Prevalence of Nutrient Deficiencies in Older Adults: Results from the Japan National Health and Nutrition Survey 2014
Japan has been experiencing global ageing of population with the World’s leading life expectancy (80.8 y for men and 86.9 y for women) and among the lowest birth rate. Preventive nutrition-based approaches have been identified by the health authorities as one of the strategies to increase the healthy life expectancy and reduce the healthcare costs. However, the nutritional needs and status of the senior population have not been well characterized to provide targeted solutions. This study aims to describe the age- and gender-specific prevalence of inadequacy of macro- and micronutrients intake based on the latest Japan National Health and Nutrition Survey (JNHNS) 2014. JNHNS collected data on the consumption of foods and beverages using 1-day semi-weight household dietary record. Nutrient intake levels were then calculated using the Japanese standard tables of food composition. Where applicable, Japanese population-specific estimated average requirements (EAR) were used as a benchmark to determine the prevalence of potential nutrient intake inadequacy, and adequate intake (AI) were used for nutrients with no available EARs. In all, 3403 senior adults aged 60 y and above and 3324 young adults aged 19 to 59 y were included in the 2014 JNHNS. Age- and gender-specific differences were observed in the mean nutrient intakes as well as the prevalence of inadequacy. Among the 22 nutrients examined, the prevalence of inadequacy for iron, vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, and folic acid in the senior adults was significantly lower than young adults, suggesting potentially healthier dietary choices by the seniors. However, there was still a considerable proportion of seniors who did not meet the requirement for key nutrients like vitamin B1 (67%), calcium (57%), vitamin A (48%), magnesium (47%), vitamin E (44%), and vitamin B6 (41%). Inadequate nutrient intake is generally more prevalent among elderly males than females for many nutrients, with the exception of iron (prevalence of inadequacy: 21% versus 42%) which could partly be explained by the higher intake recommendations for the females. In conclusion, high prevalence of nutrient inadequacy exists in older adults, with a potentially worsened picture for men. Such inadequacies could have multiple health implications including physical frailty and mental health. Further study is warranted to investigate the food consumption patterns that could explain the observed nutrient inadequacies, and to eventually develop nutrition-based solutions tailored to the needs of specific subgroups of the population.
Characterization of Antioxidant-Antimicrobial Microcapsules Containing Carum Copticum Essential Oil and Their Effect on the Sensory Quality of Yoghurt
In this study, preparation of spray dried Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO)-loaded microcapsules by maltodextrin and its blending with two other natural biodegradable polymers, gum Arabic (GA) or modified starch (MS) were investigated. Addition of these polymers to maltodextrin resulted in the encasement of encapsulation efficiency (EE). The highest EE (78.22±0.34%) and total phenolic (TP) content (83.86±1.72 mg GAE/100g) was related to MD-MS microcapsules. CCEO-loaded microcapsules showed spherical surface, good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, sensory tests confirmed the possible application of CCEO-loaded microcapsules as natural food additives.
Approximation of Selenium Content in Watermelons for Use as a Food Supplement
Watermelons are fruits that belong to the family cucurbitaceous. There are many types of watermelons have been positively identified to exist in the world. A watermelon consists of four distinct parts namely; seeds, pink flesh, white flesh and peel. It also contains high content of water of approximately 90% that is rich in essential minerals such as, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, sodium trace amounts of copper, iron, zinc and selenium. Watermelons have substantial amounts of boron, iodine, chromium, silicon and molybdenum. The levels of nutrients in different parts of the watermelons may be different. Selenium has been found to be a very useful food supplement especially for people living with HIV/AIDS. An experimental study was carried out to estimate the amount Se in different parts of the watermelon. Analysis of sampled watermelons was conducted using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of the study indicated that high content of Se was present in the seeds compared to the other parts. High content of Se was also found in the water contained in the watermelon seeds.
Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract
In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria’s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.
Capacity Building in Dietary Monitoring and Public Health Nutrition in the Eastern Mediterranean Region
Similar to Western Countries, the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) also presents major public health issues associated with the increased consumption of sugar, fat, and salt. Therefore, one of the policies of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) EMR is to reduce the intake of salt, sugar, and fat (Saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids) to address the risk of non-communicable diseases (i.e. diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer) and obesity. The project objective is to assess status and provide training and capacity development in the use of improved standardized methodologies for updated food composition data, dietary intake methods, use of suitable biomarkers of nutritional value and determine health outcomes in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Training exchanges have been developed with clusters of countries created resulting from regional needs including Sudan, Egypt and Jordan; Tunisia, Morocco, and Mauritania; and other Middle Eastern countries. This capacity building will lead to the development and sustainability of up-to-date national and regional food composition databases in LMIC for use in dietary monitoring assessment in food and nutrient intakes. Workshops were organized to provide training and capacity development in the use of improved standardized methodologies for food composition and food intake. Training needs identified and short-term scientific missions organized for LMIC researchers including (1) training and knowledge exchange workshops, (2) short-term exchange of researchers, (3) development and application of protocols and (4) development of strategies to reduce sugar and fat intake. An initial training workshop, Morocco 2018 was attended by 25 participants from 10 EMR countries to review status and support development of regional food composition. 4 training exchanges are in progress. The use of improved standardized methodologies for food composition and dietary intake will produce robust measurements that will reinforce dietary monitoring and policy in LMIC. The capacity building from this project will lead to the development and sustainability of up-to-date national and regional food composition databases in EMR countries. Supported by the UK Medical Research Council, Global Challenges Research Fund, (MR/R019576/1), and the World Health Organization’s Eastern Mediterranean Region.
