Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53163

Nutrition and Food Engineering

1092
94469
Fortification of Concentrated Milk Protein Beverages with Soy Proteins: Impact of Divalent Cations and Heating Treatment on the Physical Stability
Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of adding calcium and magnesium chloride on heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate (8:2 respectively) mixtures containing 10% w/w total protein subjected to the in-container sterilization (115 °C x 15 min). The particle size does not change when emulsions are heated at pH between 6.7 and 7.3 irrespective of the mixed protein ratio. Increasing concentration of divalent cation salts resulted in an increase in protein particle size, dry sediment formation and sediment height and a decrease in pH, heat stability and hydration in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions on sterilization at 115°C. Fortification of divalent cation salts in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture solutions resulted in an accelerated protein sedimentation and two unique sediment regions during accelerated storage stability testing. Moreover, the heat stability decreased upon sterilization at 115°C, with addition of MgCl₂ causing a greater increase in sedimentation velocity and compressibility than CaCl₂. Increasing pH value of protein milk concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions from 6.7 to 7.2 resulted in an increase in viscosity following the heat treatment. The study demonstrated that the type and concentration of divalent cation salts used strongly impact heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture nutritional beverages.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1091
92749
Effect of 8 Weeks of Intervention on Physical Fitness, Hepatokines, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects
Abstract:
Background: The aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 after 8 weeks of lifestyle intervention. Methods: A group of 43 obese patients (13M/30F; 43.0±12.4 years; BMI (body mass index) 31.2±6.3 kg/m2 participated in a weight loss interventional program (NCT02325804) following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity indices according to Matsuda and Cederholm were calculated (ISImat and ISIced). Plasma ALT, AST, Fetuin-A, FGF 21, and physical fitness were measured. Results: The average reduction of body weight was 6.8±4.9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0.0006), accompanied with a significant reduction of body fat amount of fat mass (p=0.03), and waist circumference (p=0.02). Insulin sensitivity has been improved (IR HOMA 2.71±3.90 vs 1.24±0.83; p=0.01; ISIMat 6.64±4.38 vs 8.93±5.36 p ≤ 0.001). Total, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides decreased (p=0.05, p=0.04, p=0.04, respectively). Physical fitness significantly improved after intervention (as measure VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake) (p ≤ 0.001). ALT decreased significantly (0.44±0.26 vs post 0.33±0.18 ukat/l, p=0.004); however, AST not (pre 0.40±0.15 vs 0.35±0.09 ukat/l, p=0.07). Hepatokine Fetuin-A significantly decreased after intervention (43.1±10.8 vs 32.6±8.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001); however, FGF 21 levels tended to decrease (146±152 vs 132±164 pg/ml, p=0.07). Conclusion: 8-weeks of diet and physical activity intervention program in obese otherwise healthy subjects led to an improvement of insulin resistance parameters and liver marker profiles, as well as increased physical fitness. This study was supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1090
92730
Extraction of Essential Oil and Pectin from Lime and Waste Technology Development
Abstract:
Lime is one of the economically important produced in Thailand. The objective of this research is to increase utilization in food and cosmetic. Extraction of essential oil and pectin from lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm & Panz ) Swing) have been studied. Extraction of essential oil has been made by using hydro-distillation .The essential oil ranged from 1.72-2.20%. The chemical composition of essential oil composed of alpha-pinene , beta-pinene , D-limonene , comphene , a-phellandrene , g-terpinene , a-ocimene , O-cymene , 2-carene , Linalool , trans-ocimenol , Geraniol , Citral , Isogeraniol , Verbinol , and others when analyzed by using GC-MS method. Pectin extraction from lime waste , boiled water after essential oil extraction. Pectin extraction were found 40.11-65.81 g /100g of lime peel. The best extraction condition was found to be higher in yield by using ethanol extraction. The potential of this study had satisfactory results to improve lime processing system for value-added . The present study was also focused on Lime powder production as source of vitamin C or ascorbic acid and the potential of lime waste as a source of essential oil and pectin. Lime powder produced from Spray Dryer . Lime juice with 2 different level of maltodextrins DE 10 , 30 and 50% w/w was sprayed at 150 degrees celsius inlet air temperature and at 90-degree celsius outlet temperature. Lime powder with 50% maltodextrin gave the most desirable quality product. This product has vitamin C contents of 25 mg/100g (w/w).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1089
92729
Eradicating Micronutrient Deficiency through Biofortification
Abstract:
In the contemporary world, where the West is afflicted by the diseases of excess nutrition, much of the rest globe suffers at the hands of hunger. A troubling constituent of hunger is micronutrient deficiency, also called hidden hunger. Major dependence on calorie-rich diets and low diet diversification are responsible for high malnutrition rates, especially in African and Asian countries. But the dilemma isn’t immune to solutions. Highlighting the substantial cause to be sole dependence on staples for food, biofortification has emerged as a novel tool to confront the widely distributed jeopardize of hidden hunger. Biofortification potentials the better nutritional approachability to commonalities overcoming various difficulties and reaching the doorstep. The crops associated with biofortification offer a rural-based involvement that, proposal, primarily reaches these more remote populations, which comprise a majority of the malnourished in many countries, and then penetrates to urban populations as assembly overages are marketed. Initial investments in agricultural research at a central location can generate high recurrent benefits at low cost as adapted biofortified cultivars become widely available in countries across time at low recurrent costs as opposed to supplementation which is comparatively expensive and requires continued financing over time, which may be imperilled by fluctuating political curiosity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1088
92581
Functional Compounds Activity of Analog Rice Based on Purple Yam and Bran as Alternative Food for People with Diabetes Mellitus Type II
Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolism disorder that tends to increase its prevalence in the world, including in Indonesia. The development of DM type 2 can cause oxidative stress characterized by an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the body Increased oxidative stress causes type 2 diabetes mellitus to require intake of exogenous antioxidants in large quantities to inhibit oxidative damage in the body. Bran can be defined as a functional food because it consists of 11.39% fiberand 28.7% antioxidants and the purple yam consists of anthocyanin which functions as an antioxidant. With abundant amount and low price, purple yam and bran can be used for analog rice as the effort to diversify functional food. The antioxidant’s activity of analog rice from purple yam and bran which is measured by using DPPH’s method is 12,963%. The rough fiber’s level on the analog rice from purple yam is 2.985%. The water amount of analog rice from purple yam and bran is 8.726%. Analog rice from purple yam and bran has the similar texture as the usual rice, tasted slightly sweet, light purple colored, and smelled like bran.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1087
91972
Borassus aethiopum Mart Mature Fruits Macro-Composition, Drying Temperature Effect on Its Pulp Protein, Fat, Sugars, Metabolizable Energy, and Fatty Acids Profile
Abstract:
The work aimed to study Borassus aethiopum Mart (B.a) dried pulp nutritional value for its incorporation in human and poultry diets. Firstly, the mature fruit macro-composition was assessed. Secondly, the pulp was dried at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80ᵒC. Thereafter, the analysis was performed for fat, protein, total sugars, Ca, P, Mg, and fatty acid profile monitoring. As a result, the fruits weighed 1,591.35, delivered 516.73, and 677.82 grams of pulp and seeds, respectively. Mainly, increasing heat adversely affected the outputs. Consequently, the fat results were 14.12, 12.97, 8.93, 8.89ᶜ, and 5.56%; protein contents were 11.64, 10.15, 8.97, 8.84, and 8.42%; total sugar deliveries were 6.28, 6.05, 5.26, 5.02, and 4.76% (P < 0.01). Thereafter, the metabolizable energies were 3,785.22; 3,834.28; 3,616.62; 3,667.03; and 3,608.33 kcal/kg (DM). Additionally, Calcium (Ca) contents were 0.51, 0.55, 0.69, 0.77, and 0.81%, while phosphorus (P) mean was 0.17%, and the differences were not significant (P < 0.01). So, the Ca/P ratios were 2.79, 3.04, 4.10, 4.71, and 4.95. Finally, fatty acids (FA) assessments revealed 22.33 saturated (SFA), 77.67 unsaturated (UFA), within which 67.59% were monounsaturated (MUFA). Interestingly, the rising heat depressed n-6/n-3 ratios that were 1.1, 1.1, 0.45 and 0.38, respectively at 40, 50, 70 and 80ᵒC. In short, drying did not only enhance the product shelf life but it also improved the nutritional value. Thus, B.a mature fruit pulps dried at 70ᵒC are good functional foods, with more than 66% MUFA, and energy source for human and poultry nutrition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1086
91346
Functional Significance of Qatari Camels Milk: Antioxidant Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Protein Fractions
Abstract:
Background: Camelus dormedarius camels are also called ‘the Arabian camels’ and are present in the desert area of North Africa and the Middle East. Recently, camel’s milk has a great attention globally because of their proteins and peptides that have been reported to be beneficial for the health and in the management of many diseases. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and to evaluate the total phenolic content of camel’s milk proteins in Qatar. Methods: Fresh two camel’s milk samples from Omani breed and called Muhajer (camel’s milk A and B) were collected on the 1st of the December. Both samples were from the same location Al- Shahaniyah, Doha, Qatar, but from different local private farms and feeding system. Camel’s milk A and B were defatted by centrifugation and their proteins were extracted by acid and thermal precipitation. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Total phenolic compound (TPC) was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR). On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity against eight different type of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by disc diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was measured. Results: The of the total phenolic content of whole milk in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. The % of the DPPH radical inhibition of casein protein in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. In this study, there were marked changes in the antibacterial activity in the different camel milk protein extracts. All extracts showed bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the camel milk protein extracts correlated to their unique phenolic compounds and bioactive protein peptides. The antimicrobial activity was not detected perhaps due to the technique, the quality, or the extraction method. Overall, camel's milk exhibits a high antioxidant activity, which is responsible for many health benefits besides the nutritional values.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1085
91180
Effects of Different Mechanical Treatments on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Turmeric
Abstract:
Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L) is an Indian rhizome known for its biological properties, derived from its active compounds such as curcuminoids. Curcumin, the main polyphenol in turmeric, only represents around 3.5% of the dehydrated rhizome and extraction yields between 41 and 90% have been reported. Therefore, for every 1000 tons of turmeric powder used for the extraction of curcumin, around 970 tons of residues are generated. The present study evaluates the effect of different mechanical treatments (waring blender, grinder and high-pressure homogenization) on the physical and chemical properties of turmeric, as an alternative for the transformation of the entire rhizome. Suspensions of turmeric (10, 20 y 30%) were processed by waring blender during 3 min at 12000 rpm, while the samples treated by grinder were processed evaluating two different Gaps (-1 and -1,5). Finally, the process by high-pressure homogenization, was carried out at 500 bar. According to the results, the luminosity of the samples increases with the severity of the mechanical treatment, due to the stabilization of the color associated with the inactivation of the oxidative enzymes. Additionally, according to the microstructure of the samples, the process by grinder (Gap -1,5) and by high-pressure homogenization allowed the largest size reduction, reaching sizes up to 3 m (measured by optical microscopy). This processes disrupts the cells and breaks their fragments into small suspended particles. The infrared spectra obtained from the samples using an attenuated total reflectance accessory indicates changes in the 800-1200 cm⁻¹ region, related mainly to changes in the starch structure. Finally, the thermogravimetric analysis shows the presence of starch, curcumin and some minerals in the suspensions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1084
90623
Development of a Plant-Based Dietary Supplement to Address Critical Micronutrient Needs of Women of Child-Bearing Age in Europe
Abstract:
Women’s reproductive stages (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and lactation) represent a time of higher micronutrient needs. With a healthy food selection as the first path of choice to cover these increased needs, tandem micronutrient supplementation is often required. Because pregnancy and lactation should be treated with care, all supplements consumed should be of quality ingredients and manufactured through controlled processes. This work describes the process followed for the development of plant-based multiple micronutrient supplements aimed at addressing the growing demand for natural ingredients of non-animal origin. A list of key nutrients for inclusion was prioritized, followed by the identification and selection of qualified raw ingredient providers. Nutrient absorption into the food matrix was carried out through natural processes. The outcome is a new line of products meeting the set criteria of being gluten and lactose-free, suitable for vegans/vegetarians, and without artificial conservatives. In addition, each product provides the consumer with 10 vitamins, 6 inorganic nutrients, 1 source of essential fatty acids, and 1 source of phytonutrients each (maca, moringa, and chlorella). Each raw material, as well as the final product, was submitted to microbiological control three-fold (in-house and external). The final micronutrient mix was then tested for human factor contamination, pesticides, total aerobic microbial count, total yeast count, and total mold count. The product was created with the aim of meeting product standards for the European Union, as well as specific requirements for the German market in the food and pharma fields. The results presented here reach the point of introduction of the newly developed product to the market, with acceptability and effectiveness results to be published at a later date.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1083
90599
Anti-Diabetic Effect of High Purity Epigallocatechin Gallate from Green Tea
Abstract:
Green tea, which is one of the most popular of tea, contains various ingredients that help health. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the main active polyphenolic compound possessing diverse biologically beneficial effects such as anti-oxidation, anti-cancer founding in green tea. This study was performed to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of high-purity EGCG ( > 98%) in a spontaneous diabetic mellitus animal model, db/db mouse. Four-week-old male db/db mice, which was induced to diabetic mellitus by the high-fat diet, were orally administered with high-purity EGCG (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Daily weight and diet efficiency were examined, and blood glucose level was assessed once a week. After 4 weeks of EGCG administration, fasting blood glucose level was measured. Then, the mice were sacrificed and total abdominal fat was sampled to examine the change in fat weight. Plasma was separated from the blood and the levels of aspartate amino-transferase (ALT) and alanine amino-transferase (AST) were investigated. As results, blood glucose and body weight were significantly decreased by EGCG treatment compared to the control group. Also, the amount of abdominal fat was down-regulated by EGCG. However, ALT and AST levels, which are indicators of liver function, were similar to those of control group. Taken together, our study suggests that high purity EGCG is capable of treating diabetes mellitus based in db / db mice with safety and has a potent to develop a therapeutics for metabolic disorders. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry (IPET) through High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (317034-03-2-HD030)
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1082
90598
Development of Functional Cosmetic Materials from Demilitarized Zone Habiting Plants
Abstract:
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is a peace region located between South and North Korea border to avoid accidental armed conflict. Because human accessing to the area was forced to be prohibited for more than 60 years, DMZ is one of the cleanest land keeping wild lives as nature itself in South Korea. In this study, we evaluated the biological efficacies of plants (SS, PC, and AR) inhabiting in DMZ for the development of functional cosmetics. First, we tested the cytotoxicity of plant extracts in keratinocyte and melanocyte, which are the major cell components of skin. By 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with the cell lines, we determined the safety concentrations of the extracts for the efficacy tests. Next, we assessed the anti-wrinkle cosmetic function of SS by demonstrating that SS treatment decreased the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in UV-irradiated keratinocytes via real-time PCR. The suppressive effect of SS was greatly potentiated by combination with other DMZ-inhabiting plants, PC and AR. The expression of tyrosinase, which is one the main enzyme that producing melanin in melanocyte, was also down-regulated by the DMZ-inhabiting SS extract. Wound healing activity was also investigated by in vitro test with HaCat cell line, a human fibroblast cell line. All the natural materials extracted form DMZ habiting plants accelerated the recovery of the cells. These results suggested that DMZ is a treasure island of functional plants and DMZ-inhabiting natural products are warranted to develop functional cosmetic materials. This study was carried out with the support of R&D Program for Forest Science Technology (Project No. 2017027A00-1819-BA01) provided by Korea Forest Service (Korea Forestry Promotion Institute).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1081
90413
Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions
Abstract:
Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1080
90354
Polysaccharide-Based Oral Delivery Systems for Site Specific Delivery in Gastro-Intestinal Tract
Abstract:
Oral delivery is regarded as the facile method for the administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and drug carriers. In an initiative towards sustainable nanotechnology, an oral nano-delivery system has been developed that is made entirely of food-based materials and can also act as a site-specific delivery device depending on the stimulus encountered in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The delivery system has been fabricated from food grade polysaccharide materials like chitosan and starch through electrospraying technique without the use of any organic solvents. A nutraceutical extracted from an Indian medicinal plant, has been loaded into the nano carrier to test its efficacy in encapsulation and stimuli based release of the active ingredient. The release kinetics of the nutraceutical from the carrier was evaluated in simulated gastric, intestinal and colonic fluid and was found to be triggered both by the enzymes and the pH in each part of the intestinal tract depending on the polysaccharide being used. The toxicity of the nanoparticles on the intestinal epithelial cells was tested and found to be relatively safe for up to 24 hours at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL with cellular uptake also being observed. The developed nano carrier thus serves as a promising delivery vehicle for targeted delivery to different parts of the GIT with the inherent conditions of the GIT itself acting as the stimulus. In addition, being fabricated from food grade materials, the carrier could be potentially used for the targeted delivery of nutrients through functional foods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1079
