Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 43397

Nutrition and Food Engineering

Evaluation of Functional Properties and Antimicrobial Efficiency of Polymeric Film Containing Phytoncide for Cheese Packaging Application
The purpose of this study is to develop the cheese packaging film with an antimicrobial function to extend its shelf life during storage. The functional films are prepared by incorporating a series of phytoncide encapsulated in urethane shell formation which is suitable for use as antimicrobial materials into polyvinyl alcohol by a casting method. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the films is evaluated against the selected pathogens of fungus (Penicillium spp.) and bacteria (E. coli and L. monocytogenes) which are directly affected by the quality loss and safety of processed Mozzarella cheese. The mechanical, morphological, barrier properties of the prepared films are also experimented. It observes that the mixtures may be uniformly dispersed in the LDPE film structure. The results demonstrate that film prepared by incorporating 5% (w/w) of phytoncide has a good inhibitory effect against the tested pathogens compared to that incorporating mixtures with the respective different levels. The incorporation of phytoncide oil on the PVA film also significantly affected the mechanical and gas barrier properties of the films as the role of the plasticizer. The results of this study showed that Phytoncide Oil could be incorporated in functional films for cheese packaging.
Cytotoxic Activity against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells and Antioxidant Property of Aqueous Tempe Extracts from Extended Fermentation
During tempe fermentation, some chemical changes occurred and they contributed to sensory, appearance, and health benefits of soybeans. Many studies on health properties of tempe have specialized on their isoflavones. In this study, other components of tempe, particularly water soluble chemicals, was investigated for their biofunctionality. The study was focused on the ability to suppress MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth and antioxidant activity, as expressed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenols and total flavonoids, of the water extracts. Fermentation time of tempe was extended up to 120 hr to increase the possibility to find the functional components. Extraction yield and soluble nitrogen content were also quantified as accompanying data. Our findings suggested that yield of water extraction of tempe increased as fermentation was extended up to 120 hr, except for a slight decrease at 72 hr. Water extracts of tempe showed inhibition of MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth, as shown by lower IC50 values when compared to control (unfermented soybeans). Among the varied fermentation timescales, 60-hr period showed the highest activity (IC50 of 8.7±4.95 µg/ml). The anticancer activity of extracts obtained from different fermentation time was positively correlated with total soluble nitrogens, but less relevant with antioxidant data. During 48-72 hr fermentation, at which cancer suppression activity was significant, the antioxidant properties from the three assays were not higher than control. These findings indicated that water extracts of tempe from extended fermentation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth but further study to determine the mechanism and compounds that play important role in the activity should be conducted.
Mathematical Modeling of Thin Layer Drying Behavior of Bhimkol (Musa balbisiana) Pulp
Reduction of water from the fruits and vegetables using different drying techniques is widely employed to prolong the shelf life of these food commodities. Heat transfer occurs inside the sample by conduction and mass transfer takes place by diffusion in accordance with temperature and moisture concentration gradient respectively during drying. This study was undertaken to study and model the thin layer drying behavior of Bhimkol pulp. The drying was conducted in a tray drier at 500c temperature with 5, 10 and 15 % concentrations of added maltodextrin. The drying experiments were performed at 5mm thickness of the thin layer and the constant air velocity of 0.5 m/s.Drying data were fitted to different thin layer drying models found in the literature. Comparison of fitted models was based on highest R2(0.9917), lowest RMSE (0.03201), and lowest SSE (0.01537) revealed Middle equation as the best-fitted model for thin layer drying with 10% concentration of maltodextrin. The effective diffusivity was estimated based on the solution of Fick’s law of diffusion which is found in the range of 3.0396 x10-09 to 5.0661 x 10-09. There was a reduction in drying time with the addition of maltodextrin as compare to the raw pulp.
Cytotoxic Activity of Acetone and Ethanol Overripe Tempe Extracts against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells and Their Antioxidant Property
Tempe is a functional food prepared from soybeans through Rhizopus spp fermentation. It is well known as functional food, originated from Indonesia. Most studies on tempe functionalities refer to ripe (48 h fermentation) tempe and only limited studies discuss overripe tempe while longer fermentation time possibly increased tempe health benefit. Hence, the present study was performed to investigate the cytotoxic activity againts MCF-7 breast cancer cells and antioxidant property of tempe prepared from 0–156 h of fermentation. Tempe samples were dried and extracted with acetone and ethanol, respectively. Their extracts were used for subsequent analysis. The cytotoxic activity was assessed on MCF 7 breast cancer cells using Alamar Blue method. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The results indicated that acetone extracts of 108 h tempe had a potent cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 2.54 ± 0,30 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts of 108 h tempe also showed the potency, but at slightly higher IC50 (5.20 ± 1.01 μg/mL). Both acetone and ethanol extracts of 108 and 120 h tempe showed high antioxidant activity expressed as percent inhibition with no significant difference. However, acetone extracts of 120 h tempe (81.31 ± 3.70 %) had better ability to inhibit oxidation reaction than that of ethanol extracts (75.77 ± 6.00 %). It can be concluded that the cytotoxic activity of tempe from 0–156 h of fermentation is positively correlated to their corresponding antioxidant property. Longer fermentation time, up to 108 h, increased the ability of tempe to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and oxidative reaction. But extended fermentation time, up to 156 h, tends to decrease its ability. Further studies are encouraged to identify the active components contained in each extract.
