Protective Effect of the Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonist DL77 in Behavioral Cognitive Deficits Associated with Schizophrenia
The eﬀects of the non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist DL77 in passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and novel object recognition (NOR) task in MK801-induced cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia (CDS) in adult male rats, and applying donepezil (DOZ) as a reference drug were investigated. The results show that acute systemic administration of DL77 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved MK801-induced (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) memory deficits in PAP. The ameliorating activity of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) in MK801-induced deficits was partly reversed when rats were pretreated with the centrally-acting H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) or with the antimuscarinic antagonist scopolamine (SCO, 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), but not with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the memory enhancing effect of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) in MK801-induced memory deficits in PAP was strongly reversed when rats were pretreated with a combination of ZOL (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and SCO (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Furthermore, the significant ameliorative effect of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) on MK801-induced long-term memory (LTM) impairment in NOR test was comparable to the DOZ-provided memory-enhancing effect, and was abrogated when animals were pretreated with the histamine H3R agonist R-(α)-methylhistamine (RAMH, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). However, DL77(5 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to provide procognitive effect on MK801-induced short-term memory (STM) impairment in NOR test. In addition, DL77 (5 mg/kg) did not alter anxiety levels and locomotor activity of animals naive to elevated-plus maze (EPM), demonstrating that improved performances with DL77 (5 mg/kg) in PAP or NOR are unrelated to changes in emotional responding or spontaneous locomotor activity. These results provide evidence for the potential of H3Rs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders related to impaired memory function, e.g. CDS.
Layer-by-Layer Coated Dexamethasone Microcrystals for Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy
Layer-by-layer (LBL) coating has gained popularity for drug delivery of therapeutic drugs. Herein we described a novel approach for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of the locally administered dexamethasone (Dex) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We utilized a LBL-coating technique on Dex microcrystals (DexMCs) with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes composed of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly (sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and Eudragit® S100 (ES). The successful deposition of the layers onto DexMCs surfaces were confirmed through zeta potential measurement and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The surface morphology was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The drug encapsulation efficiency was 95% with a mean particle size of 2 µm and negative surface charge (-40 mV). Moreover, in vitro drug release study showed a minimum release of the drug ( 15%) at an acidic condition during initial first 5 h, followed by sustained-release at an alkaline condition. For in vivo study, LBL-DxMCs were administered orally to ICR mice suffering from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. LBL-DxMCs substantially enhanced anti-IBD activities as compared to DxMCs. Macroscopic, histological and biochemical (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase) examinations revealed marked improvements of colitis signs in the mice treated with LBL-DxMCs compared with those treated with DxMCs. Overall, LBL-DxMCs could be a suitable candidate for the treatment of IBD.
Raw Japanese Quail Egg Produces Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastro-Protective Effects in Rats
Over the years, Japanese quail egg has been in use in the management of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of raw Quail egg (yolk + albumin) in rats. Pain was assessed in rats by recording the latent period and writing reflex, anti-inflammatory effect was determined using both motility and compression test, while the gastro-protective effects were assessed by observing the histology of the stomach after diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers and subsequent treatment with the quail egg, Rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups; Groups I: were the control non-treated (NT), Group II were treated with Tramadol 50 mg/kg/Os (TMD) or Indomethacin (IND) 5mg/kg/Os (positive control for the writhing reflex determination), while group III and IV were treated with 3 and 6g/kg of raw quail egg respectively). Groups treated with quail egg in both doses showed a significant increase in the latent period (p < 0 .05) when compared to the control NT, but lower than the group treated with tramadol at 20mins interval (p< 0.05). Writing reflexes decrease in groups II, III, and IV compared to the NT group (p < 0.05). While motility increases significantly (p < 0.05) in groups II, compared to I (p< 0.05). Control non-treated rats showed a quicker and extensive response to compression using the Vanier calliper on the inflamed paw compared to groups II-IV (p < 0.05). Histological studies of the stomach revealed sloughing of the epithelia, cellular infiltration with micro abscesses in the non-treated, while groups treated concurrently with quail egg showed proliferation of the glandular epithelia and goblet cells, and those treated 30 minutes before diclofenac administration showed proliferation of glands and thickening of the squamous epithelia. This study showed that quail egg has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective potentials and can be used as adjuvant treatment whenever COX-2 enzymes inhibitors are indicated.
Process for Production of Added-Value Water–Extract from Liquid Biomass
Coupled Membrane Separation Technology (CMST), including Cross Flow Microfiltration (CFM) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), are used to concentrate microalgae biomass or/and to extract and concentrate water-soluble metabolites produced during micro-algae production cycle, as well as water recycling. Micro-algae biomass was produced using different feeding mixtures of ingredients: pure chemical origin compounds and natural/ecological water-extracted components from available local plants. Micro-algae was grown either in conventional plastic bags (100L/unit) or in small-scale innovative bioreactors (75L). Biomass was concentrated as CFM retentate using a P19-60 ceramic membrane (0.2μm pore size), and water-soluble micro-algae metabolites left in the CFM filtrate were concentrated by RO. Large volumes of water (micro-algae culture media) of were recycled by the CMTS for another biomass production cycle.
A Sub-Conjunctiva Injection of Rosiglitazone for Anti- Fibrosis Treatment after Glaucoma Filtration Surgery
Trans-differentiation of human Tenon fibroblasts (HTFs) to myo-fibroblasts and fibrosis of episcleral tissue are the most common reasons for the failure of glaucoma filtration surgery, with limited treatment options like antimetabolites which always have side-effects such as leakage of filter bulb, infection, hypotony, and endophthalmitis. Rosiglitazone, a specific thiazolidinedione is a synthetic high-affinity ligand for PPAR-r, which has been used in the treatment of type2 diabetes, and found to have pleiotropic functions against inflammatory response, cell proliferation and tissue fibrosis and to benefit to a variety of diseases in animal myocardium models, steatohepatitis models, etc. Here, in vitro we cultured primary HTFs and stimulated with TGF- β to induced myofibrogenic, then treated cells with Rosiglitazone to assess for fibrogenic response. In vivo, we used rabbit glaucoma model to establish the formation of post- trabeculectomy scarring. Then we administered subconjunctival injection with Rosiglitazone beside the ﬁltering bleb, later protein, mRNA and immunofluorescence of fibrogenic markers are checked, and filtering bleb condition was measured. In vitro, we found Rosiglitazone could suppressed proliferation and migration of fibroblasts through macroautophagy via TGF- β /Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, on postoperative day 28, the mean number of ﬁbroblasts in Rosiglitazone injection group was signiﬁcantly the lowest and had the least collagen content and connective tissue growth factor. Rosiglitazone effectively controlled human and rabbit fibroblasts in vivo and in vitro. Its subconjunctiiva application may represent an effective, new avenue for the prevention of scarring after glaucoma surgery.