Effects of Turmeric Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Objectives: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dyslipidemia contributes to the enhanced risk of CVD in persons with NAFLD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on serum lipids levels in patients with NAFLD. Methods: In this double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 46 NAFLD patients (21 males and 25 females; age range, 20 – 60 years) were randomly assigned in the two groups. The intervention and control groups received 3g of turmeric (n = 23) and placebo (n = 23), daily for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results: Turmeric supplementation significantly increased serum levels of HDL-C compared with the placebo group at the end of the study (by 12.73%, P < 0.05). Serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced within turmeric group at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Turmeric consumption had beneficial effects on serum lipids levels of subjects and may be useful in controlling of CVD risk factors in NAFLD patients.
Major Dietary Patterns in Relationship with Anthropometric Indices in North West of Iran
Dietary pattern analysis method can reflect more information about the nutritional etiology of chronic diseases such as obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between major dietary patterns and anthropometric measures in men and women living in the city of Urmia. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men), aged 20–64 in Urmia city were selected from all four zones of Urmia city, in the north-west of Iran. Anthropometrics (weight, height, waist and hip circumference) were measured with standard methods. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meter). Dietary intake information was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in the last year. Dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. The relationship between dietary patterns and obesity was analyzed by logistic regression. Three major dietary patterns (DPs) were identified that were named ‘Traditional Higher SES (THS)’, ‘Traditional Low SES (TLS)’ and ‘Transitional’. THS DP was positively and Transitional DP was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference (W.C), however, after adjusting for confounding variables (age, gender, ethnicity, energy intake, physical activity and SES), the associations were not significant. The TLS was not significantly associated with BMI, but after adjusting for confounders, a significant positive association was detected with W.C and Waist to hip ratio (WHR). Findings showed that both traditional patterns were positively and the western type transitional pattern was reversely associated with anthropometric indices. But this relationship was highly affected by demographic, socioeconomic and energy input and output determinants. The results indicate the inevitable effect of environmental factors on the relationship between dietary patterns and anthropometric indices.
Dietary Habit and Anthropometric Status in Hypertensive Patients Compared to Normotensive Participants in the North of Iran
Hypertension is one of the important reasons of morbidity and mortality in countries, including Iran. It has been shown that hypertension is a consequence of the interaction of genetics and environment. Nutrients have important roles in the controlling of blood pressure. We assessed dietary habit and anthropometric status in patients with hypertension in the north of Iran, and that have special dietary habit and according to their culture. This study was conducted on 127 patients with newly recognized hypertension and the 120 normotensive participants. Anthropometric status was measured and demographic characteristics, and medical condition were collected by valid questionnaires and dietary habit assessment was assessed with 3-day food recall (two weekdays and one weekend). The mean age of participants was 58 ± 6.7 years. The mean level of energy intake, saturated fat, vitamin D, potassium, zinc, dietary fiber, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, copper and magnesium was significantly lower in the hypertensive group compared to the control (p < 0.05). After adjusting for energy intake, positive association was observe between hypertension and some dietary nutrients including; Cholesterol [OR: 1.1, P: 0.001, B: 0.06], fiber [OR: 1.6, P: 0.001, B: 1.8], vitamin D [OR: 2.6, P: 0.006, B: 0.9] and zinc [OR: 1.4, P: 0.006, B: 0.3] intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was not significant association between hypertension, weight and waist circumference. In our study, the mean intake of some nutrients was lower in the hypertensive individuals compared to the normotensive individual. Health training about suitable dietary habits and easier access to vitamin D supplementation in patients with hypertension are cost-effective tools to improve outcomes in Iran.
