Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 55259

Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences

826
98754
Oleuropein Ameliorates Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance by Increasing GLUT4 Translocation through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Rat Soleus Muscles
Abstract:
Oleuropein, the main constituent of leaves and fruits of the olive tree, has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on parameters relevant to the normal homeostatic mechanisms of glucose regulation in rat skeletal muscle. However, the antidiabetic effect of oleuropein, to our knowledge, has not been examined. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether oleuropein ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. To examine this question, insulin resistance was rapidly induced by incubating (12h) soleus muscle with a high concentration of palmitate(2mM). Subsequently, we attempted to restore insulin sensitivity by incubating (12h) muscles with oleuropien (1.5mM), while maintaining high concentrations of palmitate. Palmitate treatment for 12 h reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocationandAS160 phosphorylation. Oleuropein treatment (12 h) fully restoredinsulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4translocationandAS160 phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3K phosphorylation with wortmannin (1µM)did not affect the oleuropein-induced improvements in insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocation, and AS160 phosphorylation. These results suggested that the improvements in these parameters cannot account for activating PI3K pathway. Taken altogether, it appears that oleuropein, through activation of another pathway like activated protein kinase (AMPK), may provide a possible strategy by which they ameliorate palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
825
98064
Synthesis and Anticancer Evaluation of Substituted 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl) Benzazoles
Abstract:
Benzazole nucleus is found in the structure of many compounds as anticancer agents. Bendamustine (Alkylating agent), Nocodazole (Mitotic inhibitor), Veliparib (PARP inhibitor), Glasdegib (SMO inhibitor) are clinically used as anticancer therapeutics which bearing benzimidazole moiety. Based on the principle of bioisosterism in the present work, 23 compounds belonging to 2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl) benzazoles and imidazopyridine series were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activities. N-(5-Chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide, was obtained by the amidation of 2-hydroxy-5-chloroaniline with 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid by using 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole. Cyclization of benzamide derivative to benzoxazole, was achieved by p-toluenesulfonic acid. Other 1H-benz (or pyrido) azoles were prepared by the reaction between 2-aminothiophenol, o-phenylenediamine, o-pyridinediamine with sodium metabisulfite adduct of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. The NMR assignments of the dimethoxy groups were established by the Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy. A compound named, 5(4),7(6)-Dichloro-2-(3,4-dimethoxy) phenyl-1H-benzimidazole, bearing two chlorine atoms at the 5(4) and 7(6) positions of the benzene moiety of benzimidazole was found the most potent analogue, against A549 cells with the GI50 value of 1.5 µg/mL. In addition, 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimi-dazole showed remarkable cell growth inhibition against MCF-7 and HeLa cells with the GI₅₀ values of 7 and 5.5 µg/mL, respectively. It could be concluded that introduction of di-chloro atoms at the phenyl ring of 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazoles increase significant cytotoxicity to selected human tumor cell lines in comparison to other all benzazoles synthesized in this study. Unsubstituted 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) imidazopyridines also gave the good inhibitory profile against A549 and HeLa cells.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
824
98048
A Crossover Study of Therapeutic Equivalence of Generic Product Versus Reference Product of Ivabradine in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure
Abstract:
Background: Generic substitution of brand ivabradine prescriptions can reduce drug expenditures and improve adherence. However, the distrust of generic medicines by practitioners and patients due to doubts regarding their quality and fear of counterfeiting compromise the acceptance of this practice. Aim: The goal of this study is to compare the therapeutic equivalence of brand product versus the generic product of ivabradine in adult patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (≤ 40%) (HFrEF). Methodology: Thirty-two Egyptian patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were treated with branded ivabradine (Procrolan ©) and generic (Bradipect ©) during 24 (2x12) weeks. Primary outcomes were resting heart rate (HR), NYHA FC, Quality of life (QoL) using Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLWHF) and EF. Secondary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for worsening HFrEF and adverse effects. The washout period was not allowed. Findings: At the 12th week, the reduction in HR was comparable in the two groups (90.13±7.11 to 69±11.41 vs 96.13±17.58 to 67.31±8.68 bpm in brand and generic groups, respectively). Also, the increase in EF was comparable in the two groups (27.44 ±4.59 to 33.38±5.62 vs 32±5.96 to 39.31±8.95 in brand and generic groups, respectively). The improvement in NYHA FC was comparable in both groups (87.5% in brand group vs 93.8% in the generic group). The mean value of the QOL improved from 31.63±15.8 to 19.6±14.7 vs 35.68±17.63 to 22.9±15.1 for the brand and generic groups, respectively. Similarly, at end of 24 weeks, no significant changes were observed from data observed at 12th week regarding HR, EF, QoL and NYHA FC. Only minor side effects, mainly phosphenes, and a comparable number of hospitalizations were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The study revealed no statistically significant differences in the therapeutic effect and safety between generic and branded ivabradine. We assume that practitioners can safely interchange between them for economic reasons.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
823
97528
The Evaluation of the Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics on Sperm Quality by Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis in Rats
Abstract:
Atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone have been frequently and chronically used to treat psychiatric disorders accompanied by psychosis mainly schizophrenia. Since these drugs are commonly used in male patients of reproductive age, it is required to determine the possible effects of them on the reproductive system. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the possible toxic effects of quetiapine, olanzapine and risperidone, which are the most frequently prescribed and chronically used psychiatric drugs, on sperm parameters. For this purpose, quetiapine (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg), olanzapine (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg), and risperidone (1.25, 2.5 and 3 mg/kg) were administered to male rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of this period, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. According to the results, sperm parameters were negatively affected by antipsychotic use.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
822
97413
Role of Natural Products in Drug Discovery of Anti-Biotic and Anti-Cancer Agents
Authors:
Abstract:
For many years, small organic molecules derived naturally from microbes and plants have delivered a number of expedient therapeutic drug agents. The search for naturally occurring lead compounds has continued in recent years as well, with the constituents of marine flora and fauna along with those of telluric microorganisms and plants being investigated for their anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activities. It has been observed that such promising lead molecules incline to promptly generate substantial attention among scientists like synthetic organic chemists and biologists. Subsequently, the availability of a given precious natural product sample may be enriched, and it may be possible to determine a preliminary idea of structure-activity relationships to develop synthetic analogues. For instance, anti-tumor drug topotecan is a synthetic chemical compound similar in chemical structure to camptothecin which is found in extracts of Camptotheca acuminate. Similarly, researchers at AstraZeneca discovered anti-biotic pyrrolamide through a fragment-based lead generation approach from kibdelomycin, which is isolated from Staphylococcus aureuss.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
821
96441
Xanthotoxin: A Plant Derived Furanocoumarin with Antipathogenic and Cytotoxic Activities
Abstract:
In recent years a great deal of efforts has been made to find natural derivative compounds to replace it's with synthetic drugs, herbicides or pesticides for management of human health and agroecosystem programs. This process can lead to a reduction in environmental harmful effects of synthetic chemicals. Xanthotoxin, as a furanocoumarin compound, found in some genera of the Apiaceae family of plants. The current work focuses on some xanthotoxin cytotoxicity and antipathogenic activities. The results indicated that xanthotoxin showed strong cytotoxic effects against LNCaP cell line with the IC₅₀ value of 0.207 mg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. After treatments of the cell line with 0.1 mg/ml of the compound, the viability of the cells was reached to zero. The current study revealed that xanthotoxin displayed strong antifungal activity against human or plant pathogen fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspegillusn flavus and Fusarum graminearum with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 52-68 µg/ml. The compound exhibited antibacterial effects on some Erwinia and Xanthomonas species of bacteria, as well
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
820
96400
Dual Mode Mobile Based Detection of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide for Determination of Live and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
Abstract:
Increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a big concern for the treatment of pathogenic diseases. The effect of treatment of patients with antibiotics often leads to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the pathogens. The detection of antibiotic or antimicrobial resistant bacteria (microbes) is quite essential as it is becoming one of the big threats globally. Here we propose a novel technique to tackle this problem. We are taking a step forward to prevent the infections and diseases due to drug resistant microbes. This detection is based on some unique features of silver (a noble metal) nanorods (AgNRs) which are fabricated by a physical deposition method called thermal glancing angle deposition (GLAD). Silver nanorods are found to be highly sensitive and selective for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. Color and water wetting (contact angle) of AgNRs are two parameters what are effected in the presence of this gas. H₂S is one of the major gaseous products evolved in the bacterial metabolic process. It is also known as gasotransmitter that transmits some biological singles in living systems. Nitric Oxide (NO) and Carbon mono oxide (CO) are two another members of this family. Orlowski (1895) observed the emission of H₂S by the bacteria for the first time. Most of the microorganism produce these gases. Here we are focusing on H₂S gas evolution to determine live/dead and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. AgNRs array has been used for the detection of H₂S from micro-organisms. A mobile app is also developed to make it easy, portable, user-friendly, and cost-effective.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
819
96243
Antibiotic Prescribing in the Acute Care in Iraq
Abstract:
Background: Excessive and inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients remains an important patient safety and public health issue worldwide. Not only does this behavior incur unnecessary cost but it is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to obtain an insight into the prescribing patterns of antibiotics in surgical and medical wards, to help identify a scope for improvement in service delivery. Method: A simple point prevalence survey included a convenience sample of 200 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards in a government teaching hospital in Baghdad between October 2017 and April 2018. Data were collected by a trained pharmacy intern using a standardized form. Patient’s demographics and details of the prescribed antibiotics, including dose, frequency of dosing and route of administration, were reported. Patients were included if they had been admitted at least 24 hours before the survey. Patients under 18 years of age, having a diagnosis of cancer or shock, or being admitted to the intensive care unit, were excluded. Data were checked and entered by the authors into Excel and were subjected to frequency analysis, which was carried out on anonymized data to protect patient confidentiality. Results: Overall, 88.5% of patients (n=177) received 293 antibiotics during their hospital admission, with a small variation between wards (80%-97%). The average number of antibiotics prescribed per patient was 1.65, ranging from 1.3 for medical patients to 1.95 for surgical patients. Parenteral third-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed at a rate of 54.3% (n=159) followed by nitroimidazole 29.4% (n=86), quinolones 7.5% (n=22) and macrolides 4.4% (n=13), while carbapenems and aminoglycosides were the least prescribed together accounting for only 4.4% (n=13). The intravenous route was the most common route of administration, used for 96.6% of patients (n=171). Indications were reported in only 63.8% of cases. Culture to identify pathogenic organisms was employed in only 0.5% of cases. Conclusion: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed at an alarming rate. This practice may provoke antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the patient outcome. Implementation of an antibiotic stewardship program is warranted to enhance the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
