Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 56538

Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences

839
98754
Oleuropein Ameliorates Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance by Increasing GLUT4 Translocation through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Rat Soleus Muscles
Abstract:
Oleuropein, the main constituent of leaves and fruits of the olive tree, has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on parameters relevant to the normal homeostatic mechanisms of glucose regulation in rat skeletal muscle. However, the antidiabetic effect of oleuropein, to our knowledge, has not been examined. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether oleuropein ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. To examine this question, insulin resistance was rapidly induced by incubating (12h) soleus muscle with a high concentration of palmitate(2mM). Subsequently, we attempted to restore insulin sensitivity by incubating (12h) muscles with oleuropien (1.5mM), while maintaining high concentrations of palmitate. Palmitate treatment for 12 h reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocationandAS160 phosphorylation. Oleuropein treatment (12 h) fully restoredinsulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4translocationandAS160 phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3K phosphorylation with wortmannin (1µM)did not affect the oleuropein-induced improvements in insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocation, and AS160 phosphorylation. These results suggested that the improvements in these parameters cannot account for activating PI3K pathway. Taken altogether, it appears that oleuropein, through activation of another pathway like activated protein kinase (AMPK), may provide a possible strategy by which they ameliorate palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscles.
838
98595
Antibiotic Prophylaxis Habits in Oral Implant Surgery in the Netherlands: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Abstract:
Background: Oral implants are a routine treatment to replace lost teeth. Although they have a high rate of success, implant failures do occur. Perioperative antibiotics have been suggested to prevent postoperative infections and dental implant failures, but they remain a controversial treatment among healthy patients. The objective of this study was to determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis is a common treatment in the Netherlands among general dentists, maxillofacial-surgeons, periodontists and implantologists in conjunction with oral implant surgery among healthy patients and to assess the nature of antibiotics prescriptions in order to evaluate whether any consensus has been reached and the current recommendations are being followed. Methodology: Observational cross-sectional study based on a web-survey reported according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. A validated questionnaire, developed by Deeb et al. (2015), was translated and slightly adjusted to circumstances in the Netherlands. It was used with the explicit permission of the authors. This questionnaire contained both close-ended and some open-ended questions in relation to the following topics: demographics, qualification, antibiotic type, prescription-duration and dosage. An email was sent February 2018 to a sample of 600 general dentists and all 302 oral implantologists, periodontists and maxillofacial surgeons who were recognized by the Dutch Association of Oral Implantology (NVOI) as oral health care providers placing oral implants. The email included a brief introduction about the study objectives and a link to the web questionnaire, which could be filled in anonymously. Overall, 902 questionnaires were sent. However, 29 questionnaires were not correctly received due to an incorrect email address. So a total number of 873 professionals were reached. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM Corp., released 2012, Armonk, NY). Results: The questionnaire was sent back by a total number of 218 participants (response rate=24.2%), 45 female (20.8%) and 171 male (79.2%). Two respondents were excluded from the study group because they were not currently working as oral health providers. Overall 151 (69.9%) placed oral implants on regular basis. Approximately 79 (52.7%) of these participants prescribed antibiotics only in determined situations, 66 (44.0%) prescribed antibiotics always and 5 dentists (3.3%) did not prescribe antibiotics at all when placing oral implants. Overall, 83 participants who prescribed antibiotics, did so both pre- and postoperatively (58.5%), 12 exclusively postoperative (8.5%), and 47 followed an exclusive preoperative regime (33.1%). A single dose of 2,000 mg amoxicillin orally 1-hour prior treatment was the most prescribed preoperative regimen. The most frequent prescribed postoperative regimen was 500 mg amoxicillin three times daily for 7 days after surgery. On average, oral health professionals prescribed 6,923 mg antibiotics in conjunction with oral implant surgery, varying from 500 to 14,600 mg. Conclusions: Antibiotic prophylaxis in conjunction with oral implant surgery is prescribed in the Netherlands on a rather large scale. Dutch professionals might prescribe antibiotics more cautiously than in other countries and there seems to be a lower range on the different antibiotic types and regimens being prescribed. Anyway, recommendations based on last-published evidence are frequently not being followed.