The Influence of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Haskap Composition and Anti-Diabetic Properties
Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a recently commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting effects. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most prominent anthocyanin of haskap berries. Recent literature reveals the efficacy of C3G in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects in various ways, including improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, including alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvesting date on haskap composition, biological properties, and antidiabetic properties. The polyphenolic compounds present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa and Evie among five harvesting stages (H1-H5), were extracted separately in 80% ethanol and analyzed to characterize their phenolic profiles. The haskap berries contain different types of polyphenols including flavonoids and phenolic acids. Anthocyanin is the major type of flavonoid. C3G is the most prominent type of anthocyanin, which accounts for 79% of total anthocyanin in all extracts. The variety Larissa at H5 contained the highest average C3G content, and its ethanol extract had the highest (1212.3±63.9 mg/100g FW) while, Evie at H1 contained the lowest C3G content (96.9±40.4 mg/100g FW). The average C3G content of Larissa from H1 – H5 varies from 208 – 1212 mg/100g FW. Quarcetin-3-Rutinoside (Q3Rut) is the major type of flavonol and highest is observed in Rebecca at H4 (47.81 mg/100g FW). The haskap berries also contained phenolic acids, but approximately 95% of the phenolic acids consisted of chlorogenic acid. The cultivar Larissa has a higher level of anthocyanin than the other four cultivars. The highest total phenolic content is observed in Evie at H5 (2.97±1.03 mg/g DW) while the lowest in Rebecca at H1 (1.47±0.96 mg/g DW). The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was higher (14.40±2.21 µmol TE/ g DW) among other cultivars and the lowest observed in Aurora at H3 (5.69±0.34 µmol TE/ g DW). Furthermore, Larissa H5 shows the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion Larissa, at H5 demonstrated highest polyphenol composition and antidiabetic properties.
In vitro Inhibitory Action of an Aqueous Extract of Carob on the Release of Myeloperoxidase by Human Neutrophils
Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a hemic enzyme found in high concentrations in the primary neutrophils granules. In addition to its peroxidase activity, it has a chlorination activity, using hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions to form hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidant, capable of chlorinating molecules. Bioactive compounds contained in medicinal plants could limit the action of this enzyme to reduce the reactive oxygen species production and its chlorination activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the carob aqueous extract (CAE) on the release of MPO by human neutrophils in vitro and its activity following stimulation of these cells by PMA. Methods: Neutrophils were isolated by simple sedimentation using the Dextran/Ficoll method. After stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), neutrophils release the MPO by degranulation. The effect of CAE on the release of MPO was analyzed by the Western blot technique, while, its activity was determined by biochemical method using the method of 3,3', 5,5'- Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide. The data were expressed as mean ± SEM. Results: The carob aqueous extract causes a decrease in MPO quantity and activity in a concentration-dependent manner which leads to a reduction of the production of the ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the protection of the molecules against oxidation and chlorination mechanisms. Conclusion: Thanks to its richness in bioactive compounds, the aqueous extract of carob could limit the development of damages related to the uncontrolled activity of MPO.
Dependence of Free Fatty Acid and Chlorophyll Content on Thermal Stability of Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Selective removal of free fatty acid (FFA) and chlorophyll in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is necessary to enhance the thermal stability in the condition of the deep frying. In this work, we demonstrated improving the thermal stability of EVOO by selective removal of free fatty acid and chlorophyll using (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS) functionalized mesoporous silica with controlled pore size. The adsorption kinetics of free fatty acid and chlorophyll into the mesoporous silica were quantitatively analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir model. The highest chlorophyll adsorption efficiency was shown in the pore size at 5 nm, suggesting that the interaction between the silica and the chlorophyll could be optimized at this point. The amino-functionalized mesoporous silica showed drastically improved removal efficiency of FFA than the bare silica. Moreover, beneficial compounds like tocopherol and phenolic compounds maintained even after adsorptive removal. Extra virgin olive oil treated by aminopropyl-functionalized silica had a smoke point high enough to be used as commercial frying oil. Based on these results, it is expected to attract the considerable amount of interest toward facile adsorptive refining process of EVOO using pore size controlled and amino-functionalized mesoporous silica.
Identifying Neighborhoods at Potential Risk of Food Insecurity in Rural British Columbia
Substantial research has indicated that socioeconomic and demographic characteristics’ of neighborhoods are strong determinants of food security. The aim of this study was to develop a Neighborhood Food Insecurity Index (NFII) based on the associated socioeconomic and demographic variables to identify the areas at potential risk of food insecurity in rural British Columbia (BC). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique was used to calculate the NFII for each rural Dissemination Area (DA) using the food security determinant variables from Canadian Census data. Using ArcGIS, the neighborhoods with the top quartile NFII values were classified as food insecure. The results of this study indicated that the most food insecure neighborhood with the highest NFII value of 99.1 was in the Bulkley-Nechako (central BC) area whereas the lowest NFII with the value of 2.97 was for a rural neighborhood in the Cowichan Valley area. In total, 98,049 (19%) of the rural population of British Columbians reside in high food insecure areas. Moreover, the distribution of food insecure neighborhoods was found to be strongly dependent on the degree of rurality in BC. In conclusion, the cluster of food insecure neighbourhoods was more pronounced in Central Coast, Mount Waddington, Peace River, Kootenay Boundary, and the Alberni-Clayoquot Regional Districts.
