Curative Effect of Blumea lacera Leaves on Experimental Haemorrhoids in Rats
Hemorrhoids are one of the most common anorectal diseases around the world. Several factors are involved in causing hemorrhoids including irregular bowel function (constipation, diarrhea), exercise, gravity, low ﬁberdiet, pregnancy, obesity, high abdominal pressure, prolonged sitting, genetic factors and aging. Pain, bleeding, itching,swelling and anal discharge are the symptoms of the disease. Due to limited modern pharmacotherapeutic options available for treatment, the herbal medicines remain the choice of therapy.Blumealacera(Burm f.) DC. belonging to the Asteraceae family is a common plain land weed of Bangladesh. Traditionally, it has been used for treatment of hemorrhoids.Considering the above fact, present study was aimed to validate the ethnomedicinal use of B. laceraleaves on experimental hemorrhoids in rats.The anti-hemorrhoid activity was performed by using croton oil-induced rat models. The parameters studied were assessment of TNF-α and IL-6, Evans blue exudation, macroscopic severity score, recto-anal coefficient, histomorphological scores. Also, in vivo antioxidant parameters and histopathological studies were also performed. All parameters exhibited significant anti-hemorrhoid activity. Moreover ethanolic extract of B. lacera( EBL) leaves 400mg/kg showed ameliorative effect on croton oil-induced hemorrhoids.In conclusion, EBL exhibitedbeneﬁcial effect on croton oil- induced hemorrhoids and validates its ethnomedicinal use in treatment of piles.
The Effects of Different Sowing Times on Seed Yield and Quality of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey
In this study carried out in 2013-14 growing season in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey, it was aimed to investigate the effects of different sowing times on the seed yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum L.). Three fenugreek genotypes (Gürarslan, Candidate Line-1 and Genotype-1) were sown on 13.11.2013 and 07.03.2014 according to factorial randomized block design with 3 replications. Plant height (cm), branch number per plant, first pod height (cm), pod length (mm), seed number per pod (g), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per decar (kg), thousand seed weight (g), mucilage rate (%), seed protein ratio (%), seed oil ratio (%), oleic acid (%), linoleic acid (%), palmitic acid (%) and stearic acid (%) were investigated. Among genotypes, while the highest seed yield per plant was obtained from Genotype-1 (5 g/plant), the lowest seed yield per plant was obtained from cv. Gürarslan (3.4 g/plant). According to genotype x sowing date interactions, it can be said that the highest seed yield per plant was taken in autumn sowing from Genotype-1 (6.6 g/plant) and the lowest seed yield per plant was taken in spring sowing from cv. Gürarslan (2.9 g/plant). Genotype-1 had the highest linoleic acid ratio (41.6 %). Cv. Gürarslan and Candidate Line-1 had the highest oleic acid ratio (respectively 17.8 % and 17.6%).
Increasing Solubility and Bioavailability of Fluvastatin through Transdermal Nanoemulsion Gel Delivery System for the Treatment of Osteoporosis
Fluvastatin has been reported for increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis since last decade. Systemically administered drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism, thus very small amount of drug reaches the bone tissue which is highly insignificant. The present study aims to deliver fluvastatin in the form of nanoemulsion (NE) gel directly to the bone tissue through transdermal route thereby bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism. The NE formulation consisted of isopropyl myristate as oil, tween 80 as surfactant, transcutol as co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using aqueous titration method and NE’s obtained were subjected to thermodynamic-kinetic stability studies. The stable NE formulations were evaluated for their droplet size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-sized formulations were incorporated into 0.5% carbopol 934 gel matrix. Ex-vivo permeation behaviour of selected formulations through rat skin was investigated and compared with the conventional formulations (suspension and emulsion). Further, in-vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried using male Wistar rats. The optimized NE formulations mean droplet size was 11.66±3.2 nm with polydispersity index of 0.117. Permeation flux of NE gel formulations was found significantly higher than the conventional formulations i.e. suspension and emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed significant increase in bioavailability (1.25 fold) of fluvastatin than oral formulation. Thus, it can be concluded that NE gel was successfully developed for transdermal delivery of fluvastatin for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Improving Medication Understanding, Use and Self-Efficacy among Stroke Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial; Study Protocol
Background: The Health Belief Theory had always been associated with chronic disease management. Various health behaviour concepts and perception branching from this Health Belief Theory had involved with medication understanding, use, and self-efficacy which directly link to medication adherence. In a previous quantitative and qualitative study, stroke patients in Malaysia were found to be strongly believing information obtained by various sources such as the internet and social communication. This action leads to lower perception of their stroke preventative medication benefit which in long-term creates non-adherence. Hence, this study intends to pilot an intervention which uses audio-visual concept incorporated with mHealth service to enhance learning and self-reflection among stroke patients to manage their disease. Methods/Design: Twenty patients will be allocated to a proposed intervention whereas another twenty patients are allocated to the usual treatment. The intervention involves a series of developed audio-visual videos sent via mobile phone which later await for responses and feedback from the receiver (patient) via SMS or recorded calls. The primary outcome would be the medication understanding, use and self-efficacy measured over two months pre and post intervention. Secondary outcome is measured from changes of blood parameters and other self-reported questionnaires. Discussion: This study shall also assess uptake/attrition, feasibility, and acceptability of this intervention. Trial Registration: NMRR-15-851-24737 (IIR)
Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on in vitro Biosynthesis of Antioxidative Compounds in Callus Culture and Regenerated Plantlets Derived from Taraxacum officinale