818
96095
Additional Method for the Purification of Lanthanide-Labeled Peptide Compounds Pre-Purified by Weak Cation Exchange Cartridge
Abstract:
Aim: Purification of the final product, which is the last step in the synthesis of lanthanide-labeled peptide compounds, can be accomplished by different methods. Among these methods, the two most commonly used methods are C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) and weak cation exchanger cartridge elution. SPE C18 solid phase extraction method yields high purity final product, while elution from the weak cation exchanger cartridge is pH dependent and ineffective in removing colloidal impurities. The aim of this work is to develop an additional purification method for the lanthanide-labeled peptide compound in cases where the desired radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the final product can not be achieved because of pH problem or colloidal impurity. Material and Methods: For colloidal impurity formation, 3 mL of water for injection (WFI) was added to 30 mCi of 177LuCl3 solution and allowed to stand for 1 day. 177Lu-DOTATATE was synthesized using EZAG ML-EAZY module (10 mCi/mL). After synthesis, the final product was mixed with the colloidal impurity solution (total volume:13 mL, total activity: 40 mCi). The resulting mixture was trapped in SPE-C18 cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 10 ml saline to remove impurities to the waste vial. The product trapped in the cartridge was eluted with 2 ml of 50% ethanol and collected to the final product vial via passing through a 0.22μm filter. The final product was diluted with 10 mL of saline. Radiochemical purity before and after purification was analysed by HPLC method. (column: ACE C18-100A. 3µm. 150 x 3.0mm, mobile phase: Water-Acetonitrile-Trifluoro acetic acid (75:25:1), flow rate: 0.6 mL/min). Results: UV and radioactivity detector results in HPLC analysis showed that colloidal impurities were completely removed from the 177Lu-DOTATATE/ colloidal impurity mixture by purification method. Conclusion: The improved purification method can be used as an additional method to remove impurities that may result from the lanthanide-peptide synthesis in which the weak cation exchange purification technique is used as the last step. The purification of the final product and the GMP compliance (the final aseptic filtration and the sterile disposable system components) are two major advantages.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
817
95950
Synthesis of Brominated Pyrazoline Derived from Chalcone and Its Antimicrobial Activity
Abstract:
Despite the availability of antimicrobial agents in the market, the urge to study and find other chemical compounds with the better potential of replacing them still tempting the scientists. This experiment is in the aim to explore a novel brominated pyrazoline ring which was made from intermediate chalcone as a candidate to answer the challenge. Using green chemistry approach by microwave irradiation from domestic oven, both known chalcone and 5-(2-bromophenyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole were successfully synthesized. Pyrazoline’s structure was confirmed based on UV, IR, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and MS and together with its intermediate were examined against some microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) under agar diffusion method. The results collected during experiment revealed that both tested compounds showed weak activity on B.subtilis which was proven by a zone of inhibitions, while there was no zone of inhibitions observed in E. coli and C. albicans. This is suggested because of the bulky structure around pyrazoline could not provide the main ring to interact with microbial’s cell wall. The study shows that the proposed compound had the low capability as a promising antimicrobial agent, yet it still enriches the information about pyrazoline ring.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
816
95827
Evaluation of Synthesis and Structure Elucidation of Some Benzimidazoles as Antimicrobial Agents
Abstract:
Benzimidazole, a structural isostere of indol and purine nuclei that can interact with biopolymers, can be identified as master key. So that benzimidazole compounds are important fragments in medicinal chemistry because of their wide range of biological activities including antimicrobial activity. We planned to synthesize some benzimidazole compounds for developing new antimicrobial drug candidates. In this study, we put some heterocyclic rings on second position and an amidine group on the fifth position of benzimidazole ring and synthesized them using a multiple step procedure. For the synthesis of the compounds, as the first step, 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzonitrile was reacted with cyclohexylamine in dimethyl formamide. Imidate esters (compound 2) were then prepared with absolute ethanol saturated with dry HCl gas. These imidate esters which were not too stable were converted to compound 3 by passing ammonia gas through ethanol. At the Pd / C catalyst, the nitro group is reduced to the amine group (compound 4). Finally, various aldehyde derivatives were reacted with sodium metabisulfite addition products to give compound 5-20. Melting points were determined on a Buchi B-540 melting point apparatus in open capillary tubes and are uncorrected. Elemental analyses were done a Leco CHNS 932 elemental analyzer. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian Mercury 400 MHz spectrometer using DMSO-d6. Mass spectra were acquired on a Waters Micromass ZQ using the ESI(+) method. The structures of them were supported by spectral data. The 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra and elemental analysis results agree with those of the proposed structures. Antimicrobial activity studies of the synthesized compounds are under the investigation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
815
95479
Pharmacovigilance in Hospitals: Retrospective Study at the Pharmacovigilance Service of UHE-Oran, Algeria
Abstract:
Medicines have undeniably played a major role in prolonging shelf life and improving quality. The absolute efficacy of the drug remains a lever for innovation, its benefit/risk balance is not always assured and it does not always have the expected effects. Prior to marketing, knowledge about adverse drug reactions is incomplete. Once on the market, phase IV drug studies begin. For years, the drug was prescribed with less care to a large number of very heterogeneous patients and often in combination with other drugs. It is at this point that previously unknown adverse effects may appear, hence the need for the implementation of a pharmacovigilance system. Pharmacovigilance represents all methods for detecting, evaluating, informing and preventing the risks of adverse drug reactions. The most severe adverse events occur frequently in hospital and that a significant proportion of adverse events result in hospitalizations. In addition, the consequences of hospital adverse events in terms of length of stay, mortality and costs are considerable. It, therefore, appears necessary to develop ‘hospital pharmacovigilance’ aimed at reducing the incidence of adverse reactions in hospitals. The most widely used monitoring method in pharmacovigilance is spontaneous notification. However, underreporting of adverse drug reactions is common in many countries and is a major obstacle to pharmacovigilance assessment. It is in this context that this study aims to describe the experience of the pharmacovigilance service at the University Hospital of Oran (EHUO). This is a retrospective study extending from 2011 to 2017, carried out on archived records of declarations collected at the level of the EHUO Pharmacovigilance Department. Reporting was collected by two methods: ‘spontaneous notification’ and ‘active pharmacovigilance’ targeting certain clinical services. We counted 217 statements. It involved 56% female patients and 46% male patients. Age ranged from 5 to 78 years with an average of 46 years. The most common adverse reaction was drug toxidermy. For the drugs in question, they were essentially according to the ATC classification of anti-infectives followed by anticancer drugs. As regards the evolution of declarations by year, a low rate of notification was noted in 2011. That is why we decided to set up an active approach at the level of some services where a resident of reference attended the staffs every week. This has resulted in an increase in the number of reports. The declarations came essentially from the services where the active approach was installed. This highlights the need for ongoing communication between all relevant health actors to stimulate reporting and secure drug treatments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
814
95149
Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Evidence of Factors Influencing the Practice in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Scoping Review
Abstract:
Background: Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a global concern, with a higher incidence in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite intense world-wide efforts to control and promote the rational use of antibiotics, continuing practices of SMA systematically exposes individuals and communities to the risk of antibiotic resistance and other undesirable antibiotic side effects. Moreover, it increases the health systems costs of acquiring more powerful antibiotics to treat the resistant infection. This review thus maps evidence on the factors influencing self-medication with antibiotics in these settings. Methods: The search strategy for this review involved electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCOhost (PubMed, CINAHL with Full Text, Health Source - Consumer Edition, MEDLINE), Google Scholar, BioMed Central and World Health Organization library, using the search terms:’ Self-Medication’, ‘antibiotics’, ‘factors’ and ‘reasons’. Our search included studies published from 2007 to 2017. Thematic analysis was performed to identify the patterns of evidence on SMA in LMICs. The mixed method quality appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2011 was employed to assess the quality of the included primary studies. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies included population from the rural (46,4%), urban (33,6%) and combined (20%) settings, of the following LMICs: Guatemala (2 studies), India (2), Indonesia (2), Kenya (1), Laos (1), Nepal (1), Nigeria (2), Pakistan (2), Sri Lanka (1), and Yemen (1). The total sample size of all 15 included studies was 7676 participants. The findings of the review show a high prevalence of SMA ranging from 8,1% to 93%. Accessibility, affordability, conditions of health facilities (long waiting, quality of services and workers) as long well as poor health-seeking behavior and lack of information are factors that influence SMA in LMICs. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, were the most frequently used for SMA. The major sources of antibiotics included pharmacies, drug stores, leftover drugs, family/friends and old prescription. Sore throat, common cold, cough with mucus, headache, toothache, flu-like symptoms, pain relief, fever, running nose, toothache, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection were the common disease symptoms managed with SMA. Conclusion: Although the information on factors influencing SMA in LMICs is unevenly distributed, the available information revealed the existence of research evidence on antibiotic self-medication in some countries of LMICs. SMA practices are influenced by social-cultural determinants of health and frequently associated with poor dispensing and prescribing practices, deficient health-seeking behavior and consequently with inappropriate drug use. Therefore, there is still a need to conduct further studies (qualitative, quantitative and randomized control trial) on factors and reasons for SMA to correctly address the public health problem in LMICs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
813
95105
Abridging Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Discovery via LC-MS-TOF, NMR, in-silico Toxicity-Bioactivity Profiling for Therapeutic Purposing Zileuton Impurities: Need of Hour
Abstract:
The need for investigations protecting against toxic impurities though seems to be a primary requirement; the impurities which may prove non - toxic can be explored for their therapeutic potential if any to assist advanced drug discovery. The essential role of pharmaceutical analysis can thus be extended effectively to achieve it. The present study successfully achieved these objectives with characterization of major degradation products as impurities for Zileuton which has been used for to treat asthma since years. The forced degradation studies were performed to identify the potential degradation products using Ultra-fine Liquid-chromatography. Liquid-chromatography-Mass spectrometry (Time of Flight) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies were utilized effectively to characterize the drug along with five major oxidative and hydrolytic degradation products (DP’s). The mass fragments were identified for Zileuton and path for the degradation was investigated. The characterized DP’s were subjected to In-Silico studies as XP Molecular Docking to compare the gain or loss in binding affinity with 5-Lipooxygenase enzyme. One of the impurity of was found to have the binding affinity more than the drug itself indicating for its potential to be more bioactive as better Antiasthmatic. The close structural resemblance has the ability to potentiate or reduce bioactivity and or toxicity. The chances of being active biologically at other sites cannot be denied and the same is achieved to some extent by predictions for probability of being active with Prediction of Activity Spectrum for Substances (PASS) The impurities found to be bio-active as Antineoplastic, Antiallergic, and inhibitors of Complement Factor D. The toxicological abilities as Ames-Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity and Skin Irritancy were evaluated using Toxicity Prediction by Komputer Assisted Technology (TOPKAT). Two of the impurities were found to be non-toxic as compared to original drug Zileuton. As the drugs are purposed and repurposed effectively the impurities can also be; as they can have more binding affinity; less toxicity and better ability to be bio-active at other biological targets.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
812
93930
Evaluation of Neuroprotective Potential of Olea europaea and Malus domestica in Experimentally Induced Stroke Rat Model
Abstract:
Ischemic stroke is a neurological disorder with a complex pathophysiology associated with motor, sensory and cognitive deficits. Major approaches developed to treat acute ischemic stroke fall into two categories, thrombolysis and neuroprotection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-thrombolytic effects of Olea europaea (olive oil) and Malus domestica (apple cider vinegar) and their combination in rat stroke model. Furthermore, histopathological analysis was also performed to assess the severity of ischemia among treated and reference groups. Male albino rats (12 months age) weighing 300- 350gm were acclimatized and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion method for stroke induction. Olea europaea and Malus domestica was administered orally in dose of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg and combination was administered at dose of 0.375ml/kg and 1.5ml/kg prophylactically for consecutive 21 days. Negative control group was dosed with normal saline whereas piracetam (250mg/kg) was administered as reference. Neuroprotective activity of standard piracetam, Olea europaea, Malus domestica and their combination was evaluated by performing functional outcome tests i.e. Cylinder, pasta, ladder run, pole and water maize tests. Rats were subjected to surgery after 21 days of treatment for analysis from stroke recovery. Olea europaea and Malus domestica in individual doses of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively showed neuroprotection by significant improvement in ladder run test (121.6± 0.92;128.2 ± 0.73) as compare to reference (125.4 ± 0.74). Both test doses showed significant neuroprotection as compare to reference (9.60 ± 0.50) in pasta test (8.40 ± 0.24;9.80 ± 0.37) whereas with cylinder test, experimental groups showed significant increase in movements (6.60 ± 0.24; 8.40 ± 0.24) in contrast to reference (7.80 ± 0.37).There was a decrease in percentage time taken f to reach the hidden maize in water maize test (56.80 ± 0.58;61.80 ± 0.66) at doses 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively as compare to piracetam (59.40 ± 1.07). Olea europaea and Malus domestica individually showed significant reduction in duration of mobility (127.0 ± 0.44; 123.0 ± 0.44) in pole test as compare to piracetam (124.0 ± 0.70). Histopathological analysis revealed the significant extent of protection from ischemia after prophylactic treatments. Hence it is concluded that Olea europaea and Malus domestica are effective neuroprotective agents alone as compare to their combination.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
811
93824
Time Dependent Biodistribution Modeling of 177Lu-DOTATOC Using Compartmental Analysis
Abstract:
In this study, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared under optimized conditions (radiochemical purity: > 99%, radionuclidic purity: > 99%). The percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID/g) was calculated for organs up to 168 h post injection. Compartmental model was applied to mathematical description of the drug behaviour in tissue at different times. The biodistribution data showed the significant excretion of the radioactivity from the kidneys. The adrenal and pancreas, as major expression sites for somatostatin receptor (SSTR), had significant uptake. A pharmacokinetic model of 177Lu-DOTATOC was presented by compartmental analysis which demonstrates the behavior of the complex.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
810
93446
Application of Exhaust Gas-Air Brake System in Petrol and Diesel Engine
Abstract:
The possible role of the engine brake is to convert a power-producing engine into a power-absorbing retarding mechanism. In this braking system, exhaust gas (EG) from the internal combustion (IC) engines is used to operate air brake in the automobiles. Airbrake is most used braking system in vehicles. In the proposed model, instead of air brake, EG is used to operate the brake lever and stored in a specially designed tank. This pressure of EG is used to operate the pneumatic cylinder and brake lever. Filters used to remove the impurities from the EG, then it is allowed to store in the tank. Pressure relief valve is used to achieve a specific pressure in the tank and helps to avoid further damage to the tank as well as in an engine. The petrol engine is used in the proposed EG braking system. The petrol engine is chosen initially because it produces less impurity in the exhaust than diesel engines. Moreover, exhaust brake system (EBS) for the Diesel engines is composed of gate valve, pneumatic cylinder and exhaust brake valve with the on-off solenoid. Exhaust brake valve which is core component of EBS should have characteristics such as high reliability and long life. In a diesel engine, there is butterfly valve in exhaust manifold connected with solenoid switch which is used to on and off the butterfly valve. When butterfly valve closed partially, then the pressure starts built up inside the exhaust manifold and cylinder that actually resist the movement of piston leads to crankshaft getting stops resulting stopping of the flywheel. It creates breaking effect in a diesel engine. The exhaust brake is a supplementary breaking system to the service brake. It is noted that exhaust brake increased 2-3 fold the life of service brake may be due to the creation of negative torque which retards the speed of the engine. More study may also be warranted for the best suitable design of exhaust brake in a diesel engine.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
