Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 49738

Nutrition and Food Engineering

1061
83407
Application of Box-Behnken Response Surface Design for Optimization of Essential Oil Based Disinfectant on Mixed Species Biofilm
Abstract:
With the optimization of a new disinfectant the number of tests could be decreased and the cost of processing too. Good sanitizers are eco-friendly and allow no resistance evolvement of bacteria. The essential oils (EOs) are natural antimicrobials, and most of them have the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status. In our study, the effect of the EOs cinnamon, marjoram, and thyme was investigated against mixed species bacterial biofilms of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas putida, and Staphylococcus aureus. The optimal concentration of EOs, disinfection time and level of pH were evaluated with the aid of Response Surface Box-Behnken Design (RSD) on 1 day and 7 days old biofilms on metal, plastic, and wood surfaces. The variable factors were in the range of 1-3 times of minimum bactericide concentration (MBC); 10-110 minutes acting time and 4.5- 7.5 pH. The optimized EO disinfectant was compared to industrial used chemicals (HC-DPE, Hypo). The natural based disinfectants were applicable; the acting time was below 30 minutes. EOs were able to eliminate the biofilm from the used surfaces except from wood. The disinfection effect of the EO based natural solutions was in most cases equivalent or better compared to chemical sanitizers used in food industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1060
83381
The Effects of Salts Concentration into Microbiological, Physio-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Tempoyak (Indonesian Fermented Durian Flesh)
Abstract:
Tempoyak was made from fermented durian flesh, which very popular among Jambi people Indonesia. This study aims to isolate and identification of bacteria developed during fermentations, determine physical-chemical properties of Tempoyak as the effect of adding salts at various concentration and the sensory evaluations of Tempoyak produced is also evaluated. The predominant microorganisms present in Tempoyak were Lactobacillus bacteria. The results also showed that the level of salts concentration has a significant effect on pH, lactic acid content, however, not has a significant impact on sensory evaluations. The best results were 3% of adding salts with the product properties of pH 3.64, lactic acid content 3.11% and overall acceptance score is 3.41.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1059
82677
Feeding Practices and Malnutrition among under Five Children in Communities of Kuje Area Council, Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria
Abstract:
Poor dietary practices and malnutrition, including severe acute malnutrition among under-five children in Nigeria has remained a great public health concern. This study assessed infant and young child feeding practices and nutritional status of under-five children to determine the prevalence of malnutrition of under-five children in Kuje area council, Abuja. The study was a cross-sectional study. Multi-stage sampling techniques was used in selecting the population that was studied. Probability proportion by size was applied in choosing 30 clusters for the survey using ENA for SMART software 2011 version. Questionnaires were used to obtain information from the population, while appropriate equipment was used for measurements of anthropometric parameters. The data was also subjected to statistical analysis. Results were presented in tables and figures. The result showed that 96.7% of the children were breastfed, 30.6% had early initiation to breastfeeding within first hour of birth and 22.4% were breastfed exclusively up to 6 months, 69.8% fed infants’ colostrum, while 30.2% discarded colostrum. About half of the respondents (49.1%) introduced complementary feeding before six months and 23.2% introduced it after six months while 27.7% had age appropriate timely introduction of complementary feeding. The anthropometric result showed that the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) was 12.8%, severe wasting prevalence was 5.4%, moderate wasting was 7.4%, underweight was 24.4%, stunting was 40.3% and overweight was 7.0%. The result showed that there is a high prevalence of malnutrition among under-five children in Kuje
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1058
81886
Effect of Aronia Juice on Cellular Redox Status in Women with Aerobic Training Activity
Abstract:
Physical activity is well known for its beneficial health implications, however, excess oxygen consumption may impair oxidative status of the cell and affect membrane fatty acid (FA) composition. Polyphenols are well-established antioxidants, which can incorporate in cell membranes and protect them from oxidation. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how an 8-week aerobic training alters erythrocyte FA composition and activities of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase), and to what extent polyphenol-rich Aronia juice (AJ) counteracts these potential alterations. We included 28 healthy women aged 19-29, with mean body mass index (BMI) of 21.2±2.7kg/m² and assigned them into three groups. The first group performed 1 hour of aerobic training three times per week (T); the second group trained in the same way and received 100 ml/day AJ as a part of their regular diet (TAJ), while the third group was the control one (C). Study analyses were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention and included: anthropometric and biochemical measurements, determination of erythrocyte FA profile with gas-liquid chromatography and determination of enzymes’ activity with spectrophotometry. Statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS 20.0, with p < 0.05 considered as significant. The paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the saturated FA content and in ω6/ω3 ratio in TAJ group. Furthermore, ω3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content increased, as well as the percentage of polyunsaturated FA and unsaturation index, which clearly pointed out that AJ supplementation with aerobic training protected cellular membranes from lipid peroxidation. No significant changes were observed in the two other groups. The between-group comparisons (ANCOVA) confirmed the synergistic effect of AJ supplementation and physical activity: DHA and ω3 contents were much higher, while ω6/ω3 ratio was significantly lower in the TAJ group compared with C. We also found that after the 8 weeks period, participants in TAJ group had a higher unsaturation index and lower saturated FA concentration than subjects from T group, suggesting that AJ polyphenols might be involved in that particular pathway. We found no significant changes in enzymes’ activities apart from a significantly higher superoxide dismutase activity in T group compared with the other two groups. Our results imply that supplementation with polyphenol-rich AJ may prevent membrane lipids from peroxidation in healthy subjects with regular aerobic activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1057