Taraxacum officinale Weber or dandelion (Asteraceae) is an important Indian traditional herb used to treat liver detoxification, digestive problems, spleen, hepatic and kidney disorders, etc. The plant is well known to possess important phenolic and flavonoids to serve as a potential source of antioxidative and chemoprotective agents. Biosynthesis of bioactive compounds through in vitro cultures is a requisite for natural resource conservation and to provide an alternative source for pharmaceutical applications. Thus an efficient and reproducible protocol was developed for in vitro biosynthesis of bioactive antioxidative compounds from leaf derived callus and in vitro regenerated cultures of Taraxacum officinale using MS media fortified with various combinations of auxins and cytokinins. MS media containing 0.25 mg/l 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichloro phenoxyacetic acid) with 0.05 mg/l 2-iP [N6-(2-Isopentenyl adenine)] was found as an effective combination for the establishment of callus with 92 % callus induction frequency. Moreover, 2.5 mg/l NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid) with 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-Benzyl aminopurine) and 1.5 mg/l NAA showed the optimal response for in vitro plant regeneration with 80 % regeneration frequency and rooting respectively. In vitro regenerated plantlets were further transferred to soil and acclimatized. Quantitative variability of accumulated bioactive compounds in cultures (in vitro callus, plantlets and acclimatized) were determined through UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry) and compared with wild plants. The phytochemical determination of in vitro and wild grown samples showed the accumulation of 6 compounds. In in vitro callus cultures and regenerated plantlets, two major antioxidative compounds i.e. chlorogenic acid (14950.0 µg/g and 4086.67 µg/g) and umbelliferone (10400.00 µg/g and 2541.67 µg/g) were found respectively. Scopoletin was found to be highest in vitro regenerated plants (83.11 µg/g) as compared to wild plants (52.75 µg/g). Notably, scopoletin is not detected in callus and acclimatized plants, but quinic acid (6433.33 µg/g) and protocatechuic acid (92.33 µg/g) were accumulated at the highest level in acclimatized plants as compared to other samples. Wild grown plants contained highest content (948.33 µg/g) of flavonoid glycoside i.e. luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Our data suggests that in vitro callus and regenerated plants biosynthesized higher content of antioxidative compounds in controlled conditions when compared to wild grown plants. These standardized cultural conditions may be explored as a sustainable source of plant materials for enhanced production and adequate supply of oxidative polyphenols.
Application of a Synthetic DNA Reference Material for Optimisation of DNA Extraction and Purification for Molecular Identification of Medicinal Plants
DNA barcoding is increasingly used for identification of medicinal plants worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of DNA barcodes have been generated, and their application in species identification explored. The success of DNA barcoding process relies on the accuracy of the results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step which could be negatively affected due to a presence of inhibitors or degraded DNA in herbal samples. An established DNA reference material can be used to support molecular characterisation protocols and prove system suitability, for fast and accurate identification of plant species. The present study describes the use of a novel reference material, the trnH-psbA British Pharmacopoeia Nucleic Acid Reference Material (trnH-psbA BPNARM), which was produced to aid in the identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., a widely used herb. During DNA barcoding of O. tenuiflorum, PCR amplifications of isolated DNA produced inconsistent results, suggesting an issue with either the method or DNA quality of the tested samples. The trnH-psbA BPNARM was produced and tested to check for the issues caused during PCR amplification. It was added to the plant material as control DNA before extraction and was co-extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR analyses revealed that the amplification was not as successful as expected which suggested that the amplification is affected by presence of inhibitors co-extracted from plant materials. Various potential issues were assessed during DNA extraction and optimisations were made accordingly. A DNA barcoding protocol for O. tenuiflorum was published in the British Pharmacopoeia 2016, which included the reference sequence. The trnH-psbA BPNARM accelerated degradation test which investigates the stability of the reference material over time demonstrated that it has been stable when stored at 56 °C for a year. Using this protocol and trnH-psbA reference material provides a fast and accurate method for identification of O. tenuiflorum. The optimisations of the DNA extraction using the trnH-psbA BPNARM provided a signposting method which can assist in overcoming common problems encountered when using molecular methods with medicinal plants.
The Protective Effects of Aquatic Extract of Levesticum Officinale against Paraquat Hepatotoxicity
Paraquat is widely used as a strong nitrogen-based herbicide for controlling of weeds in agriculture. This poison is extremely toxic for humans which induces several – organ failure by accumulation in cells and many instances of death occurred due to its poisoning. Paraquat metabolized primarily in the liver. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of aquatic extract of levisticum officinale on oxidative status and biochemical factors in hepatocytes exposed to paraquat.
Our results determined that hepatocytes destruction induced by paraquat is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly (P< 0.05) prevented by aquatic extract of Levisicum officinale (100, 200 and 300 µg/ml). These effects of paraquat also prevented via antioxidants and ROS scavengers (α-tocopherol, DMSO, manitol), mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing compound (carnitine).MPT pore sealing compound inhibited the hepatotoxicity, indicating that paraquat induced cell death via mithochondrial pathway. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with aquatic extracts of Levisticum officinale, antioxidants and ROS scavengers also blocked hepatic cell death caused by paraquat, suggesting that oxidative stress may be directly induced decline of mithochondrial membrane potential.
In conclusion, paraquat hepatotoxicity can be attributed to oxidative stress and continued by mithochondrial membrane potential disruption. Levisticum officinale aquatic extract, presumably due to its strong antoxidant properties, could protect the destructive effects of paraquat on rat hepatocytes.
