Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 45197

Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Comparison of Extracellular miRNA from Different Lymphocyte Cell Lines and Isolation Methods
The development of a panel of differential gene expression signatures has been of interest in the field of biomarker discovery for radiation exposure. In the absence of the availability of exposed human subjects, lymphocyte cell lines have often been used as a surrogate to human whole blood, when performing ex vivo irradiation studies. The extent of variation between different lymphocyte cell lines is currently unclear, especially with regard to the expression of extracellular miRNA. This study compares the expression profile of extracellular miRNA isolated from different lymphocyte cell lines. It also compares the profile of miRNA obtained when different exosome isolation kits are used. Lymphocyte cell lines were created using lymphocytes isolated from healthy adult males of similar racial descent (Chinese American and Chinese Singaporean) and immortalised with Epstein-Barr virus. The cell lines were cultured in exosome-free cell culture media for 72h and the cell culture supernatant was removed for exosome isolation. Two exosome isolation kits were used. Total exosome isolation reagent (TEIR, ThermoFisher) is a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based exosome precipitation kit, while ExoSpin (ES, Cell Guidance Systems) is a PEG-based exosome precipitation kit that includes an additional size exclusion chromatography step. miRNA from the isolated exosomes were isolated using miRNEASY minikit (Qiagen) and analysed using nCounter miRNA assay (Nanostring). Principal component analysis (PCA) results suggested that the overall extracellular miRNA expression profile differed between the lymphocyte cell line originating from the Chinese American donor and the cell line originating from the Chinese Singaporean donor. As the gender, age and racial origins of both donors are similar, this may suggest that there are other genetic or epigenetic differences that account for the variation in extracellular miRNA gene expression in lymphocyte cell lines. However, statistical analysis showed that only 3 miRNA genes had a fold difference > 2 at p < 0.05, suggesting that the differences may not be of that great a significance as to impact overall conclusions drawn from different cell lines. Subsequent analysis using cell lines from other donors will give further insight into the reproducibility of results when difference cell lines are used. PCA results also suggested that the method of exosome isolation impacted the expression profile. 107 miRNA had a fold difference > 2 at p < 0.05. This suggests that the inclusion of an additional size exclusion chromatography step altered the subset of the extracellular vesicles that were isolated. In conclusion, these results suggest that extracellular miRNA can be isolated and analysed from exosomes derived from lymphocyte cell lines. However, care must be taken in the choice of cell line and method of exosome isolation used.
Establishing a Drug Discovery Platform to Progress Compounds into the Clinic
The requirements for progressing a compound to clinical trials is well established and relies on the results from in-vitro and in-vivo animal tests to indicate that it is likely to be safe and efficacious when testing in humans. The typical data package required will include demonstrating compound safety, toxicity, bioavailability, pharmacodynamics (potential effects of the compound on body systems) and pharmacokinetics (how the compound is potentially absorbed, distributed, metabolised and eliminated after dosing in humans). If the desired criteria are met and the compound meets the clinical Candidate criteria and is deemed worthy of further development, a submission to regulatory bodies such as the US Food & Drug Administration for an exploratory Investigational New Drug Study can be made. The purpose of this study is to collect data to establish that the compound will not expose humans to unreasonable risks when used in limited, early-stage clinical studies in patients or normal volunteer subjects (Phase I). These studies are also designed to determine the metabolism and pharmacologic actions of the drug in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on their effectiveness. In order to reach the above goals, we have developed a pre-clinical high throughput Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion–Toxicity (ADME–Toxicity) panel of assays to identify compounds that are likely to meet the Lead and Candidate compound acceptance criteria. This panel includes solubility studies in a range of biological fluids, cell viability studies in cancer and primary cell-lines, mitochondrial toxicity, off-target effects (across the kinase, protease, histone deacetylase, phosphodiesterase and GPCR protein families), CYP450 inhibition (5 different CYP450 enzymes), CYP450 induction, cardio-toxicity (hERG) and gene-toxicity. This panel of assays has been applied to multiple compound series developed in a number of projects delivering Lead and clinical Candidates and examples from these will be presented.
Preparation of Ibuprofen Conjugated Molecular Transporter Capable of Enhanced Brain Penetration
Based on the strong evidence between inflammation and neurodegeneration, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, are considered as effective agent to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. However, the clinical use of NSAIDs in these diseases is limited by low brain distribution. Therefore, ibuprofen reaching the human brain exists in only a tiny amount and high doses might be required to attain a certain level of drug efficacy toward neural disorders. Also, long term use of ibuprofen can cause a number of side-effects, such as cardiovascular and gastrointestinal risks. To overcome these problems, we have recently developed several types of guanidine-rich molecular carriers with high molecular weights and good water solubility that readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and display efficient distributions in the mouse brain. In particular, the G8 (having eight guanidine groups) molecular carrier based on carbohydrate, such as sorbitol, was found to be very effective in delivering conjugated drugs to mouse brain. In the present study, employing the same molecular carrier, we prepared the ibuprofen conjugate and studied its BBB permeation by mouse tissue distribution study. S-(+)-Ibuprofen was attached to a molecular transporter having FITC and eight terminal guanidine groups. The conjugate was found to internalize into HeLa cells and readily cross the BBB to gain an entry into mouse brain. Our novel synthetic ibuprofen conjugate will hopefully delivery NSAIDs into brain, and is therefore applicable to the neurodegenerative diseases treatment or prevention.