79647
Proximate, Functional and Sensory Evaluation of Some Brands of Instant Noodles in Nigeria
Abstract:
Noodles are made from unleavened dough, rolled flat and cut into shapes. The instant noodle market is growing fast in Asian countries and is gaining popularity in the western market. This project reports on the proximate functional and sensory evaluation of different brands of instant noodles in Nigeria. The comparisons were based on proximate functional and sensory evaluation of the product. The result obtained from the proximate analysis showed that sample QHR has the highest moisture content, sample BMG has the highest protein content, sample CPO has the highest fat content, sample. The obtained result from the functional properties showed that sample BMG (Dangote noodles) had the highest volume increase after cooking due to its high swelling capacity, high water absorption capacity and high hydration capacity. Sample sensory analysis of the noodles showed that all the samples are of significant difference (at P < 0.05) in terms of colour, texture, and aroma but there is no significant difference in terms of taste and overall acceptability. Sample QHR (Indomie noodles) is the most preferred by the panelists.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1056
79646
Effects of Particle Sizes of Maize Flour on the Quality of Traditional Maize Snack, Kokoro
Abstract:
The effects of particle sizes of maize flour on the quality of traditional maize snack (Kokoro) were investigated. Maize flour of different sieve mesh sizes of 1.00mm, 1.9 mm, 1.4 mm, 1.68 mm and 2.0 mm was used to produce Kokoro. The samples were analysed for protein, fat, moisture content, crude fibre, ash and sensory evaluation. The various mixture obtained were separately processed into snacks following essential traditional method of production. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that Kokoro of sample 546 using 1.0mm mesh sieve size was the most preferred and sample 513 using 2.00 was least preferred. The result revealed that the more the maize was well blended the more acceptable the product is to the consumer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1055
79387
Factors Influencing the Choice of Food Intake of Students of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing the student’s choice of food intake, a case study of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. A review of the past work was done, and many key points were noted. A sample population of 1000 students was selected randomly (i.e. 200 students from each school) who were in the 2011/2012 academic session. The factor influencing the students' foods intake ranges from economic factors (food cost, income, availability of food), physical factors (easy to cook, shortest time), social factors (cultural, family and meal pattern) attitudes, belief and knowledge about food were discovered. The data collected were tabulated in frequency and percentages. It was revealed that ‘easy method of cooking and preparation’ influenced students’ choice of food intake more (34%) and the food frequency questionnaire shows that the students eat more of carbohydrates foods compared to other classes of food. The cooking skills of students were low (1%) which may be responsible for the limitations in the food choices. It is, therefore, recommended that students should be equipped with sound cooking skills to increase their range of food intake. Variety is needed in diet/meal because the required nutrients are scattered among many different foods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1054
79359
Effect of Spermidine on Physicochemical Properties of Protein Based Films
Abstract:
Protein-based edible films and coatings have attracted an increasing interest in recent years since they might be used to protect pharmaceuticals or improve the shelf life of different food products. Among them, several plant proteins represent an abundant, inexpensive and renewable raw source. These natural biopolymers are used as film forming agents, being able to form intermolecular linkages by various interactions. However, without the addition of a plasticizing agent, many biomaterials are brittle and, consequently, very difficult to be manipulated. Plasticizers are generally small and non-volatile organic additives used to increase film extensibility and reduce its crystallinity, brittleness and water vapor permeability. Plasticizers normally act by decreasing the intermolecular forces along the polymer chains, thus reducing the relative number of polymer-polymer contacts, producing a decrease in cohesion and tensile strength and thereby increasing film flexibility allowing its deformation without rupture. The most commonly studied plasticizers are polyols, like glycerol (GLY) and some mono or oligosaccharides. In particular, GLY not only increases film extensibility but also migrates inside the film network often causing the loss of desirable mechanical properties of the material. Therefore, replacing GLY with a different plasticizer might help to improve film characteristics allowing potential industrial applications. To improve film properties, it seemed of interest to test as plasticizers some cationic small molecules like polyamines (PAs). Putrescine, spermidine (SPD), and spermine are PAs widely distributed in nature and of particular interest for their biological activities that may have some beneficial health effects. Since PAs contains amino instead of hydroxyl functional groups, they are able to trigger ionic interactions with negatively charged proteins. Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia; BV) is an ancient grain legume crop, originated in the Mediterranean region, which can be found today in many countries around the world. This annual Vicia genus shows several favorable features, being their seeds a cheap and abundant protein source. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different concentrations of SPD on the mechanical and permeability properties of films prepared with native or heat denatured BV proteins in the presence of different concentrations of SPD and/or GLY. Therefore, a BV seed protein concentrate (BVPC), containing about 77% proteins, was used to prepare film forming solutions (FFSs), whereas GLY and SPD were added as film plasticizers, either singly or in combination, at various concentrations. Since a primary plasticizer is generally defined as a molecule that when added to a material makes it softer, more flexible and easier to be processed, our findings lead to consider SPD as a possible primary plasticizer of protein-based films. In fact, the addition of millimolar concentrations of SPD to BVPC FFS allowed obtaining handleable biomaterials with improved properties. Moreover, SPD can be also considered as a secondary plasticizer, namely an 'extender', because of its ability even to enhance the plasticizing performance of GLY. In conclusion, our studies indicate that innovative edible protein-based films and coatings can be obtained by using PAs as new plasticizers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1053
79161
qPCR Method for Detection of Halal Food Adulteration
Abstract:
Nowadays, European producers are increasingly interested in the production of halal meat products. Halal meat has been increasingly appearing in the EU's market network and meat products from European producers are being exported to Islamic countries. Halal criteria are mainly related to the origin of muscle used in production, and also to the way products are obtained and processed. Although the EU has legislatively addressed the question of food authenticity, the circumstances of previous years when products with undeclared horse or poultry meat content appeared on EU markets raised the question of the effectiveness of control mechanisms. Replacement of expensive or not-available types of meat for low-priced meat has been on a global scale for a long time. Likewise, halal products may be contaminated (falsified) by pork or food components obtained from pigs. These components include collagen, offal, pork fat, mechanically separated pork, emulsifier, blood, dried blood, dried blood plasma, gelatin, and others. These substances can influence sensory properties of the meat products - color, aroma, flavor, consistency and texture or they are added for preservation and stabilization. Food manufacturers sometimes access these substances mainly due to their dense availability and low prices. However, the use of these substances is not always declared on the product packaging. Verification of the presence of declared ingredients, including the detection of undeclared ingredients, are among the basic control procedures for determining the authenticity of food. Molecular biology methods, based on DNA analysis, offer rapid and sensitive testing. The PCR method and its modification can be successfully used to identify animal species in single- and multi-ingredient raw and processed foods and qPCR is the first choice for food analysis. Like all PCR-based methods, it is simple to implement and its greatest advantage is the absence of post-PCR visualization by electrophoresis. qPCR allows detection of trace amounts of nucleic acids, and by comparing an unknown sample with a calibration curve, it can also provide information on the absolute quantity of individual components in the sample. Our study addresses a problem that is related to the fact that the molecular biological approach of most of the work associated with the identification and quantification of animal species is based on the construction of specific primers amplifying the selected section of the mitochondrial genome. In addition, the sections amplified in conventional PCR are relatively long (hundreds of bp) and unsuitable for use in qPCR, because in DNA fragmentation, amplification of long target sequences is quite limited. Our study focuses on finding a suitable genomic DNA target and optimizing qPCR to reduce variability and distortion of results, which is necessary for the correct interpretation of quantification results. In halal products, the impact of falsification of meat products by the addition of components derived from pigs is all the greater that it is not just about the economic aspect but above all about the religious and social aspect. This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (QJ1530107).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1052
78457
Analysis of Microbiological Quality and Detection of Antibiotic Residue in Bovine Raw Milk Produced in Blida State, Algeria
Abstract:
Bovine raw milk represents a favorable environment for the growth of several food-spoilage strains and some pathogens. It must meet stringent standards to ensure the highest microbiological and toxicological qualities.In order to assess the microbiological risks associated with the consumption of this food, we conducted this study to determine the microbiological quality of bovine raw milk (54 samples) commercialized at the state of Blida (Algeria). The samples analyzed were unsatisfactory in terms of total flora where 61.11% of samples were considered as non acceptable in terms of quality standards, fecal coliforms (40.74%), fecal streptococci (55.55%) and staphylococci (74.07%). Salmonella and Clostridium strains were not detected in all the samples. Furthermore, antibiotic residues were found in 26% of analysed samples. These results reflect non-compliance with the rules of good hygiene practices at milking, storage, transportatio, and sale of milk. Bovine raw milk consumed presents a serious health risk to the population of the study areas.The livestock coaching actors and dissemination of good hygiene practices throughout the production chain are needed to improve the quality of local milk.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1051
78326
Occurrence of Ranavirus in Edible Frogs and Fish Sold for Human Consumption in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria
Abstract:
Ranaviruses are belonging to the viral Family Iridoviridae, are a group of globally emerging pathogens recognized as major viral pathogens of cold-blooded vertebrates. They cause systemic infection in fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. Ranaviruses have been associated with numerous disease outbreaks in natural and cultured populations of fish, amphibians, and reptiles. To investigate the presence of the ranavirus in fish and edible frogs sourced from dams and ponds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 425 frogs (Rana spp.) and fishes (n=215 and n=200, respectively) were randomly collected based on consent and availability. Liver, kidney, and spleen tissue samples from each animal were pooled and homogenized. The samples were screened for ranavirus using the Indirect Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An overall prevalence of 46.1% (196/425) was obtained from the study. Frogs had a prevalence of 51.2% (110/215) while fish had 43% (86/200). This is the first study on ranavirus in fish and edible frogs in Nigeria. This study has established that edible frogs (Rana spp) and fishes sold in Zaria, Nigeria were infected with ranavirus which may have great economic importance to the nation’s aquaculture. In view of occasional massive economic losses observed in fishery industry due to deaths of unknown origin, this preliminary investigation is useful in directing veterinarians, policy makers and researchers on need to survey for ranavirus and also enlighten the relevant stakeholders on its prevention and control in Nigeria.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1050
78091
Shelf Life and Overall Quality of Pretreated and Modified Atmosphere Packaged ‘Ready-To-Eat’ Pomegranate arils cv. Bhagwa Stored at 1⁰C
Abstract:
The effect of different pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of minimally processed pomegranate arils of Bhagwa cultivar was evaluated during storage at 1⁰C for 16 days. Hand extracted pomegranate arils were pretreated with different antioxidants and surfactants viz., 100ppm sodium hypochlorite plus 0.5 percent ascorbic acid plus 0.5 percent citric acid, 10 and 20 percent honey solution, 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide alone and in combination with 10 percent honey solution and control. The disinfected, rinsed and air-dried pomegranate arils were packed in polypropylene punnets (135g each) with different modified atmospheres and stored up to 16 days at 1⁰C. Changes in colour, pH, total soluble solids, sugars, anthocyanins, phenols, acidity, antioxidant activity, microbial and yeast and mold count over initial values were recorded in all the treatments under study but highest on those without antioxidant and surfactant treatments. Pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C recorded decrease in L*, b* value, pH, levels of non-reducing and total sugars, polyphenols, antioxidant activity and acceptability of arils and increase in total soluble solids, a* value, anthocyanins and microbial count. Increase in anthocyanin content was observed in modified atmosphere packaged pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C. Modified atmosphere packaging with 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical and sensorial parameters with minimum microbial growth. Untreated arils in perforated punnets and with air (control) gave shelf life up to 6 days only. The pretreatment of arils with 10 percent honey plus 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide and packaging in 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical parameters. The treatment also restricted microbial growth and maintained colour, anthocyanin pigmentation, antioxidant activity and overall fresh like quality of arils. The same dipping treatment along with modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf life of fresh ready to eat arils up to 14 to 16 days with enhanced acceptability when stored at 1⁰C.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1049
77942
Effect of Dehydration Methods of the Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Functional Properties of Starch Flour Extracted from Maize
Abstract:
Effect of the dehydrated method on proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch was evaluated. The study was carried and to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch produced using three different drying methods namely (sun) (oven) and (cabinet) drying methods. The corn starch was obtained by cleaning, steeping, milling, sieving, dewatering and drying corn starch was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, and mineral properties to determine the nutritional properties, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, and carbohydrate were in the range of 9.35 to 12.16, 6.5 to 10.78 1.08 to 2.5, 1.08 to 2.5, 4.0 to 5.2, 69.58 to 75.8% respectively. Bulk density range between 0.610g/dm3 to 0.718 g/dm3, water, and oil absorption capacities range between 116.5 to 117.25 and 113.8 to 117.25 ml/g respectively. Swelling powder had value varying from 1.401 to 1.544g/g respectively. The results indicate that the cabinet method had the best result item of the quality attribute.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1048
77941
Effect of Sprouting Period of Proximate Composition, Functional Properties and Mineral Content on Malted Sorghum Flour
Abstract:
Effect of sprouting period on proximate, functional and mineral properties of malted sorghum flour was evaluated. The study was carried out to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of sprouting period on malted sorghum flour produced. The malted sorghum flour was obtained by sorting, weighing, washing, steeping, draining, germination, drying, dry milling, sieving. Malted sorghum flour was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties and mineral contents. Moisture, protein, fat content, crude fiber, ash contents and carbohydrate of 24 and 48 hours, were in the range of 10.50-11.0, 11.17-11.17, 1.50-4.00, 2.50-1.50, 1.50-1.54 and 73.15-70.79% respectively. Bulk density ranged between 0.64 and 0.59g/ml, water and oil absorption capacities ranged between 139.3 and 150.0 and 217.3 and 222.7g/g respectively. Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Manganese were also range of 12.5, 59.3-60.0, 3.22-3.25, 3.80-3.90 and 3.22-3.25 mg/100g respectively. The results indicate that the germination of red sorghum resulted in the enhancement of the nutritional quality and its functional properties.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1047
77879
The Impact of Maternal Micronutrient Levels on Risk of Offspring Neural Tube Defects in Egypt
Abstract:
Neural tube defects (NTD) are important causes of infant mortality. Poor nutrition was essential factor for central nervous system deformation. Mothers gave NTD offspring had abnormal serum levels of micronutrients. The present research was designed to study the effect of maternal micronutrient levels and oxidative stress on the incidence of NTD in offspring. The study included forty mothers; twenty of them of 30.9+7.28 years had conceived fetuses with NTD were considered as cases; and twenty mothers of 28.2 + 7.82 years with healthy neonates. We determined serum vitamin B12 and folic acid by using radioimmunoassays. Also, serum zinc was assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. While serum copper and iron were measured colorimetrically and serum ceruloplasmin was analyzed by radialimmunodiffusion. Cases showed significantly lower levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and zinc (P< 0.0005, 0.01, 0.01 respectively) than that of the control. Concentrations of copper, ceruloplasmin, and iron were markedly increased in cases as compared to controls (P < 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05 respectively). In conclusion, the current study clearly indicated the etiology of NTD cannot be explained with one strict etiologic mechanism, on the contrary, an interaction among maternal nutritional factors and oxidative stress would explain these anomalies. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and zinc supplementations should be considered for further decrease in the occurrence of NTD. Preventing excess iron during pregnancy favors better pregnancy outcomes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1046
77426
Assessment of Lactic Acid Bacteria of Probiotic Potentials in Dairy Produce in Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria and evaluate their therapeutic and food preservation importance. Ninety-three suspected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from thirteen different raw and fermented milk of indigenous sources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The identification of forty-six selected LAB strains and genetic relatedness were performed based on 16S rDNA gene sequence comparison. The LAB counts in certain samples were higher under microaerobic than anaerobic conditions. The identified LAB belonged to genera Enterococcus (16 strains), Lactobacillus (9 strains), Weissella (10 strains), Streptococcus (8 strains) and Lactococcus (3 strains). Phylogenetic tree generated from the full-length (~1.6 kb) sequences confirmed previous findings. Utilization of shorter 16S rDNA sequences (~1.0 kb) also discriminated among strains of which V2 region was the most effective. None of the strains exhibited resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics or undesirable hemolytic activity, while they differed in other probiotic characteristics, e.g., tolerance to acidic pH, resistance to bile salt, and antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the isolates Lactobacillus casei MSJ1, Lactobacillus casei Dwan5, Lactobacillus plantarum EyLan2 and Enterococcus faecium Gail-BawZir8 are likely the best probiotic LAB and we speculate that studying the synergistic effects of bacterial combinations might result in the occurrence of more effective probiotic potential. We argue that the raw and fermented milk of animals hosted in Saudi Arabia, especially stirred yogurt (Laban) made from camel milk, are rich in LAB with promising probiotics potential.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1045
77358
The Use of Medicinal Plants among Middle Aged People in Rural Area, West Java, Indonesia
Abstract:
The use of traditional medicine (herbs and medicinal plants) are common among Indonesian people especially the elderly. Few study explore the use of medicinal plants in middle aged people. This study aims to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in middle aged people in rural areas. This cross sectional study included 224 subjects aged 45-59 years old and conducted in Cianjur District, West Java in 2014. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information about preference in treatment of illness, the use of medicinal plants, and their purposes. Information also recorded plant names, parts used, mode of preparation, and dosage. Buying drugs in stall (83.9%) is the first preference in treatment of illness, followed by modern treatment 19.2% (doctors) and traditional treatment 17.0% (herbs/medicinal plants). 87 subjects (38.8%) were using herbs and medicinal plants for curative (66.7%), preventive (31.2%), and rehabilitative (2.1%) purposes. In this study, 48 species are used by the subjects. Physalis minima L. 'cecenet', Orthosiphon aristatus Mic. 'kumis kucing', and Annona muricata 'sirsak' are commonly used for the treatment of hypertension and stiffness. Leaves (64.6%) are the most common part used. Medicinal plants were washed and boiled in a hot water. Subject drinks the herbs with a different dosage. One in three middle aged people used herbal and medicinal plants for curative and preventive treatment particularly hypertension and stiffness. Increasing knowledge about herbal or medicinal plants dosage and their interaction with medical drugs are important to do.Doses vary between 1-3 glasses/day for treatment and 1-2 glasses/months for prevention of diseases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1044
77113
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Allium Hookeri Root and Processed Sulfur on the Growth Performance of Guinea Pigs
Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of the dietary supplementation of the Allium hookeri root, and processed sulfur, on the growth performance of guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were fed a control diet (CON), as well as the control diet including 1% freeze-dried Allium hookeri root (AH), or 0.1% processed sulfur (S), or including both the freeze-dried Allium hookeri root and the processed sulfur (AHS). The weight of perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) and the epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) in the AH were significantly lower than CON (p &lt; 0.05). The serum cholesterols levels of the AH and the AHS were significantly lower than the S (p &lt; 0.05). While the total saturated fatty acid content in the serum of the AH and AHS groups showed a tendency to decrease, the total monounsaturated fatty acid increased. The results of this study suggested that dietary consumption of Allium hookeri root may help to decrease fat accumulation, lower serum cholesterol levels, and control serum free fatty acid contents in the guinea pigs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1043