A Retrospective Study on the Age of Onset for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis
There is a progressive increase in the prevalence of early onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early detection of Type 2 diabetes enhances the length and/or quality of life which might result from a reduction in the severity, frequency or prevent or delay of its long-term complications. The study aims to determine the onset age for the first diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective study conducted in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang in Penang, Malaysia, January- December 2016. Records of 519 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened to collect demographic data and determine the age of first-time diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Patients classified according to the age of diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity. The study included 519 patients with age (55.6±13.7) years, female 265 (51.1%) and male 254 (48.9%). The ethnicity distribution was Malay 191 (36.8%), Chinese 189 (36.4%) and Indian 139 (26.8%). The age of Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was (42±14.8) years. The female onset of diabetes mellitus was at age (41.5±13.7) years, while male (42.6±13.7) years. Distribution of diabetic onset by ethnicity was Malay at age (40.7±13.7) years, Chinese (43.2±13.7) years and Indian (42.3±13.7) years. Diabetic onset was classified by age as follow; ≤20 years’ cohort was 33 (6.4%) cases. Group >20- ≤40 years was 190 (36.6%) patients, and category >40- ≤60 years was 270 (52%) subjects. On the other hand, the group >60 years was 22 (4.2%) patients. The range of diagnosis was between 10 and 73 years old. Conclusion: Malay and female have an earlier onset of diabetes than Indian, Chinese and male. More than half of the patients had diabetes between 40 and 60 years old. Diabetes mellitus is becoming more common in younger age
Comparison of Statins Dose Intensity on HbA1c Control in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study
The effect of statins dose intensity on glycemic control in patients with existing diabetes is unclear. Also, there are many contradictory findings were reported in the literature; thus, limiting the possibility to draw conclusions. This project was designed to compare the effect of statins dose intensity (SDI) on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) control in outpatients with Type 2 diabetes in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, between July 2015 and August 2016. This is a prospective cohort study, where records of 345 patients with Type 2 diabetes (Moderate-SDI group 289 patients and high-SDI cohort 56 patients) were reviewed to identify demographics and laboratory tests. The target of glycemic control (HbA1c < 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated and the results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 289 moderate-SDI cohort with a mean age of 57.3 ± 12.4 years, only 86 (29.76%) cases shown to have controlled glycemia, while 203 (70.24%) cases with uncontrolled glycemia; with confidence interval (CI) of 95% (8.4 – 8.8). On the other hand, the high-SDI group of 56 patients with Type 2 diabetes with a mean age 57.7 ± 12.4 years is distributed among 16 (28.57%) patients with controlled diabetes and 40 (71.43%) of them, had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (8.6–9.6). The study has demonstrated that the relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes that used high-SDI is 1.02, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) is 2%. The absolute risk (AR) is 1.19%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) is 85. Outpatients with Type 2 diabetes who use high-SDI of statin have a higher risk of uncontrolled glycemia than outpatients had treated with a moderate-SDI.
A Prospective Study on the Evaluation of Statins Usage on HbA1c Control among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in an Outpatients Setting
Medication safety is always an issue. In 2015, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau released a statement requesting all statins manufacturers in Malaysia to include the risk of diabetes information in the drug information leaflet in response to United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) report. However, the data regarding this warning label in Malaysia is limited, so there is still some uncertainty whether such risk can also be observed in the Malaysian population or not. The study aims to determine the effect of statins on HbA1c% in type 2 diabetic outpatients in endocrine clinics at Hospital Pulau Pinang between June 2015 and May 2016 in Malaysia. In a prospective cohort study, records of 400 type 2 diabetic patients (control group 104 patients not using statin and treatment group 296 patients using statin) were reviewed to identify demographic criteria and lab tests. The prevalence of glycemic control (Glycated hemoglobin, HbA1C ≤ 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, according to American Diabetes Association guidelines 2015. The results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 296 patients with Type 2 diabetes using statins cohort with a mean age of 57.52 ± 12.2 years, only 84 (28.4%) cases had controlled glycemia, and 212 (71.6%) had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (8.5 – 9). While the control group 104 diabetic patients had a mean age 46.1 ± 18 years and distributed among 48 (46.2%) patients with controlled diabetes and 56 (53.8%) cases, had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (7.6 – 8.5). The relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in diabetic patients used statins was 1.33, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) was 33%. The absolute risk (AR) was 18%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) was six. Diabetic patients using statins have more risk of uncontrolled glycemia than patients with Type 2 diabetes non-using statins.
Epigenetic Drugs for Major Depressive Disorder: A Critical Appraisal of Available Studies
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and important psychiatric disorder. Several clinical features of MDD suggest an epigenetic basis for its pathogenesis. Since epigenetics (heritable changes in gene expression not involving changes in DNA sequence) may underlie the pathogenesis of MDD, epigenetic drugs such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deactylase inhibitors (HDACi) may be useful for treating MDD. The available literature indexed in Pubmed on preclinical drug trials of epigenetic drugs for the treatment of MDD was investigated. The search terms we used were ‘depression’ or ‘depressive’ and ‘HDACi’ or ‘DNMTi’. Among epigenetic drugs, it was found that there were 3 preclinical trials using HDACi and 3 using DNMTi for the treatment of MDD. All the trials were conducted on rodents (mice or rats). The animal models of depression that were used were: learned helplessness-induced animal model, forced swim test, open field test, and the tail suspension test. One study used a genetic rat model of depression (the Flinders Sensitive Line). The HDACi that were tested were: sodium butyrate, compound 60 (Cpd-60), and valproic acid. The DNMTi that were tested were: 5-azacytidine and decitabine. Among the three preclinical trials using HDACi, all showed an antidepressant effect in animal models of depression. Among the 3 preclinical trials using DNMTi also, all showed an antidepressant effect in animal models of depression. Thus, epigenetic drugs, namely, HDACi and DNMTi, may prove to be useful in the treatment of MDD and merit further investigation for the treatment of this disorder.