The Effect of Brassica rapa Leaf Extracts on the Growth of Upland Ipomoea aquatica
The effect of Brassica rapa leaf extracts on the growth of upland Ipomoea aquatica was investigated. One hundred grams Brassica rapa leaf were blended using a heavy duty blender. These were diluted with water to have final concentrations of 75% (T1), 50% (T2) and 25% (T3) that served as treatments of the study. Pure water (T0) that served as control was also included Upland Ipomoea aquatic were grown in pots. A 3-4 in water level was maintained during the whole duration of the study. Plant height, leaf area, fruit size and shoot height, were taken after 6 months. Results showed that plant height and shoot height was highest in T1 while T0 was the lowest. On the other hand, T2 had the highest leaf area and fruit size. The study suggests that T1 and T2 can be a good fertilizer for Ipomoea aquatica.
Synergistic Studies of Liposomes of Clove and Cinnamon Oil in Oral Health Care
Despite great improvements in health care, the world oral health report states that dental problems still persist, particularly among underprivileged groups in both developing and developed countries. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are identified as the most important oral health problems globally. Acidic foods and beverages can affect natural teeth, and chronic exposure often leads to the development of dental erosion, abrasion, and decay. In recent years, there has been an increased interest toward essential oils. These are secondary metabolites and possess antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Essential oils are volatile and chemically unstable in the presence of air, light, moisture and high temperature. Hence many novel methods like a liposomal encapsulation of oils have been introduced to enhance the stability and bioavailability. This research paper focuses on two essential oils, clove and cinnamon oil. Clove oil was obtained from Syzygium aromaticum Linn using clavengers apparatus. It contains eugenol and β caryophyllene. Cinnamon oil, from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, contains cinnamaldehyde, The objective of the current research was to develop a liposomal carrier system containing clove and cinnamon oil and study their synergistic activity against dental pathogens when formulated as a gel. Methodology: The essential oil were first tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens, Lactobacillus acidophillus (MTCC No. 10307, MRS broth) and Streptococcus Mutans (MTCC No .890, Brain Heart Infusion agar). The oils were analysed by UV spectroscopy for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde content. Standard eugenol was linear between 5ppm to 25ppm at 282nm and standard cinnamaldehde from 1ppm to 5pmm at 284nm. The concentration of eugenol in clove oil was found to be 62.65 % w/w, and that of cinnamaldehyde was found to be 5.15%s w/w. The oils were then formulated into liposomes. Liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using Phospholipid, Cholesterol, and other oils dissolved in a chloroform methanol (3:1) mixture. The organic solvent was evaporated in a rotary evaporator above lipid transition temperature. The film was hydrated with phosphate buffer (pH 5.5).The various batches of liposomes were characterized and compared for their size, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The prepared liposomes when evaluated for entrapment efficiency showed 65% entrapment for clove and 85% for cinnamon oil. They were also tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens and their synergistic activity studied. Based on the activity and the entrapment efficiency the amount of liposomes required to prepare 1gm of the gel was calculated. The gel was prepared using a simple ointment base and contained 0.56% of cinnamon and clove liposomes. A simultaneous method of analysis for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde.was then developed using HPLC. The prepared gels were then studied for their stability as per ICH guidelines. Conclusion: It was found that liposomes exhibited spherical shaped vesicles and protected the essential oil from degradation. Liposomes, therefore, constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile, unstable essential oil constituents.
Activation of Caspase 3 by Terpenoids and Flavonoids in Cancer Cell Lines
Caspase 3, a member of cysteine-aspartic acid protease family, is an imperative indicator for cell death particularly when substantiating apoptosis. Thus, caspase 3 is an interesting target for the discovery and development of anticancer agent. We adopted a four level assessment of both terpenoids and flavonoids and thus experimentally performed the enzymatic assay in cell free system as well as in cancer cell line which was validated through real time expression and molecular interaction studies. A significant difference was observed with both the class of natural products indicating terpenoids as better activators of caspase 3 compared to flavonoids both in the cell free system as well as in cell lines. The expression analysis, activation constant and binding energy also correlate well with the enzyme activity. Overall, terpenoids had an unswerving effect on caspase 3 in all the tested system while flavonoids indirectly affect enzyme activity.
Assessing the Impact of Antiretroviral Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions on Piperaquine Antimalarial Treatment in Pregnant Women Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling
Introduction: Malaria in pregnancy has morbidity and mortality implication on both mother and unborn child. Piperaquine (PQ) based antimalarial treatment is emerging as a choice antimalarial for pregnant women in the face of resistance to current antimalarial treatment recommendation in pregnancy. Physiological and biochemical changes in pregnant women may affect the pharmacokinetics of the antimalarial drug in these. In malaria endemic regions other infectious diseases like HIV/AIDs are prevalent. Pregnant women who are co-infected with malaria and HIV/AID are at even more greater risk of death not only due to complications of the diseases but also due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antimalarials (AMT) and antiretroviral (ARVs). In this study, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling was used to investigate the effect of physiological and biochemical changes on the impact of ARV mediated DDIs in pregnant women in three countries. Method: A PBPK model for PQ was developed on SimCYP® using published physicochemical and pharmacokinetic data of PQ from literature, this was validated in three customized population groups from Thailand, Sudan and Papua New Guinea with clinical data. Validation of PQ model was also done in presence of interaction with efavirenz (pre-validated on SimCYP®). Different albumin levels and pregnancy stages was simulated in the presence of interaction with standard doses of efavirenz and ritonavir. PQ day 7 concentration of 30ng/ml was used as the efficacy endpoint for PQ treatment.. Results: The median day 7 concentration of PQ remained virtually consistent throughout pregnancy and were satisfactory across the three population groups ranging from 26-34.1ng/ml; this implied the efficacy of PQ throughout pregnancy. DDI interaction with ritonavir and efavirenz resulted in modest effect on the day 7 concentrations of PQ with AUCratio ranging from 0.56-0.8 and 1.64-1.79 for efavirenz and ritonavir respectively over 10-40 gestational weeks, however, a reduction in human serum albumin level reflective of severe malaria resulted in significantly reduced the number of subjects attaining the PQ day 7 concentration in the presence of both DDIs. The model demonstrated that the DDI between PQ and ARV in pregnant women with different malaria severities can alter the pharmacokinetic of PQ.
