-farm activities, with the subsequent loss of potential income and food security. The situation is aggravated in farming systems with seasonal labour peaks during certain times of the year and by a marked gender division of labour. This study was done to determine the impact of high HIV prevalence in farming systems and food security in Pala Bondo District, in Kenya. Methods: In this study 386 respondents were randomly chosen in Pala Sub-Location. The respondents and key informants were interviewed using structured questionnaire; The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: It was established that majority of respondents (67%) were between 18 and 35 years {χ2 = (1, N = 386) = 13.430, p=0.000} (chimney effect). The study also established that 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 = (1, N= 370) = 166.277 p = 0.000} and predominant occupation being farming and fishing(61%)., while 52.8% of farm labour was by hand, 26% by oxen, and 4.9% mechanized. 73.2% of respondents only farm 0.25 to 2acres., 48% mentioned luck of labour in land preparation {χ2 ((1,N = 321) = 113.146, p = 0.000), in planting {χ2 (1, N = 321) = 29.28, p = 0.000}. Majority of respondents luck food from January to June, during which time 93% buy food. Conclusion: The high HIV prevalence in Pala has affected the farm labour leading to food insecurity.
Effect of Aronia Juice on Membrane Lipid Oxidation in Women with Aerobic Training Activity
Physical activity is well known for its beneficial health implications, however, excess oxygen consumption may impair oxidative status of the cell, and thus affect membrane fatty acid (FA) composition. Polyphenols are well-established antioxidants, which can incorporate in cell membranes and protect them from oxidation. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how an 8-week aerobic training alters erythrocyte FA composition, and to what extent polyphenol-rich Aronia juice (AJ) counteracts these potential alterations. We included 28 healthy women aged 19-29, with mean body mass index (BMI) of 21.2±2.7kg/m² and waist circumference of 78,2±7,6 cm, and assigned them into three groups. The first group performed 1hour of aerobic training three times per week (P); the second group trained and received 100 ml/day AJ as a part of their regular diet (PA), while the third group was the control one (C). Study analyses were performed at the baseline and at the end of the intervention and included anthropometric and biochemical measurements, as well as gas-liquid chromatography determination of the erythrocyte FA profile. Statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS 20.0, with p< 0.05 considered as significant. Comparisons between the two time points (paired t-test) revealed a significant decrease in the saturated FA content and in ω6/ω3 ratio in the PA group. Furthermore, ω3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content increased, as well as the percentage of polyunsaturated FA and unsaturation index, which clearly pointed out that AJ supplementation with aerobic training protected cellular membranes from lipid peroxidation. No significant results were obtained in the two other groups. In addition, the between group comparisons (ANCOVA) confirmed the synergistic effect of AJ supplementation and physical activity. After the intervention period, DHA and ω3 contents were much higher, while ω6/ω3 ratio was significantly lower in the PA group compared with the control. However, we found that participants in PA group had a higher unsaturation index after the intervention than those from P group, suggesting that AJ polyphenols might be responsible for the observed changes in FA status. Our results imply that supplementation with polyphenol-rich AJ may prevent membrane lipids from peroxidation in healthy subjects with regular aerobic activity.
Monitoring of Sustainability of Decorated Confectionary Product 'Moskva Cake' in Order to Define the Expiration Date
The fresh cake is in the group of perishable food which cannot be kept a long period of time. The study of sustainability has been done in order to extend the shelf-life of the product which was 10 days. According to the plan of sustainability, it was defined that 5 samples had to be stored for 20 days at max +8°C and analyzed every 5th day from the day of reception until the 20th day. The shelf life of cake has expired during the study of sustainability in the period between 10th and 20th day of analyses. Cake samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analysis (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) according to Serbian state regulation. All analysis were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, and Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21258-2. Analyses showed that after ten days of storage at a temperature defined by the manufacturers and within the product's shelf life, the cake did not have any noticeable changes in sensory characteristics. Smell and taste are unaffected there was no presence of strange smell or taste. As far as microbiological analyses are concerned, neither one pathogen was detected and number of Enterobacteriaceae was at level less than 102 cfu/g. After expiry of shelf life in a period of 15th and 20th day of storage, the sensory analysis showed the presence of strange sour-milky smell and rancid taste. Concerning microbiological analyses, there still were not positive results for pathogen microorganisms but the number of Enterobacteriaceae was at level more than 103cfu/g. Reviewing the results of sensory analysis indicates that it is not recommended to extend the shelf-life of the product comparing to the already defined shelf-life because occurred changes may adversely affect the consumer desire for the choice of this product.