Evaluation of Antimicrobial Use in a Tertiary Care Hospital by Using Specific Indicators: A Prospective, Observational Study
The discovery and usage of antimicrobial drugs is one of the most important and significant contributions to therapeutics in the 20th century. Apart from being very frequently used, they are often misused. The use and misuse of antimicrobial agents need to be evaluated since misuse of antimicrobials increases the risk of antimicrobial resistance while management and use of antimicrobials have clinical, economic, and environmental implications. This study was designed to assess the pattern of antimicrobial prescriptions, to identify the most common problems with antimicrobials prescription and to apply the various antimicrobial use indicators to check the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing pattern. A prospective, observational, hospital-based study was carried out at St. Philomena’s hospital located in Bangalore. Ethical committee clearance was obtained from the hospital before starting the study. The research student attended ward rounds on a daily basis and collected the cases which have been prescribed with antimicrobial agents. Both empirically prescribed antimicrobials, as well as the antimicrobials prescribed after culture sensitivity test, were included. Specified indicators were applied, and the collected data was analyzed. The results of this study indicate that women were slightly more vulnerable than men in developing infectious diseases who were majorly above 60 years of age. In this study, it was found that antibiotics were the most common type of antimicrobials prescribed among which cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were the most common class of antibiotics used. Anti-fungals (Azoles) and antivirals (anti-influenza) were the next most common type of antimicrobials prescribed. It was also observed that lower respiratory tract infection was the most common infectious disease diagnosed in these patients among whom chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were completely treated according to the standard treatment guidelines while pneumonia patients were partially treated according to the standard treatment guidelines. In this study, various indicators were also applied to evaluate the use of antimicrobial agents, and it was found that the use of antimicrobials was not appropriate. The use of antimicrobials was evaluated, and it was found that there is a need to promote rational use of antimicrobials, as irrational use would lead to antimicrobial resistance.
In vitro Determination of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibition of the Flowers of Vanda Orchid, Vanda Tessellata Roxb. (1795) by Modified Colorimetric Maren T.H. (1960) Method
The orchid, Vanda tessellata was chosen by the researchers because of the presence of the constituents in the family Orchidaceae such as alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides that might give an inhibition activity of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme. This study aimed to determine the in vitro inhibition of carbonic anhydrase of Vanda tessellata flower extract. With the use of modified colorimetric Maren T.H. (1960) method, the time in seconds each test solution changed its color after the rate of CO2 hydration were recorded. Two solvents were used: the semi-polar, 95% ethanol and the non-polar, dichloromethane solvents. The percent inhibition activity of carbonic anhydrase of the different concentrations of solvents ethanol (1%, 25% and 50%) and dichloromethane (1% and 10%) test solutions were determined. Results showed that the ethanol-based extract of Vanda tessellata in different concentrations showed an inhibitory effect while the dichloromethane-based extract of Vanda tessellata showed no inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase activity. For ethanol extract, the concentration with the highest activity was 50% followed by 25% which changed its color from red to yellow with an average time of 13.11 seconds and 11.57 seconds but 1% with an average time of 7.56 seconds did not exhibit an effect. The researchers recommend the isolation of the specific active constituents of Vanda tessellata that is responsible for the inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase enzyme. It is also recommended to utilize different blood types to observe different reactions to the inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase.
Application of Liquid Chromatographic Method for the in vitro Determination of Gastric and Intestinal Stability of Pure Andrographolide in the Extract of Andrographis paniculata
Gastrointestinal stability of andrographolide was evaluated in vitro in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluids using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method was validated using a 5μm ThermoHypersil GOLD C18column (250 mm × 4.0 mm) and mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile; 70: 30 (v/v) delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 228 nm. Andrographolide in pure form and extract Andrographis paniculata was incubated at 37°C in an incubator shaker in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without enzymes. Systematic protocol as per FDA Guidance System was followed for stability study and samples were assayed at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min intervals for gastric and at 0, 15, 30, 60 min, 1, 2 and 3 h for intestinal stability study. Also, the stability study was performed up to 24 h to see the degradation pattern in SGF and SIF (with enzyme and without enzyme). The developed method was found to be accurate, precise and robust. Andrographolide was found to be stable in SGF (pH ∼ 1.2) for 1h and SIF (pH 6.8) up to 3 h. The relative difference (RD) of amount of drug added and found at all time points was found to be < 3%. The present study suggests that drug loss in the gastrointestinal tract takes place may be by membrane permeation rather than a degradation process.
Iontophoretic Drug Transport: An Non-Invasive Transdermal Approach
There has been great interest in the field of Iontophoresis since few years due to its great applications in the field of controlled transdermal drug delivery system. It is an technique which is used to enhance the transdermal permeation of ionized high molecular weight molecules across the skin membrane especially Peptides & Proteins by the application of direct current of 1-4 mA for 20-40 minutes whereas chemical must be placed on electrodes with same charge. Iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of drug into the skin via pores like hair follicles, sweat gland ducts etc. rather than through stratum corneum. It has wide applications in the field of experimental, Therapeutic, Diagnostic, Dentistry etc. Medical science is using it to treat Hyperhidrosis (Excessive sweating) in hands and feet and to treat other ailments like hypertension, Migraine etc. Nowadays commercial transdermal iontophoretic patches are available in the market to treat different ailments. Researchers are keen to research in this field due to its vast applications and advantages.
Investigation of Antioxidant and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity of Hibiscus Acetosella Extract
The aim of this study is investigation of antioxidant and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of Hibiscus acetosella extract in gathering data for other researches and products development. Hibiscus acetosella were extracted with water, ethanol and methanol. The antioxidant activity were investigated by using ABTS assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity were investigated by using Fenton reaction. The results of this study showed Hibiscus acetosella extract had ability in antioxidant and hydroxyl radical scavenging which concentration is 10 mg/ml. The % inhibition of 10 mg/ml in antioxidant activity was 67.91% and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was 64.12%. However, this study was not enough for using in products development which should study in other tests such as anti-inflammatory properties, cytotoxicity and pure compound analysis for increasing the efficacy of products from Hibiscus acetosella.