The Hidden Mechanism beyond Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Potent in vivo and in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Background: In order to decrease the burden of the high cost of synthetic drugs, it is important to focus on phytopharmaceuticals. The aim of our study was to search for the mechanism of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) anti-inflammatory potential and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Methods: Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated by assessment of rat paw oedema after carrageenan injection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), certain inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, INFr, MCP-1MIP, RANTES, and Nox) levels and MPO activity in the paw edema exudates were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was also determined. Histopathological alterations of paw tissues were scored. Results: All the tested extracts showed significant (p < 0.1) anti-inflammatory activities. The highest percentage of heat induced albumin denaturation (66%) was exhibited by the 50% ethanol (250 μg/ml). The 70 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) were more potent as membrane stabilizers (34.5 and 37%, respectively) than diclofenac (33%). The 80 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) showed maximum protease inhibition (56%). The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for the AE. It showed more significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125 μg/ml). Fractionation of AE yielded four main fractions (Fr I-IV) which showed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory. Purification of Fr-III and IV led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G2 (62.5 ug/ml), G1 (250 ug/ml), and G8 (250 ug/ml) exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in all studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw oedema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction (60%) of PGE2 production. The AE at different doses (at 25-200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers except for IL-1α. AE (at 25 mg/kg) is superior to indomethacin in reduction of IL-1β. Treatment of animals with the AE (100, 200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES levels, and MPO activity by about (31, 57 and 32% ) (65, 60 and 57%) (27, 41 and 28%) (23, 32 and 23%) (66, 67 and 67%) respectively. AE at 100 and 200 mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NOₓ level and in increasing the TAC. Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and oedema after administration of AE (200 mg/kg) prior to carrageenan. Conclusion: Ginger anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophils activation as well as negatively affecting monocyte and leukocyte migration. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and replenished the total antioxidant capacity. We strongly recommend future investigations of ginger in the potential signal transduction pathways.
Protective Effect of the Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonist DL77 in Behavioral Cognitive Deficits Associated with Schizophrenia
The eﬀects of the non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist DL77 in passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and novel object recognition (NOR) task in MK801-induced cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia (CDS) in adult male rats, and applying donepezil (DOZ) as a reference drug were investigated. The results show that acute systemic administration of DL77 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved MK801-induced (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) memory deficits in PAP. The ameliorating activity of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) in MK801-induced deficits was partly reversed when rats were pretreated with the centrally-acting H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) or with the antimuscarinic antagonist scopolamine (SCO, 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), but not with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the memory enhancing effect of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) in MK801-induced memory deficits in PAP was strongly reversed when rats were pretreated with a combination of ZOL (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and SCO (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Furthermore, the significant ameliorative effect of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) on MK801-induced long-term memory (LTM) impairment in NOR test was comparable to the DOZ-provided memory-enhancing effect, and was abrogated when animals were pretreated with the histamine H3R agonist R-(α)-methylhistamine (RAMH, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). However, DL77(5 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to provide procognitive effect on MK801-induced short-term memory (STM) impairment in NOR test. In addition, DL77 (5 mg/kg) did not alter anxiety levels and locomotor activity of animals naive to elevated-plus maze (EPM), demonstrating that improved performances with DL77 (5 mg/kg) in PAP or NOR are unrelated to changes in emotional responding or spontaneous locomotor activity. These results provide evidence for the potential of H3Rs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders related to impaired memory function, e.g. CDS.
Layer-by-Layer Coated Dexamethasone Microcrystals for Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy
Layer-by-layer (LBL) coating has gained popularity for drug delivery of therapeutic drugs. Herein we described a novel approach for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of the locally administered dexamethasone (Dex) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We utilized a LBL-coating technique on Dex microcrystals (DexMCs) with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes composed of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly (sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and Eudragit® S100 (ES). The successful deposition of the layers onto DexMCs surfaces were confirmed through zeta potential measurement and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The surface morphology was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The drug encapsulation efficiency was 95% with a mean particle size of 2 µm and negative surface charge (-40 mV). Moreover, in vitro drug release study showed a minimum release of the drug ( 15%) at an acidic condition during initial first 5 h, followed by sustained-release at an alkaline condition. For in vivo study, LBL-DxMCs were administered orally to ICR mice suffering from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. LBL-DxMCs substantially enhanced anti-IBD activities as compared to DxMCs. Macroscopic, histological and biochemical (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase) examinations revealed marked improvements of colitis signs in the mice treated with LBL-DxMCs compared with those treated with DxMCs. Overall, LBL-DxMCs could be a suitable candidate for the treatment of IBD.
Raw Japanese Quail Egg Produces Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastro-Protective Effects in Rats
Over the years, Japanese quail egg has been in use in the management of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of raw Quail egg (yolk + albumin) in rats. Pain was assessed in rats by recording the latent period and writing reflex, anti-inflammatory effect was determined using both motility and compression test, while the gastro-protective effects were assessed by observing the histology of the stomach after diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers and subsequent treatment with the quail egg, Rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups; Groups I: were the control non-treated (NT), Group II were treated with Tramadol 50 mg/kg/Os (TMD) or Indomethacin (IND) 5mg/kg/Os (positive control for the writhing reflex determination), while group III and IV were treated with 3 and 6g/kg of raw quail egg respectively). Groups treated with quail egg in both doses showed a significant increase in the latent period (p < 0 .05) when compared to the control NT, but lower than the group treated with tramadol at 20mins interval (p< 0.05). Writing reflexes decrease in groups II, III, and IV compared to the NT group (p < 0.05). While motility increases significantly (p < 0.05) in groups II, compared to I (p< 0.05). Control non-treated rats showed a quicker and extensive response to compression using the Vanier calliper on the inflamed paw compared to groups II-IV (p < 0.05). Histological studies of the stomach revealed sloughing of the epithelia, cellular infiltration with micro abscesses in the non-treated, while groups treated concurrently with quail egg showed proliferation of the glandular epithelia and goblet cells, and those treated 30 minutes before diclofenac administration showed proliferation of glands and thickening of the squamous epithelia. This study showed that quail egg has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective potentials and can be used as adjuvant treatment whenever COX-2 enzymes inhibitors are indicated.