Compression-Extrusion Test to Assess Texture of Thickened Liquids for Dysphagia
Dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing affects mostly elder people: 56-78% of the institutionalized and 44% of the hospitalized. Liquid food thickening is a necessary measure in this situation because it reduces the risk of penetration-aspiration. Until now, and as proposed by the American Dietetic Association in 2002, possible consistencies have been categorized in three groups attending to their viscosity: nectar (50-350 mPa•s), honey (350-1750 mPa•s) and pudding (>1750 mPa•s). The adequate viscosity level should be identified for every patient, according to her/his impairment. Nevertheless, a systematic review on dysphagia diet performed recently indicated that there is no evidence to suggest that there is any transition of clinical relevance between the three levels proposed. It was also stated that other physical properties of the bolus (slipperiness, density or cohesiveness, among others) could influence swallowing in affected patients and could contribute to the amount of remaining residue. Texture parameters need to be evaluated as possible alternative to viscosity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the instrumental extrusion-compression test as a possible tool to characterize changes along time in water thickened with various products and in the three theoretical consistencies. Six commercial thickeners were used: NM® (NM), Multi-thick® (M), Nutilis Powder® (Nut), Resource® (R), Thick&Easy® (TE) and Vegenat® (V). All of them with a modified starch base. Only one of them, Nut, also had a 6,4% of gum (guar, tara and xanthan). They were prepared as indicated in the instructions of each product and dispensing the correspondent amount for nectar, honey and pudding consistencies in 300 mL of tap water at 18ºC-20ºC. The mixture was stirred for about 30 s. Once it was homogeneously spread, it was dispensed in 30 mL plastic glasses; always to the same height. Each of these glasses was used as a measuring point. Viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer (ST-2001, Selecta, Barcelona). Extrusion-compression test was performed using a TA.XT2i texture analyzer (Stable Micro Systems, UK) with a 25 mm diameter cylindrical probe (SMSP/25). Penetration distance was set at 10 mm and a speed of 3 mm/s. Measurements were made at 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes from the moment samples were mixed. From the force (g)–time (s) curves obtained in the instrumental assays, maximum force peak (F) was chosen a reference parameter. Viscosity (mPa•s) and F (g) showed to be highly correlated and had similar development along time, following time-dependent quadratic models. It was possible to predict viscosity using F as an independent variable, as they were linearly correlated. In conclusion, compression-extrusion test could be an alternative and a useful tool to assess physical characteristics of thickened liquids.
Efficacy of Chia Seed Oil Supplemented Ice-Cream against Hypercholesterolemia
Chia seeds found to be a rich source of dietary fiber contain oil which is high in omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids and helpful in the control of cardiovascular diseases. Owing to its spectacular significance, present research had been designed to explore its effect on cholesterol level of the individuals after consumption of chia seed oil supplemented ice cream. The project was designed in such a manner that fat of ice cream was replaced with chia seed oil in different proportions i.e., 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. After physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of ice cream, best treatment was selected and used for efficacy trials. After baseline line study and thorough inclusion criteria 10 individuals were selected and divided into two groups. One group treated as control and the other was given chia seed oil supplemented l(50%) ice cream. Significant decrease in cholesterol level was observed in the treated group. 18% decrease in cholesterol level was observed at 40th day followed by 8% at 20th day. Similarly 20% decrease in LDL cholesterol with 14% increase in HDL cholesterol. It was recommended that further trials be conducted with sophisticated techniques to completely replace saturated fat in ice cream with unsaturated fats and to study its effect in hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.
Microbiological Analysis of Biofuels in Order to Follow Stability on Room Temperature
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. It is derived by alcoholysis of triacylglycerols (triglycerides) from various lipid based materials that can be traditionally categorized into the following main groups: vegetable oils, animal fats, waste and algal oils. The goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological stability of biodiesel samples since it has been made from vegetable oil or animal fat which was stored on room temperature. For the purposes of this study, analyzes were conducted on six samples of biodiesel first at zero sample at the reception day than fifth, thirtieth, sixtieth, ninetieth and one hundred twentieth day from the day of reception. During this period, biodiesel samples were subjected to microbiological analyses (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae and total plate count). All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-2, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-1, total plate count ISO 4833-1. The results obtained after the analyses which were done according to the plan during the 120 days indicate that are no changes of products concerning microbiological analyses. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae were not detected and results for total plate count showed values < 10 cfu/g for all six samples. On the basis of this monitoring under defined storage conditions at room temperatures, the results showed that biodiesel is very stable as far as microbiological analysis were concerned.