77106
Ethyl Carbamate in Korean Total Diet Study: Level, Dietary Intake, and Risk Assessment
Abstract:
Ethyl carbamate(EC) is a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) found in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods. A total of 351 samples including fermented foods and alcoholic beverages were chosen from 734 foods appeared in the pooled intake data of 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Sampling was carried out from September 2013 to July 2016 in 18 supermarkets of 9 metropolitan cities in Korea. The samples were pooled, prepared according to various cooking methods, and analyzed. A total of 1245 samples were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. EC was detected in 13 items (1.0%), which ranged from not-detected to 151 g/kg. Alcoholic beverages (maesilju, whisky, and bokbunjaju) and fermented soy products (soy sauce and soybean paste) were the food items with relatively higher EC levels. Dietary intake of EC in the Korean population was estimated to be 2.11 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day for average population and 8.42 ng/kg bw per day for high consumers (the 97.5th percentile). When the estimated average dietary exposure to EC was compared with the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit 10% (BMDL10) of 0.3 mg/kg bw per day, margin of exposure (MOE) values of 1420000 to 28000000 were observed. This indicates that there is no health concern for the Korean population.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1042
77001
Duplex Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Beef and Pork
Abstract:
Product mislabeling and adulteration have been increasing the concerns in processed meat products. Relatively inexpensive pork meat compared to meat such as beef was adulterated for economic benefit. These food fraud incidents related to pork were concerned due to economic, religious and health reasons. In this study, a rapid on-site detection method using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed for the simultaneous identification of beef and pork. Each specific LAMP primer for beef and pork was designed targeting on mitochondrial D-loop region. The LAMP assay reaction was performed at 65 ℃ for 40 min. The specificity of each primer for beef and pork was evaluated using DNAs extracted from 13 animal species including beef and pork. The sensitivity of duplex LAMP assay was examined by serial dilution of beef and pork DNAs, and reference binary mixtures. This assay was applied to processed meat products including beef and pork meat for monitoring. Each set of primers amplified only the targeted species with no cross-reactivity with animal species. The limit of detection of duplex real-time LAMP was 1 pg for each DNA of beef and pork and 1% pork in a beef-meat mixture. Commercial meat products that declared the presence of beef and/or pork meat on the label showed positive results for those species. This method was successfully applied to detect simultaneous beef and pork meats in processed meat products. The optimized duplex LAMP assay can identify simultaneously beef and pork meat within less than 40 min. A portable real-time fluorescence device used in this study is applicable for on-site detection of beef and pork in processed meat products. Thus, this developed assay was considered to be an efficient tool for monitoring meat products.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1041
76970
Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Abstract:
This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation &lsquo;Requirements to safety of honey and bee products&rsquo; and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, &lsquo;Progress BG&rsquo; system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them &ndash;streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan &ndash; 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00&plusmn;10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00&plusmn;5, 11.05&plusmn;3 and 19.0&plusmn;8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03&plusmn;15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00&plusmn;3, 10.2&plusmn;4 and 1.0&plusmn;2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1040
76908
World Agricultural Commodities Prices Dynamics and Volatilities Impacts on Commodities Importation and Food Security in West African Economic and Monetary Union Countries
Abstract:
Since the decade 2000, the use of foodstuffs such as corn, wheat, and soybeans in biofuel production has been growing sharply in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Thus, prices for these agricultural products are rising in the world market. These cereals are the most important source of calorific energy for West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) countries members’ population. These countries are highly dependent on imports of most of these products. Thereby, rising prices can have an important impact on import levels and consequently on food security in these countries. This study aims to analyze the interrelationship between the prices of these commodities and their volatilities, and their effects on imports of these agricultural products by each WAEMU ’country member. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model, the GARCH Multivariate model, and the Granger Causality Test are used in this investigation. The results show that import levels are highly and significantly sensitive to price changes as well as their volatility. In the short term as well as in the long term, there is a significant relationship between the prices of these products. There is a positive relationship in general between price volatility. And these volatilities have negative effects on the level of imports. The market characteristics affect food security in these countries, especially access to food for vulnerable and low-income populations. The policies makers must adopt viable strategies to increase agricultural production and limit their dependence on imports.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1039
76725
Leisure Time Physical Activity Patterns in Odisha, India
Abstract:
Background: The World Health Organization has recommended a moderate intensity physical activity of 150 minutes, or 75 minutes vigorous-intensity physical activity per week to achieve optimal health benefits. It is not known if Indian public who indulge in leisure time physical exercises satisfy these recommendations. Methods: This study used a questionnaire to obtain data regarding demographic details, current engagement in leisure time physical activities, and dosages of these exercises from participants between 18-64 years of age. Results: Data was collected from a total of 390 participants (231 males and 159 females). 50.76% and 34.35% o of the participants reported exercising voluntarily and for health benefits respectively. Most participants (94.61%) indicated exercising without prescription. 55.38% and 12.82% of the participants under and above 38 years of age perform moderate to vigorous intensity exercises respectively. Conclusion: The over-all results of this study indicate that the participants’ choices of leisure time physical exercises are based on their personal choices and beliefs. The exercise intensities undertaken do not meet the global recommended intensities, especially in those above 38 years of age. Professionals and facilities to engage the public in the WHO recommended intensities of physical activity needs to be established.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1038
76618
Saco Sweet Cherry: Phenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Coloured and Non-Coloured Fractions
Abstract:
Increasing evidence suggests that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables plays important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, among others. Fruits and vegetables gained prominence due their richness in bioactive compounds, being the focus of many studies due to their biological properties acting as health promoters. Prunus avium Linnaeus (L.), commonly known as sweet cherry has been the centre of attention due to its health benefits, and has been highly studied. In Portugal, most of the cherry production comes from the Fundão region. The Saco is one of the most important cultivar produced in this region, attributed with geographical protection. In this work, we prepared 3 extracts through solid-phase extraction (SPE): a whole extract, fraction I (non-coloured phenolics) and fraction II (coloured phenolics). The three extracts were used to determine the phenolic profile of Saco cultivar by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD) technique. This was followed by the evaluation of their biological potential, testing the extracts’ capacity to scavenge free-radicals (DPPH•, nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide radical (O2●-)) and to inhibit α-glucosidase enzyme of all extracts. Additionally, we evaluated, for the first time, the protective effects against peroxyl radical (ROO•)-induced hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis in human erythrocytes. A total of 16 non-coloured phenolics were detected, 3-O-caffeoylquinic and ρ-coumaroylquinic acids were the main ones, and 6 anthocyanins were found, among which cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside represented the majority. In respect to antioxidant activity, Saco showed great antioxidant potential in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrated through the DPPH•,•NO and O2●-radicals, and greater ability to inhibit the α-glucosidase enzyme in comparison to the regular drug acarbose used to treat diabetes. Additionally, Saco proved to be effective to protect erythrocytes against oxidative damage in a concentration-dependent manner against hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis. Our work demonstrated that Saco cultivar is an excellent source of phenolic compounds which are natural antioxidants that easily capture reactive species, such as ROO• before they can attack the erythrocytes’ membrane. In a general way, the whole extract showed the best efficiency, most likely due to a synergetic interaction between the different compounds. Finally, comparing the two separate fractions, the coloured fraction showed the most activity in all the assays, proving to be the biggest contributor of Saco cherries’ biological activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1037
76541
Determination of Vitamin C Red Guava (Psidium guajava Linn) Fruit Juice, with Variation of Beverage Packaging by Titrimetic Method Using 2,6- Dichlorophenol Indophenol
Abstract:
The quantitative analysis of vitamin C content from variations beverage packaging containing red guava (Psidium Guajava Linn) fruit juice had been done. In this study, four samples were obtained from the shopping center in Garut and Bandung City. Samples were tested quantitatively by 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol titration method. The results showed different concentration of 4 samples consist of tetra pack packaging, tin, glass, and plastic bottles, such as; 17.99 mg/100 gr, 31.46 mg/100 gr, 13.00 mg/100 gr, and 12.01 mg/100 gr, respectively. These results indicated that the packaging variations affected the level of vitamin C content which was characterized by decreased levels of vitamin C. It means the levels of vitamin C from this research were not in accordance with nutritional value information on the packaging. Tetra pack packaging was the most stable compared to other packaging even though it had a shorter expired date than with other.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1036
76522
Change of Flavor Characteristics of Flavor Oil Made Using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito) According to Extraction Temperature and Extraction Time
Abstract:
To develop an flavor oil using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito), infiltration extraction method was used to add dried mushroom flavor of Sarcodon aspratus to base olive oil. Edible base oil used during infiltration extraction was pressed olive oil, and infiltration extraction was done while varying extraction temperature to 20, 30, 40 and 50(℃) extraction time to 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Amount of Sarcodon aspratus added to base oil was 20% compared to 100% of base oil. Production yield of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil decreased with increasing extraction frequency. Aroma intensity was 2195~2447 (A.U./1㎖), and it increased with increasing extraction temperature and extraction time. Chromaticity of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil was bright pale yellow with pH of 4.5, sugar content of 71~72 (°Brix), and highest average turbidity of 16.74 (Haze %) shown by the 40℃ group. In the aromatic evaluation, increasing extraction temperature and extraction time resulted in increase of cheese aroma, savory sweet aroma and beef jerky aroma, as well as spicy taste comprised of slight bitter taste, savory taste and slight acrid taste, to make aromatic oil with unique flavor.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1035