Phenolic Composition of Wines from Cultivar Carménère during Aging with Inserts to Barrels
Sensory and nutraceutical characteristics of a wine are determined by different chemical compounds, such as organic acids, sugars, alcohols, polysaccharides, aromas, and polyphenols. The polyphenols correspond to secondary metabolites that are associated with the prevention of several pathologies, and those are responsible for color, aroma, bitterness, and astringency in wines. These compounds come from grapes and wood during aging in barrels, which correspond to the format of wood most widely used in wine production. However, the barrels is a high-cost input with a limited useful life (3-4 years). For this reason, some oenological products have been developed in order to renew the barrels and increase their useful life in some years. These formats are being used slowly because limited information exists about the effect on the wine chemical characteristics. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different laubarrel renewal systems (staves and zigzag) on the polyphenolic characteristics of a Carménère wine (Vitis vinifera), an emblematic cultivar of Chile. For this, a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and three replicates per treatment was used. The treatments were: new barrels (T0), used barrels during 4 years (T1), scraped used barrels (T2), used barrels with staves (T3) and used barrels with zigzag (T4). The study was performed for 12 months, and different spectrophotometric parameters (phenols, anthocyanins, and total tannins) and HPLC-DAD (low molecular weight phenols) were evaluated. The wood inputs were donated by Toneleria Nacional and corresponded to products from the same production batch. The total phenols content increased significantly after 40 days, while the total tannin concentration decreased gradually during the study. The anthocyanin concentration increased after 120 days of the assay in all treatments. Comparatively, it was observed that the wine of T2 presented the lowest values of these polyphenols, while the T0 and T4 presented the highest total phenol contents. Also, T1 presented the highest values of total tannins in relation to the rest of the treatments in some samples. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD were 7 flavonoids (epigallocatechin, catechin, procyanidin gallate, epicatechin, quercetin, rutin and myricetin) and 14 non-flavonoids (gallic, protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, trans-cutaric, vanillinic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids; tyrosol, vanillin, syringaldehyde, trans-resveratrol and cis-resveratrol). Tyrosol was the most abundant compound, whereas ellagic acid was the lowest in the samples. Comparatively, it was observed that the wines of T2 showed the lowest concentrations of flavonoid and non-flavonoid phenols during the study. In contrast, wines of T1, T3, and T4 presented the highest contents of non-flavonoid polyphenols. In summary, the use of barrel renovators (zig zag and staves) is an interesting alternative which would emulate the contribution of polyphenols from the barrels to the wine.
Culture Medium Design Based on Whey for the Growth and Bacteriocin Production of Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus
Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a competitive strategy for substrate and habitat. Those peptides have a potential use as food biopreservatives due to their antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, avoiding the use of additives that can be harmful to consumers. The industrial production of bacteriocins is currently expensive; one of the options to be competitive is the development of economic culture media, for example, with the use of agro-industrial wastes such as whey. This study evaluated the growth and production of bacteriocins from four strains: Pediococcus pentosaceus 63, Pediococcus pentosaceus 145, Pediococcus pentosaceus 146 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 147 isolated from ‘minas cheese’ (artisanal cheese made from raw milk in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) in order to select a strain with growth at high rates and higher antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes 104 after incubation on the culture medium designed with whey and other components. The media used were: MRS broth, modified MRS broth (using different sources of carbon and nitrogen and different amounts of micronutrients) and a culture medium designed by a factorial design using whey and other components. The final biomass concentrations of the four strains in MRS broth after 24 hours of incubation were very similar 9.25, 9.33, 9.25 and 9.22 (log CFU/mL) for P. pentosaceus 63, P. pentosaceus 145, P. pentosaceus 146 and P. pentosaceus 147 respectively. In the same assays, antimicrobial activity of 3200 AU/mL for the first three and of 12800 AU/mL for P. pentosaceus 147 were obtained. Culture of P. pentosaceus 63 on modified MRS broth, showed the effect of some sources of carbon on the activity of bacteriocin, obtaining 12800 AU/mL with dextrose and 25600 AU/mL with maltose. Cultures of P. pentosaceus 145, 146 and 147 with these same sugars presented activity of 12800 AU/mL. It was observed that the modified MRS medium using whey increased the antimicrobial activity of the strains at 16000, 6400, 16000 and 19200 AU/mL for each strain respectively, keeping the biomass at values close to 9 log units. About nitrogen sources, it was observed that the combination of peptone (10 g /L), meat extract (10 g/L) and yeast extract (5 g/L) promoted the highest activity (12800 AU/mL), and in all cases MgSO4, MnSO4, K2HPO4 and ammonium citrate at low concentrations adversely affected bacteriocin production. Because P. pentosaceus 147 showed the highest antimicrobial activity in the presence of whey, it was used to evaluate the culture medium (peptone (10 g/L), meat extract (8 g/L), yeast extract (2 g/L), Tween® 80 (1 g/L), ammonium citrate (2 g/L), sodium acetate (5 g/L), MgSO4 (0.2 g/L), MnSO4 (0.04 g/L)). With the designed medium added with whey, 9.34 log units of biomass concentration and 19200 AU/mL were achieved for P. pentosaceus 147. The above suggest that the new medium promotes the antimicrobial activity of P. pentosaceus 147 allowing the use of an economic medium using whey.
The Inhibitory Effect of Riceberry Rice Extract on Acetylcholinesterase Activity
The world is facing a serious situation of aging society. Elderly may have many physical health problems due to degenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Riceberry rice relatively contain high levels of carbohydrate, vitamin E, -oryzanol, and also abundant of bioactive compound of anthocyanin. This study aimed to determine the inhibitory effect of Riceberry rice crude extract on acetylcholinesterase activity. The active compound was extracted by using 70% ethanol (v/v). The inhibitory effect of Riceberry rice on acetylcholinesterase was evaluated by using slightly modified method of Ellman’s method. The 120 seconds time interval of kinetics measurement showed that Riceberry rice extract at concentrations of 2.5-12.5 mg/ml presented the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity at the statistically significant difference at p  0.05 compared to control group over 60 -120 seconds. At the concentrations of 10 and 12.5 mg/ml of Riceberry rice extract expressed the high percentage of inhibitory activity of 50.86 and 71.22%, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Riceberry rice extract; considered to the end point, was found at concentration of 9.34 mg/ml. The physostigmine (positive control); however, showed a higher inhibitory capacity than that of Riceberry rice extract. The inhibitory activity of the positive control group was around at 80.40 – 90.41%. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that Riceberry rice extract possessed the inhibitory capacity of acetylcholinesterase activity. Moreover, at the concentrations of 12.5 mg/ml it showed the identical inhibitory effect with physostigmine group. The Riceberry rice extract might be able to alleviate the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease.