Process for Production of Added-Value Water–Extract from Liquid Biomass
Coupled Membrane Separation Technology (CMST), including Cross Flow Microfiltration (CFM) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), are used to concentrate microalgae biomass or/and to extract and concentrate water-soluble metabolites produced during micro-algae production cycle, as well as water recycling. Micro-algae biomass was produced using different feeding mixtures of ingredients: pure chemical origin compounds and natural/ecological water-extracted components from available local plants. Micro-algae was grown either in conventional plastic bags (100L/unit) or in small-scale innovative bioreactors (75L). Biomass was concentrated as CFM retentate using a P19-60 ceramic membrane (0.2μm pore size), and water-soluble micro-algae metabolites left in the CFM filtrate were concentrated by RO. Large volumes of water (micro-algae culture media) of were recycled by the CMTS for another biomass production cycle.
A Sub-Conjunctiva Injection of Rosiglitazone for Anti- Fibrosis Treatment after Glaucoma Filtration Surgery
Trans-differentiation of human Tenon fibroblasts (HTFs) to myo-fibroblasts and fibrosis of episcleral tissue are the most common reasons for the failure of glaucoma filtration surgery, with limited treatment options like antimetabolites which always have side-effects such as leakage of filter bulb, infection, hypotony, and endophthalmitis. Rosiglitazone, a specific thiazolidinedione is a synthetic high-affinity ligand for PPAR-r, which has been used in the treatment of type2 diabetes, and found to have pleiotropic functions against inflammatory response, cell proliferation and tissue fibrosis and to benefit to a variety of diseases in animal myocardium models, steatohepatitis models, etc. Here, in vitro we cultured primary HTFs and stimulated with TGF- β to induced myofibrogenic, then treated cells with Rosiglitazone to assess for fibrogenic response. In vivo, we used rabbit glaucoma model to establish the formation of post- trabeculectomy scarring. Then we administered subconjunctival injection with Rosiglitazone beside the ﬁltering bleb, later protein, mRNA and immunofluorescence of fibrogenic markers are checked, and filtering bleb condition was measured. In vitro, we found Rosiglitazone could suppressed proliferation and migration of fibroblasts through macroautophagy via TGF- β /Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, on postoperative day 28, the mean number of ﬁbroblasts in Rosiglitazone injection group was signiﬁcantly the lowest and had the least collagen content and connective tissue growth factor. Rosiglitazone effectively controlled human and rabbit fibroblasts in vivo and in vitro. Its subconjunctiiva application may represent an effective, new avenue for the prevention of scarring after glaucoma surgery.
The Effect of Brassica rapa Leaf Extracts on the Growth of Upland Ipomoea aquatica
The effect of Brassica rapa leaf extracts on the growth of upland Ipomoea aquatica was investigated. One hundred grams Brassica rapa leaf were blended using a heavy duty blender. These were diluted with water to have final concentrations of 75% (T1), 50% (T2) and 25% (T3) that served as treatments of the study. Pure water (T0) that served as control was also included Upland Ipomoea aquatic were grown in pots. A 3-4 in water level was maintained during the whole duration of the study. Plant height, leaf area, fruit size and shoot height, were taken after 6 months. Results showed that plant height and shoot height was highest in T1 while T0 was the lowest. On the other hand, T2 had the highest leaf area and fruit size. The study suggests that T1 and T2 can be a good fertilizer for Ipomoea aquatica.
Synergistic Studies of Liposomes of Clove and Cinnamon Oil in Oral Health Care
Despite great improvements in health care, the world oral health report states that dental problems still persist, particularly among underprivileged groups in both developing and developed countries. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are identified as the most important oral health problems globally. Acidic foods and beverages can affect natural teeth, and chronic exposure often leads to the development of dental erosion, abrasion, and decay. In recent years, there has been an increased interest toward essential oils. These are secondary metabolites and possess antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Essential oils are volatile and chemically unstable in the presence of air, light, moisture and high temperature. Hence many novel methods like a liposomal encapsulation of oils have been introduced to enhance the stability and bioavailability. This research paper focuses on two essential oils, clove and cinnamon oil. Clove oil was obtained from Syzygium aromaticum Linn using clavengers apparatus. It contains eugenol and β caryophyllene. Cinnamon oil, from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, contains cinnamaldehyde, The objective of the current research was to develop a liposomal carrier system containing clove and cinnamon oil and study their synergistic activity against dental pathogens when formulated as a gel. Methodology: The essential oil were first tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens, Lactobacillus acidophillus (MTCC No. 10307, MRS broth) and Streptococcus Mutans (MTCC No .890, Brain Heart Infusion agar). The oils were analysed by UV spectroscopy for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde content. Standard eugenol was linear between 5ppm to 25ppm at 282nm and standard cinnamaldehde from 1ppm to 5pmm at 284nm. The concentration of eugenol in clove oil was found to be 62.65 % w/w, and that of cinnamaldehyde was found to be 5.15%s w/w. The oils were then formulated into liposomes. Liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using Phospholipid, Cholesterol, and other oils dissolved in a chloroform methanol (3:1) mixture. The organic solvent was evaporated in a rotary evaporator above lipid transition temperature. The film was hydrated with phosphate buffer (pH 5.5).The various batches of liposomes were characterized and compared for their size, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The prepared liposomes when evaluated for entrapment efficiency showed 65% entrapment for clove and 85% for cinnamon oil. They were also tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens and their synergistic activity studied. Based on the activity and the entrapment efficiency the amount of liposomes required to prepare 1gm of the gel was calculated. The gel was prepared using a simple ointment base and contained 0.56% of cinnamon and clove liposomes. A simultaneous method of analysis for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde.was then developed using HPLC. The prepared gels were then studied for their stability as per ICH guidelines. Conclusion: It was found that liposomes exhibited spherical shaped vesicles and protected the essential oil from degradation. Liposomes, therefore, constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile, unstable essential oil constituents.