Oral Contraceptic Pill Associated Hypertension on the Sex Productive Women in the Andalas Public Health Center, Padang, Indonesia
Hypertension prevalence in Indonesian has increased from time to time since 2013, especially in women. This cross-sectional analysis study was made to observe the incidence of hypertension on the reproductive women (20-49 years old) with several risk factors who use contraceptive pills. Data was collected from June - October 2016 in the Andalas Public Health Center, East Padang District, Indonesia. An amount of 167 respondents who were taken using consecutive sampling technique were participate in this study. Data of social demography, contraceptive used, duration of use, hypertension risk factors (age, family history, central obesity, body mass index, physical activity, and stress) were collected and analyzed statistically using Chi-Square analysis. Significant was taken at p < 0.05. Results showed that the woman with contraceptive pill was tent to get hypertension (OR = 3,90 and p < 0,001). In addition, woman with a family history OR of 6,77 (p = 0,09), mild physical activity OR of 3,67 (p = 0,33), moderate physical activity OR of 3,33 (p = 0,16), and stressed OR of 5.11 (p = 0.18). These indicated that the contraceptive pill user is 3.9 times more risk to develop hypertension than non-users, especially one with a family history of hypertension. Other risk factors were not associated with hypertension risk in these sex productive women.
Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Bark Wight and Arn
Acrocarpus is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae which considered as a large and economically important family. This study aimed to investigate the phytoconstituents of the petroleum ether extract (PEE) of Acrocarpus fraxinofolius bark by Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of its fractions (fatty acid and unsaponifiable matter). Concerning this, identification of 52 compounds constituting 97.03 % of the total composition of the unsaponifiable matter fraction. Cycloeucalenol was found to be the major compound representing 32.52% followed by 4a, 14a-dimethyl-A8~24(28)-ergostadien (26.50%) and ß-sitosterol(13.74%), furthermore Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the sterol fraction revealed the identification of cholesterol (7.22 %), campesterol (13.30 %), stigmasterol (10.00 %) and β - sitosterol (69.48 %). Meanwhile, the identification of 33 fatty acids representing 90.71% of the total fatty acid constituents. Methyl-9,12-octadecadienoate (40.39%) followed by methyl hexadecanoate (23.64%) were found to be the major compounds. On the other hand, column chromatography and Thin layer chromatography (TLC) fractionation of PEE separate the triterpenoid: 21β-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one and β- amyrin which were structurally identified by spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS and IR). PEE has been biologically evaluated for 1: management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats 2: cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines (Cervix carcinoma cell line[HELA], Breast carcinoma cell line [MCF7], Liver carcinoma cell line[HEPG2] and Colon carcinoma cell line[HCT-116] 3: hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the activity was studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like AST, ALT, and ALP. Concerning this, the anti-diabetic activity exhibited by 100mg of PEE extract was 74.38% relative to metformin (100% potency). It also showed a significant anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 (IC50= 2.35µg), Hela(IC50=3.85µg) and HEPG-2 (IC50= 9.54µg) compared with Doxorubicin as reference drug. The hepatoprotective activity was evidenced by significant decrease in liver function enzymes, i.e. AST, ALT and ALP by (29.18%, 28.26%, and 34.11%, respectively using silymarin as the reference drug, compared to their concentration levels in an untreated group with liver damage induced by CCl₄. This study was performed for the first time on the bark of this species.
Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Pleiogynium timorense Seeds and Identification of Bioactive Compounds
The aim of this study is to evaluate antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleiogynium timorense (DC.) Leenh (Anacardiaceae) seeds as well as to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds. Antihyperglycaemic effect was evaluated by measuring the effect of two dose levels (150 and 300 mg/kg) of 70% methanol extract of Pleiogynium timorense seeds on blood glucose level when administered 45 minutes before glucose loading. In addition, the effect of the plant extract on the lipid profile was determined by measuring serum total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the bioactive compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.The results showed that the methanolic extract of the seeds significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose,(TL), (TC), (TG) and (LDL-C) but no significant effect on (HDL-C) comparing with control group. Furthermore, four phenolic compound were isolated which were identified as; catechin, gallic acid, para methoxy benzaldehyde and pyrogallol which were isolated for the first time from the plant. In addition sulphur -containing compound (sulpholane) was isolated for the first time from the plant and from the family. To our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst study about antihyperglycaemicand antihyperlipidemic activities of the seeds of Pleiogyniumtimorense and its bioactive compounds. So, the methanolic extract of the seeds of Pleiogynium timorense could be a step towards the development of new antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic drugs.