Comparison Studies on the Computational Complexities of the EEDSA
The elliptic ElGamal digital signature algorithm (EEDSA) has been created based on the ElGamal public key cryptosystem (EPKC) and the algorithm of the digital signature (DSA), defined on the elliptic curves E, which was accepted in several (ANSI, IEEE, NIST and ISO) standards. The EEDSA has been improved based on replacing the computation of a scalar multiplication kP that is used the point addition and doubling on elliptic curve by using the integer sub-decomposition (ISD) method. A scalar k in kP , on the proposed EEDSA-ISD method, has been sub-decomposed by k ≡ k11+k12λ1+k21+k22 λ2 (mod n), where k11, k12 , k21 , k22 ∈ [−√n ,√n], λ1, λ2 ∈ [1, n − 1] with λ1≠±λ2 and n is a prime order of a point P which lies on E. The sub-scalars, namely k11, k12 , k21 , k22 are computed by solving the shortest vector problem in lattice. The scalar multiplications kP on the EEDSA-ISD method are computed by kP = k11+k12ψ1(P)+k21+k22 ψ2(P), where ψ1(P)=λ1P and ψ2(P)=λ2P are two efficiently computable endomorphisms of E defined over Fp. The proposed EEDSA-ISD algorithm is benefited from the fast computations in the ISD method which is depended on the sub-decomposition of the scalars in scalar multiplications. The EEDSA-ISD method also depended on speeding the computations of the efficiently computable endomorphisms ψi, for i = 1,2, of elliptic curve E in ISD method. This paper proposes another mechanism to improve the EEDSA based on using the Gallant, Lambert and Vanstone (GLV) method. On the proposed EEDSA-GLV method, a scalar k is decomposed as k ≡ k1+k2λ (mod n), with max{|k1|,|k2|} ≤ √n, λ ∈ [1,n-1]. The scalar multiplication kP has been computed by kP=k1P+k2ψ(P), where ψ(P) is an efficiently computable endomorphism of E defined over a prime field Fp. This work also sheds light mainly on the computational complexities of the EEDSA-GLV and EEDSA-ISD algorithms those will be determined by computing the cost of the operations. These operations include elliptic curve operations and finite field operations. As well as, this work compared these two proposed methods on the basis of the computational complexity of each technique in one cycle operation. Our experiments reveal that the EEDSA-ISD method is faster than EEDSA-GLV method. Thus, the EEDSA-ISD method considers as an efficient algorithm in compared with the original EEDSA and EEDSA-GLV for cryptographic usages
Structure-Guided Optimization of Sulphonamide as Gamma–Secretase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
In older people, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is turning out to be a lethal disease. According to the amyloid hypothesis, aggregation of the amyloid β–protein (Aβ), particularly its 42-residue variant (Aβ42), plays direct role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ is generated through sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β–secretase (BACE) and γ–secretase (GS). Thus in the treatment of AD, γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) are potential disease-modifying as they selectively lower pathogenic Aβ42 levels by shifting the enzyme cleavage sites without inhibiting γ–secretase activity. This possibly avoids known adverse effects observed with complete inhibition of the enzyme complex. Virtual screening, via drug-like ADMET filter, QSAR and molecular docking analyses, has been utilized to identify novel γ–secretase modulators with sulphonamide nucleus. Based on QSAR analyses and docking score, some novel analogs have been synthesized. The results obtained by in silico studies have been validated by performing in vivo analysis. In the first step, behavioral assessment has been carried out using Scopolamine induced amnesia methodology. Later the same series has been evaluated for neuroprotective potential against the oxidative stress induced by Scopolamine. Biochemical estimation was performed to evaluate the changes in biochemical markers of Alzheimer’s disease such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), Glutathione reductase (GSH), and Catalase. The Scopolamine induced amnesia model has shown increased Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels and the inhibitory effect of test compounds in the brain AChE levels have been evaluated. In all the studies Donapezil (Dose: 50µg/kg) has been used as reference drug. The reduced AChE activity is shown by compounds 3f, 3c, and 3e. In the later stage, the most potent compounds have been evaluated for Aβ42 inhibitory profile. It can be hypothesized that this series of alkyl-aryl sulphonamides exhibit anti-AD activity by inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme as well as inhibition of plaque formation on prolong dosage along with neuroprotection from oxidative stress.
Monitoring the Pollution Status of the Goan Coast Using Genotoxicity Biomarkers in the Bivalve, Meretrix Ovum
The coast of Goa, India receives constant anthropogenic stress through its major rivers which carry mining rejects of iron and manganese ores from upstream mining sites and petroleum hydrocarbons from shipping and harbor-related activities which put the aquatic fauna such as bivalves at risk. The present study reports the pollution status of the Goan coast by the above xenobiotics employing genotoxicity studies. This is further supplemented by the quantification of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and various trace metals (iron, manganese, copper, cadmium, and lead) in gills of the estuarine clam, Meretrix ovum as well as from the surrounding water and sediment, over a two-year sampling period, from January 2013 to December 2014. Bivalves were collected from a probable unpolluted site at Palolem and a probable polluted site at Vasco, based upon the anthropogenic activities at these sites. Genotoxicity was assessed in the gill cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The quantity of TPHs and trace metals present in gill tissue, water and sediments were analyzed using spectrofluorometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), respectively. The statistical significance of data was analyzed employing Student’s t-test. The relationship between DNA damage and pollutant concentrations was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Significant DNA damage was observed in the bivalves collected from Vasco which is a region of high industrial activity. Concentrations of TPHs and trace metals (iron, manganese, and cadmium) were also found to be significantly high in gills of the bivalves collected from Vasco compared to those collected from Palolem. Further, the concentrations of these pollutants were also found to be significantly high in the water and sediments at Vasco compared to that of Palolem. This may be due to the lack of industrial activity at Palolem. A high positive correlation was observed between the pollutant levels and DNA damage in the bivalves collected from Vasco suggesting the genotoxic nature of these pollutants. Further, M. ovum can be used as a bioindicator species for monitoring the level of pollution of the estuarine/coastal regions by TPHs and trace metals.
Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles of Extract of Leaf of Nauclea latifolia (Sm.) against Some Selected Clinical Isolates
Nauclea latifolia is one of the medicinal plants used in traditional Nigerian medicine in the treatment of various diseases such as fever, toothaches, malaria, diarrhea among several other conditions. Nauclea latifolia leaf extract acts as a capping and reducing agent in the formation of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using a combination of aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia and 1mM of silver nitrate (AgNO₃) solution to obtain concentrations of 100mg/ml-400mg/ml. Characterization of the particles was done by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). In this study, aqueous as well as ethanolic extract of leaf of Nauclea latifolia were investigated for antibacterial activity using the standard agar well diffusion technique against three clinical isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was achieved by microbroth dilution method and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was also determined by plate assay. Characterization by UV-visible spectrometry revealed peak absorbance of 0.463 at 450.0nm, while FTIR showed the presence of two functional groups. At 400mg/ml, the highest inhibitory activities were observed with S.aureus and E.coli with zones of inhibition measuring 20mm and 18mm respectively. The MIC was obtained at 400mg/ml while MBC was at a higher concentration. The data from this study indicate the potential of silver nanoparticle of Nauclea latifolia as a suitable alternative antibacterial agent for incorporation into orthodox medicine in health care delivery in Nigeria.