The Effects of Nutrition Education and Diet Therapy on Glycemic and Lipidemic Control in Iranian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Objective: To evaluate the effects of nutrition education and adherence to a healthy diet on glycemic and lipidemic control in patients with T2DM. Material and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 494 patients with T2DM, aged 14-87 years from both sexes who were selected by convenience sampling from referees to Aliebneabitaleb hospital in Ghom. The participants were divided into two 247 person groups by stratified randomization. Both groups received a diet adjusted based on ideal body weight, and the intervention group was additionally educated about healthy food choices regarding diabetes. Information on medications, psychological factors, diet and physical activity was obtained from questionnaires. Blood samples were collected to measure FBS, 2 hPG, HbA1c, cholesterol, and triglyceride. After 2 months, weight and biochemical parameters were measured again. Independent T-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Wilcoxon were used as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio of abnormal glycemic and lipidemic control according to the intervention. Results: The mean weight, FBS, 2 hPG, cholesterol and triglyceride after intervention were significantly lower than before that (p < 0.05). Discussion: Nutrition education plus a weigh reducer diet is more effective on glycemic and lipidemic control than a weight reducer diet, alone.
The Chewing Gum Confectionary Development for Oral Hygiene with Nine Hour Oral Antibacterial Activity
Nowadays oral health is raising concern in society. Acid producing microorganisms changes the oral pH and creates a favorable environment for microbial growth. This growth not only promotes dental decay but also bad breath. Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) listed component was incorporated in chewing gum as an antimicrobial agent. The chewing gum produced exhibited up to 9 hours of antimicrobial activity against oral microflora. The toxicity of GRAS component per RACC value of chewing gum was negligible as compared to actual toxicity level of GRAS component. The antibacterial efficiency of chewing gum was tested by using total plate count (TPC) and colony forming unit (CFU). Nine hours were required to microflora to reach TPC/CFU of before chewing gum consumption. This chewing gum not only provides mouth freshening activity but also helps in lowering dental decay, bad breath, and enamel whitening.
Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer
Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.
A Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention for Singaporean Women Aged Fifty Years and Above: A Community Based Randomised Controlled Trial
Singapore has a rapidly aging population, where the majority of older women aged 50 years and above, are physically inactive and have unhealthy dietary habits, placing them at ‘high risk’ of non-communicable diseases. Given the multiplicity of less than optimal dietary habits and high levels of physical inactivity among Singaporean women, it is imperative to develop appropriate lifestyle interventions at recreational centres to enhance both their physical and nutritional knowledge, as well as provide them with the opportunity to develop skills to support behaviour change. To the best of our knowledge, this proposed study is the first physical activity and nutrition cluster randomised controlled trial conducted in Singapore for older women. Findings from this study may provide insights and recommendations for policy makers and key stakeholders to create new healthy living, recreational centres with supportive environments. This 6-month community-based cluster randomised controlled trial will involve the implementation and evaluation of physical activity and nutrition program for community-dwelling Singaporean women, who currently attend recreational centres to promote social leisure activities in their local neighbourhood. The intervention will include dietary education and counselling sessions, physical activity classes, and telephone contact by certified fitness instructors and qualified nutritionists. Social Cognitive Theory with Motivational Interviewing will inform the development of strategies to support health behaviour change. Sixty recreational centres located in Singapore will be randomly selected from five major geographical districts and randomly allocated to the intervention (n=30) or control (n=30) cluster. A sample of 600 (intervention n=300; control n=300) women aged 50 years and above will then be recruited from these recreational centres. The control clusters will only undergo pre and post data collection and will not receive the intervention. It is hypothesised that by the end of the intervention, the intervention group participants (n = 300) compared to the control group (n = 300), will show significant improvements in the following variables: lipid profile, body mass index, physical activity and dietary behaviour, anthropometry, mental and physical health. Data collection will be examined and compared via the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 23. Descriptive and summary statistics will be used to quantify participants’ characteristics and outcome variables. Multi-variable mixed regression analyses will be used to confirm the effects of the proposed health intervention, taking into account the repeated measures and the clustering of the observations. The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HRE2016-0366). The study has been registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry and data collection.
Association of Calcium Intake Adequacy with Wealth Indices among Selected Female Adults Living in Depressed and Non-Depressed Area in Metro Manila, Philippines
This study aimed to determine the possible association between calcium intake and wealth indices of selected female adults. Specifically, it aimed to: a) determine the calcium intake adequacy of the respondents. b) determine the relationship, if any, between calcium intake adequacy, area and wealth indices. The study used the survey design and employed convenience sampling in selecting participants. Two hundred females aged 20 – 64 years old were covered in the study from depressed and non-depressed areas. Data collected were calcium intake taken from two 24-hour food recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and wealth indices using housing characteristics, household assets and access to utilities and infrastructure. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to determine the frequency distribution and association between the given variables, respectively, using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and OpenEpi software. The results showed that there were 86% of respondents in the depressed area with an inadequate calcium intake while there were 78% of respondents in the non-depressed area with an adequate calcium intake. No significant relationship was obtained in most wealth indices with calcium intake adequacy and area but appliance and ownership of main material of the house showed a significant relationship to calcium intake adequacy by area. The study recommends that the Local Government Unit (LGU) should provide seminars or nutrition education that will further enhance the knowledge of the people in the community. The study also recommends to conduct a similar study but with different, larger sample size, different location nonetheless if it is in urban or rural and include the anthropometry measurement of the respondents.