90157
Inactivation of Listeria innocua ATCC 33092 by Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment
Abstract:
High voltage electrical discharge plasmas are new nonthermal developing techniques used for water decontamination. To the full understanding of cell inactivation mechanisms, this study brings inactivation, recovery and cellular leakage of L. innocua cells before and after the treatment. Bacterial solution (200 mL) of L. innocua was treated in a glass reactor with a point-to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire, was in the gas phase and grounded electrode was in the liquid phase). Argon was injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min, positive polarity and conductivity of media of 100 µS/cm were chosen to define listed parameters. With a longer treatment time inactivation was higher as well as the increase in cellular leakage. Despite total inactivation recovery of cells occurred probably because of a high leakage of proteins, compared to lower leakage of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). In order to define mechanisms of inactivation further research is needed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1078
90155
Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment
Abstract:
Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1077
89849
Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Polyphenols
Authors:
Abstract:
Extraction of bioactive compounds from several food/food products comes as an important topic and new trend related with health promoting effects. As a result of the increasing interest in natural foods, different methods are used for the acquisition of these components especially polyphenols. However, special attention has to be paid to the selection of proper techniques or several processing technologies (supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, powdered extracts production) for each kind of food to get maximum benefit as well as the obtainment of phenolic compounds. In order to meet consumer’s demand for healthy food and the management of quality and safety requirements, advanced research and development are needed. In this review, advantages, and disadvantages of different extraction methods, their opportunities to be used in food industry and the effects of polyphenols are mentioned in details. Consequently, with the evaluation of the results of several studies, the selection of the most suitable food specific method was aimed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1076
89419
Supplementation of Citrulline with Lactic Acid Bacteria Protects Foodborne Pathogens Adhesion and Improves the Cell Integrity on the Intestinal Epithelial Cell
Abstract:
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have shown the beneficial effects on human gastrointestinal tract, such as protects diarrhea induced by lactose intolerance or enteric pathogens. Citrulline is a non-protein amino acid and also the precursors of arginine and nitric oxide, it has shown to enhance intestinal barrier function. Citrulline has shown to improve the growth of some strains of LAB, it is important for LAB to have a sufficient cell concentration to contribute the effects. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of combining citrulline with LAB on the anti-adhesion effect against pathogens and the effect on the cell integrity. The effect of citrulline on selected LAB was determined by incubating in 0%, 0.1% or 0.2% citrulline enriched MRS broth for 18 h. The adhesion ability of LAB and the anti-adhesion effect of LAB and citrulline against pathogens were performed on IPEC-J2 cell line. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay was used to measure the tight junction (TJ) integrity. TJ proteins (claudin-1, occludin and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1)) were determined by western blot analysis. It found that the growth of Lactobacillus helveticus ASCC 511 was significantly stimulated by 0.2% citrulline compared with control during 18 h fermentation. The adhesion of L. helveticus ASCC 511 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) ASCC 756 was increased when supplemented with citrulline. Citrulline has shown significant inhibitory effect on the adhesion of Escherichia coli PELI0480 (O157:H7), Shigella sonnei ATCC 25931, Staphyloccocus aureus CMCC26003 and Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544. The anti-adhesion effect of L. helveticus ASCC 511, L. bulgaricus ASCC 756 and Lactobacillus paracasei ASCC 276 against Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 was significantly enhanced with citrulline supplementation. Treatments with citrulline and LAB were able to maintain the TEER of IPEC-J2 cell and shown the positive effect on the TJ proteins. In conclusion, citrulline had stimulating effect on some strains of LAB and determined to improve the adhesion of LAB on intestinal epithelial cell, to enhance the inhibitory effect on enteric pathogens adhesion as well as had beneficial effects on maintaining cell integrity. It implied LAB supplemented with citrulline might have advantageous effects on gastrointestinal tracts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1075
89297
Integration of the Electro-Activation Technology for Soy Meal Valorization
Abstract:
Nowadays, the interest of using sustainable technologies for protein extraction from underutilized oilseeds is growing. Currently, a major disposal problem for the oil industry is by-products of plant food processing such as soybean meal. That is why valorization of soybean meal is important for the oil industry since it contains high-quality proteins and other valuable components. Generally, soybean meal is used in livestock and poultry feed but is rarely used in human feed. Though chemical composition of this meal compensate nutritional deficiency and can be used to balance protein in human food. Regarding the efficiency of soybean meal valorization, extraction is a key process for obtaining enriched protein ingredient, which can be incorporated into the food matrix. However, most of the food components such as proteins extracted from oilseeds by-products imply the utilization of organic and inorganic chemicals (e.g. acids, bases, TCA-acetone) having a significant environmental impact. In a context of sustainable production, the use of an electro-activation technology seems to be a good alternative. Indeed, the electro-activation technology requires only water, food grade salt and electricity as main materials. Moreover, this innovative technology helps to avoid special equipment and trainings for workers safety as well as transport and storage of hazardous materials. Electro-activation is a technology based on applied electrochemistry for the generation of acidic and alkaline solutions on the basis of the oxidation-reduction