Proliferative Effect of Some Calcium Channel Blockers on the Human Embryonic Kidney Cell Line
Introduction: Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a positive as well as negative association and no association in some cases between chronic use of calcium channel blockers and the increased risk of developing cancer. However, these associations were enmeshed with controversies in the absence of laboratory based studies to back up those claims. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine in mechanistic terms the association between the long-term administration of nifedipine and diltiazem and increased risk of developing cancer using the human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line. Methods: Cell counting using the Trypan blue dye exclusion and 3-4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to investigate the effect of nifedipine and diltiazem on the growth pattern of HEK293 cells. Protein assay using modified Lowry method and analysis of intracellular polyamines concentration using Liquid Chromatography – Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were performed to ascertain the mechanism through which chronic use of nifedipine increases the risk of developing cancer. Results: Both nifedipine and diltiazem significantly increased the proliferation of HEK293 cells dose and time dependently. This proliferative effect after 24, 48 and 72-hour incubation period was observed at 0.78, 1.56 and 25 µM for nifedipine and 0.39, 1.56 and 25 µM for diltiazem, respectively. The increased proliferation of the cells was found to be statistically significantly (p< 0.05). Furthermore, the increased proliferation of the cells induced by nifedipine was associated with the increase in the protein content and elevated intracellular polyamines concentration level. Conclusion: The chronic use of nifedipine is associated with increased proliferation of cells with concomitant elevation of polyamines concentration and elevated polyamine levels have been implicated in many malignant transformations and hence, these provide a possible explanation on the link between long term use of nifedipine and development of some human cancers. Further studies are needed to evaluate the cause of this association.
Curcumin and Its Analogues: Potent Natural Antibacterial Compounds against Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic of all staphylococci, a major cause of nosocomial infections, and known for acquiring resistance towards various commonly used antibiotics. Due to the widespread use of synthetic drugs, clinicians are now facing a serious threat in healthcare. The increasing resistance in staphylococci has created a need for alternatives to these synthetic drugs. One of the alternatives is a natural plant-based medicine for both disease prevention as well as the treatment of chronic diseases. Among such natural compounds, curcumin is one of the most studied molecules and has been an integral part of traditional medicines and Ayurveda from ancient times. It is a natural polyphenolic compound with diverse pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancerous and antibacterial activities. In spite of its efficacy and potential, curcumin has not been approved as a therapeutic agent yet, because of its low solubility, low bioavailability, and rapid metabolism in vivo. The presence of central β-diketone moiety in curcumin is responsible for its rapid metabolism. To overcome this, in the present study, curcuminoids were designed by modifying the central β-diketone moiety of curcumin into mono carbonyl moiety and their antibacterial potency against S. aureus ATCC 29213 was determined. Further, the mode of action and hemolytic activity of the most potent curcuminoids were studied. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in vitro killing kinetics were used to study the antibacterial activity of the designed curcuminoids. For hemolytic assay, mouse Red blood cells were incubated with curcuminoids and hemoglobin release was measured spectrophotometrically. The mode of action of curcuminoids was analysed by membrane depolarization assay using membrane potential sensitive dye 3,3’-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide (DiSC3(5)) through spectrofluorimetry and membrane permeabilization assay using calcein-AM through flow cytometry. Antibacterial screening of the designed library (61 curcuminoids) revealed excellent in vitro potency of six compounds against S. aureus (MIC 8 to 32 µg/ml). Moreover, these six compounds were found to be non-hemolytic up to 225 µg/ml that is much higher than their corresponding MIC values. The in vitro killing kinetics data showed five of these lead compounds to be bactericidal causing >3 log reduction in the viable cell count within 4 hrs at 5 × MIC while the sixth compound was found to be bacteriostatic. Depolarization assay revealed that all the six curcuminoids caused depolarization in their corresponding MIC range. Further, the membrane permeabilization assay showed that all the six curcuminoids caused permeabilization at 5 × MIC in 2 hrs. This membrane depolarization and permeabilization caused by curcuminoids found to be in correlation with their corresponding killing efficacy. Both these assays point out that membrane perturbations might be a primary mode of action for these curcuminoids. Overall, the present study leads us six water soluble, non-hemolytic, membrane-active curcuminoids and provided an impetus for further research on therapeutic use of these lead curcuminoids against S. aureus.
Lower Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Hormone Therapy Users with Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine
Background: Little is known about the benefits and risks of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in conditions related to hormone therapy (HT) use on the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study is to explore the risk of IS in menopausal women treated with HT and CHM. Materials and methods: A total of 32,441 menopausal women without surgical menopause aged 40- 65 years were selected from 2003 to 2010 using the 2-million random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. According to the medication usage of HT and CHM, we divided the current and recent users into two groups: an HT use-only group (n = 4,989) and an HT/CHM group (n = 9,265). Propensity-score matching samples (4,079 pairs) were further created to deal with confounding by indication. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of IS during HT or CHM treatment were estimated by the robust Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence rate of IS in the HT/CHM group was significantly lower than in the HT group (4.5 vs. 12.8 per 1000 person-year, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis results indicated that additional CHM use was significant with a lower risk of IS (HR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.43). Further subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses had similar findings. Conclusion: We found that combined use of HT and CHM was associated with a lower risk for IS than HT use only. Further study is needed to examine possible mechanism underlying this association.
A Critical Review of the Success Model of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry
The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is ranked third largest by volume and fourteenth by value. It thus accounts for 10% of world’s production by volume and 1.5% by value according to Department of Pharmaceuticals, Government of India. The industry has shown phenomenal growth over past few years, moving from US $ 1 billion turnover in 1990 to a turnover of around US $30 billion in 2015. The Indian pharmaceutical sector is ranked seventeenth in terms of export value of active pharmaceutical ingredients and dosage forms to more than 200 countries around the globe. It has shown tremendous changes especially after Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. Recognizing the immense potential for growth and its direct impact on Indian economy, it is important to look up the industrial policies adopted since Indian independence which turnaround the Indian pharmaceutical industry. A systematic review of changes in market structure of Indian pharmaceutical industry due to shift in policy regimes is done from 1850 to 2015 using secondary peer reviewed published research work. The aim is to understand the impact of anti-trust laws, intellectual property rights, industry competition acts and regulations are quite crucial in determining effective economic policy and have overall lasting effects on international trade and ties. The proposed paper examines the position of Indian domestic firms relative to multinational pharmaceutical firms tries to throw some light on the growth curve of Indian pharmaceutical sector.