The Use of Nano-Crystalline Starch in Probiotic Yogurt and Its Effects on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and application of starch nanocrystals on physicochemical and microbial properties in the industrial production of probiotic yogurt. In this study, probiotic yoghurt was manufactured by industrial method with the optimization and control of the technological factors affecting the probabilistic biomass, using probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum with commonly used yogurt primers. Afterwards, the effects of different levels of fat (1.3%, 2.5 and 4%), as well as the effects of various perbiotic compounds include starch nanocrystals (0.5%, 1 and 1.5%), galactolegalosaccharide (0.5% 1 and 1.5%) and fructooligosaccharide (0.5%, 1 and 1.5%) were evaluated. In addition, the effect of packaging (polyethylene and glass) was studied, while the effect of pH changes and final acidity were studied at each stage. In this research, all experiments were performed in 3 replications and the results were analyzed in a completely randomized design with SAS version 9.1 software. The results of this study showed that the addition of starch nanocrystal compounds as well as the use of glass packaging had the most positive effects on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria and the addition of nano-crystals and the increase in the cooling rate of the product, had the most positive effects on the survival of bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum.
Physicochemical Studies and Screening of Aflatoxins and Pesticide Residues in Some 'Honey Pastes' Marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
The study aimed at investigating and screening of some contaminants in some honey-based products. Sixty-nine 'honey paste' samples marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were subjected to physicochemical studies and screening of aflatoxins and pesticide residues. The physicochemical parameters studied were mainly: moisture content, total sugars, total ash, total nitrogen, fibres, total acidity as citric acid and pH. These parameters were investigated using standard methods of analysis. Mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues were by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to official methods. Results revealed that mean values of the examined criteria were: 15.44±0.36%; 74±4.30%; 0.40±0.062%; 0.22±0.05%; 6.93±1.30%; 2.53±0.161 mmol/kg; 4.10±0.158, respectively. Overall results proved that all tested honey pastes samples were free from mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues. Therefore, we conclude that 'honey pastes' marketed in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia were safe for human consumption.
Use of Nutritional Screening Tools in Cancer-Associated Malnutrition
Malnutrition is a problem that significantly affects patients with cancer throughout the course of their illness, and it may be present from the moment of diagnosis until the end of treatment. We searched electronic databases using key terms such as ‘malnutrition in cancer patients’ or ‘nutritional status in cancer’ or ‘nutritional screening tools’ etc. Decline in nutritional status and continuing weight loss are associated with an increase in number and severity of complications, impaired quality of life and decreased survival rate. Nutrition is an important factor in the treatment and progression of cancer. Cancer patients are particularly susceptible to nutritional depletion due to the combined effects of the malignant disease and its treatment. With increasing incidence of cancer, identification and management of nutritional deficiencies are needed. Early identification of malnutrition, is substantial to minimize or prevent undesirable outcomes throughout clinical course. In determining the nutritional status; food consumption status, anthropometric methods, laboratory tests, clinical symptoms, psychosocial data are used. First-line strategies must include routine screening and identification of inpatients or outpatients at nutritional risk with the use of a simple and standardized screening tool. There is agreement among international nutrition organizations and accredited health care organizations that routine nutritional screening should be a standard procedure for every patient admitted to a hospital. There are f management of all cancer patients therefore routine nutritional screening with validated tools can identify cancer patients at risk.
Development of Method for Detecting Low Concentration of Organophosphate Pesticides in Vegetables Using near Infrared Spectroscopy
Vegetables are frequently contaminated with pesticides residues resulting in the most food safety concern among agricultural products. The objective of this work was to develop a method to detect the organophosphate (OP) pesticides residues in vegetables using Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Low concentration (ppm) of OP pesticides in vegetables were investigated. The experiment was divided into 2 sections. In the first section, Chinese kale spiked with different concentrations of chlorpyrifos pesticide residues (0.5-100 ppm) was chosen as the sample model to demonstrate the appropriate conditions of sample preparation, both for a solution or solid sample. The spiked samples were extracted with acetone. The sample extracts were applied as solution samples, while the solid samples were prepared by the dry-extract system for infrared (DESIR) technique. The DESIR technique was performed by embedding the solution sample on filter paper (GF/A) and then drying. The NIR spectra were measured with the transflectance mode over wavenumber regions of 12,500-4000 cm⁻¹. The QuEChERS method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed as the standard method. The results from the first section showed that the DESIR technique with NIR spectroscopy demonstrated good accurate calibration result with R² of 0.93 and RMSEP of 8.23 ppm. However, in the case of solution samples, the prediction regarding the NIR-PLSR (partial least squares regression) equation showed poor performance (R² = 0.16 and RMSEP = 23.70 ppm). In the second section, the DESIR technique coupled with NIR spectroscopy was applied to the detection of OP pesticides in vegetables. Vegetables (Chinese kale, cabbage and hot chili) were spiked with OP pesticides (chlorpyrifos ethion and profenofos) at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 100 ppm. Solid samples were prepared (based on the DESIR technique), then samples were scanned by NIR spectrophotometer at ambient temperature (25+2°C). The NIR spectra were measured as in the first section. The NIR- PLSR showed the best calibration equation for detecting low concentrations of chlorpyrifos residues in vegetables (Chinese kale, cabbage and hot chili) according to the prediction set of R2 and RMSEP of 0.85-0.93 and 8.23-11.20 ppm, respectively. For ethion residues, the best calibration equation of NIR-PLSR showed good indexes of R² and RMSEP of 0.88-0.94 and 7.68-11.20 ppm, respectively. As well as the results for profenofos pesticide, the NIR-PLSR also showed the best calibration equation for detecting the profenofos residues in vegetables according to the good index of R² and RMSEP of 0.88-0.97 and 5.25-11.00 ppm, respectively. Moreover, the calibration equation developed in this work could rapidly predict the concentrations of OP pesticides residues (0.5-100 ppm) in vegetables, and there was no significant difference between NIR-predicted values and actual values (data from GC-MS) at a confidence interval of 95%. In this work, the proposed method using NIR spectroscopy involving the DESIR technique has proved to be an efficient method for the screening detection of OP pesticides residues at low concentrations, and thus increases the food safety potential of vegetables for domestic and export markets.