reactions that occur at the vicinity electrode/solution interfaces. It is an eco-friendly process that can be used to replace the conventional acidic and alkaline extraction. In this research, the electro-activation technology for protein extraction from soybean meal was carried out in the electro-activation reactor. This reactor consists of three compartments separated by cation and anion exchange membranes that allow creating non-contacting acidic and basic solutions. Different current intensities (150 mA, 300 mA and 450 mA) and treatment durations (10 min, 30 min and 50 min) were tested. The results showed that the extracts obtained by the electro-activation method have good quality in comparison to conventional extracts. For instance, extractability obtained with electro-activation method was 55% whereas with the conventional method it was only 36%. Moreover, a maximum protein quantity of 48 % in the extract was obtained with the electro-activation technology comparing to the maximum amount of protein obtained by conventional extraction of 41 %. Hence, the environmentally sustainable electro-activation technology seems to be a promising type of protein extraction that can replace conventional extraction technology.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1074
89228
Effects of Delphinidin on Lipid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells and Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Abstract:
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an excess of hepatic lipids, and it is to author’s best knowledge, the most prevalent chronic liver disorder. Anthocyanin-rich food consumption is linked to health benefits in metabolic disorders associated with obesity and NAFLD, although the precise functional role of anthocyanidin delphinidin (Dp) has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Dp in NAFLD metabolic alterations by evaluating prevention or amelioration of hepatic lipid accumulation, as well as molecular mechanisms in two experimental obesity-related models of NALFD. In vitro: HepG2 cells were incubated with sodium palmitate (PA, 1 mM) to induce lipotoxic damage, and concomitantly treated with Dp (180 uM) for 24 h. Subsequently, total lipid accumulation was measured by colorimetric staining with Oil Red O, and total intrahepatic triglycerides were determined by an enzymatic assay. To assess molecular mechanisms, cells were pre-treated with PA for 24 h and then exposed to Dp for 1 h. In vivo: four-week-old male C57BL/6Nhsd mice were allocated in two main groups. Mice were fed with standard diet (control) or high-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (45% fat, HFD) for 16 wk to induce NAFLD. Then HFD was divided into subgroups: one treated orally with Dp (15 mg/kg bw, HFD-Dp) every day for 4 wk, while HFD group treated with vehicle (DMSO). Weight and fasting glucose were recorded weekly, while dietary ingestion was measured daily. Insulin tolerance test was performed at the end of treatment. Liver histology was evaluated with H&E and Masson’s trichrome stain. RT-PCR was used to evaluate gene expression and Western Blot to determine levels of protein in both experimental models. Parametric data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test for non-parametric data, and P < 0.5 were considered significant. Dp prevented hepatic lipid accumulation by PA in HepG2 hepatocytes. Furthermore, Dp down-regulated gene expression of SREBP1c, FAS, and CPT1a without modifying AMPK phosphorylation levels. In vivo, Dp oral administration did not ameliorate lipid metabolic alterations raised by HFD. Adiposity, dietary ingestion, fasting glucose, and insulin sensitivity after Dp treatment remained similar to HFD group. Histological analysis showed hepatic damage in HFD groups and no differences between HFD and HFD-Dp groups were found. Hepatic gene expression of ACC and FAS were not altered by HFD. SREBP1c was similar in both HFD and HFD-Dp groups. No significant changes were observed in SREBP1c, ACC, and FAS adipose tissue gene expression by HFD or Dp treatment. Additionally, immunoblotting analysis revealed no changes in pathway SIRT1-LKB-AMPK and PPAR alpha by both HFD groups compared to control. In conclusion, the antioxidant Dp may provoke beneficial effects in the prevention of hepatic lipid accumulation. Nevertheless, the oral dose administrated in mice that simulated the total intake of anthocyanins consumed daily by humans has no effect as a treatment on hepatic lipid metabolic alterations and histological abnormalities associated with exposure to chronic HFD. A healthy lifestyle with regular intake of antioxidants such as anthocyanins may prevent metabolic alterations in NAFLD.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1073
87031
Oxalate Content of Raw and Cooked Amaranth and Strawberry Spinach Grown in an Elevated CO₂ Atmosphere
Abstract:
Worldwide CO₂ levels are slowly rising, and this may have effects on the growth and nutritional composition of many food plants. The production of secondary metabolites such as oxalates has not been investigated in depth. The oxalate content of many food plants are known to have adverse nutritional effects on humans and reduction in the oxalate contents of food plants is a very positive move. Recent studies had shown that the oxalate content of the leaves of spinach and silver beet reduced when the plants were grown in an environment where CO₂ was increased. The response of amaranth and strawberry spinach leaves to changes in the high CO₂ environment have not been understood though it is known that the plants do contain appreciable oxalate contents. A study was conducted where amaranth and strawberry spinach plants were grown in identical plant growth chambers with the same environmental conditions except that one chamber was supplied with ambient air (CO₂ 405 ppm) while the other chamber had the CO₂ level increased to 650 ppm. The total and soluble oxalate content of the leaves of raw and cooked amaranth and strawberry spinach were determined by HPLC and calcium levels were determined using ICP following 6 weeks of growth. The total oxalate content of the fresh leaves of amaranth and strawberry spinach were reduced by 29.5 % and 24.6% respectively in the leaves of the plants grown in increased CO₂ conditions compared to ambient levels. The soluble oxalate content of amaranth leaves grown under ambient and increased CO₂ conditions were future reduced by 42% and 26.8% respectively following cooking as the soluble oxalate was leached into the cooking water and discarded. The reduction of the oxalate and calcium levels of raw and cooked amaranth and strawberry spinach leaves following an increase in CO₂ content in the air is an interesting positive response to an otherwise significant environmental problem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1072
86955
Agri-Food Transparency and Traceability: A Marketing Tool to Satisfy Consumer Awareness Needs
Abstract:
The link between man and food plays, in the social and economic system, a central role where cultural and multidisciplinary aspects intertwine: food is not only nutrition, but also communication, culture, politics, environment, science, ethics, fashion. This multi-dimensionality has many implications in the food economy. In recent years, the consumer became more conscious about his food choices, involving a consistent change in consumption models. This change concerns several aspects: awareness of food system issues, employment of socially and environmentally conscious decision-making, food choices based on different characteristics than nutritional ones i.e. origin of food, how it’s produced, and who’s producing it. In this frame the ‘consumption choices’ and the ‘interests of the citizen’ become one part of the others. The figure of the ‘Citizen Consumer’ is born, a responsible and ethically motivated individual to change his lifestyle, achieving the goal of sustainable consumption. Simultaneously the branding, that before was guarantee of the product quality, today is questioned. In order to meet these needs, Agri-Food companies are developing specific product lines that follow two main philosophies: ‘Back to basics’ and ‘Less is more’. However, the issue of ethical behavior does not seem to find an adequate on market offer. Most likely due to a lack of attention on the communication strategy used, very often based on market logic and rarely on ethical one. The label in its classic concept of ‘clean labeling’ can no longer be the only instrument through which to convey product information and its evolution towards a concept of ‘clear label’ is necessary to embrace ethical and transparent concepts in progress the process of democratization of the Food System. The implementation of a voluntary traceability path, relying on the technological models of the Internet of Things or Industry 4.0, would enable the Agri-Food Supply Chain to collect data that, if properly treated, could satisfy the information need of consumers. A change of approach is therefore proposed towards Agri-Food traceability that is no longer intended as a tool to be used to respond to the legislator, but rather as a promotional tool useful to tell the company in a transparent manner and then reach the slice of the market of food citizens. The use of mobile technology can also facilitate this information transfer. However, in order to guarantee maximum efficiency, an appropriate communication model based on the ethical communication principles should be used, which aims to overcome the pipeline communication model, to offer the listener a new way of telling the food product, based on real data collected through processes traceability. The Citizen Consumer is therefore placed at the center of the new model of communication in which he has the opportunity to choose what to know and how. The new label creates a virtual access point capable of telling the product according to different point of views, following the personal interests and offering the possibility to give several content modalities to support different situations and usability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1071
86954
From Industry 4.0 to Agriculture 4.0: A Framework to Manage Product Data in Agri-Food Supply Chain for Voluntary Traceability
Abstract:
Agri-food value chain involves various stakeholders with different roles. All of them abide by national and international rules and leverage marketing strategies to advance their products. Food products and related processing phases carry with it a big mole of data that are often not used to inform final customer. Some data, if fittingly identified and used, can enhance the single company, and/or the all supply chain creates a math between marketing techniques and voluntary traceability strategies. Moreover, as of late, the world has seen buying-models&rsquo; modification: customer is careful on wellbeing and food quality. Food citizenship and food democracy was born, leveraging on transparency, sustainability and food information needs. Internet of Things (IoT) and Analytics, some of the innovative technologies of Industry 4.0, have a significant impact on market and will act as a main thrust towards a genuine &lsquo;4.0 change&rsquo; for agriculture. But, realizing a traceability system is not simple because of the complexity of agri-food supply chain, a lot of actors involved, different business models, environmental variations impacting products and/or processes, and extraordinary climate changes. In order to give support to the company involved in a traceability path, starting from business model analysis and related business process a Framework to Manage Product Data in Agri-Food Supply Chain for Voluntary Traceability was conceived. Studying each process task and leveraging on modeling techniques lead to individuate information held by different actors during agri-food supply chain. IoT technologies for data collection and Analytics techniques for data processing supply information useful to increase the efficiency intra-company and competitiveness in the market. The whole information recovered can be shown through IT solutions and mobile application to made accessible to the company, the entire supply chain and the consumer with the view to guaranteeing transparency and quality.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1070
86942
Modelling of Moisture Loss and Oil Uptake during Deep-Fat Frying of Plantain
Abstract:
A predictive mathematical model based on the fundamental principles of mass transfer was developed to simulate the moisture content and oil content during Deep-Fat Frying (DFF) process of dodo. The resulting governing equation, that is, partial differential equation that describes rate of moisture loss and oil uptake was solved numerically using explicit Finite Difference Technique (FDT). Computer codes were written in MATLAB environment for the implementation of FDT at different frying conditions and moisture loss as well as oil uptake simulation during DFF of dodo. Plantain samples were sliced into 5 mm thickness and fried at different frying oil temperatures (150, 160 and 170 ⁰C) for periods varying from 2 to 4 min. The comparison between the predicted results and experimental data for the validation of the model showed reasonable agreement. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and experimental values of moisture and oil transfer models ranging from 0.912 to 0.947 and 0.895 to 0.957, respectively. The predicted results could be further used for the design, control and optimization of deep-fat frying process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1069
86780
Ultrasound-Mediated Separation of Ethanol, Methanol, and Butanol from Their Aqueous Solutions
Abstract:
Ultrasonic atomization (UA) is a useful technique for producing a liquid spray for various processes, such as spray drying. Ultrasound generates small droplets (a few microns in diameter) by disintegration of the liquid via cavitation and/or capillary waves, with low range velocity and narrow droplet size distribution. In recent years, UA has been investigated as an alternative for enabling or enhancing ultrasound-mediated unit operations, such as evaporation, separation, and purification. The previous studies on the UA separation of a solvent from a bulk solution were limited to ethanol-water systems. More investigations into ultrasound-mediated separation for other liquid systems are needed to elucidate the separation mechanism. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the operational parameters on the ultrasound-mediated separation of three miscible liquid pairs: ethanol-, methanol-, and butanol-water. A 2.4 MHz ultrasonic mister with a diameter of 18 mm and rating power of 24 W was installed on the bottom of a custom-designed cylindrical separation unit. Air was supplied to the unit (3 to 4 L/min.) as a carrier gas to collect the mist. The effects of the initial alcohol concentration, viscosity, and temperature (10, 30 and 50°C) on the atomization rates were evaluated. The alcohol concentration in the collected mist was measured with high performance liquid chromatography and a refractometer. The viscosity of the solutions was determined using a Brookfield digital viscometer. The alcohol concentration of the atomized mist was dependent on the feed concentration, feed rate, viscosity, and temperature. Increasing the temperature of the alcohol-water mixtures from 10 to 50°C increased the vapor pressure of both the alcohols and water, resulting in an increase in the atomization rates but a decrease in the separation efficiency. The alcohol concentration in the mist was higher than that of the alcohol-water equilibrium at all three temperatures. More importantly, for ethanol, the ethanol concentration in the mist went beyond the azeotropic point, which cannot be achieved by conventional distillation. Ultrasound-mediated separation is a promising non-equilibrium method for separating and purifying alcohols, which may result in significant energy reductions and process intensification.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1068
86299
Microalgae Technology for Nutraceuticals
Authors:
Abstract:
Production of nutraceuticals from microalgae—a virtually untapped natural phyto-based source of which there are 200,000 to 1,000,000 species—offers a sustainable and healthy alternative to conventionally sourced nutraceuticals for the market. Microalgae can be grown organically using only natural sunlight, water and nutrients at an extremely fast rate, e.g. 10-100 times more efficiently than crops or trees. However, the commercial success of microalgae products at scale remains limited largely due to the lack of economically viable technologies. There are two major microalgae production systems or technologies currently available: 1) the open system as represented by open pond technology and 2) the closed system such as photobioreactors (PBR). Each carries its own unique features and challenges. Although an open system requires a lower initial capital investment relative to a PBR, it conveys many unavoidable drawbacks; for example, much lower productivity, difficulty in contamination control/cleaning, inconsistent product quality, inconvenience in automation, restriction in location selection, and unsuitability for cold areas – all directly linked to the system openness and flat underground design. On the other hand, a PBR system has characteristics almost entirely opposite to the open system, such as higher initial capital investment, better productivity, better contamination and environmental control, wider suitability in different climates, ease in automation, higher and consistent product quality, higher energy demand (particularly if using artificial lights), and variable operational expenses if not automated. Although closed systems like PBRs are not highly competitive yet in current nutraceutical supply market, technological advances can be made, in particular for the PBR technology, to narrow the gap significantly. One example is a readily scalable P2P Microalgae PBR Technology at Grande Prairie Regional College, Canada, developed over 11 years considering return on investment (ROI) for key production processes. The P2P PBR system is approaching economic viability at a pre-commercial stage due to five ROI-integrated major components. They include: (1) optimum use of free sunlight through attenuation (patented); (2) simple, economical, and chemical-free harvesting (patent ready to file); (3) optimum pH- and nutrient-balanced culture medium (published), (4) reliable water and nutrient recycling system (trade secret); and (5) low-cost automated system design (trade secret). These innovations have allowed P2P Microalgae Technology to increase daily yield to 106 g/m2/day of Chlorella vulgaris, which contains 50% proteins and 2-3% omega-3. Based on the current market prices and scale-up factors, this P2P PBR system presents as a promising microalgae technology for market competitive nutraceutical supply.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1067
85956
The Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Aqueous, Methanol, Ethanol, Ethyl Acetate and Acetone Extract of Hypericum scabrum
Abstract:
Herbal essential oil and extracts are a good source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Hypericum is one of the potential sources of these compounds. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and aqueous, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of Hypericum scabrum was assessed. Flowers of Hypericum scabrum were collected from the surrounding mountains of Hamadan province and after drying in the shade, the essential oil of the plant was extracted by Clevenger and water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract was obtained by maceration method. Essential oil compounds were identified using the GC-Mass. The Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric method was used to measure the amount of phenolic acid and flavonoids, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bacterial/fungicide concentration (MBC/MFC) of essential oil and extracts were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The essential oil yield of was 0.35%, the lowest and highest extract yield was related to ethyl acetate and water extract. The most component of essential oil was &alpha;-Pinene (46.35%). The methanol extracts had the highest phenolic acid (95.65 &plusmn; 4.72 &micro;g galic acid equivalent/g dry plant) and flavonoids (25.39 &plusmn; 2.73 &micro;g quercetin equivalent/g dry plant). The percentage of DPPH radical inhibition showed positive correlation with concentrations of essential oil or extract. The methanol and ethanol extract had the highest DDPH radical inhibitory. Essential oil and extracts of Hypericum had antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms studied in this research. The MIC and MBC values for essential oils were in the range of 25-25.6 and 25-50 &mu;g/mL, respectively. For the extracts, these values were 1.5625-100 and 3.125-100 &mu;g/mL, respectively. Methanol extracts had the highest antimicrobial activity. Essential oil and extract of Hypericum scabrum, especially methanol extract, have proper antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, and it can be used to control the oxidation and inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, it can be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1066
85924
Determination of in vitro Antioxidative Activity of Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda
Abstract:
Oxidative stress that results from overproduction of free radicals can lead to pathogenesis of human diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (A. yomena) belonging to Compositae family is a perennial plant, and it has anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effect of A. yomena by measuring 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (˙OH) and superoxide radical (O₂⁻) scavenging activities in vitro. A. yomena was extracted with ethanol and then partitioned with n-hexane, methylene chloride (CH₂Cl₂), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH). In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the concentration of A. yomena from 10 to 100μg/mL dose-dependently raised the inhibition of DPPH oxidation. Especially, EtOAc fraction of A. yomena showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity among other fractions. The ˙OH radical scavenging activities of the extract and four fractions of A. yomena were increased by over 80% at a concentration of 50μg/mL. Especially, the IC50 value of EtOAc fraction was 0.03 μg/mL that is the lowest value compared with the values of other fractions. In addition, we found that the EtOAc fraction of A. yomena was showed to be better at O₂⁻ radical scavenging than other fractions. Taken together these results, we suggested that A. yomena, especially EtOAc fraction, can be used as a natural antioxidant against free radicals. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2016R1D1A1B03931593).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1065
85896
Effect of Whey Based Film Coatings on Various Properties of Kashar Cheese
Authors:
Abstract:
In this study, the effects of whey protein based films on various properties of kashar cheese were examined. In the study, edible film solutions based on whey protein isolate, whey protein isolate + transglutaminase enzyme and whey protein isolate + chitosan were produced and Kashar cheese samples were coated with these films by dipping method and stored at +4 ºC for 60 days. Chemical, microbiological and textural analyzes were carried out on samples at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage. As a result of the study, the highest dry matter and total nitrogen values were obtained from uncoated control samples This is an indication that the coatings limit water vapor permeability. The highest acidity and pH values obtained from the samples as storage results were 3.33% and 5.86%, respectively, in the control group samples. Both acidity and pH rise in these groups, is a consequence of the buffering of pH changes of hydrolsis products which are as a result of proteolysis occurring in the sample. Nitrogen changes and lipolysis values, which are indicative of the degree of hydrolysis of proteins and triglycerides in kashar cheese, were generally higher in the control group This result is due to limiting the micro organism reproduction by limiting the gas passage of the coatings. Hardness and chewiness values of the textural properties of the samples were significantly reduced in uncoated control samples compared to the coated samples due to maturation. The chitosan film coatings used in the study limited the development of mold yeast until the 30th day but after that did not yield successful results in this respect.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1064
85630
The Implementation of Strengthening Institutional Model of Women Farmers Group in Developing Household Food Security
Abstract:
Food security is still a global issue, including in Indonesia. In South Sulawesi, this issue also occurs in members of farmer groups/women farmer groups. This study aims to (1) describe the implementation of strengthening institutional model of Women Farmer Groups (WFG) and (2) analyzing the capacity building of WFG members in order to develop food security after the implementations on institutional model. The research was conducted in Bulukumba and Luwu Utara District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The research was designed with qualitative and quantitative (mixed) method. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD); while quantitative data collected through a household survey of WGF members. Two WGF were selected they are WFG in Bulukumba and WGF in Luwu Utara District. Both WGF has been selected as the case unit, which consisting of 60 households. Institutional strengthening model that been implemented is a combination model of (1) institutional support and (2) capacity development of WGF members. The model of institutional support aim is to develop food security could be achieved through facilitation on produce banana chips (initiate a business group formation) and preparation of institution rule (AD/ART). (2) The developing Model of WFG members capacity building are (a) technical training of banana chips producing process, also food and nutrition counseling as well as the utilization of the yard, (b) processing of food products from their yards. Food and nutrition knowledge of WFG members was increased about 30% - 60% and accompanied by the development of households’ food security by 6.7% - 10.0%.; when compared to last year percentage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1063
85382
Improvement of Cardiometabolic after 8 Weeks of Weight Loss Intervention
Abstract:
Lifestyle interventions can prevent the deterioration of impaired glucose tolerance to manifest type 2 diabetes, and also prevent cardiovascular diseases, as it showed many studies (the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), . the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study, etc.) Therefore the aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic parameters. Methods: It is an ongoing randomized interventional clinical study (NCT02325804) focused on the reduction of body weight/fat. Intervention: hypocaloric diet (30% restriction of calories) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Before and after 8 weeks of intervention all patients underwent complete medical examination (measurement of physical fitness, resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition analysis, oral glucose tolerance test, parameters of lipid metabolism, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: So far 39 patients finished the intervention. The average reduction of body weight was 6,8 + 4,9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0,0006), accompanied with significant reduction of body fat percentage (p ≤ 0,0001), amount of fat mass (p=0,03), waist circumference (p=0.02). Amount of lean mass and RMR remained unchanged. Heart rate (p=0,02), systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced (p=0,01 p=0,02 resp.) as well as insulin sensitivity was improved. Lipid parameters also changed - cholesterol, LDL decreased (p=0,05, p=0,04 resp.), while triglycerides showed tendency to decrease (p=0,055). Liver function improved, alanine aminotrasnferase (ALT) were reduced (p=0,01). Physical fitness significantly improved (as measure VO2 max (p=0,02). Conclusion: Results of our study are in line with previous results about the beneficial effect of intensive lifestyle changes on the reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors and improvement of liver function. Supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):