Cytotoxic Effect of Cassia Oil, Lemongrass Oil, Anise Oil and Cinnamaldehyde on Human Colorectal Cancer HT-29 Cells
This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of essential oils including cassia oil, lemongrass oil and anise oil on human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells by resazurin reduction assay. HT-29 cells were treated with the essential oil at 6.25–100 µg/ml for 48–72 h. The results revealed that cassia oil and lemongrass oil reduced cell viability of HT-29 with half maximal inhibitory concentrations after 48 h of treatment at 36.85 ± 8.94 and 77.91 ± 3.49 µg/ml, respectively. After 72 h of treatment, cassia oil and lemongrass oil reduced HT-29 cell viability with IC₅₀ value of 24.43 ± 6.62 and 67.96 ± 3.97 µg/ml, respectively. Anise oil at 100 µg/ml had a slightly cytotoxic effect to this cancer cell. Cinnamaldehyde, the major active compound of cassia oil, also reduced HT-29 cell viability with IC₅₀ value of 25.30 ± 8.29 and 19.00 ± 1.37 µg/ml at 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The results from this study demonstrated that cassia oil, lemongrass oil, and cinnamaldehyde had cytotoxic effect on human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. These essential oils and its active compound may have potential to be alternative chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents. Further studies in detail are needed for evaluating these beneficial potentialities.
Management Tools for Assessment of Adverse Reactions Caused by Contrast Media at the Hospital
Background: Contrast media has an important role for disease diagnosis through detection of pathologies. Contrast media can, however, cause adverse reactions after administration of its agents. Although non-ionic contrast media are commonly used, the incidence of adverse events is relatively low. The most common reactions found (10.5%) were mild and manageable and/or preventable. Pharmacists can play an important role in evaluating adverse reactions, including awareness of the specific preparation and the type of adverse reaction. As most common types of adverse reactions are idiosyncratic or pseudo-allergic reactions, common standards need to be established to prevent and control adverse reactions promptly and effectively. Objective: To measure the effect of using tools for symptom evaluation in order to reduce the severity, or prevent the occurrence, of adverse reactions from contrast media. Methods: Retrospective review descriptive research with data collected on adverse reactions assessment and Naranjo’s algorithm between June 2015 and May 2016. Results: 158 patients (10.53%) had adverse reactions. Of the 1,500 participants with an adverse event evaluation, 137 (9.13%) had a mild adverse reaction, including hives, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. These types of symptoms can be treated (i.e., with antihistamines, anti-emetics) and the patient recovers completely within one day. The group with moderate adverse reactions, numbering 18 cases (1.2%), had hypertension or hypotension, and shortness of breath. Severe adverse reactions numbered 3 cases (0.2%) and included swelling of the larynx, cardiac arrest, and loss of consciousness, requiring immediate treatment. No other complications under close medical supervision were recorded (i.e., corticosteroids use, epinephrine, dopamine, atropine, or life-saving devices). Using the guideline, therapies are divided into general and specific and are performed according to the severity, risk factors and ingestion of contrast media agents. Patients who have high-risk factors were screened and treated (i.e., prophylactic premedication) for prevention of severe adverse reactions, especially those with renal failure. Thus, awareness for the need for prescreening of different risk factors is necessary for early recognition and prompt treatment. Conclusion: Studying adverse reactions can be used to develop a model for reducing the level of severity and setting a guideline for a standardized, multidisciplinary approach to adverse reactions.
Curative Effect of Blumea lacera Leaves on Experimental Haemorrhoids in Rats
Hemorrhoids are one of the most common anorectal diseases around the world. Severalfactors are involved in causing hemorrhoids including irregularbowel function (constipation, diarrhea), exercise, gravity, low fiberdiet, pregnancy, obesity, high abdominal pressure, prolongedsitting, genetic factors, and aging. Pain, bleeding, itching,swelling and anal discharge are the symptoms of the disease. Due to limitedmodern pharmacotherapeutic options available for treatment, theherbal medicines remain the choice of therapy. Blumea lacera (Burm f.) DC. belonging to the Asteraceae family is a common plain land weed of Bangladesh. Traditionally it has been used for treatment of hemorrhoids.Considering the above fact, present study was aimed to validate the ethnomedicinal use of B. lacera leaves on experimental hemorrhoids in rats. The anti-hemorrhoid activity was performed by using croton oil induced rat models. The parameters studied were assessment of TNF-α and IL-6, Evans blue exudation, macroscopic severity score, recto-anal coefficient, histomorphological scores. Also, in vivo antioxidant parameters and histopathological studies were also performed. All paramaters exhibited significant anti-hemorrhoid activity. Moreover ethanolic extract of B. lacera (EBL) leaves 400mg/kg showed ameliorative effect oncroton oil induced hemorrhoids.In conclusion, EBL exhibitedbeneficial effect on croton oil- induced hemorrhoids and validates its ethnomedicinal use in treatment of piles.