In vitro Bioacessibility of Phenolic Compounds from Fruit Spray Dried and Lyophilized Powder
The health benefits of bioactive compounds such as phenolics are well known. The main source of these compounds are fruits and derivates. This study had the objective to study the bioacessibility of phenolic compounds from grape pomace and juçara dried extracts. For this purpose both characterized extracts were submitted to a simulated human digestion and the total phenolic content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant scavenging capacity was determinate in digestive fractions (oral, gastric, intestinal and colonic). Juçara had a higher anthocianins bioacessibility (17.16%) when compared to grape pomace (2.08%). The opposite result was found for total phenolic compound, where the higher bioacessibility was for grape (400%). The phenolic compound increase indicates a more accessible compound in the human gut. The lyophilized process had a beneficial impact in the final accessibility of the phenolic compounds being a more promising technique.
Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Trans Fat Content and Oxidative Parameters of Groundnut Oil
Heating/frying at elevated temperatures cause numerous physiochemical reactions including oxidative deterioration and trans fatty acid (TFA) formation; however Indian data on these parameters are scanty. The present study was designed to assess the effect of constant heating/frying on formation of TFAs and oxidative stability in groundnut oil. 750 mL of the oil was heated in a large iron karahi (utensil similar to a wok) and freshly cut potato strips were fried constantly at varying temperatures (160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC, 220ºC, 230ºC). In each case, the oil sample was drawn after one hour and stored at –20ºC until analysed. While TFA was estimated using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (AOCS official method Ce 1h–05), other chemical parameters were assessed by AOCS official methods. Oil samples subjected to heating/frying at varying temperatures demonstrated a significant increase in TFAs (p < 0.01) and saturated fatty acids (p < 0.01) while there was a corresponding decrease in cis-unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). Frying process demonstrated greater TFA formation (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.11±0.01g/100g; at 230ºC it being 2.33±0.05g/100g) as compared to heating alone (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.07g±0.01/100g; at 230ºC it being 0.47±0.02g/100g), indicating that there was a significant difference in the generation of TFAs during the two thermal treatments (heating vs. frying; p=0.05). With increasing temperatures, acid value, p-anisidine value and total oxidation (TOTOX) value registered a significant increase (p < 0.01); however, peroxide value was found to be inconsistent. Thus, the formation of TFA and various oxidative parameters (except peroxide value) is directly influenced by the temperature of heating/frying. Since TFA formation and poor oxidative stability of oils can pose serious health concerns, food safety agencies/organizations need to devise appropriate policies, stringent food laws/standards and impose necessary safety regulations to curb oil abuse during the process of heating and frying. There is a dire need to raise consumer awareness regarding deleterious health effects of TFA and oxidative deterioration of oils at elevated temperatures employed during heating/frying procedures.
Determinants of Child Anthropometric Indicators: A Case Study of Mali in 2015
The main objective of this study was to explore prevalence of anthropometric indicators as well the factors associated with the anthropometric indications in Mali. Data on 2015, downloaded from the website of Unicef, were analyzed. A total of 16,467 women (ages 15-49 years) and 16,467 children (ages 0-59 months) were selected for the sample. Different statistical analyses, such as descriptive, crosstabs and binary logistic regression form the basis of this study. Child anthropometric indicators (i.e., wasting, stunting, underweight and BMI for age) were used as the dependent variables. SPSS Syntax from WHO was used to create anthropometric indicators. Different factors, such as child’s sex, child’s age groups, child’s diseases symptoms (i.e., diarrhea, cough and fever), maternal education, household wealth index and area of residence were used as independent variables. Results showed more than forty percent of Malian households were in nutritional crises (stunting (42%) and underweight (34%). Findings from logistic regression analyses indicated that low score of wealth index, low maternal education and experience of diarrhea in last two weeks increase the probability of child malnutrition.