Concentration of Zinc Micronutrients in Breast Milk Based on Determinant of Mother and Baby in Kassi-Kassi Health Center
Breast milk is the complex biological fluid mix of macronutrient and micronutrient that are considered as perfect food for babies. Zinc has a role in various biological functions and physical growth. This research aims to know the average zinc (Zn) micronutrients content of breast milk by determinants of infant (birth weight) and mother (nutritional status and food intake) and description of the pattern of mothers breastfeeding. The type of research used is observational analytic with cross-sectional study design. The population was 41 mothers in Kassi-Kassi health center within one month. Sample research is mothers who gave birth at term and breastfed her baby. Sampling was done with random sampling technique involving 37 people. Samples of breast milk were analyzed in the laboratory by using the method of Atomic Absorption Spectrofotometry (AAS). This research find that from the samples (n=37) the average contents of zinc in the breast milk is 0,88±0,54 mg/L with the highest value on the group of low birth weight babies (1,13 ± 0,67mg/L), mothers who had normal nutritional status (0,981 ± 0,514 mg/L) and intake low zinc (0,94 ± 0,54 mg/L). Regarding breastfeeding pattern, 67,6% of the samples had had breastfeeding experience and 81,1% of breastfed more than eight times a day. In summary, the highest average value of the zinc content of breast milk was in the group of low birth weight babies, mother with normal nutritional status, and mothers having relatively low intake pattern.
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based Metabolomics and 13C Isotopic Ratio Evaluation to Differentiate Conventional and Organic Soy Sauce
Organic food products are becoming increasingly popular in recent years, as consumers have turned more health conscious and environmentally aware. A lot of consumers have understood that the organic foods are healthier than conventionally produced food stuffs. Price difference between conventional and organic foods is very high. So, it is very common to cheat the consumers by mislabeling and adulteration. Our study describes the 1H NMR based approach to characterize and differentiate soy sauce prepared from organically and conventionally grown raw materials (wheat and soybean). Commercial soy sauce samples fermented from organic and conventional raw materials were purchased from local markets. Principal component analysis showed clear separation among organic and conventional soy sauce samples. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed a significant (p < 0.01) separation among two types of soy sauce yielding leucine, isoleucine, ethanol, glutamate, lactate, acetate, β-glucose, sucrose, choline, valine, phenylalanine and tyrosine as important metabolites contributing towards this separation. Abundance ratio of 13C to 12C was also evaluated by 1H NMR spectroscopy which showed an increased ratio of 13C isotope in organic soy sauce samples indicating the organically grown wheat and soybean used for the preparation of organic soy sauce. Results of the study can be helpful to the end users to select the soy sauce of their choice. This information could also pave the way to further trace and authenticate the raw materials used in production of soy sauce.
Application of New Sprouted Wheat Brine for Delicatessen Products From Horse Meat, Beef and Pork
The main task of the meat-processing industry is the production of meat products as the main source of animal protein, ensuring the vital activity of the human body, in the required volumes, high quality, diverse assortment. Providing the population with high-quality food products what are biologically full, balanced in composition of basic nutrients and enriched by targeted physiologically active components, is one of the highest priority scientific and technical problems to be solved. In this regard, the formulation of a new brine from sprouted wheat for meat delicacies from horse meat, beef and pork has been developed. The new brine contains flavored aromatic ingredients, juice of the germinated wheat and vegetable juice. The viscosity of meat of horse meat, beef and pork were studied during massaging. Thermodynamic indices, water activity and binding energy of horse meat, beef and pork with application of new brine are investigated. A recipe for meat products with vegetable additives has been developed. Organoleptic evaluation of meat products was carried out. Physicochemical parameters of meat products with vegetable additives are carried out. Analysis of the obtained data shows that the values of the index aw (water activity) and the binding energy of moisture in the experimental samples of meat products are higher than in the control samples. It has been established by investigations that with increasing water activity and the binding energy of moisture, the tenderness of ready meat delicacies increases with the use of a new brine.
Influence of the Nature of Plants on Drainage, Purification Performance and Quality of Biosolids on Faecal Sludge Planted Drying Beds in Sub-Saharan Climate Conditions
In new approaches that are being developed for the treatment of sludge, the valorization of by-product is increasingly encouraged. In this perspective, Echinochloa pyramidalis has been successfully tested in Cameroon. Echinochloa pyramidalis is an efficient forage plant in the treatment of faecal sludge. It provides high removal rates and biosolids of high agronomic value. Thus in order to advise the use of this plant in planted drying beds in Senegal its comparison with the plants long been used in the field deserves to be carried out. That is the aim of this study showing the influence of the nature of the plants on the drainage, the purifying performances and the quality of the biosolids. Echinochloa pyramidalis, Typha australis, and Phragmites australis are the three macrophytes used in this study. The drainage properties of the beds were monitored through the frequency of clogging, the percentage of recovered leachate and the dryness of the accumulated sludge. The development of plants was followed through the measurement of the density. The purification performances were evaluated from the incoming raw sludge flows and the outflows of leachate for parameters such as Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Volatile Solids (TVS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Ammonia (NH₄⁺), Nitrate (NO₃⁻), Total Phosphorus (TP), Orthophosphorus (PO₄³⁻) and Ascaris eggs. The quality of the biosolids accumulated on the beds was measured after 3 months of maturation for parameters such as dryness, C/N ratio NH₄⁺/NO₃⁻ ratio, ammonia, Ascaris eggs. The results have shown that the recovered leachate volume is about 40.4%; 45.6% and 47.3%; the dryness about 41.7%; 38.7% and 28.7%, and clogging frequencies about 6.7%; 8.2% and 14.2% on average for the beds planted with Echinochloa pyramidalis, Typha australis and Phragmites australis respectively. The plants of Echinochloa pyramidalis (198.6 plants/m²) and Phragmites australis (138 plants/m²) have higher densities than Typha australis (90.3 plants/m²). The nature of the plants has no influence on the purification performance with reduction percentages around 80% or more for all the parameters followed whatever the nature of the plants. However, the concentrations of these various leachate pollutants are above the limit values of the Senegalese standard NS 05-061 for the release into the environment. The biosolids harvested after 3 months of maturation are all mature with C/N ratios around 10 for all the macrophytes. The NH₄⁺/NO₃⁻ ratio is lower than 1 except for the biosolids originating from the Echinochloa pyramidalis beds. The ammonia is also less than 0.4 g/kg except for biosolids from Typha australis beds. Biosolids are also rich in mineral elements. Their concentrations of Ascaris eggs are higher than the WHO recommendations despite a percentage of inactivation around 80%. These biosolids must be stored for an additional time or composted. From these results, the use of Echinochloa pyramidalis as the main macrophyte can be recommended in the various drying beds planted in sub-Saharan climate conditions.