Association of ApoB, CETP and GALNT2 Genetic Variants with Type 2 Diabetes-Related Traits in Population from Bosnia and Herzegovina
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - rs673548, rs693 in ApoB gene, rs1800775 in CETP gene and rs4846914 in GALNT2 gene with parameters of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic dyslipidemia in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Materials and methods: Our study involved 352 patients with T2D and 156 healthy subjects. Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were measured in all participants. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood for the purpose of genetic testing. Polymorphisms in ApoB (rs673548, rs693), CETP (rs1800775) and GALNT2 (rs4846914) genes were analyzed by using Sequenom IPLEX platform. Results: Our results demonstrated significant associations for rs180075 polymorphism in CETP gene with levels of fasting insulin (p = 0.020; p = 0.027; p = 0.044), triglycerides (p = 0.046) and ALT (p = 0.031) activity in control group. In group of diabetic patients, results showed a significant association of rs673548 in ApoB gene with levels of fasting insulin (p = 0.008), HOMA-IR (p = 0.013), VLDL-C (p = 0.037) and CRP (p = 0.029) and rs693 in ApoB gene with BMI (p = 0.025), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.027), fasting insulin (p = 0.037) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.023) levels. Significant associations were also observed for rs1800775 in CETP gene with triglyceride (p = 0.023) levels and rs4846914 in GALNT2 gene with HbA1C (p = 0.013) and triglyceride (p = 0.043) levels. Conclusion: In conclusion, this is the first study that examined the impact of variations of candidate genes on a wide range of metabolic parameters in BH population. Our results suggest an association of variations of ApoB, CETP and GALNT2 genes with specific markers of T2D and dyslipidemia. Further studies would be needed in order to confirm these genetic effects in other ethnic groups as well.
Ethanol Precipitation and Characterization of L-Asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae
L-asparaginase (L-ASNase) is the gold standard treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia that mainly affects pediatric patients; treatment increases survival from 20% to 90%. The characterization of other L-Asparaginases, apart from the most used from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi, has been reported, but the choice of the most appropriate is still under debate. This choice should be based on its pharmacokinetics, immune hypersensitivity, doses, prices, pharmacodynamics. The main factors influencing the antileukemic activity of ASNase are enzymatic activity, Km, glutaminase activity, clearance of the enzyme and development of resistance. However, most of the commercialized enzyme present an intrinsic glutaminase activity, which is responsible for some side effects. In this study, glutaminase free asparaginase produced from Aspergillus oryzae was precipitated in different percentages of ethanol (0–80%), until optimum ethanol concentration of 60% (w/w) was found. Following, precipitation of crude L-ASNase was performed in a single step, using 60% (w/w) ethanol, under constant agitation and temperature. It presented activity of 135.45 U/mg and after gel filtration chromatography with Sephadex G-the enzymatic activity was 322.02 U/mg. The apparent molecular mass of the purified L-ASNase fraction was estimated by 10% SDS-PAGE. Proteins were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. The molar mass range was from 10 kDa to 250 kDa. L-ASNase from Aspergillus oryzae was characterized aiming possible therapeutic use. Four different buffers (phosphate-citrate buffer pH 2.6 to 5.8; phosphate buffer pH 5.8 to 7.4; Tris - HCl pH 7.4 to 9.0; and carbonate buffer pH 9.8 to 10.6) were used to measure the optimum pH for L-ASNase activity. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was measured at optimal pH conditions (Tris-HCl and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) at different temperatures ranging from 5 to 55°C. All activities were calculated by quantifying the free ammonia, using the Nessler reagent. The kinetic parameters calculation, e.g. Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax) and Hills coefficient (n), were performed by incubating the enzyme in different concentrations of the substrate at optimum conditions of pH and fitted on Hill’s equation. This glutaminase free asparaginase showed a low Km (3.39 mM and 3.81 mM) and enzymatic activity of 135.45 U/mg after precipitation with ethanol. After gel filtration chromatography it rose to 322.02 U/mg. Optimum activity was found between pH 5.8 - 9.0, best activity results with phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and Tris-HCl pH 7.4 and showed activity from 5°C to 55°C. These results indicate that L-ASNase from A. oryzae has the potential for human use.
Free Raducal Scavenging Activity of Fractionated Extract and Structural Elucidation of Isolated Compounds from Hydrocotyl Bonariensis Comm. Ex Lam Leaves
Hydrocotyl bonariensis is a plant which anticataractogenic potentials have been reported. In the present study an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the fractionates of the leaves extract and also characterize some of its chemical constituents. DPPH, H₂O₂, OH and NO free radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the crude extract fractionates. Fresh leaves of Hydrocotyl bonariensis leaves were extracted in 70% methanol. The extract was partitioned with different solvent system of increasing polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate methanol and water). Compounds were isolated from the aqueous practitionate using accelerated gradient chromatography, vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC and conventional column chromatography. The presence of the chemical groups was established with HPLC and Fourier Transform Infra Red. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic study and chemical shifts. Data from the study indicates that all the fractionates contain compounds with free radical scavenging activity. This activity was more pronounced in the aqueous fractionate (DPPH IC₅₀, 0025 ± 0.011 mg/ml, metal chelating capacity 27.5%, OH- scavenging IC₅₀, 0.846 ± 0.037 mg/ml, H₂O₂ scavenging IC₅₀ 0.521 ± 0.015 mg/ml, reducing power IC₅₀ 0.248 ± 0.025 mg/ml and NO scavenging IC₅₀ 0.537 ± 0.038 mg/ml). Two compounds were isolated and when compared with data from the literature; the structures were suggestive of polyphenolic flavonoid, quercetin and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol. The result indicates that H. bonariensis leaves contain bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.
Sub-Chronic Exposure to Dexamethasone Impairs Cognitive Function and Insulin in Prefrontal Cortex of Male Wistar Rats
Chronic stress or prolonged glucocorticoid administration impairs higher cognitive functions in rodents and humans. However, the mechanisms are not fully clear. Insulin and receptors are expressed in the brain and are involved in cognition. Insulin resistance accompanies Alzheimer’s disease and associated cognitive decline. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sub-chronic administration of a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX) on behavior and biochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Male Wistar rats were administered DEX (2, 4 & 8 mg/kg, IP) or saline for seven consecutive days and behavior was assessed in the following paradigms: “Y” maze, elevated plus maze, Morris’ water maze and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Insulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated in homogenates of the prefrontal cortex. DEX-treated rats exhibited impaired prefrontal cortex function manifesting as reduced locomotion, impaired novel object exploration and impaired short- and long-term spatial memory compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). These effects were not consistently dose-dependent. These behavioral alterations were accompanied by a decrease in insulin concentration observed in PFC of 4 mg/kg DEX-treated rats compared to control (10μIU/mg vs. 50μIU/mg; p < 0.05) but not 2mg/kg. Furthermore, we report a modification of brain stress markers LDH and SOD (p > 0.05). These results indicate that prolonged activation of GCs disrupt prefrontal cortex function which may be related to insulin impairment. These effects may not be attributable to a non-specific elevation of oxidative stress in the brain. Future studies would evaluate mechanisms of GR-induced insulin loss.
Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effect of Two Diterpenes from Plectranthus barbatus
Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) is the most common species of genus Plectranthus. It is used for treating various ailments. In this study, two rare diterpenes 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (1) and 12-hydroxyabieta-8(14),9(11),12-trien-7-one (2) were isolated for the first time from P. barbatus. Their chemical structures were verified utilizing various spectroscopic experiments. The effect of diterpenes against undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line (FRO) was evaluated and they were quantitatively analysed using HPTLC method. The two diterpenes were found to be cytotoxic, however compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic effects where 95% reduction in the cell viability was observed in different time intervals. The quantity of compound 1 and compound 2 in PBCE were found to be 2.04 and15.97 μg/mg, respectively of dried weight of the extract.
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Care Professionals and Factors Associated with Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting in Public and Private Hospitals of Islamabad
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) underreporting is a great challenge to Pharmacovigilance. Health care professionals have to consider ADR reporting as their professional obligation, an effective system of ADR reporting is important to improve patient health care and safety. The present study is designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and factors associated with ADR reporting by health care professionals (physicians and pharmacists) in public and private hospitals of Pakistan. A pretested questionnaire was administered to 384 physicians and pharmacists in public and private hospitals. Respondents were evaluated for their knowledge, attitude, and practice related to ADR reporting. The data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical software, the factors which encourage and discourage respondents in reporting ADRs were determined. Most of the respondents have shown a positive attitude towards ADR reporting. The response rate was 95.32%. Of the 367 questionnaires, including 333 (86.5%) physicians and 34 (8.8%) pharmacists with the mean age 28.34 (SD= 6.69), most of the respondents showed poor ADR reporting knowledge (83.1%). The majority of respondents (78.2%) showed positive attitude towards ADR reporting and only (12.3%) hospitals have good ADR reporting practice. Knowledge of respondents in public hospitals (8.6%) was less as compare to those in the private hospitals (29.7%) (P < 0.001). Attitude of respondents in private hospitals was more positive (92.4%) than those in public hospitals (68.8%) (P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in practicing of ADR reporting in public (11.8%) and private hospitals (13.1%) (P value 0.89). Seriousness of ADR, unusualness of reaction, new drug involvement and confidence in diagnosis of ADR were the factors which encourage respondents to report ADR, however, lack of knowledge regarding where and how to report ADR, lack of access to ADR reporting form, managing patients was more important than reporting ADR, legal liability issues were the factors which discourage respondents to report ADR. The study reveals poor knowledge and practice regarding ADR reporting. However positive attitude was seen regarding ADR reporting. There is a need of educational training for health care professionals as well as genuine and continuous efforts are required by Government and health authorities to ensure the proper implementation of ADR reporting system in all of the hospitals.
Antioxidant, α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Myrianthus arboreus Stem Bark
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Postprandial hyperglycaemia, a prominent feature of type 2 diabetes is implicated in the complication of diabetes mellitus. Myrianthus arboreus P. Beauv. (Moraceae) is used traditionally in the management of diabetes in Ghana. Objectives: The present study deals with the scientific evaluation of the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activities as well as the antioxidant potential of the stem bark extract of M. arboreus to support its folkloric use. Materials and methods: The ethanol stem bark extract of M. arboreus (MAB) obtained after Soxhlet extraction with 70% ethanol was partitioned successively with petroleum ether (MAB1), chloroform (MAB2), ethyl acetate (MAB3) and n-butanol (MAB4) to yield 5 fractions with the aqueous residue being MAB5. The hypoglycaemic action of the crude extract and fractions were evaluated using the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory assays whereas their antioxidant activities were evaluated using the DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays. The crude extract was further evaluated for its phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and reducing power. Results: The DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging effect of MAB was comparable with the ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol, respectively. While the enzyme inhibitory activity of the extract was 11-fold and 8-fold better than acarbose in the α -glucosidase and α -amylase inhibition assays respectively. The stem bark extract of M. arboreus had a high phenol content with a mean tannic acid equivalent value of (114.70 ± 10.48) (n=3) with an ascorbic acid equivalent of 98.34 ± 14.50. MAB fractions demonstrated varying α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities with the most potent activity recorded by the ethyl acetate fraction. The inhibitory activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was 20-fold and 27-fold higher than acarbose in the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory assays. Again, the ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated the highest scavenging effect on the DPPH and nitric oxide radicals with IC50 of 32.19 ± 1.93 and 68.75 ± 0.78 respectively. Conclusion: The stem bark extract of M. arboreus showed remarkable antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activities. On the basis of the results obtained, the reputed antidiabetic therapeutic use of the stem bark of M. arboreus may be justified. The ethyl acetate fraction which showed the most potent enzyme inhibition activities and highest antioxidant effect should further be investigated to identify the active principles.
Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pyrazol-3-yl Thiazole 4-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Targeting Enzyme in the Leukotriene Pathway
Pyrazole scaffold is an important group of compound in heterocyclic chemistry and is found to possess numerous uses in chemistry. Pyrazole derivatives are also known to possess important biological activities including antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer and anti-inflammatory. Inflammation is associated with pain, allergy and asthma. Leukotrienes are mediators of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) and thus targeted for anti-inflammation. In vitro inhibitory activity of pyrazol-3-yl thiazole 4-carboxylic acid derivatives is tested against enzyme 5-LOX. Most of these compounds exhibit good inhibitory activity against this enzyme. Binding mode study of these compounds is determined by computational tool. Further experiments are being done to understand the mechanism of action of these compounds in inhibiting this enzyme. To conclude, these compounds appear to be a promising target in drug design against 5-LOX.