Fortification of Concentrated Milk Protein Beverages with Soy Proteins: Impact of Divalent Cations and Heating Treatment on the Physical Stability
This study investigated the effects of adding calcium and magnesium chloride on heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate (8:2 respectively) mixtures containing 10% w/w total protein subjected to the in-container sterilization (115 °C x 15 min). The particle size does not change when emulsions are heated at pH between 6.7 and 7.3 irrespective of the mixed protein ratio. Increasing concentration of divalent cation salts resulted in an increase in protein particle size, dry sediment formation and sediment height and a decrease in pH, heat stability and hydration in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions on sterilization at 115°C. Fortification of divalent cation salts in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture solutions resulted in an accelerated protein sedimentation and two unique sediment regions during accelerated storage stability testing. Moreover, the heat stability decreased upon sterilization at 115°C, with addition of MgCl₂ causing a greater increase in sedimentation velocity and compressibility than CaCl₂. Increasing pH value of protein milk concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions from 6.7 to 7.2 resulted in an increase in viscosity following the heat treatment. The study demonstrated that the type and concentration of divalent cation salts used strongly impact heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture nutritional beverages.
Nutritional Status of Morbidly Obese Patients Prior to Bariatric Surgery
Background: Bariatric surgery is widely proposed as the most effective approach to mitigate the growing pace of morbid obesity. As bariatric surgery candidates suffer from pre-existing nutritional deficiencies, it is of great importance to assess nutritional status of candidates before surgery in order to establish appropriate nutritional interventions. Objectives: The present study assessed and represented baseline data according to the nutritional status among candidates for bariatric surgery. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of pre-surgery data was collected on 170 morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery between October 2017 and February 2018. Dietary intake data (evaluated through 147-item food frequency questionnaire), anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters were assessed. Results: Participants included 145 females (25 males) with average age of 37.3 ± 10.2 years, BMI of 45.7 ± 6.4 kg/m² and reported to have a total of 72.3 ± 22.2 kg excess body weight. The most common nutritional deficiencies referred to iron, ferritin, transferrin, albumin, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, the prevalence of which in the study population were as followed; 6.5, 6.5, 3, 2, 17.6 and 66%, respectively. Mean energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake were 3887.3 ± 1748.32 kcal/day, 121.6 ± 57.1, 144.1 ± 83.05, and 552.4 ± 240.5 gr/day, respectively. The study population consumed lower levels of iron, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin B12 compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations (2, 26, 2.5, and 13%, respectively). Conclusion: According to the poor dietary quality of bariatric surgery candidates, leading to nutritional deficiencies pre-operatively, close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery are required.
The Influence of Apple Pomace on Colour and Chemical Composition of Extruded Corn Snack Product
Recovery of food wastes and their conversion to economically viable products will play a vital role for the management strategies in the years to come. Apple pomace may be considered as wastes, but they contain considerable amounts of high value reusable materials. Apple pomace, the by-product of apple juice and cider production, is a good source of fibre, particularly insoluble one. The remaining apple pulp contains 12% dry residue, which is half dietary fibre. Another remarkable aspect is its richness in polyphenols, components with antioxidant activity. Apple pomace could be an interesting alternative source for fibre and polyphenols in extruded corn meals. The extruded corn meals with the addition of finely ground apple pomace were prepared (the ratio of corn meal: apple pomace was 85:15 and 70:30). Characterization of the extrudates in terms of determining the chemical composition and colour was performed. The color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. Protein content decreased significantly from 7.91% to 5.19% with increase in pomace from 0% to 30%, while total fibre content increase from 3.39% to 16.62%. The apple pomace addition produced extrudates with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a* value. This study has been fully supported by the Provincial Secretariat for High Education and Scientific Research of the Government of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia, project 142-451-2483/2017 and the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project no. 31014).
Nutritional Evaluation and the Importance of Traditional Vegetables That Sustain the Indigenous People of Malaysia
The growing unease over the matter of food security in the world is the result of a maturing realization that the genetic base of most human caloric intake from plants is dangerously narrow. Malaysia’s tropical rainforests have the potential to contribute to diet diversification and provide a source of nutrient-rich food as the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia have relied almost entirely on the jungle for food, fodder, medicine and fuel antithetical to what is happening today. This segregation of the Orang Asli from traditional lands and resources leads to severe loss of knowledge of biodiversity. In order to preserve these wild edibles, four different types of vegetables that are frequently consumed by the Orang Asli which consists of Rebu, Meranti, Saya and Pama were selected. These vegetables were then analysed to determine its proximate and mineral content to help ascertain claims and reaffirm the impact it can play in ensuring food and nutrition security, in addition to combating chronic diseases. From the results obtained, the Meranti had the highest crude fiber, iron and calcium content. Other minerals such as potassium, magnesium and copper were also found in varying content. These wild edibles could also contribute to education and bring awareness to younger generations as well as urban populations to start consuming more of these in their daily life as it could prevent various chronic diseases in Malaysia.