Activation of Caspase 3 by Terpenoids and Flavonoids in Cancer Cell Lines
Caspase 3, a member of cysteine-aspartic acid protease family, is an imperative indicator for cell death particularly when substantiating apoptosis. Thus, caspase 3 is an interesting target for the discovery and development of anticancer agent. We adopted a four level assessment of both terpenoids and flavonoids and thus experimentally performed the enzymatic assay in cell free system as well as in cancer cell line which was validated through real time expression and molecular interaction studies. A significant difference was observed with both the class of natural products indicating terpenoids as better activators of caspase 3 compared to flavonoids both in the cell free system as well as in cell lines. The expression analysis, activation constant and binding energy also correlate well with the enzyme activity. Overall, terpenoids had an unswerving effect on caspase 3 in all the tested system while flavonoids indirectly affect enzyme activity.
Assessing the Impact of Antiretroviral Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions on Piperaquine Antimalarial Treatment in Pregnant Women Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling
Introduction: Malaria in pregnancy has morbidity and mortality implication on both mother and unborn child. Piperaquine (PQ) based antimalarial treatment is emerging as a choice antimalarial for pregnant women in the face of resistance to current antimalarial treatment recommendation in pregnancy. Physiological and biochemical changes in pregnant women may affect the pharmacokinetics of the antimalarial drug in these. In malaria endemic regions other infectious diseases like HIV/AIDs are prevalent. Pregnant women who are co-infected with malaria and HIV/AID are at even more greater risk of death not only due to complications of the diseases but also due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antimalarials (AMT) and antiretroviral (ARVs). In this study, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling was used to investigate the effect of physiological and biochemical changes on the impact of ARV mediated DDIs in pregnant women in three countries. Method: A PBPK model for PQ was developed on SimCYP® using published physicochemical and pharmacokinetic data of PQ from literature, this was validated in three customized population groups from Thailand, Sudan and Papua New Guinea with clinical data. Validation of PQ model was also done in presence of interaction with efavirenz (pre-validated on SimCYP®). Different albumin levels and pregnancy stages was simulated in the presence of interaction with standard doses of efavirenz and ritonavir. PQ day 7 concentration of 30ng/ml was used as the efficacy endpoint for PQ treatment.. Results: The median day 7 concentration of PQ remained virtually consistent throughout pregnancy and were satisfactory across the three population groups ranging from 26-34.1ng/ml; this implied the efficacy of PQ throughout pregnancy. DDI interaction with ritonavir and efavirenz resulted in modest effect on the day 7 concentrations of PQ with AUCratio ranging from 0.56-0.8 and 1.64-1.79 for efavirenz and ritonavir respectively over 10-40 gestational weeks, however, a reduction in human serum albumin level reflective of severe malaria resulted in significantly reduced the number of subjects attaining the PQ day 7 concentration in the presence of both DDIs. The model demonstrated that the DDI between PQ and ARV in pregnant women with different malaria severities can alter the pharmacokinetic of PQ.
Oral Contraceptic Pill Associated Hypertension on the Sex Productive Women in the Andalas Public Health Center, Padang, Indonesia
Hypertension prevalence in Indonesian has increased from time to time since 2013, especially in women. This cross-sectional analysis study was made to observe the incidence of hypertension on the reproductive women (20-49 years old) with several risk factors who use contraceptive pills. Data was collected from June - October 2016 in the Andalas Public Health Center, East Padang District, Indonesia. An amount of 167 respondents who were taken using consecutive sampling technique were participate in this study. Data of social demography, contraceptive used, duration of use, hypertension risk factors (age, family history, central obesity, body mass index, physical activity, and stress) were collected and analyzed statistically using Chi-Square analysis. Significant was taken at p < 0.05. Results showed that the woman with contraceptive pill was tent to get hypertension (OR = 3,90 and p < 0,001). In addition, woman with a family history OR of 6,77 (p = 0,09), mild physical activity OR of 3,67 (p = 0,33), moderate physical activity OR of 3,33 (p = 0,16), and stressed OR of 5.11 (p = 0.18). These indicated that the contraceptive pill user is 3.9 times more risk to develop hypertension than non-users, especially one with a family history of hypertension. Other risk factors were not associated with hypertension risk in these sex productive women.
Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Bark Wight and Arn
Acrocarpus is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae which considered as a large and economically important family. This study aimed to investigate the phytoconstituents of the petroleum ether extract (PEE) of Acrocarpus fraxinofolius bark by Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of its fractions (fatty acid and unsaponifiable matter). Concerning this, identification of 52 compounds constituting 97.03 % of the total composition of the unsaponifiable matter fraction. Cycloeucalenol was found to be the major compound representing 32.52% followed by 4a, 14a-dimethyl-A8~24(28)-ergostadien (26.50%) and ß-sitosterol(13.74%), furthermore Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the sterol fraction revealed the identification of cholesterol (7.22 %), campesterol (13.30 %), stigmasterol (10.00 %) and β - sitosterol (69.48 %). Meanwhile, the identification of 33 fatty acids representing 90.71% of the total fatty acid constituents. Methyl-9,12-octadecadienoate (40.39%) followed by methyl hexadecanoate (23.64%) were found to be the major compounds. On the other hand, column chromatography and Thin layer chromatography (TLC) fractionation of PEE separate the triterpenoid: 21β-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one and β- amyrin which were structurally identified by spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS and IR). PEE has been biologically evaluated for 1: management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats 2: cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines (Cervix carcinoma cell line[HELA], Breast carcinoma cell line [MCF7], Liver carcinoma cell line[HEPG2] and Colon carcinoma cell line[HCT-116] 3: hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the activity was studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like AST, ALT, and ALP. Concerning this, the anti-diabetic activity exhibited by 100mg of PEE extract was 74.38% relative to metformin (100% potency). It also showed a significant anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 (IC50= 2.35µg), Hela(IC50=3.85µg) and HEPG-2 (IC50= 9.54µg) compared with Doxorubicin as reference drug. The hepatoprotective activity was evidenced by significant decrease in liver function enzymes, i.e. AST, ALT and ALP by (29.18%, 28.26%, and 34.11%, respectively using silymarin as the reference drug, compared to their concentration levels in an untreated group with liver damage induced by CCl₄. This study was performed for the first time on the bark of this species.
Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Pleiogynium timorense Seeds and Identification of Bioactive Compounds
The aim of this study is to evaluate antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleiogynium timorense (DC.) Leenh (Anacardiaceae) seeds as well as to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds. Antihyperglycaemic effect was evaluated by measuring the effect of two dose levels (150 and 300 mg/kg) of 70% methanol extract of Pleiogynium timorense seeds on blood glucose level when administered 45 minutes before glucose loading. In addition, the effect of the plant extract on the lipid profile was determined by measuring serum total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the bioactive compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.The results showed that the methanolic extract of the seeds significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose,(TL), (TC), (TG) and (LDL-C) but no significant effect on (HDL-C) comparing with control group. Furthermore, four phenolic compound were isolated which were identified as; catechin, gallic acid, para methoxy benzaldehyde and pyrogallol which were isolated for the first time from the plant. In addition sulphur -containing compound (sulpholane) was isolated for the first time from the plant and from the family. To our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst study about antihyperglycaemicand antihyperlipidemic activities of the seeds of Pleiogyniumtimorense and its bioactive compounds. So, the methanolic extract of the seeds of Pleiogynium timorense could be a step towards the development of new antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic drugs.
Association of ApoB, CETP and GALNT2 Genetic Variants with Type 2 Diabetes-Related Traits in Population from Bosnia and Herzegovina
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - rs673548, rs693 in ApoB gene, rs1800775 in CETP gene and rs4846914 in GALNT2 gene with parameters of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic dyslipidemia in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Materials and methods: Our study involved 352 patients with T2D and 156 healthy subjects. Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were measured in all participants. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood for the purpose of genetic testing. Polymorphisms in ApoB (rs673548, rs693), CETP (rs1800775) and GALNT2 (rs4846914) genes were analyzed by using Sequenom IPLEX platform. Results: Our results demonstrated significant associations for rs180075 polymorphism in CETP gene with levels of fasting insulin (p = 0.020; p = 0.027; p = 0.044), triglycerides (p = 0.046) and ALT (p = 0.031) activity in control group. In group of diabetic patients, results showed a significant association of rs673548 in ApoB gene with levels of fasting insulin (p = 0.008), HOMA-IR (p = 0.013), VLDL-C (p = 0.037) and CRP (p = 0.029) and rs693 in ApoB gene with BMI (p = 0.025), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.027), fasting insulin (p = 0.037) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.023) levels. Significant associations were also observed for rs1800775 in CETP gene with triglyceride (p = 0.023) levels and rs4846914 in GALNT2 gene with HbA1C (p = 0.013) and triglyceride (p = 0.043) levels. Conclusion: In conclusion, this is the first study that examined the impact of variations of candidate genes on a wide range of metabolic parameters in BH population. Our results suggest an association of variations of ApoB, CETP and GALNT2 genes with specific markers of T2D and dyslipidemia. Further studies would be needed in order to confirm these genetic effects in other ethnic groups as well.
Ethanol Precipitation and Characterization of L-Asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae
L-asparaginase (L-ASNase) is the gold standard treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia that mainly affects pediatric patients; treatment increases survival from 20% to 90%. The characterization of other L-Asparaginases, apart from the most used from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi, has been reported, but the choice of the most appropriate is still under debate. This choice should be based on its pharmacokinetics, immune hypersensitivity, doses, prices, pharmacodynamics. The main factors influencing the antileukemic activity of ASNase are enzymatic activity, Km, glutaminase activity, clearance of the enzyme and development of resistance. However, most of the commercialized enzyme present an intrinsic glutaminase activity, which is responsible for some side effects. In this study, glutaminase free asparaginase produced from Aspergillus oryzae was precipitated in different percentages of ethanol (0–80%), until optimum ethanol concentration of 60% (w/w) was found. Following, precipitation of crude L-ASNase was performed in a single step, using 60% (w/w) ethanol, under constant agitation and temperature. It presented activity of 135.45 U/mg and after gel filtration chromatography with Sephadex G-the enzymatic activity was 322.02 U/mg. The apparent molecular mass of the purified L-ASNase fraction was estimated by 10% SDS-PAGE. Proteins were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. The molar mass range was from 10 kDa to 250 kDa. L-ASNase from Aspergillus oryzae was characterized aiming possible therapeutic use. Four different buffers (phosphate-citrate buffer pH 2.6 to 5.8; phosphate buffer pH 5.8 to 7.4; Tris - HCl pH 7.4 to 9.0; and carbonate buffer pH 9.8 to 10.6) were used to measure the optimum pH for L-ASNase activity. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was measured at optimal pH conditions (Tris-HCl and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) at different temperatures ranging from 5 to 55°C. All activities were calculated by quantifying the free ammonia, using the Nessler reagent. The kinetic parameters calculation, e.g. Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax) and Hills coefficient (n), were performed by incubating the enzyme in different concentrations of the substrate at optimum conditions of pH and fitted on Hill’s equation. This glutaminase free asparaginase showed a low Km (3.39 mM and 3.81 mM) and enzymatic activity of 135.45 U/mg after precipitation with ethanol. After gel filtration chromatography it rose to 322.02 U/mg. Optimum activity was found between pH 5.8 - 9.0, best activity results with phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and Tris-HCl pH 7.4 and showed activity from 5°C to 55°C. These results indicate that L-ASNase from A. oryzae has the potential for human use.