809
92985
Microwave Synthesis and Molecular Docking Studies of Azetidinone Analogous Bearing Diphenyl Ether Nucleus as a Potent Antimycobacterial and Antiprotozoal Agent
Abstract:
The present studies deal with the developing a series bearing a diphenyl ethers nucleus using structure-based drug design concept. A newer series of diphenyl ether based azetidinone namely N-(3-chloro-2-oxo-4-(3-phenoxyphenyl)azetidin-1-yl)-2-(substituted amino)acetamide (2a-j) have been synthesized by condensation of m-phenoxybenzaldehyde with 2-(substituted-phenylamino)acetohydrazide followed by the cyclisation of resulting Schiff base (1a-j) by conventional method as well as microwave heating approach as a part of an environmentally benign synthetic protocol. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis and were screened for in vitro antimicrobial, antitubercular and antiprotozoal activity. The compound 2f was found to be most active M. tuberculosis (6.25 µM) MIC value in the primary screening as well as this same derivative has been found potency against L. mexicana and T. cruzi with MIC value 2.09 and 6.69 µM comparable to the reference drug Miltefosina and Nifurtimox. To provide understandable evidence to predict binding mode and approximate binding energy of a compound to a target in the terms of ligand-protein interaction, all synthesized compounds were docked against an enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase of M. tuberculosis (PDB ID: 4u0j). The computational studies revealed that azetidinone derivatives have a high affinity for the active site of enzyme which provides a strong platform for new structure-based design efforts. The Lipinski’s parameters showed good drug-like properties and can be developed as an oral drug candidate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
808
92743
Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits
Abstract:
Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
807
92403
Gadolinium-Based Polymer Nanostructures as Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents
Abstract:
Recent advances in diagnostic imaging technology have significantly contributed to a better understanding of specific changes associated with diseases progression. Among different imaging modalities, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents a noninvasive medical diagnostic technique, which shows low sensitivity and long acquisition time and it can discriminate between healthy and diseased tissues by providing 3D data. In order to improve the enhancement of MRI signals, some imaging exams require intravenous administration of contrast agents (CAs). Recently, emerging research reports a progressive deposition of these drugs, in particular, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), in the body many years after multiple MRI scans. These discoveries confirm the need to have a biocompatible system able to boost a clinical relevant Gd-chelate. To this aim, several approaches based on engineered nanostructures have been proposed to overcome the common limitations of conventional CAs, such as the insufficient signal-to-noise ratios due to relaxivity and poor safety profile. In particular, nanocarriers, labeling or loading with CAs, capable of carrying high payloads of CAs have been developed. Currently, there’s no a comprehensive understanding of the thermodynamic contributions enable of boosting the efficacy of conventional CAs by using biopolymers matrix. Thus, considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, here it is reported a successful example of the next generation of these drugs where the commercial gadolinium chelate is incorporate into a biopolymer nanostructure, formed by cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA), with improved relaxation properties. In addition, they are highlighted the basic principles ruling biopolymer-CA interactions in the perspective of their influence on the relaxometric properties of the CA by adopting a multidisciplinary experimental approach. On the basis of these discoveries, it is clear that the main point consists in increasing the rigidification of readily-available Gd-CAs within the biopolymer matrix by controlling the water dynamics, the physicochemical interactions, and the polymer conformations. In the end, the acquired knowledge about polymer-CA systems has been applied to develop of Gd-based HA nanoparticles with enhanced relaxometric properties.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
806
92307
Antioxidant Activity of Nanoparticle of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm Flower Extract on Liver and Kidney of Rats
Abstract:
Nanoparticle technology gives a chance for drugs, especially natural based product, to give better activities than in its macromolecule form. The ginger torch is known to have activities as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, etc. In this research, ginger torch flower extract was nanoparticlized using poloxamer 1, 3, and 5%. Nanoparticle was charaterized for its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and morphological form by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index is less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential is -41.0 to (-24.3) mV, and entrapment efficiency is 89.93 to 97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
805
92293
Identification of Target Receptor Compound 10,11-Dihidroerisodin as an Anti-Cancer Candidate
Abstract:
Cancer is one of the most feared diseases and is considered the leading cause of death worldwide. Generally, cancer drugs are synthetic drugs with relatively more expensive prices and have harmful side effects, so many people turn to traditional medicine, for example by utilizing herbal medicine. Erythrina poeppigiana is one of the plants that can be used as a medicinal plant containing 10,11-dihidroerisodin compounds that are useful anticancer etnofarmakologi. The purpose of this study was to identify the target of 10,11 dihydroerisodin receptor compound as in silico anticancer candidate. The pure isolate was tested physicochemically by MS (Mass Spectrometry), UV-Vis (Ultraviolet – Visible), IR (Infra Red), 13C-NMR (Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), 1H-NMR (Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), to obtain the structure of 10,11-dihydroerisodin alkaloid compound then identified to target receptors in silico. From the results of the study, it was found that 10,11-dihydroerisodin compound can work on the Serine / threonine-protein kinase Chk1 receptor that serves as an anti-cancer candidate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
804
92270
Docking and Dynamic Molecular Study of Isoniazid Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Candidate