Bioactive Cyclic Dipeptides of Microbial Origin in Discovery of Cytokine Inhibitors
Cyclic dipeptides are simple diketopiperazine derivatives being investigated by several scientists for their biological effects which include anticancer, antimicrobial, haematological, anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory effect, etc. They are potentially active microbial metabolites having been synthesized too, for developing into drug candidates. Cultures of Pseudomonas species have earlier been reported to produce cyclic dipeptides, helping in quorum sensing signals and bacterial–host colonization phenomena during infections, causing cell anti-proliferation and immunosuppression. Fluorescing Pseudomonas species have been identified to secrete lipid derivatives, peptides, pyrroles, phenazines, indoles, aminoacids, pterines, pseudomonic acids and some antibiotics. In the present work, results of investigation on the cyclic dipeptide metabolites secreted by the culture broth of Pseudomonas species as potent pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors are discussed. The bacterial strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of groundnut crop and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16S rDNA sequence (GenBank Accession No. KT625586). Culture broth of this strain was prepared by inoculating into King’s B broth and incubating at 30 ºC for 7 days. The ethyl acetate extract of culture broth was prepared and lyophilized to get a dry residue (EEPA). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ELISA assay proved the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion in culture supernatant of RAW 264.7 cells by EEPA (IC50 38.8 μg/mL). The effect of oral administration of EEPA on plasma TNF-α level in rats was tested by ELISA kit. The LPS mediated plasma TNF-α level was reduced to 45% with 125 mg/kg dose of EEPA. Isolation of the chemical constituents of EEPA through column chromatography yielded ten cyclic dipeptides, which were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. These cyclic dipeptides are biosynthesized in microorganisms by multifunctional assembly of non-ribosomal peptide synthases and cyclic dipeptide synthase. Cyclo (Gly-L-Pro) was found to be more potentially (IC50 value 4.5 μg/mL) inhibiting TNF-α production followed by cyclo (trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Phe) (IC50 value 14.2 μg/mL) and the effect was equal to that of standard immunosuppressant drug, prednisolone. Further, the effect was analyzed by determining mRNA expression of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. EEPA and isolated cyclic dipeptides demonstrated diminution of TNF-α mRNA expression levels in a dose-dependent manner under the tested conditions. Also, they were found to control the expression of other pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6, when tested through their mRNA expression levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages under LPS-stimulated conditions. In addition, significant inhibition effect was found on Nitric oxide production. Further all the compounds exhibited weak toxicity to LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Thus the outcome of the study disclosed the effectiveness of EEPA and the isolated cyclic dipeptides in down-regulating key cytokines involved in pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases.In another study led by the investigators, microbial cyclic dipeptides were found to exhibit excellent antimicrobial effect against Fusarium moniliforme which is an important causative agent of Sorghum grain mold disease. Thus, cyclic dipeptides are emerging small molecular drug candidates for various autoimmune diseases.
Design, Development and Characterisation of Microbeads Containing Ritinovir for Better Antiviral Therapy
Ritinovir, BCS class II drug, used in the treatment of HIV. The drug has shorter biological half-life of 3-5 hours and thus requires frequent dosing and ideal candidate for developing sustained release formulation. By incorporating ritinovir into a microparticulate carrier and adminstering it by oral route, it may enable the drug to present in the system for longer period of time. In the present study, an attempt has been made to formulate ritinovir loaded microbeads by ionotropic gelation method using gellan gum and chitosan. Prior to the formulation, compatibility studies using FTIR and DSC was performed to identify any possible interaction between drug and excipients. Microbeads of different ratios of drug and polymer composition were prepared and evaluated for particle size determination, drug entrapment efficiency, dynamic swelling study, in vitro dissolution study and in vivo bioavailability study. The FTIR and DSC thermogrms showed a stable character of ritinovir and polymer mixture revealed the absence of any drug polymer interactions. The crystallinity of the drug in the formulation was investigated by XRD study. The charactecteristic peaks of drug were absent in the gellan-chitsan beads indicating the probable decreased crystallinity and conversion of drug from crystalline to amorphous state in the formulation. The average particle size of microbeads was found to be in the range of 624±2.32 to 802±2.21 µm. The drug entrappment efficiency of microbeads was found to be in the range of 58±0.012 to 79.65±0.012%. The in vitro release profile of drug revealed that the best linearlity was obtained in first order plot and the mechanism of release was found to be non-fickian diffusion. The developed microbeads of ritinovir exhibited increased oral bioavailability decreased elimination rate and prolonged half-life. Therefore, the formulated microbeads of ritinovir may reduce dosing frequency, dose-related side effects and improved patient compliance in the treatment of HIV.
A Study on Pattern of Acute Poisoning in Patients Admitted to Emergency Wards in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Background: In India, deliberate self-harm (DSH) with poisoning agents carries a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Changes in the patterns of poisoning vary across various geographical locations. It is important to know the patterns in a given region in order to facilitate rapid clinical diagnosis, appropriate treatment to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Aim and Objective: To study the patterns, treatment outcomes of acute poisoning in patients admitted to emergency wards in a tertiary care hospital and to provide poison information services. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at M.S Ramaiah Memorial and Teaching Hospital from November 2016 to March 2017. The patient’s data was obtained from patient case sheet, interaction with health care professionals, interviewing patients and their caretakers (if possible), and were documented in a suitably designed form. Results: The study involved 131 patients with a mean age of 27.76 ± 15.5 years. Majority of the patients were in the age group 21-30 years, literates (n=53) dwelling in urban (n=113) areas belonging to upper middle class (n=50). Analgesics and antipyretics were commonly utilized in intentional drug overdosage (n=49). Envenomation constituted n=21(16.03%). Furthermore, a significant relationship was observed between marital status and self-poisoning (n=64) (P < 0.001) which commonly occurred through oral ingestion. The outcomes were correlated with the GCS and PSS system and n=85 recovered, n=17 were discharged against medical advice, and n=4 died, and n=4 were lost to follow up respectively. The poison information queries include drug overdose (n=29) and management related queries (n=22) provided majorly by residents (n=45) to update knowledge (n=11) and for better patient care (n=40). Conclusion: The trend in poisoning is dynamic. Medications were identified as the main cause of poisoning in urban areas of India. Educational programs with more emphasis on preventive measures are necessary to create awareness among the general public.
Formulation of the N-Acylethanolamine, Linoleoylethanolamide into Cubosomes for Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier
N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipids, which have neuromodulatory properties. NAEs have shown neuroprotective properties in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ischemic stroke. However, NAEs are eliminated rapidly in vivo by enzymatic hydrolysis. We propose to encapsulate NAEs in liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) to increase their biological half-life and explore their therapeutic potential. Recently, we have reported the co-formulation and nanostructural characterization of cubosomes containing the NAE, oleoylethanolamide and a synthetic cubosome forming lipid phytantriol. Here, we report on the formulation of cubosomes with the NAE, linoleoylethanolamide (LEA) as the core cubosome forming lipid. LEA-cubosomes were formulated in the presence of three different steric stabilisers: two brain targeting ligands, Tween 80 and Pluronic P188 and a control, Pluronic F127. Size, morphology and internal structure of formulations were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo–TEM) and small angle X–ray scattering (SAXS), respectively. Chemical stability of LEA in formulations was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity of formulations towards human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was also investigated using an MTT (3-[4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. All cubosome formulations had mean particle size of less than 250 nm and were uniformly distributed with polydispersity indices less than 0.2. Cubosomes produced had a bicontinuous cubic internal structure with an Im3m space group but different lattice parameters, indicating the different modes of interaction between the stabilisers and LEA. LEA in formulations was found to be chemically stable. At concentrations of up to 20 µg/mL LEA in the presence of all the stabilisers, greater than 80% cell viability was observed.