The Impact of Encapsulated Raspberry Juice on the Surface Colour of Enriched White Chocolate
Chocolate is a complex rheological system usually defined as a suspension consisting of non-fat particles dispersed in cocoa butter as a continuous fat phase. Dark chocolate possesses polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated with beneficial effects. Milk chocolate is formulated with a lower percentage of cocoa bean liquor than dark chocolate and it often contains lower amounts of polyphenols, while in white chocolate the fat-free cocoa solids are left out completely. Following the current trend of development of functional foods, there is an idea to create enriched white chocolate with the addition of encapsulated bioactive compounds from berry fruits. The aim of this study was to examine the surface colour of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 6, 8, and 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins, in order to preserve the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active ingredients. The surface color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. The addition of raspberry encapsulates led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate. Raspberry encapsulate changed the values of the lightness (L*), a* (red tone) and b* (yellow tone) measured on the surface of enriched chocolate in accordance with applied concentrations. White chocolate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest L* (74.6) and b* (20.31) values of all samples indicating the bright surface of the white chocolate, as well as a high share of a yellow tone. At the same time, white chocolate has the negative a* value (-1.00) on its surface which includes green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulate has the darkest surface with significantly (p < 0.05) lowest value of L* (42.75), where increasing of its concentration in enriched chocolates decreases their L* values. Chocolate with 6% of encapsulate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest value of L* (60.56) in relation to enriched chocolate with 8% of encapsulate (53.57), and 10% of encapsulate (51.01). a* value measured on the surface of white chocolate is negative (-1.00) tending towards green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulates increases red tone in enriched chocolates in accordance with the added amounts (23.22, 30.85, and 33.32 in enriched chocolates with 6, 8, and 10% encapsulated raspberry juice, respectively). The presence of yellow tones in enriched chocolates significantly (p < 0.05) decreases with the addition of E (with b* value 5.21), from 10.01 in enriched chocolate with a minimal amount of raspberry juice encapsulates to 8.91 in chocolate with a maximum concentration of raspberry juice encapsulate. The addition of encapsulated raspberry juice to white chocolate led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate with attractive color. The research in this paper was conducted within the project titled ‘Development of innovative chocolate products fortified with bioactive compounds’ (Innovation Fund Project ID 50051).
Factors Associated with Weight Loss Maintenance after an Intervention Program
Introduction: The main challenge of obesity treatment is long-term weight loss maintenance. The 3 phases method is a weight loss program that combines a low carb and moderately high-protein diet, food supplements and a weekly one-to-one consultation with a certified nutritionist. Sustained weight control is the ultimate goal of phase 3. Success criterion was the minimum loss of 10% of initial weight and its maintenance after 12 months. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance after 12 months at the end of 3 phases method. Methods: The study included 199 subjects that achieved their weight loss goal (phase 3). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were obtained at the baseline and every week until the end of the program. Therapeutic adherence was measured weekly on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. Subjects were considered in compliance with nutritional recommendation and supplementation when their classification was ≥ 4. After 12 months of the method, the current weight and number of previous weight-loss attempts were collected by telephone interview. The statistical significance was assumed at p-values < 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS TM software v.21. Results: 65.3% of subjects met the success criterion. The factors which displayed a significant weight loss maintenance prediction were: greater initial percentage weight loss (OR=1.44) during the weight loss intervention and a higher number of consultations in phase 3 (OR=1.10). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the percentage weight loss during the weight loss intervention and the number of consultations in phase 3 may facilitate maintenance of weight loss after the 3 phases method.
Food Security in Germany: Inclusion of the Private Sector through Law Reform Faces Challenges
If critical infrastructures fail, even for a short period of time, it can have significant negative consequences for the affected population. This is especially true for the food sector that is strongly interlinked with other sectors like the power supply. A blackout could lead to several cities being without food supply for numerous days, simply because cash register systems do no longer work properly. Following the public opinion, securing the food supply in emergencies is considered a task of the state, however, in the German context, the key players are private enterprises and private households. Both are not aware of their responsibility and both cannot be forced to take any preventive measures prior to an emergency. This problem became evident to officials and politicians so that the law covering food security was revised in order to include private stakeholders into mitigation processes. The paper will present a scientific review of governmental and regulatory literature. The focus is the inclusion of the food industry through a law reform and the challenges that still exist. Together with legal experts, an analysis of regulations will be presented that explains the development of the law reform concerning food security and emergency storage in Germany. The main findings are that the existing public food emergency storage is out-dated, insufficient and too expensive. The state is required to protect food as a critical infrastructure but does not have the capacities to live up to this role. Through a law reform in 2017, new structures should to established. The innovation was to include the private sector into the civil defense concept since it has the required knowledge and experience. But the food industry is still reluctant. Preventive measures do not serve economic purposes – on the contrary, they cost money. The paper will discuss respective examples like equipping supermarkets with emergency power supply or self-sufficient cash register systems and why the state is not willing to cover the costs of these measures, but neither is the economy. The biggest problem with the new law is that private enterprises can only be forced to support food security if the state of emergency has occurred already and not one minute earlier. The paper will cover two main results: the literature review and an expert workshop that will be conducted in summer 2018 with stakeholders from different parts of the food supply chain as well as officials of the public food emergency concept. The results from this participative process will be presented and recommendations will be offered that show how the private economy could be better included into a modern food emergency concept (e. g. tax reductions for stockpiling).