Relevance of Dosing Time for Everolimus Toxicity in Respect to the Circadian P-Glycoprotein Expression in Mdr1a::Luc Mice
P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1, ABCB1) is a transmembrane protein acting as an ATP-dependent efflux pump and functions as a biological barrier by extruding drugs and xenobiotics out of cells in healthy tissues especially in intestines, liver and brain as well as in tumor cells. The circadian timing system controls a variety of biological functions in mammals including xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification, proliferation and cell cycle events, and may affect pharmacokinetics, toxicity and efficacy of drugs. Selective mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor everolimus is an immunosuppressant and anticancer drug that is active against many cancers, and its pharmacokinetics depend on P-gp. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosing time-dependent toxicity of everolimus with respect to the intestinal P-gp expression rhythms in mdr1a::Luc mice using Real Time-Biolumicorder (RT-BIO) System. Mdr1a::Luc male mice were synchronized with 12 h of Light and 12 h of Dark (LD12:12, with Zeitgeber Time 0 – ZT0 – corresponding Light onset). After 1-week baseline recordings, everolimus (5 mg/kg/day x 14 days) was administered orally at ZT1-resting period- and ZT13-activity period- to mdr1a::Luc mice singly housed in an innovative monitoring device, Real Time-Biolumicorder units which let us monitor real-time and long-term gene expression in freely moving mice. D-luciferin (1.5 mg/mL) was dissolved in drinking water. Mouse intestinal mdr1a::Luc oscillation profile reflecting P-gp gene expression and locomotor activity pattern were recorded every minute with the photomultiplier tube and infrared sensor respectively. General behavior and clinical signs were monitored, and body weight was measured every day as an index of toxicity. Drug-induced body weight change was expressed relative to body weight on the initial treatment day. Statistical significance of differences between groups was validated with ANOVA. Circadian rhythms were validated with Cosinor Analysis. Everolimus toxicity changed as a function of drug timing, which was least following dosing at ZT13, near the onset of the activity span in male mice. Mean body weight loss was nearly twice as large in mice treated with 5 mg/kg everolimus at ZT1 as compared to ZT13 (8.9% vs. 5.4%; ANOVA, p < 0.001). Based on the body weight loss and clinical signs upon everolimus treatment, tolerability for the drug was best following dosing at ZT13. Both rest-activity and mdr1a::Luc expression displayed stable 24-h periodic rhythms before everolimus and in both vehicle-treated controls. Real-time bioluminescence pattern of mdr1a revealed a circadian rhythm with a 24-h period with an acrophase at ZT16 (Cosinor, p < 0.001). Mdr1a expression remained rhythmic in everolimus-treated mice, whereas down-regulation was observed in P-gp expression in 2 of 4 mice. The study identified the circadian pattern of intestinal P-gp expression with an unprecedented precision. The circadian timing depending on the P-gp expression rhythms may play a crucial role in the tolerability/toxicity of everolimus. The circadian changes in mdr1a genes deserve further studies regarding their relevance for in vitro and in vivo chronotolerance of mdr1a-transported anticancer drugs. Chronotherapy with P-gp-effluxed anticancer drugs could then be applied according to their rhythmic patterns in host and tumor to jointly maximize treatment efficacy and minimize toxicity.
Relevance of Dosing Time for Everolimus Toxicity on Thyroid Gland and Hormones in Mice
Most physiological processes oscillate in a rhythmic manner in mammals including metabolism and energy homeostasis, locomotor activity, hormone secretion, immune and endocrine system functions. Endocrine body rhythms are tightly regulated by the circadian timing system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is under circadian control at multiple levels from hypothalamus to thyroid gland. Since circadian timing system controls a variety of biological functions in mammals, circadian rhythms of biological functions may modify the drug tolerability/toxicity depending on the dosing time. Selective mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor everolimus is an immunosuppressant and anticancer agent that is active against many cancers. It was also found to be active in medullary thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosing time-dependent toxicity of everolimus on the thyroid gland and hormones in mice. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were synchronized with 12h:12h Light-Dark cycle (LD12:12, with Zeitgeber Time 0 – ZT0 – corresponding to Light onset). Everolimus was administered to male (5 mg/kg/day) and female mice (15 mg/kg/day) orally at ZT1-rest period- and ZT13-activity period- for 4 weeks; body weight loss, clinical signs and possible changes in serum thyroid hormone levels (TSH and free T4) were examined. Histological alterations in the thyroid gland were evaluated according to the following criteria: follicular size, colloid density and viscidity, height of the follicular epithelium and the presence of necrotic cells. The statistical significance between differences was analyzed with ANOVA. Study findings included everolimus-related diarrhea, decreased activity, decreased body weight gains, alterations in serum TSH levels, and histopathological changes in thyroid gland. Decreases in mean body weight gains were more evident in mice treated at ZT1 as compared to ZT13 (p < 0.001, for both sexes). Control tissue sections of thyroid glands exhibited well-organized histoarchitecture when compared to everolimus-treated groups. Everolimus caused histopathological alterations in thyroid glands in male (5 mg/kg, slightly) and female mice (15 mg/kg; p < 0.01 for both ZT as compared to their controls) irrespective of dosing-time. TSH levels were slightly decreased upon everolimus treatment at ZT13 in both males and females. Conversely, increases in TSH levels were observed when everolimus treated at ZT1 in both males (5 mg/kg; p < 0.05) and females (15 mg/kg; slightly). No statistically significant alterations in serum free T4 levels were observed. TSH and free T4 is clinically important thyroid hormones since a number of disease states have been linked to alterations in these hormones. Serum free T4 levels within the normal ranges in the presence of abnormal serum TSH levels in everolimus treated mice may suggest subclinical thyroid disease which may have repercussions on the cardiovascular system, as well as on other organs and systems. Our study has revealed the histological damage on thyroid gland induced by subacute everolimus administration, this effect was irrespective of dosing time. However, based on the body weight changes and clinical signs upon everolimus treatment, tolerability for the drug was best following dosing at ZT13 in both male and females. Yet, effects of everolimus on thyroid functions may deserve further studies regarding their clinical importance and chronotoxicity.