Abstract:
In this research, we have designed four isoniazid derivatives i.e., isonicotinohydrazide (1-isonicotinoyl semicarbazide, 1-thiosemi isonicotinoyl carbazide, N '-(1,3-dimethyl-1 h-pyrazole-5-carbonyl) isonicotino hydrazide, and N '-(1,2,3- 4-thiadiazole-carbonyl) isonicotinohydrazide. The docking and molecular dynamic have performed to them in order to study its interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (InhA). Based on this research, all of the compounds were predicted to have a stable interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (INHA) receptor, so they could be used as an anti-tuberculosis drug candidate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
803
91992
Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Male Rats after Administration of Extract and Nanoparticle of Ginger Torch Flower
Abstract:
Nanoparticle formulation is often used to improve drug absorptivity, thus increasing the sharpness of the action. Ginger torch flower extract was formulated into nanoparticle form using poloxamer 1, 3 and 5%. The nanoparticle was then characterized by its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and morphological form by SEM. The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential -41.0 - (-24.3) mV and entrapment efficiency 89.93-97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of the drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
802
91784
Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Heterocyclic Indole Derivatives
Abstract:
Free radicals, which are generated in many bioorganic redox processes, play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer, arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and age-related degenerative brain diseases. Exposures of normal cell to free radical damages several structures, oxidizes nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, or DNA. Compounds interfere with the action of reactive oxygen species might be useful in prevention and treatment of these pathologies. A series of indole compounds containing piperazine ring were synthesized. Coupling of indole-2-carboxylic acid with monosubstituted piperazines was accomplished with 1,1’-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in a good yield. The structures of prepared compounds were verified in good agreement with their 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), MS (mass spectrophotometry), and IR (infrared spectrophotometry) characteristics. In this work, all synthetized indole derivatives were screened in vitro for their antioxidative potential against vitamin E (α-tocopherol) using different antioxidant assays such as superoxide anion formation, lipid peroxidation levels in rat liver, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable radical scavenging activity. The synthesized compounds showed various levels of inhibition compared to vitamin E. This may give promising results for the development of new antioxidant agents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
801
91507
Chitosan Hydrogel Containing Nitric Oxide Donors with Potent Antibacterial Effect
Abstract:
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including vasodilatation, control of inflammatory pain, wound healing, and antibacterial activities. As NO is a free radical, the design of drugs that generates therapeutic amounts of NO in controlled spatial and time manners is still a challenge. In this study, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was incorporated into the thermoresponsive Pluronic F-127 (PL) - chitosan (CS) hydrogel, in an easy and economically feasible methodology. CS is a polysaccharide with known antimicrobial and biocompatibility properties. Scanning electron microscopy, rheology and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for hydrogel characterization. The results demonstrated that the hydrogel has a smooth surface, thermoresponsive behavior, and good mechanical stability. The kinetics of NO release and GSNO diffusion from GSNO-containing PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a sustained NO/GSNO release, in concentrations suitable for biomedical applications, at physiological and skin temperatures. The GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a concentration-dependent toxicity to Vero cells, and antimicrobial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.5 µg·mL-1 of hydrogel, which correspondents to 1 mmol·L-1 of GSNO). Interesting, the concentration range in which the NO-releasing hydrogel demonstrated antibacterial effect was not found toxic to Vero mammalian cell. Thus, GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel is suitable biomaterial for topical NO delivery applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
800
91333
Synthesis and Molecular Docking of Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Candidates
Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect all age groups, and hence, is a global health problem that causes the death of millions of people every year. One of the drugs used in tuberculosis treatment is isonicotinohydrazide. In this study, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivative compounds (a-l) were prepared using acylation reactions between isonicotinohydrazide and benzoyl chloride derivatives, through the reflux method. Molecular docking studies suggested that all of the compounds had better interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) than isonicotinohydrazide. It can be concluded that N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivatives (a-l) could be used as anti-tuberculosis candidates. From the docking results revealed that all of the compounds interact well with InhA, with compound g (N'-(3-nitrobenzoyl)isonicotinohydrazide) exhibiting the best interaction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
799
90883
In silico Designing of Imidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine as a Probable Lead for Potent Decaprenyl Phosphoryl-β-D-Ribose 2′-Epimerase (DprE1) Inhibitors as Antitubercular Agents
Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major worldwide concern whose control has been exacerbated by HIV, the rise of multidrug-resistance (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistance (XDR-TB) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The interest for newer and faster acting antitubercular drugs are more remarkable than any time. To search potent compounds is need and challenge for researchers. Here, we tried to design lead for inhibition of Decaprenyl phosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2′-epimerase (DprE1) enzyme. Arabinose is an essential constituent of mycobacterial cell wall. DprE1 is a flavoenzyme that converts decaprenylphosphoryl-D-ribose into decaprenylphosphoryl-2-keto-ribose, which is intermediate in biosynthetic pathway of arabinose. Latter, DprE2 converts keto-ribose into decaprenylphosphoryl-D-arabinose. We had a selection of 23 compounds from azaindole series for computational study, and they were drawn using marvisketch. Ligands were prepared using Maestro molecular modeling interface, Schrodinger, v10.5. Common pharmacophore hypotheses were developed by applying dataset thresholds to yield active and inactive set of compounds. There were 326 hypotheses were developed. On the basis of survival score, ADRRR (Survival Score: 5.453) was selected. Selected pharmacophore hypotheses were subjected to virtual screening results into 1000 hits. Hits were prepared and docked with protein 4KW5 (oxydoreductase inhibitor) was downloaded in .pdb format from RCSB Protein Data Bank. Protein was prepared using protein preparation wizard. Protein was preprocessed, the workspace was analyzed using force field OPLS 2005. Glide grid was generated by picking single atom in molecule. Prepared ligands were docked with prepared protein 4KW5 using Glide docking. After docking, on the basis of glide score top-five compounds were selected, (5223, 5812, 0661, 0662, and 2945) and the glide docking score (-8.928, -8.534, -8.412, -8.411, -8.351) respectively. There were interactions of ligand and protein, specifically HIS 132, LYS 418, TRY 230, ASN 385. Pi-pi stacking was observed in few compounds with basic Imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine ring. We had basic azaindole ring in parent compounds, but after glide docking, we received compounds with Imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine as a basic ring. That might be the new lead in the process of drug discovery.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
798
90560
Safety Profile of Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: A Post-Licensure Analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System, 2007-2017
Abstract:
The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) was shown to be the cause of different types of carcinomas, first of all of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Since the early 80s to today, thanks first to the preventive screening campaigns (pap-test) and following to the introduction of HPV vaccines on the market; the number of new cases of cervical cancer has decreased significantly. The HPV vaccines currently approved are three: Cervarix® (HPV2 - virus type: 16 and 18), Gardasil® (HPV4 - 6, 11, 16, 18) and Gardasil 9® (HPV9 - 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58), which all protect against the two high-risk HPVs (6, 11) that are mainly involved in cervical cancers. Despite the remarkable effectiveness of these vaccines has been demonstrated, in the recent years, there have been many complaints about their risk-benefit profile due to Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI). The purpose of this study is to provide a support about the ongoing discussion on the safety profile of HPV vaccines based on real life data deriving from spontaneous reports of suspected AEFIs collected in the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). VAERS is a freely-available national vaccine safety surveillance database of AEFI, co-administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We collected all the reports between January 2007 to December 2017 related to the HPV vaccines with a brand name (HPV2, HPV4, HPV9) or without (HPVX). A disproportionality analysis using Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) with 95% confidence interval and p value ≤ 0.05 was performed. Over the 10-year period, 54889 reports of AEFI related to HPV vaccines reported in VAERS, corresponding to 224863 vaccine-event pairs, were retrieved. The highest number of reports was related to Gardasil (n = 42244), followed by Gardasil 9 (7212) and Cervarix (3904). The brand name of the HPV vaccine was not reported in 1529 cases. The two events more frequently reported and statistically significant for each vaccine were: dizziness (n = 5053) ROR = 1.28 (CI95% 1.24 – 1.31) and syncope (4808) ROR = 1.21 (1.17 – 1.25) for Gardasil. For Gardasil 9, injection site pain (305) ROR = 1.40 (1.25 – 1.57) and injection site erythema (297) ROR = 1.88 (1.67 – 2.10) and for Cervarix, headache (672) ROR = 1.14 (1.06 – 1.23) and loss of consciousness (528) ROR = 1.71 (1.57 – 1.87). In total, we collected 406 reports of death and 2461 cases of permanent disability in the ten-year period. The events consisting of incorrect vaccine storage or incorrect administration were not considered. The AEFI analysis showed that the most frequently reported events are non-serious and listed in the corresponding SmPCs. In addition to these, potential safety signals arose regarding less frequent and severe AEFIs that would deserve further investigation. This already happened with the referral of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the adverse events POTS (Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome) and CRPS (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome) associated with anti-papillomavirus vaccines.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
797
90165
Neuroprotective Effect of Chrysin on Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy in Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and TLR-4/NF-κB Pathway
Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of chrysin on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic encephalopathy in rats. Also, the effect of chrysin on motor impairment, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis and histopathological damage was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five groups. The first group received the vehicle (distilled water) for 21 days and is considered as normal group. While the second one received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days during the third week of the experiment to induce HE and is considered as control group. The other three groups were orally administered chrysin for 21 days (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and starting from day 17; rats received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Chrysin reversed TAA-induced motor coordination in rotarod test, cognitive deficits in object recognition test (ORT) and attenuated serum ammonia, hepatic liver enzymes, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) brain contents. Chrysin administration also reduced Toll-4 receptor (TLR-4) gene expression, caspase-3 protein expression, hepatic necrosis and astrocyte swelling. This study depicts that chrysin exerted neuroprotective effect in TAA-induced HE rats, evidenced by improvement of cognitive deficits, motor incoordination and histopathological changes such as astrocyte swelling and vacuolization; hallmarks in HE, via reducing hyperammonemia, ameliorating hepatic function, in addition to its anti-oxidant, inactivation of TLR-4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, and anti-apoptotic effects.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):