The Effects of Different Sowing Times on Seed Yield and Quality of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey
In this study carried out in 2013-14 growing season in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey, it was aimed to investigate the effects of different sowing times on the seed yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum L.). Three fenugreek genotypes (Gürarslan, Candidate Line-1 and Genotype-1) were sown on 13.11.2013 and 07.03.2014 according to factorial randomized block design with 3 replications. Plant height (cm), branch number per plant, first pod height (cm), pod length (mm), seed number per pod (g), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per decar (kg), thousand seed weight (g), mucilage rate (%), seed protein ratio (%), seed oil ratio (%), oleic acid (%), linoleic acid (%), palmitic acid (%) and stearic acid (%) were investigated. Among genotypes, while the highest seed yield per plant was obtained from Genotype-1 (5 g/plant), the lowest seed yield per plant was obtained from cv. Gürarslan (3.4 g/plant). According to genotype x sowing date interactions, it can be said that the highest seed yield per plant was taken in autumn sowing from Genotype-1 (6.6 g/plant) and the lowest seed yield per plant was taken in spring sowing from cv. Gürarslan (2.9 g/plant). Genotype-1 had the highest linoleic acid ratio (41.6 %). Cv. Gürarslan and Candidate Line-1 had the highest oleic acid ratio (respectively 17.8 % and 17.6%).
Determination of Performances of Some Mulberry (Morus spp.) Species Selected from Different Places of Turkey under Kahramanmaras Conditions
Common mulberry (Morus levigate Wall.) and purple mulberry (Morus rubra L.) species which were selected from different regions of Turkey were used as material in order to determine their performance. Therefore, phenological observations, pomological analysis (fruit size, fruit weight, fruit stalk length, acidity and TSS (Total Soluble Solids) and phytochemical properties organic acids (oxalic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid and malic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) total phenolics and antioxidant capacity values of mulberries) were determined. Phenological observations of seven different periods were also identified. Fruit weight values varied between 3.48 to 4.26 g. TSS contents value were from 14.36 to 21.30%, and fruit acidity was determined between 0.29 to 2.02%. The amount of ascorbic acid of Finger mulberry (Morus levigate Wall.) and purple mulberry (Morus rubra L.) species were identified as 35.60% and 363.28%. The highest value of total phenolic contents belonged to with a finger mulberry genotypes P1 934.80 mg/100g whereas the lowest one was of purple mulberry genotypes 278.70 mg/100g. FRAP and TEAC methods were used for determination of antioxidant capacity of the values of 0.58-22.65 micromol TE/kg and 20.34-31.6 micromol TE/kg. Total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacity strongly depends on fruit color intensity with a positive correlation. The obtained results have been found to be important as a source of future pharmacological studies and pomological and breeding programs.
MTT Assay-Guided Isolation of a Cytotoxic Lead from Hedyotis umbellata and Its Mechanism of Action against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells
Introduction: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although existing therapy effectively kills cancer cells, they do affect normal growing cells leading to many undesirable side effects. Hence there is need to develop effective as well as safe drug molecules to combat cancer, which is possible through phyto-research. The currently available plant-derived blockbuster drugs are the example for this. In view of this, an investigation was done to identify cytotoxic lead molecules from Hedyotis umbellata (Family Rubiaceae), a widely distributed weed in India. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of the whole plant of H. umbellata (MHU), prepared through Soxhlet extraction method was further fractionated with diethyl ether and n-butanol, successively. MHU, ether fraction (EMHU) and butanol fraction (BMHU) were lyophilized and were tested for the cytotoxic effect using 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell lines. The potentially active EMHU was subjected to chromatographic purification using normal-phase silica columns, in order to isolate the responsible bioactive compounds. The isolated pure compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effect by MTT assay against A549 cells. Compound-3, which was found to be most active, was characterized using IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS analysis. The study was further extended to decipher the mechanism of action of cytotoxicity of compound-3 against A549 cells through various in vitro cellular models. Cell cycle analysis was done using flow cytometry following PI (Propidium Iodide) staining. Protein analysis was done using Western blot technique. Results: Among MHU, EMHU, and BMHU, the non-polar fraction EMHU demonstrated a significant dose-dependent cytotoxic effect with IC50 of 67.7μg/ml. Chromatography of EMHU yielded seven compounds. MTT assay of isolated compounds explored compound-3 as potentially active one, which inhibited the growth of A549 cells with IC50value of 14.2μM. Further, compound-3 was identified as cedrelopsin, a coumarin derivative having molecular weight of 260. Results of in vitro mechanistic studies explained that cedrelopsin induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and down-regulated the expression of G2/M regulatory proteins such as cyclin B1, cdc2, and cdc25C, dose dependently. This is the first report that explores the cytotoxic mechanism of cedrelopsin. Conclusion: Thus a potential small lead molecule, cedrelopsin isolated from H. umbellata, showing antiproliferative effect mediated by G2/M arrest in A549 cells was discovered. The effect of cedrelopsin against other cancer cell lines followed by in vivo studies can be performed in future to develop a new drug candidate.