Nutritional Status of Children in a Rural Food Environment, Haryana: A Paradox for the Policy Action
The concurrent increasing prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity among children with changing lifestyle and the rapid transitioning society has necessitated the need for a unifying/multi-level approach to understand the determinants of the problem. The present community-based cross-sectional research study was conducted to assess the associations between lifestyle behavior and food environment of the child at household, neighborhood, and school with the BMI of children (6-12 year old) (n=612) residing in three rural clusters of Palwal district, Haryana. The study used innovative and robust methods for assessing the lifestyle and various components of food environment in the study. The three rural clusters selected for the study were located at three different locations according to their access to highways in the SOMAARTH surveillance site. These clusters were significantly different from each other in terms of their socio-demographic and socio-economic profile, living conditions, environmental hygiene, health seeking behavior and retail density. Despite of being different, the quality of living conditions and environmental hygiene was poor across three clusters. The children had higher intakes of dietary energy and sugars; one-fifth share of the energy being derived from unhealthy foods, engagement in high levels of physical activity and significantly different food environment at home, neighborhood and school level. However, despite having a high energy intake, 22.5% of the recruited children were thin/severe thin, and 3% were overweight/obese as per their BMI-for-age categories. The analysis was done using multi-variate logistic regression at three-tier hierarchy including individual, household and community level. The factors significantly explained the variability in governing the risk of getting thin/severe thin among children in rural area (p-value: 0.0001; Adjusted R2: 0.156) included age (>10years) (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), the interaction between minority category and poor SES of the household (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.6-12.1), availability of sweets (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-0.99) and cereals (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0) in the household and poor street condition (proxy indicator of the hygiene and cleanliness in the neighborhood) (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-1.1). The homogeneity of other factors at neighborhood and school level food environment diluted the heterogeneity in the lifestyles and home environment of the recruited children and their households. However, it is evident that when various individual factors interplay at multiple levels amplifies the risk of undernutrition in a rural community. Conclusion: These rural areas in Haryana are undergoing developmental, economic and societal transition. In correspondence, no improvements in the nutritional status of children have happened. Easy access to the unhealthy foods has become a paradox.
Effect of Chitosan and Ascorbic Acid Coating on the Refrigerated Tilapia Fish Fillet (Oreochromis niliticus)
Tilapia is a popular cultured fresh-water fish in Malaysia. The highly perishable nature of the fish and increasing demand for high-quality ready-to-cook fish has intensified the search for better fish preservation method. Chitosan edible coating has been evident to extend the shelf life of fish fillet. This work was attempted to explore the potential of ascorbic acid in enhancing the shelf life extension ability of chitosan coated Tilapia fillet under refrigeration condition (4 ± 1oC). A 3 2 Factorial Design which comprising of three concentrations of chitosan (1, 1.5 and 2%) and two concentrations of ascorbic acids (2.5 and 5%) was used. The fish fillets were analyzed for total viable count, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, pH, aw and colour changes at 3-day interval over 15-day storage. The shelf life of chitosan coated (1.5% and 2%) fillet was increased to 15 days as compared to uncoated fish fillet which can only last for nine days. The inhibition of microbial growth of fish fillet was enhanced with the addition of 5% of ascorbic acids in 2% of chitosan. The TBA value, pH and aw for chitosan coated samples were found lower than that of uncoated sample (p< 0.05). The colour stability of the fish fillet was also improved by the composite coating. Overall, 2% of chitosan and 5% of ascorbic acid formed the most effective coating to enhance the quality and to lengthen the shelf life of refrigerated Tilapia fillet.
Assessment of the Situation and the Cause of Junk Food Consumption in Iranians: A Qualitative Study
The consumption of junk food in Iran is alarmingly increasing. This study aimed to investigate the influencing factors of junk food consumption and amendable interventions that criticized and approved by stakeholders, in order to presented to health policy makers. The articles and documents related to content of study were collected by using the appropriate keywords such as junk food, carbonated beverage, chocolate, candy, sweets, industrial fruit juices, potato chips, French fries, puffed corn, cakes, biscuits, sandwiches, prepared foods and popsicles, ice cream, bar, chewing gum, pastilles and snack in scholar.google.com, pubmed.com, eric.ed.gov, cochrane.org, magiran.com, medlib.ir, irandoc.ac.ir, who.int, iranmedex.com, sid.ir, pubmed.org and sciencedirect.com databases. The main key points were extracted and included in a checklist and qualitatively analyzed. Then a summarized abstract was prepared in a format of a questionnaire to be presented to stakeholders. The design of this was qualitative (Delphi). According to this method, a questionnaire was prepared based on reviewing the articles and documents, and it was emailed to Stakeholders. They were asked to prioritize and choose the main problems and effective interventions. After three rounds, consensus was obtained. Studies revealed high consumption of junk foods in Iranian population, especially in children and adolescents. The most important affecting factors were including availability, low price, media advertisements, preference of fast foods taste, variety of the packages and their attractiveness, low awareness and changing in lifestyle. Main interventions recommended by stakeholders was including developing a protective environment, educational interventions, increasing healthy food access and controlling media advertisements and putting pressure of industry and mining ministry on producers to produce healthy snacks. According to the findings, the results of this study may be proposed to public health policymakers as an advocacy paper and to be integrated into the interventional programs of Health and Education Ministries and the media. Also, implementation of supportive meetings with the producers of alternative healthy products is suggested.