A Review of Food Reformulation of Sweetened Baked Goods to Reduce Added Sugar Intake
Excessive consumption of added sugar is negatively associated with many health outcomes such as lower diet quality, dental diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Sugar-sweetened baked goods are popular discretionary foods that contribute significant amounts of added sugar to people’s diets worldwide. Food reformulation is of the most effective methods to reduce consumption of added sugar without significantly altering individual's diet pattern. However, sucrose, as the major sugar in baked goods, plays several vital functional roles such as providing sweetness and bulking, and suitable substitutes must be able to address these. The review examines the literature on sugar-reduced baked goods to summarise the feasible reformulations of low/no added sugar baked goods, and indicates the future directions for healthier baked goods reformulation. Based on this review, polyols and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are suitable for alternative sweeteners to partially or fully replace sucrose in baked goods. Low-calorie carbohydrates such as oligofructose, polydextrose, maltodextrins are the mostly used bulking agents to compensate the loss of bulk due to the removal of sucrose. This review found that maltitol seems the most suitable sole sucrose substitution at present, while diverse mixtures of NNS( stevia, sucralose, acesulfame-K), other polyols and inulins can also deliver the functionalities of sucrose in baked products.
The Determination of Total Microbial Count and Prevalence of Salmonella in the Shrimp Supply in Khuzestan Province
Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases throughout the world. Shrimp are an important commodity in world fishery trade. The microbiological quality of shrimp must be evaluated for assurance of shrimp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in shrimp sold in Khuzestan province. In this study, a total of 245 samples of shrimp sold in Khuzestan province were tested for Salmonella prevalence and total microbial population. The mean aerobic bacterial count in 50.2% of samples was 2200, in 29.8% of samples was 13,600, in 20% of samples was 36,700, and the mean aerobic bacterial count in the total samples was 20,000. (20,000 cfu/cc). Of the total samples, 33 samples were positive for Salmonella and the prevalence of Salmonella was determined 13.4%. These results indicate the possibility that shrimp contribute to foodborne infections. The improvement of shrimp quality is an important issue, and shrimp before consuming should be washed with water containing chlorine, with the aim of increasing safety. In addition, it should be avoided to eat shrimp as raw or not cooked properly.
Development and Characterization of Kefir Drinks from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida)
This research is to study the utilization of pumpkin and winter melon as the main substrate for kefir fermentation in the production of pumpkin and winter melon-based fermented drinks. Optimized temperature and time were chosen for fermentation of pumpkin and winter melon. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluations were conducted to the end products: P (fermented pumpkin juice) and K (fermented winter melon juice). Ethanol content was detected at low concentration of 0.9% (v/wt) in P, and 1.0% (v/wt) in K. Level of glucose and fructose increased significantly (p < 0.05) in both fermented drinks when compared to unfermented pumpkin (CP) and winter melon (CK) juices. Total phenolic content in P & K was higher than CP and CK, while %DPPH inhibition of both decreased significantly. Total Lactobacilli counts in P & K were 8.9 and 7.88 log cfu/ml respectively, while acetic acid bacteria counts were 8.62 and 7.57 log cfu/ml respectively, yeast counts were 4.71 and 5 log cfu/ml, and no E.coli was detected in all samples. Sensory evaluation yield comparable properties in P & K. This concluded that pumpkin and winter melon fermented drinks inoculated by water kefir grains could be promising source of nutrients with probiotic potency.
Effect of 8 Weeks of Intervention on Physical Fitness, Hepatokines, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects
Background: The aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 after 8 weeks of lifestyle intervention. Methods: A group of 43 obese patients (13M/30F; 43.0±12.4 years; BMI (body mass index) 31.2±6.3 kg/m2 participated in a weight loss interventional program (NCT02325804) following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity indices according to Matsuda and Cederholm were calculated (ISImat and ISIced). Plasma ALT, AST, Fetuin-A, FGF 21, and physical fitness were measured. Results: The average reduction of body weight was 6.8±4.9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0.0006), accompanied with a significant reduction of body fat amount of fat mass (p=0.03), and waist circumference (p=0.02). Insulin sensitivity has been improved (IR HOMA 2.71±3.90 vs 1.24±0.83; p=0.01; ISIMat 6.64±4.38 vs 8.93±5.36 p ≤ 0.001). Total, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides decreased (p=0.05, p=0.04, p=0.04, respectively). Physical fitness significantly improved after intervention (as measure VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake) (p ≤ 0.001). ALT decreased significantly (0.44±0.26 vs post 0.33±0.18 ukat/l, p=0.004); however, AST not (pre 0.40±0.15 vs 0.35±0.09 ukat/l, p=0.07). Hepatokine Fetuin-A significantly decreased after intervention (43.1±10.8 vs 32.6±8.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001); however, FGF 21 levels tended to decrease (146±152 vs 132±164 pg/ml, p=0.07). Conclusion: 8-weeks of diet and physical activity intervention program in obese otherwise healthy subjects led to an improvement of insulin resistance parameters and liver marker profiles, as well as increased physical fitness. This study was supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16.