Increasing Solubility and Bioavailability of Fluvastatin through Transdermal Nanoemulsion Gel Delivery System for the Treatment of Osteoporosis
Fluvastatin has been reported for increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis since last decade. Systemically administered drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism, thus very small amount of drug reaches the bone tissue which is highly insignificant. The present study aims to deliver fluvastatin in the form of nanoemulsion (NE) gel directly to the bone tissue through transdermal route thereby bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism. The NE formulation consisted of isopropyl myristate as oil, tween 80 as surfactant, transcutol as co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using aqueous titration method and NE’s obtained were subjected to thermodynamic-kinetic stability studies. The stable NE formulations were evaluated for their droplet size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-sized formulations were incorporated into 0.5% carbopol 934 gel matrix. Ex-vivo permeation behaviour of selected formulations through rat skin was investigated and compared with the conventional formulations (suspension and emulsion). Further, in-vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried using male Wistar rats. The optimized NE formulations mean droplet size was 11.66±3.2 nm with polydispersity index of 0.117. Permeation flux of NE gel formulations was found significantly higher than the conventional formulations i.e. suspension and emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed significant increase in bioavailability (1.25 fold) of fluvastatin than oral formulation. Thus, it can be concluded that NE gel was successfully developed for transdermal delivery of fluvastatin for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Improving Medication Understanding, Use and Self-Efficacy among Stroke Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial; Study Protocol
Background: The Health Belief Theory had always been associated with chronic disease management. Various health behaviour concepts and perception branching from this Health Belief Theory had involved with medication understanding, use, and self-efficacy which directly link to medication adherence. In a previous quantitative and qualitative study, stroke patients in Malaysia were found to be strongly believing information obtained by various sources such as the internet and social communication. This action leads to lower perception of their stroke preventative medication benefit which in long-term creates non-adherence. Hence, this study intends to pilot an intervention which uses audio-visual concept incorporated with mHealth service to enhance learning and self-reflection among stroke patients to manage their disease. Methods/Design: Twenty patients will be allocated to a proposed intervention whereas another twenty patients are allocated to the usual treatment. The intervention involves a series of developed audio-visual videos sent via mobile phone which later await for responses and feedback from the receiver (patient) via SMS or recorded calls. The primary outcome would be the medication understanding, use and self-efficacy measured over two months pre and post intervention. Secondary outcome is measured from changes of blood parameters and other self-reported questionnaires. Discussion: This study shall also assess uptake/attrition, feasibility, and acceptability of this intervention. Trial Registration: NMRR-15-851-24737 (IIR)
Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on in vitro Biosynthesis of Antioxidative Compounds in Callus Culture and Regenerated Plantlets Derived from Taraxacum officinale
Taraxacum officinale Weber or dandelion (Asteraceae) is an important Indian traditional herb used to treat liver detoxification, digestive problems, spleen, hepatic and kidney disorders, etc. The plant is well known to possess important phenolic and flavonoids to serve as a potential source of antioxidative and chemoprotective agents. Biosynthesis of bioactive compounds through in vitro cultures is a requisite for natural resource conservation and to provide an alternative source for pharmaceutical applications. Thus an efficient and reproducible protocol was developed for in vitro biosynthesis of bioactive antioxidative compounds from leaf derived callus and in vitro regenerated cultures of Taraxacum officinale using MS media fortified with various combinations of auxins and cytokinins. MS media containing 0.25 mg/l 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichloro phenoxyacetic acid) with 0.05 mg/l 2-iP [N6-(2-Isopentenyl adenine)] was found as an effective combination for the establishment of callus with 92 % callus induction frequency. Moreover, 2.5 mg/l NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid) with 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-Benzyl aminopurine) and 1.5 mg/l NAA showed the optimal response for in vitro plant regeneration with 80 % regeneration frequency and rooting respectively. In vitro regenerated plantlets were further transferred to soil and acclimatized. Quantitative variability of accumulated bioactive compounds in cultures (in vitro callus, plantlets and acclimatized) were determined through UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry) and compared with wild plants. The phytochemical determination of in vitro and wild grown samples showed the accumulation of 6 compounds. In in vitro callus cultures and regenerated plantlets, two major antioxidative compounds i.e. chlorogenic acid (14950.0 µg/g and 4086.67 µg/g) and umbelliferone (10400.00 µg/g and 2541.67 µg/g) were found respectively. Scopoletin was found to be highest in vitro regenerated plants (83.11 µg/g) as compared to wild plants (52.75 µg/g). Notably, scopoletin is not detected in callus and acclimatized plants, but quinic acid (6433.33 µg/g) and protocatechuic acid (92.33 µg/g) were accumulated at the highest level in acclimatized plants as compared to other samples. Wild grown plants contained highest content (948.33 µg/g) of flavonoid glycoside i.e. luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Our data suggests that in vitro callus and regenerated plants biosynthesized higher content of antioxidative compounds in controlled conditions when compared to wild grown plants. These standardized cultural conditions may be explored as a sustainable source of plant materials for enhanced production and adequate supply of oxidative polyphenols.
Application of a Synthetic DNA Reference Material for Optimisation of DNA Extraction and Purification for Molecular Identification of Medicinal Plants
DNA barcoding is increasingly used for identification of medicinal plants worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of DNA barcodes have been generated, and their application in species identification explored. The success of DNA barcoding process relies on the accuracy of the results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step which could be negatively affected due to a presence of inhibitors or degraded DNA in herbal samples. An established DNA reference material can be used to support molecular characterisation protocols and prove system suitability, for fast and accurate identification of plant species. The present study describes the use of a novel reference material, the trnH-psbA British Pharmacopoeia Nucleic Acid Reference Material (trnH-psbA BPNARM), which was produced to aid in the identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., a widely used herb. During DNA barcoding of O. tenuiflorum, PCR amplifications of isolated DNA produced inconsistent results, suggesting an issue with either the method or DNA quality of the tested samples. The trnH-psbA BPNARM was produced and tested to check for the issues caused during PCR amplification. It was added to the plant material as control DNA before extraction and was co-extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR analyses revealed that the amplification was not as successful as expected which suggested that the amplification is affected by presence of inhibitors co-extracted from plant materials. Various potential issues were assessed during DNA extraction and optimisations were made accordingly. A DNA barcoding protocol for O. tenuiflorum was published in the British Pharmacopoeia 2016, which included the reference sequence. The trnH-psbA BPNARM accelerated degradation test which investigates the stability of the reference material over time demonstrated that it has been stable when stored at 56 °C for a year. Using this protocol and trnH-psbA reference material provides a fast and accurate method for identification of O. tenuiflorum. The optimisations of the DNA extraction using the trnH-psbA BPNARM provided a signposting method which can assist in overcoming common problems encountered when using molecular methods with medicinal plants.