The Diet Adherence in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Patients in the North of Iran Based on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence
Background and Objectives: Before any nutritional intervention, it is necessary to have the prospect of eating habits of people with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we assessed the adherence of healthy diet based on Mediterranean dietary pattern and related factors in adults in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 550 men and women with cardiovascular risk factors that referred to Heshmat Hospital in Rasht, Northern Iran. Information was collected by interview and reading medical history and measuring anthropometric indexes. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener was used for assessing dietary adherence, this screener was modified according to religious beliefs and culture of Iran. Results: The mean age of participants was 58±0.38 years. The mean of body mass index was 27±0.01kg/m2 and the mean of waist circumference was 98±0.2cm. The mean of dietary adherence was 5.76±0.07. Forty-five percent of participants had low adherence, and just four percent had suitable adherence. The mean of dietary adherence in men was significantly higher that women (p=0. 07). Participants in rural area and high educational participants insignificantly had an unsuitable dietary Adherence. There was no significant association between some cardiovascular disease risk factors and dietary adherence. Conclusion: Education to different group about dietary intake correction and using a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is similar to dietary intake in the north of Iran, for controlling cardiovascular disease is necessary.
The Association between Food Security Status and Depression in Two Iranian Ethnic Groups Living in Northwest of Iran
Food insecurity (FI) influences may result in poor physical and mental health outcomes. Minor ethnic group may experience higher level of FI, and this situation may be related with higher depression prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the association of depression with Food security status in major (Azeri) and minor (Kurd) ethnicity living in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, north of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20–64 year old, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri and 278 Kurd) were selected through a multi-stage cluster systematic sampling. Depression rate was assessed by 'Beck' short form questionnaire (validated in Iranians) through interviews. Household food insecurity status (HFIs) were measured using adapted household food insecurity access scale through face-to-face interviews at homes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of depression across HFIS. Higher percent of Kurds had moderate and severe depression in comparison with Azeri group (73[17.3%] vs. 86[27.9%]). There were not any significant differences between the two ethnicities in mild depression. Also, of all the subjects, moderate-to-severe FI was more prevalent in Kurds (28.5%), compared to Azeri group (17.3%) [P < 0.01]. In Kurd ethnic group who were food secure or with mild HFI had lower chance to have severe depression (OR=0.097; 95% CI: 0.02-0.47) in comparison to those with sever FI. However, there was no significant association between depression and HFI in Azeri group. Findings revealed that the severity of HFI was related with severity depression in studied minor ethnic groups. However, in Azeri ethnicity as a major group, other confounders may have influence on the relation with depression and FI that not controlled in the present study.
Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coating onto Polypropylene Film Using Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment as Food Packaging
Recently, edible films and coating have attracted much attention in food industry due to their environmentally friendly nature and safety in direct contact with food. However edible films have relatively weak mechanical properties and high water vapor permeability. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop bilayer carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated polypropylene (PP) films to increase mechanical properties and water vapor resistance of each pure CMC or PP films. To modify the surface properties of PE for better attachment of CMC coating layer to PP the atmospheric cold plasma treatment was used. Then the PP surface changes were evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and ATR-FTIR. Furthermore, the physical, mechanical, optical and microstructure characteristics of plasma-treated and untreated films were analyzed. ATR-FTIR results showed that plasma treatment created oxygen-containing groups on PP surface leading to an increase in hydrophilic properties of PP surface. Moreover, a decrease in water contact angle (from 88.92° to 52.15°) and an increase of roughness were observed on PP film surface indicating good adhesion between hydrophilic CMC and hydrophobic PP. Furthermore, plasma pre-treatment improved the tensile strength of CMC coated-PP films from 58.19 to 61.82. Water vapor permeability of plasma treated bilayer film was lower in comparison with untreated film. Therefore, cold plasma treatment has potential to improve attachment of CMC coating to PP layer, leading to enhanced water barrier and mechanical properties of CMC coated polypropylene as food packaging in which also CMC is in contact with food.
Antimicrobial Activity of Sour Cherry Pomace
Due to high content of bioactive compounds, sour cherry possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Additionally, waste material from industrial processing of sour cherry is also a good source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to screen the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of sour cherry pomace extract. Tested strains were Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and wild isolates Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11632, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and wild isolates Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Bacillus sp.) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 112, Hefebank Weihenstephan and Candida albicans ATCC 10231). Antimicrobial activity was tested by disc-diffusion method and agar-well diffusion method. MIC and MBC were determined by microdilution method. Screening tests showed that Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to tested extract, with exception of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella sp. for which only zones of reduced growth appeared. However, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive where the highest clear zones appeared with 100 µl of extract applied. There was no activity against tested yeasts. MIC and MBC values were in the range 3.125-37.5 mg/ml and 6.25-100 mg/ml, respectively. The most susceptible strain was Staphylococcus aureus while the most resistant was Bacillus sp. where MBC was not found in tested concentration range. Sour cherry pomace possesses high antibacterial potential, which indicates that this waste material is a promising source of bioactive compounds and could be used as a functional food ingredient.