Free Raducal Scavenging Activity of Fractionated Extract and Structural Elucidation of Isolated Compounds from Hydrocotyl Bonariensis Comm. Ex Lam Leaves
Hydrocotyl bonariensis is a plant which anticataractogenic potentials have been reported. In the present study an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the fractionates of the leaves extract and also characterize some of its chemical constituents. DPPH, H₂O₂, OH and NO free radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the crude extract fractionates. Fresh leaves of Hydrocotyl bonariensis leaves were extracted in 70% methanol. The extract was partitioned with different solvent system of increasing polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate methanol and water). Compounds were isolated from the aqueous practitionate using accelerated gradient chromatography, vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC and conventional column chromatography. The presence of the chemical groups was established with HPLC and Fourier Transform Infra Red. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic study and chemical shifts. Data from the study indicates that all the fractionates contain compounds with free radical scavenging activity. This activity was more pronounced in the aqueous fractionate (DPPH IC₅₀, 0025 ± 0.011 mg/ml, metal chelating capacity 27.5%, OH- scavenging IC₅₀, 0.846 ± 0.037 mg/ml, H₂O₂ scavenging IC₅₀ 0.521 ± 0.015 mg/ml, reducing power IC₅₀ 0.248 ± 0.025 mg/ml and NO scavenging IC₅₀ 0.537 ± 0.038 mg/ml). Two compounds were isolated and when compared with data from the literature; the structures were suggestive of polyphenolic flavonoid, quercetin and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol. The result indicates that H. bonariensis leaves contain bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.
Sub-Chronic Exposure to Dexamethasone Impairs Cognitive Function and Insulin in Prefrontal Cortex of Male Wistar Rats
Chronic stress or prolonged glucocorticoid administration impairs higher cognitive functions in rodents and humans. However, the mechanisms are not fully clear. Insulin and receptors are expressed in the brain and are involved in cognition. Insulin resistance accompanies Alzheimer’s disease and associated cognitive decline. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sub-chronic administration of a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX) on behavior and biochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Male Wistar rats were administered DEX (2, 4 & 8 mg/kg, IP) or saline for seven consecutive days and behavior was assessed in the following paradigms: “Y” maze, elevated plus maze, Morris’ water maze and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Insulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated in homogenates of the prefrontal cortex. DEX-treated rats exhibited impaired prefrontal cortex function manifesting as reduced locomotion, impaired novel object exploration and impaired short- and long-term spatial memory compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). These effects were not consistently dose-dependent. These behavioral alterations were accompanied by a decrease in insulin concentration observed in PFC of 4 mg/kg DEX-treated rats compared to control (10μIU/mg vs. 50μIU/mg; p < 0.05) but not 2mg/kg. Furthermore, we report a modification of brain stress markers LDH and SOD (p > 0.05). These results indicate that prolonged activation of GCs disrupt prefrontal cortex function which may be related to insulin impairment. These effects may not be attributable to a non-specific elevation of oxidative stress in the brain. Future studies would evaluate mechanisms of GR-induced insulin loss.
Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effect of Two Diterpenes from Plectranthus barbatus
Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) is the most common species of genus Plectranthus. It is used for treating various ailments. In this study, two rare diterpenes 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (1) and 12-hydroxyabieta-8(14),9(11),12-trien-7-one (2) were isolated for the first time from P. barbatus. Their chemical structures were verified utilizing various spectroscopic experiments. The effect of diterpenes against undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line (FRO) was evaluated and they were quantitatively analysed using HPTLC method. The two diterpenes were found to be cytotoxic, however compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic effects where 95% reduction in the cell viability was observed in different time intervals. The quantity of compound 1 and compound 2 in PBCE were found to be 2.04 and15.97 μg/mg, respectively of dried weight of the extract.
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Care Professionals and Factors Associated with Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting in Public and Private Hospitals of Islamabad
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) underreporting is a great challenge to Pharmacovigilance. Health care professionals have to consider ADR reporting as their professional obligation, an effective system of ADR reporting is important to improve patient health care and safety. The present study is designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and factors associated with ADR reporting by health care professionals (physicians and pharmacists) in public and private hospitals of Pakistan. A pretested questionnaire was administered to 384 physicians and pharmacists in public and private hospitals. Respondents were evaluated for their knowledge, attitude, and practice related to ADR reporting. The data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical software, the factors which encourage and discourage respondents in reporting ADRs were determined. Most of the respondents have shown a positive attitude towards ADR reporting. The response rate was 95.32%. Of the 367 questionnaires, including 333 (86.5%) physicians and 34 (8.8%) pharmacists with the mean age 28.34 (SD= 6.69), most of the respondents showed poor ADR reporting knowledge (83.1%). The majority of respondents (78.2%) showed positive attitude towards ADR reporting and only (12.3%) hospitals have good ADR reporting practice. Knowledge of respondents in public hospitals (8.6%) was less as compare to those in the private hospitals (29.7%) (P < 0.001). Attitude of respondents in private hospitals was more positive (92.4%) than those in public hospitals (68.8%) (P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in practicing of ADR reporting in public (11.8%) and private hospitals (13.1%) (P value 0.89). Seriousness of ADR, unusualness of reaction, new drug involvement and confidence in diagnosis of ADR were the factors which encourage respondents to report ADR, however, lack of knowledge regarding where and how to report ADR, lack of access to ADR reporting form, managing patients was more important than reporting ADR, legal liability issues were the factors which discourage respondents to report ADR. The study reveals poor knowledge and practice regarding ADR reporting. However positive attitude was seen regarding ADR reporting. There is a need of educational training for health care professionals as well as genuine and continuous efforts are required by Government and health authorities to ensure the proper implementation of ADR reporting system in all of the hospitals.