Assessment of Food Safety Culture in Select Restaurants and a Produce Market in Doha, Qatar
Food safety management in Qatar is under the shared oversight of multiple agencies in two government ministries (Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Municipality and Environment). Despite the increasing number and diversity of the food service establishments, no systematic food surveillance system is in place in the country, which creates a gap in terms of determining the food safety attitudes and practices applied in the food service operations. Therefore, this study seeks to partially address this gap through determination of food safety knowledge among food handlers, specifically with respect to food preparation and handling practices, and sanitation methods applied in food service providers (FSPs) and a major market in Doha, Qatar. The study covered a sample of 53 FSPs randomly selected out of 200 FSPs. Face-to-face interviews with managers at participating FSPs were conducted using a 40-questions survey. Additionally, 120 produce handlers who are in direct contact with fresh produce at the major produce market in Doha were surveyed using a questionnaire containing 21 questions. A written informed consent was obtained from each survey participant. The survey data were analyzed using the chi-square test and correlation test. The significance was evaluated at p ˂ 0.05. The results from the FSPs surveys indicated that the average age of FSPs was 11 years, with the oldest and newest being established in 1982 and 2015, respectively. Most managers (66%) had college degree and 68% of them were trained on the food safety management system known as HACCP. These surveys revealed that FSP managers’ training and education level were highly correlated with the probability of their employees receiving food safety training while managers with lower education level had no formal training on food safety for themselves nor for their employees. Casual sit-in and fine dine-in restaurants consistently kept records (100%), followed by fast food (36%), and catering establishments (14%). The produce handlers’ survey results showed that none of the workers had any training on safe produce handling practices. The majority of the workers were in the age range of 31-40 years (37%) and only 38% of them had high-school degree. Over 64% of produce handlers claimed to wash their hands 4-5 times per day but field observations pointed limited handwashing as there was soap in the settings. This observation suggests potential food safety risks since a significant correlation (p ˂ 0.01) between the educational level and the hand-washing practices was determined. This assessment on food safety culture through determination of food and produce handlers' level of knowledge and practices, the first of its kind in Qatar, demonstrated that training and education are important factors which directly impact the food safety culture in FSPs and produce markets. These findings should help in identifying the need for on-site training of food handlers for effective food safety practices in food establishments in Qatar.
Comparison of Fatty Acids Composition of Three Commercial Fish Species Farmed in the Adriatic Sea
Fish has been acknowledged as an integral component of a well-balanced diet, providing a healthy source of energy, high-quality proteins, vitamins, essential minerals and, especially, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 EPA), and docosahexaenoicacid, (22:6 n-3 DHA), whose pleiotropic effects in terms of health promotion and disease prevention have been increasingly recognised. In this study, the fatty acids composition of three commercially important farmed fish species: sea bream (Sparus aurata), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and dentex (Dentex dentex) was investigated. In total, 60 fish samples were retrieved during 2015 (n = 30) and 2016 (n = 30) from different locations in the Adriatic Sea. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). The results show that the most represented fatty acid in all three analysed species is oleic acid (C18:1n-9, OA), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, LA) and palmitic acid (C16:0, PA). Dentex was shown to have two to four times higher eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid content as compared to sea bream and sea bass. The recommended n-6/n-3 ratio was determined in all fish species but obtained results pointed to statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in fatty acid composition among the analysed fish species and their potential as a dietary source of valuable fatty acids. Sea bass and sea bream had a significantly higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, while dentex had a significantly higher proportion of n-3 (C18:4n-3, C20:4n-3, EPA, DHA) fatty acids. A higher hypocholesterolaemic and hypercholesterolaemic fatty acids (HH) ratio was determined for sea bass and sea bream, which comes as the consequence of a lower share of SFA determined in these two species in comparison to dentex. Since the analysed fish species vary in their fatty acids composition consumption of diverse fish species would be advisable. Based on the established lipid quality indicators, dentex, a fish species underutilised by the aquaculture, seems to be a highly recommendable and important source of fatty acids recommended to be included into the human diet.
Antimicrobial Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Foods and Probiotic Products
Objective: To evaluate the potential of commercial fermented / probiotic products available in Zimbabwe or internationally, and strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) as prophylaxis and therapy against diarrhoeal and sexually transmitted infections. Methods: The antimicrobial potential of cultures of lactobacilli enriched from 4 Zimbabwean commercial food/beverage products, namely Dairibord Lacto sour milk (DLSM), Probrand sour milk (PSM), Kefalos Vuka cheese (KVC) and Chibuku opaque beer (COB); three probiotic products obtainable in Europe and internationally; and four strains of L. plantarum obtained from Balkan traditional cheeses and Zimbabwean foods against clinical strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and non-clinical strains of Candida albicans and Rhodotorula spp. was assayed using the well diffusion method. Three commercial Agar diffusion assay and a competitive exclusion assay were carried out on Mueller-Hinton agar. Results: Crude cultures of putative lactobacillus strains obtained from Zimbabwean dairy products (Probrand sour milk, Kefalos Vuka vuka cheese and Chibuku opaque beer) exhibited significantly greater antimicrobial activities against clinical strains of E. coli than strains of L. plantarum isolated from Balkan cheeses (CLP1, CLP2 or CLP3) or crude microbial cultures from commercial paediatric probiotic products (BG, PJ and PL) of a culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the following has high antifungal activities against the two yeasts: supernatant-free microbial pellet (SFMP) from an extract of M. azedarach leaves (27mm ± 2.5) > cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) from Maaz Dairy sour milk and Mnandi sour milk (approximately 26mm ± 1.8) > CFCS and SFMP from Amansi hodzeko (25mm ± 1.5) > CFCS from Parinari curatellifolia fruit (24mm ± 1.5), SFMP from P. curatellifolia fruit (24mm ± 1.4) and SFMP from mahewu (20mm ± 1.5). These cultures also showed high tolerance to acidic conditions (~pH4). Conclusions: The putative lactobacilli from four commercial Zimbabwean dairy products (Probrand sour milk, Kefalos Vuka vuka cheese and Chibuku opaque beer), and three strains of L. plantarum from Balkan cheeses (CLP1, CLP2 or CLP3) exhibited high antibacterial activities, while Maaz Dairy sour-, Mnandi sour- and Amansi hodzeko milk products had high antifungal activities. Our selection of Zimbabwean probiotic products has potential for further development into probiotic products for use in the control diarrhea caused by pathogenic strains of E. coli or yeast infections. Studies to characterise the probiotic potential of the live cultures in the products are underway.