76486
Spatial Distribution of Cellular Water in Pear Fruit: An Experimental Investigation
Abstract:
Highly porous and hygroscopic characteristics of pear make it complex to understand the cellular level water distribution. In pear tissue, water is mainly distributed in three different spaces namely, intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water. Understanding of these three types of water in pear tissue is crucial for predicting actual heat and mass transfer during drying. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the proportion of intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water inside the pear tissue. During this study, Green Anjou Pear was taken for the investigation. The experiment was performed using 1H-NMR- T2 relaxometry. Various types of water component were calculated by using multi-component fits of the T2 relaxation curves. The experimental result showed that in pear tissue 78-82% water exist in intracellular space; 12-16% water in intercellular space and only 2-4% water exist in the cell wall space. The investigated results quantify different types of water in plant-based food tissue. The highest proportion of water exists in intracellular spaces. It was also investigated that the physical properties of pear and the proportion of the different types of water has a strong relationship. Cell wall water depends on the proportion of solid in the sample tissue whereas free water depends on the porosity of the material.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1034
76057
Measuring Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Implementation in Riyadh Hospitals
Abstract:
Daily provision of high quality food and hygiene to patients is a challenging goal of the healthcare. In Saudi Arabia, matters related to food safety and hygiene are regulated by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The purpose of this research is to discuss the food safety management inconsistencies and flaws, in particular the ones related to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) in Riyadh&rsquo;s MOH hospitals. As required by law, written HACCP regulations must be implemented, and food handlers need to receive the training accordingly. However, in Saudi hospitals, this is not a requirement, and the food handlers do not need to hold training certificates in food safety or HACCP. Nowadays, the matter of food safety and hygiene have become increasingly important since the decision makers want to align these regulations with the majority of the world and to implement HACCP fully and for this purpose, the SFDA was established.&nbsp;
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1033
75895
Cytotoxic Activity against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells and Antioxidant Property of Aqueous Tempe Extracts from Extended Fermentation
Abstract:
During tempe fermentation, some chemical changes occurred and they contributed to sensory, appearance, and health benefits of soybeans. Many studies on health properties of tempe have specialized on their isoflavones. In this study, other components of tempe, particularly water soluble chemicals, was investigated for their biofunctionality. The study was focused on the ability to suppress MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth and antioxidant activity, as expressed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenols and total flavonoids, of the water extracts. Fermentation time of tempe was extended up to 120 hr to increase the possibility to find the functional components. Extraction yield and soluble nitrogen content were also quantified as accompanying data. Our findings suggested that yield of water extraction of tempe increased as fermentation was extended up to 120 hr, except for a slight decrease at 72 hr. Water extracts of tempe showed inhibition of MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth, as shown by lower IC50 values when compared to control (unfermented soybeans). Among the varied fermentation timescales, 60-hr period showed the highest activity (IC50 of 8.7 ± 4.95 µg/ml). The anticancer activity of extracts obtained from different fermentation time was positively correlated with total soluble nitrogens, but less relevant with antioxidant data. During 48-72 hr fermentation, at which cancer suppression activity was significant, the antioxidant properties from the three assays were not higher than control. These findings indicated that water extracts of tempe from extended fermentation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth but further study to determine the mechanism and compounds that play important role in the activity should be conducted.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1032
75887
Mathematical Modeling of Thin Layer Drying Behavior of Bhimkol (Musa balbisiana) Pulp
Abstract:
Reduction of water from the fruits and vegetables using different drying techniques is widely employed to prolong the shelf life of these food commodities. Heat transfer occurs inside the sample by conduction and mass transfer takes place by diffusion in accordance with temperature and moisture concentration gradient respectively during drying. This study was undertaken to study and model the thin layer drying behavior of Bhimkol pulp. The drying was conducted in a tray drier at 500c temperature with 5, 10 and 15 % concentrations of added maltodextrin. The drying experiments were performed at 5mm thickness of the thin layer and the constant air velocity of 0.5 m/s.Drying data were fitted to different thin layer drying models found in the literature. Comparison of fitted models was based on highest R2(0.9917), lowest RMSE (0.03201), and lowest SSE (0.01537) revealed Middle equation as the best-fitted model for thin layer drying with 10% concentration of maltodextrin. The effective diffusivity was estimated based on the solution of Fick’s law of diffusion which is found in the range of 3.0396 x10-09 to 5.0661 x 10-09. There was a reduction in drying time with the addition of maltodextrin as compare to the raw pulp.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):