Food Strategies in the Mediterranean Basin, Possible for Food Safety and Security
The research intends to reflect on the current mapping of the Food Strategies, on the reasons why in the planning objectives panorama, such sustainability priorities are located in those geographic areas and on the evolutions of these priorities of the Mediterranean planning dispositions. The whirling population growth that is affecting global cities is causing an enormous challenge to conventional resource-intensive food production and supply and the urgent need to face food safety, food security and sustainability concerns. Urban or Territorial Food Strategies can provide an interesting path for the development of this new agenda within the imperative principle of sustainability. In the specific, it is relevant to explore what ‘sustainability’ means within these policies. Most of these plans include actions related to four main components and interpretations of sustainability that are food security and safety, food equity, environmental sustainability itself and cultural identity and, at the designing phase, they differ slightly from each other according to the degree of approximation to one of these dimensions. Moving from these assumptions, the article would analyze some practices and policies representatives of different Food Strategies of the world and focus on the Mediterranean ones, on the problems and negative externalities from which they start, on the first interventions that are implementing and on their main objectives. We will mainly use qualitative data from primary and secondary collections. So far, an essential observation could have been made about the relationship between these sustainability dimensions and geography. In statistical terms, the US and Canadian policies tended to devote a large research space to health issues and access to food; those northern European showed a special attention to the environmental issues and the shortening of the chain; and finally the policies that, even in limited numbers, were being developed in the Mediterranean basin, were characterized by a strong territorial and cultural imprint and their major aim was to preserve local production and the contact between the productive land and the end consumer. Recently, though, Mediterranean food planning strategies are focusing more on health related and food accessibility issues and analyzing our diets not just as a matter of culture and territorial branding but as tools for reducing public health costs and accessibility to fresh food for everyone. The article would reflect then on how Food Safety, Food Security and Health are entering the new agenda of the Mediterranean Food Strategies. The research hypothesis suggests that the economic crisis that in the last years invested both producers and consumers had a significant impact on the nutrition habits and on the redefinition of food poverty, even in the fatherland of the healthy Mediterranean diet. This trend and other variables influenced the orientation and the objectives of the food strategies.
Development of a Prototype Time-Temperature Indicator for Monitoring Rice Cooking Process
Nowadays, a Time-Temperature Indicator or TTI is developed to monitor the food product quality because it is simple, cost-effective and user-friendly devices. The operation of a TTI based on mechanical, chemical or systems that change irreversibly from the time of their activation. In this work, TTI was developed based on chemical reaction, Maillard reaction, to monitor food quality during processing. The color parameter (L*, a* and b*) from was measured over time at 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C. The color was changed from pale yellow to very dark brown. The activation energy (Ea) of TTI which calculated from Arrhenius equation was 94.45 kJ/mol. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the TTI from Arrhenius plot at 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C were 0.9271, 0.9796, 0.9763 and 0.9396 respectively. From the result of Ea, the new TTI could be used to monitor the quality of foodstuff, which quality decrease was mainly caused by the growth of microorganism (83.68–251.04 kJ/mol), non enzyme browning (104.6–209.2 kJ/mol) and the loss of nutrients (83.68–125.52 kJ/mol). This research aims to develop TTI for rice cooking process. Therefore, the kinetic of rice cooking was determined by measuring the hardness value of cooked parboiled pre-germinated brown rice (KDML 105 variety) over time. The activation energy of rice cooking, derived from Arrhenius plots of cooking rate constant was 14.86 kJ/mole. The difference between the Ea of the TTI which developed in this research and the Ea of rice cooking was more than 40 kJ/mole, indicates that this TTI was not suitable for monitoring this rice cooking process. It means that the minimum energy that required to start chemical reaction of TTI was higher than those of rice cooking process. Therefore, the TTI should adjust to obtain Ea similar to Ea of rice cooking process by the Maillard reaction factors, such as pH, temperature, reactant concentrations and the ratio between reactants.
Effects of Gamma-Tocotrienol Supplementation on T-Regulatory Cells in Syngeneic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer
Immune system is a complex system where the immune cells have the capability to respond against a wide range of immune challenges including cancer progression. However, in the event of cancer development, tumour cells trigger immunosuppressive environment via activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and T regulatory (Treg) cells. The Treg cells are subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, known to have crucial roles in regulating immune homeostasis and promoting the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Dysregulation of these mechanisms could lead to cancer progression and immune suppression. Recently, there are many studies reporting on the effects of natural bioactive compounds on immune responses against cancer. It was known that tocotrienol-rich-fraction consisting 70% tocotrienols and 30% α-tocopherol is able to exhibit immunomodulatory as well as anti-cancer properties. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of gamma-tocotrienol (G-T3) supplementation on T-reg cells in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. In this study, female BALB/c mice were divided into two groups and fed with either soy oil (vehicle) or gamma-tocotrienol (G-T3) for two weeks followed by inoculation with tumour cells. All the mice continued to receive the same supplementation until day 49. The results showed a significant reduction in tumour volume and weight in G-T3 fed mice compared to vehicle-fed mice. Lung and liver histology showed reduced evidence of metastasis in tumour-bearing G-T3 fed mice. Besides that, flow cytometry analysis revealed T-helper cell population was increased, and T-regulatory cell population was suppressed following G-T3 supplementation. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that there was a marked decrease in the expression of FOXP3 in the G-T3 fed tumour bearing mice. In conclusion, the G-T3 supplementation showed good prognosis towards breast cancer by enhancing the immune response in tumour-bearing mice. Therefore, gamma-T3 can be used as immunotherapy agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
Carbon Footprint and Exergy Destruction Footprint in White Wine Production Line
Wine is the most popular alcoholic drink in the World with 274.4 million of hectoliter annual production in the year of 2015. The wine industry is very important for some regions as well as creating significant value in their economies. This industry is very sensitive to the global warming since viticulture highly depends on climate and geographical region. Sustainability concept is a crucial issue for the wine industry and sustainability performances of wine production processes should be determined. Although wine production industry is an energy intensive sector as a whole, the most energy intensive products are widely used both in the viti and vinicultural process. In this study, gate-to-gate LCA approach in energy resource utilization and global warming potential impacts for white wine production line were attempted and carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint were calculated, accordingly. As a result, carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint values were calculated to be 1.75 kg CO2eq and 365.3kW, respectively.