Physicochemical Properties of Rambutan Seed Oil (RSO)
Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit is abundantly present in Malaysia during their season of the year. Its short shelf life at ambient temperature has contributed to fruit wastage. Thus, the initiative of producing canned Rambutan is an innovation that makes Rambutan fruit available throughout the year. The canned Rambutan industry leaves large amount of Rambutan seed. This study focused on utilization of Rambutan seed as a valuable product which is Rambutan Seed Oil (RSO). The RSO was extracted using Soxhlet Extraction Method for 8 hours. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of RSO: melting point (°C), Refractive Index (RI), Total Carotene Content (TCC), water activity (Aw), acid value, peroxide value and saponification value. The results showed: 38.00±1.00 – 48.83±1.61°C melting point, 1.46±0.00 RI, 1.18±0.06mg/kg TCC, 0.4721±0.0176 Aw, 1.2162±0.1520mg KOH/g acid value, 9.6000±0.4000g/g peroxide value and 146.8040±18.0182mg KOH/g saponification value, respectively. According to the results, RSO showed high industrial potential as cocoa butter replacement in chocolates and cosmetics production.
Investigative Study of Consumer Perceptions to the Quality and Safety Attributes of 'Fresh' versus 'Frozen' Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): A Case for Agro-Processing in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) which is also known as ‘yucca’ or ‘manioc’ has been acknowledged as a millennium crop which has been utilized for food security purposes. The crop provides considerable amount of energy. The aim of the study was to assess consumer groups of both ‘fresh’ and ‘frozen’ in terms of their perceptions toward the quality and safety attributes of frozen cassava. The questionnaire included four sections: consumer demographics, consumer perceptions on quality attributes of ‘frozen’ cassava, consumer knowledge, awareness and attitudes toward food safety of ‘frozen’ cassava and consumer suggestions toward the improvement of frozen cassava. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 200 consumers of cassava between April and May 2016. The criteria for inclusion in the survey were that they must be 15 years and over and consumer of cassava. The sections of the questionnaire included demographics of respondents, consumer perception on quality and safety attributes of cassava and suggestions for the improvement of the value-added product. The data was analysed by descriptive and chi-square using SPSS as well as qualitative information was captured. Only 17% of respondents purchased frozen cassava and this was significantly (P< 0.05) associated to income. Some (15%) of fresh cassava purchasers had never heard of frozen cassava products and 7.5% o perceived that these products were unhealthy for consumption. More than half (51.3%) of the consumers (all from the ‘fresh’ cassava group) believed that there were ‘no toxins’ within cassava. The ‘frozen’ cassava products were valued for convenience but purchasers were least satisfied with ‘value for money’ (50%), ‘product safety’ (50%) and ‘colour’ (52.9%). Cassava purchasers demonstrated highest dissatisfaction levels with the quality attribute: value for money (6.6%, 11.8%) respectively. The most predominant area outlined by respondents for frozen cassava improvement was promotion /advertising/education (23%). The ‘frozen’ cassava purchasers were ‘least satisfied’ thus most concern that clean knives and clean surface would not be used agro- processing. Fresh cassava purchasers were comparatively more knowledgeable on the potential existence of naturally occurring toxins in cassava, however with 1% respondents being able to specifically identify the toxin as ‘cyanide’. Dangerous preservatives (31%), poor hygiene (30%) and chemicals from the packaging (11%) were identified as some sources of contamination of ‘frozen’ cassava. Purchasers of frozen cassava indicated that the information on packaging label was unclear (P< 0.01) when compared to ‘fresh’ cassava consumers.