Ethnobotanical Study on the Usage of Toxic Plants in Traditional Medicine in the City Center of Tlemcen, Algeria
Traditional medicine has been part of the Algerian culture for decades. In particular, the city of Tlemcen still retains practices based on phytotherapy to the present day, as this kind of medicine fulfills the needs of its followers among the local population. Toxic plants contain various natural substances that have supplied many drugs to the pharmaceutical industry. In order to explore new medicinal sources among toxic plants, an ethnobotanical study was carried out on the use of these plants by the population, at Emir Abdelkader Square of the city of Tlemcen, a rather busy place with a high number of traditional health practitioners and herbalists. This is a descriptive and transversal study aimed at estimating the frequency of using toxic plants among the studied population, for a period of 4 months. The information was collected, using self-anonymous questionnaires, and analyzed by the IBM SPSS Statistics software used for statistical analysis. A sample of 200 people, including 120 women and 80 men, were interviewed. The mean age was (41 ± 16) years. Among those questioned, 83.5% used plants; 8% of them used toxic plants, and 35% used plants that can be toxic under certain conditions. Some improvements were observed in 88% of the cases where toxic plants were used. Eighty (80) medicinal plants, belonging to 36 botanical families, were listed, identified and classified. The most frequent indications for these plants were for respiratory diseases in 64.7% of cases, and for digestive disorders in 51.5% of cases. Eleven (11) % of these plants are toxic, 26% could be toxic under certain conditions. The most common ones are Berberis vulgaris with 5.4%, indicated in the treatment of uterine fibroids and thyroid, Rhamnus alaternus with 4.8% for hepatic jaundice, Nerium oleander with 3% for hemorrhoids, Ruta chalepensis with 1.2%, indicated for digestive disorders and dysmenorrhea, and Viscum album with 1.2%, indicated for respiratory diseases. The most common plants that could be toxic are Mentha pulegium (15.6%), Eucalyptus globulus (11.4%), and Pimpinella anisum (10.2%). This study revealed interesting results on the use of toxic plants, which are likely to serve as a basis for further ethnopharmacological investigations in order to get new drug sources.
Chemical Composition of Volatiles Emitted from Ziziphus jujuba Miller Collected during Different Growth Stages
Ziziphus jujuba Miller is a common species of the Ziziphus genus (Rhamnaceae family) native to the tropics and subtropics known for its edible fruits, fresh consumed or used in healthy food, as flavoring and sweetener. Many phytochemicals and biological activities are described for this species. In this work, the aroma profiles emitted in vivo by whole fresh organs (leaf, bud flower, flower, green and red fruits) were analyzed separately by mean of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The emitted volatiles from different plant parts were analysed using Supelco SPME device coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100µm). Fresh plant material was introduced separately into a glass conical flask and allowed to equilibrate for 20 min. After the equilibration time, the fibre was exposed to the headspace for 15 min at room temperature, the fibre was re-inserted into the needle and transferred to the injector of the CG and CG-MS system, where the fibre was desorbed. All the data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis, evidencing many differences amongst the selected plant parts and their developmental stages. A total of 144 compounds were identified corresponding to 94.6-99.4% of the whole aroma profile of jujube samples. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the main chemical class of compounds in leaves also present in similar percentage in flowers and bud flowers where (E, E)-α-farnesene was the main constituent in all cited plant parts. This behavior can be due to a protection mechanism against pathogens and herbivores as well as resistance to abiotic factors. The aroma of green fruits was characterized by high amount of perillene while the red fruits release a volatile blend mainly constituted by different monoterpenes. The terpenoid emission of flesh fruits has important function in the interaction with animals including attraction of seed dispersers and it is related to a good quality of fruits. This study provides for the first time the chemical composition of the volatile emission from different Ziziphus jujuba organs. The SPME analyses of the collected samples showed different patterns of emission and can contribute to understand their ecological interactions and fruit production management.
Screening of Four Malaysian Isolated Endophytes with Candesartan in a Microtiter
The goal of study was to screen the effects of candesartan and four endophytic fungi for their potential in microbial biotransformation. In this experiment, four types of unidentified fungi with the codes of TH2L1, TH2R10, TH1P35 and TH1S46 were used in screening process by MECFUS (Microtiter plate, Elicitors, Combination, Freeze-drying, UHPLC, Statistical analysis) protocol. The experiment was carried out by using 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) with different media and elicitors. Various media with two concentrations of Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and elicitors used were to induce the production of secondary metabolites from the fungi as well as the biotransformation of the drug compound. After incubation, cultures were extracted by freeze drying method and finally analyzed by ultra-High performance Liquid Chromatography (uHPLC). The extracts analyzed by uHPLC followed by LC/Ms, demonstrated the presence of biotransformation products from the drug compound and elicitation of the secondary metabolism from the fungi by the occurrence of the additional peaks. From the four fungi, TH1S46 showed highly potential produced secondary metabolites as well as the biotransformation of candesartan. For other fungi, they responded when candesartan was introduced. Moreover, the additional peaks produced in uHPLC need to be further investigation by using LC-MS or NMR.
Development of Immuno-Modulators: Application of Molecular Dynamics Simulation
The accurate characterization of ligand binding affinity is indispensable for designing molecules with optimized binding affinity. Computational tools help in many directions to predict quantitative correlations between protein-ligand structure and their binding affinities. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a modern state-of-the-art technique to evaluate the underlying basis of ligand-protein interactions by characterizing dynamic and energetic properties during the event.
Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against own tissues. The current regimen for the described condition is limited to immune-modulators having compromised pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics profiles. One of the key player mediating immunity and tolerance, thus invoking autoimmunity is Interleukin-2; a cytokine influencing the growth of T cells.
Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are applied to seek insight into the inhibitory mechanisms of newly synthesized compounds that manifested immunosuppressant potentials during in silico pipeline. In addition to estimation of free energies associated with ligand binding, MD simulation yielded us a great deal of information about ligand-macromolecule interactions to evaluate the pattern of interactions and the molecular basis of inhibition.
The present study is a continuum of our efforts to identify interleukin-2 inhibitors of both natural and synthetic origin. Herein, we report molecular dynamics simulation studies of Interluekin-2 complexed with different antagonists previously reported by our group. The study of protein-ligand dynamics enabled us to gain a better understanding of the contribution of different active site residues in ligand binding. The results of the study will be used as the guide to rationalize the fragment based synthesis of drug-like interleukin-2 inhibitors as immune-modulators.