Changing from Crude - Rudimentary - to Modern Method of Cassava Processing in the Ngwo Village of Njikwa Sub Division of North West Region of Cameroon
The processing of cassava from tubers or roots into food using crude and rudimentary method (hand peeling, grating, frying and to sun drying) is a very cumbersome and difficult process. The crude methods are time consuming and labour intensive. While on the other hand, modern processing method, that is using machines to perform the various processes as washing, peeling, grinding, oven drying, fermentation and frying is easier, less time consuming, and less labour intensive. Rudimentarily, cassava roots are processed into numerous products and utilized in various ways according to local customs and preferences. For the people of Ngwo village, cassava is transformed locally into flour or powder form called ‘cumcum’. It is also sucked into water to give a kind of food call ‘water fufu’ and fried to give ‘garri’. The leaves are consumed as vegetables. Added to these, its relative high yields; ability to stay underground after maturity for long periods give cassava considerable advantage as a commodity that is being used by poor rural folks in the community, to fight poverty. It plays a major role in efforts to alleviate the food crisis because of its efficient production of food energy, year-round availability, tolerance to extreme stress conditions, and suitability to present farming and food systems in Africa. Improvement of cassava processing and utilization techniques would greatly increase labor efficiency, incomes, and living standards of cassava farmers and the rural poor, as well as enhance the-shelf life of products, facilitate their transportation, increase marketing opportunities, and help improve human and livestock nutrition. This paper presents a general overview of crude ways in cassava processing and utilization methods now used by subsistence and small-scale farmers in Ngwo village of the North West region in Cameroon, and examine the opportunities of improving processing technologies. Cassava needs processing because the roots cannot be stored for long because they rot within 3-4 days of harvest. They are bulky with about 70% moisture content, and therefore transportation of the tubers to markets is difficult and expensive. The roots and leaves contain varying amounts of cyanide which is toxic to humans and animals, while the raw cassava roots and uncooked leaves are not palatable. Therefore, cassava must be processed into various forms in order to increase the shelf life of the products, facilitate transportation and marketing, reduce cyanide content and improve palatability.
Homogenization of Cocoa Beans Fermentation to Upgrade Quality by Using an Original Improved Fermenter
Cocoa beans (Theobroma cocoa L) are the mayor raw material for chocolate confection. The beans must be previously fermented correctly with a fermenter. The artisanal fermenter made with banana leaves retain poorly the heat produced during the fermentation, in addition, turnings are long and difficult. In baskets fermentation, turnings are easy, but the loss of heat is always considerable. Box fermenter reduces this loss by using a wood with large thickness (e>3cm), but turning is still hard. Automatic fermenters are not rentable for most of producer. Heat (T>45°C) and acidity produced during the fermentation by microbiology activity of yeasts and bacteria are enabling the emergence of potential flavor and taste of future chocolate. In this study, a cylindro-rotative fermenter (FCR-V1) has been built and coconut fibers were used in its structure to confine heat. An axis of rotation (360°) has been integrated to facilitate the turning and homogenization of beans in the fermenter. This axis permits to put fermenter in a vertical position during the anaerobic alcoholic phase of fermentation, and horizontally during acetic phase to take advantage of the mid height filling. For circulation of air flow during turning in acetic phase, two woven rattan with grid have been made, one for the top and second for the bottom of the fermenter. To reduce air flow the rest of the time, two airtight covers have been made and put on top of each grid cover. The efficiency of the turning by this kind of rotation, coupled with homogenization of the temperature, caused by the horizontal position in the acetic phase of the fermenter, contribute to having a good proportion of well-fermented beans (83.23%). In addition, pH values of the bean (pH=4.6) are in the range (4.5 to 5.5) where the activity of the enzymes in the production of the aromatic compounds is optimised. The regularity of mass loss during all fermentation makes it possible to predict the drying surface corresponding to the amount being fermented.
Effects of Temperature and Cysteine Addition on Formation of Flavor from Maillard Reaction Using Xylose and Rapeseed Meal Peptide
The Maillard reaction can produce the flavor enhancing substance through the chemical crosslinking between free amino group of the protein or polypeptide with the carbonyl of the reducing sugar. In this research, solutions of rapeseed meal peptide and D-xylose with or without L-cysteine (RXC or RX) were heated over a range of temperatures (80-140 °C) for 2 h. It was observed that RXs had a severe browning,while RXCs accompanied by more pH decrement with the temperature increasing. Then the correlation among data of quantitative sensory descriptive analysis, free amino acid (FAA) and GC–MS of RXCs and RXs were analyzed using the partial least square regression method. Results suggested that the Maillard reaction product (MRPs) with cysteine formed at 120 °C (RXC-120) had greater sensory properties especially meat-like flavor compared to other MRPs. Meanwhile, it revealed that glutamic and glycine not only had a positive contribution to meaty aroma but also showed a significant and positive influence on umami taste of RXs based on the FAA data. Moreover, the sulfur-containing compounds showed a significant positive correlation with the meat-like flavor of RXCs, while RXs depended on furans and nitrogenous-containing compounds with more caramel-like flavor. Therefore, a MRP with strong meaty flavor could be obtained at 120 °C by addition of cysteine.