Antiplasmodial Activity of Drimane Sesquiterpene Isolated from Warburgia salutaris
Background: Malaria remains a life-threatening disease in tropical regions despite the advances in the treatment of this disease, it still remains a significant burden as some parasites have become resistant to the currently available drugs. This has created a necessity for the development of alternative, more efficient antimalarial drugs. Warburgia salutaris is a traditional medicinal plant used in malaria treatment by Zulu traditional healers. Materials and methods: The W. salutaris stem-bark was extracted with dichloromethane and the compound was isolated through column chromatography. The compound was identified and characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and MS) and the structure was also confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The anti-plasmodial activity (in vitro) was studied on NF54 Plasmodium falciparum strain (CQS). Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay on HEK239 and HEPG2 cell lines. Docking of Mukaadial acetate was conducted in AutoDock Vina. Structural modifications were conducted in UCSF Chimera and molecular interactions examined in LigPlot. Results: The compound, Mukaadial Acetate showed appreciable inhibition (IC50 0.44±0.10 µg/ml) of the parasite growth and cytotoxicity activity of 0.124±0.109 and 0.199±0.083 (µg/ml) on HEK293 and HEPG2 cells respectively. Molecular docking revealed that Mukaadial Acetate binds to the purine, pyrophosphate and ribose binding sites of the PfHGXPRT with an optimum binding conformation and forms hydrogen bond, steric and hydrophobic interactions with the residues inhabiting the respective binding sites. Conclusion: It is apparent that W. salutaris contains components (including Mukaadial Acetate) that exhibit antimalarial activity. This study scientifically validates the use of this plant in folk medicine.
Anticancer Activity of Calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb. through Downregulation of Cyclin D1 Protein Level in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells
In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of DKC against human colorectal cancer cells. DKC-E70 suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29. Although DKC-E70 decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level, decreased level of cyclin D1 protein by DKC-E70 occurred at the earlier time than that of cyclin D1 mRNA, which indicates that DKC-E70-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 protein may be a consequence of the induction of degradation and transcriptional inhibition of cyclin D1. In cyclin D1 degradation, we found that cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70 was attenuated in presence of MG132. In addition, DKC-E70 phosphorylated threonine-286 (T286) of cyclin D1 and T286A abolished cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70. We also observed that DKC-E70-mediated T286 phosphorylation and subsequent cyclin D1 degradation was blocked in presence of the inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β. In cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition, DKC-E70 inhibited the expression of β-catenin and TCF4, and β–catenin/TCF-dependent luciferase activity. Our results suggest that DKC-E70 may downregulate cyclin D1 as one of the potential anti-cancer targets through cyclin D1 degradation by T286 phosphorylation dependent on ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β, and cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition through Wnt signaling. From these findings, DKC-E70 has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A3B03931713).
Condensed Benzo, Pyrido, Pyrimidino-Imidazole Derivatives as Antidiabetic Agents
Benzimidazole moiety is an important pharmacophore and privileged structure for the medicinal chemists, since it exhibits various important biological activities. Some clinically used drugs have benzimidazole moiety, such as omeprazole, astemizole, albendazole and domperidone. 2-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)benzimidazole, is a PGC-1α transcriptional regulator shown to have beneficial effects in diabetic mice. We planned to modify the structure of this compound for developing new antidiabetic drug candidates. Hence, a series of guanidino or amidino, benzo/pyrido/pyrimidino-imidazole derivatives were freshly prepared. Mass, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques were used for the new derivatives to clarify their structures and their purity was controlled through the elemental analysis. Antidiabetic activity studies of the synthesized compounds are under the investigation.
In vitro Evaluation of Capsaicin Patches for Transdermal Drug Delivery
Capsaicin is a naturally occurring alkaloid extracted from capsicum fruit extracts of different of Capsicum species. It has been employed topically to treat many diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, cancer pain and nerve pain in diabetes. The high degree of pre-systemic metabolism of intragastrical capsaicin and the short half-life of capsaicin by intravenous administration made topical application of capsaicin advantageous. In this study, we have evaluated differences in the dissolution characteristics of capsaicin patch 11 mg (purchased from market) at different dissolution rotation speed. The proposed patch area is 308 cm2 (22 cm x 14 cm; it contains 36 µg of capsaicin per square centimeter of adhesive). USP Apparatus 5 (Paddle Over Disc) is used for transdermal patch testing. The dissolution study was conducted using USP apparatus 5 (n=6), ERWEKA DT800 dissolution tester (paddle-type) with addition of a disc. The fabricated patch of 308 cm2 is to be cut into 9 cm2 was placed against a disc (delivery side up) retained with the stainless-steel screen and exposed to 500 mL of phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4. All dissolution studies were carried out at 32 ± 0.5 °C and different rotation speed (50± 5; 100± 5 and 150± 5 rpm). 5 ml aliquots of samples were withdrawn at various time intervals (1, 4, 8 and 12 hours) and replaced with 5 ml of dissolution medium. Withdrawn were appropriately diluted and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). A Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (RP-LC) method has been developed, optimized and validated for the separation and quantitation of capsaicin in a transdermal patch. The method uses a ProntoSIL 120-3-C18 AQ 125 x 4,0 mm (3 μm) column maintained at 600C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: water (50:50 v/v), the flow rate of 0.9 mL/min, the injection volume 10 μL and the detection wavelength 222 nm. The used RP-LC method is simple, sensitive and accurate and can be applied for fast (total chromatographic run time was 4.0 minutes) and simultaneous analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in a transdermal patch. According to the results obtained in this study, we can conclude that the relative difference of dissolution rate of capsaicin after 12 hours was elevated by increase of dissolution rotation speed (100 rpm vs 50 rpm: 84.9± 11.3% and 150 rpm vs 100 rpm: 39.8± 8.3%). Although several apparatus and procedures (USP apparatus 5, 6, 7 and a paddle over extraction cell method) have been used to study in vitro release characteristics of transdermal patches, USP Apparatus 5 (Paddle Over Disc) could be considered as a discriminatory test. would be able to point out the differences in the dissolution rate of capsaicin at different rotation speed.