837
98064
Synthesis and Anticancer Evaluation of Substituted 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl) Benzazoles
Abstract:
Benzazole nucleus is found in the structure of many compounds as anticancer agents. Bendamustine (Alkylating agent), Nocodazole (Mitotic inhibitor), Veliparib (PARP inhibitor), Glasdegib (SMO inhibitor) are clinically used as anticancer therapeutics which bearing benzimidazole moiety. Based on the principle of bioisosterism in the present work, 23 compounds belonging to 2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl) benzazoles and imidazopyridine series were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activities. N-(5-Chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide, was obtained by the amidation of 2-hydroxy-5-chloroaniline with 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid by using 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole. Cyclization of benzamide derivative to benzoxazole, was achieved by p-toluenesulfonic acid. Other 1H-benz (or pyrido) azoles were prepared by the reaction between 2-aminothiophenol, o-phenylenediamine, o-pyridinediamine with sodium metabisulfite adduct of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. The NMR assignments of the dimethoxy groups were established by the Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy. A compound named, 5(4),7(6)-Dichloro-2-(3,4-dimethoxy) phenyl-1H-benzimidazole, bearing two chlorine atoms at the 5(4) and 7(6) positions of the benzene moiety of benzimidazole was found the most potent analogue, against A549 cells with the GI50 value of 1.5 µg/mL. In addition, 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimi-dazole showed remarkable cell growth inhibition against MCF-7 and HeLa cells with the GI₅₀ values of 7 and 5.5 µg/mL, respectively. It could be concluded that introduction of di-chloro atoms at the phenyl ring of 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazoles increase significant cytotoxicity to selected human tumor cell lines in comparison to other all benzazoles synthesized in this study. Unsubstituted 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) imidazopyridines also gave the good inhibitory profile against A549 and HeLa cells.
836
98048
A Crossover Study of Therapeutic Equivalence of Generic Product Versus Reference Product of Ivabradine in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure
Abstract:
Background: Generic substitution of brand ivabradine prescriptions can reduce drug expenditures and improve adherence. However, the distrust of generic medicines by practitioners and patients due to doubts regarding their quality and fear of counterfeiting compromise the acceptance of this practice. Aim: The goal of this study is to compare the therapeutic equivalence of brand product versus the generic product of ivabradine in adult patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (≤ 40%) (HFrEF). Methodology: Thirty-two Egyptian patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were treated with branded ivabradine (Procrolan ©) and generic (Bradipect ©) during 24 (2x12) weeks. Primary outcomes were resting heart rate (HR), NYHA FC, Quality of life (QoL) using Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLWHF) and EF. Secondary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for worsening HFrEF and adverse effects. The washout period was not allowed. Findings: At the 12th week, the reduction in HR was comparable in the two groups (90.13±7.11 to 69±11.41 vs 96.13±17.58 to 67.31±8.68 bpm in brand and generic groups, respectively). Also, the increase in EF was comparable in the two groups (27.44 ±4.59 to 33.38±5.62 vs 32±5.96 to 39.31±8.95 in brand and generic groups, respectively). The improvement in NYHA FC was comparable in both groups (87.5% in brand group vs 93.8% in the generic group). The mean value of the QOL improved from 31.63±15.8 to 19.6±14.7 vs 35.68±17.63 to 22.9±15.1 for the brand and generic groups, respectively. Similarly, at end of 24 weeks, no significant changes were observed from data observed at 12th week regarding HR, EF, QoL and NYHA FC. Only minor side effects, mainly phosphenes, and a comparable number of hospitalizations were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The study revealed no statistically significant differences in the therapeutic effect and safety between generic and branded ivabradine. We assume that practitioners can safely interchange between them for economic reasons.
835
98001
Development and Total Error Concept Validation of Common Analytical Method for Quantification of All Residual Solvents Present in Amino Acids by Gas Chromatography-Head Space
Abstract:
Residual solvents in Pharmaceutical samples are monitored using gas chromatography with headspace (GC-HS). Based on current regulatory and compendial requirements, measuring the residual solvents are mandatory for all release testing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Generally, isopropyl alcohol is used as the residual solvent in proline and tryptophan; methanol in cysteine monohydrate hydrochloride, glycine, methionine and serine; ethanol in glycine and lysine monohydrate; acetic acid in methionine. In order to have a single method for determining these residual solvents (isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol and acetic acid) in all these 7 amino acids a sensitive and simple method was developed by using gas chromatography headspace technique with flame ionization detection. During development, no reproducibility, retention time variation and bad peak shape of acetic acid peaks were identified due to the reaction of acetic acid with the stationary phase (cyanopropyl dimethyl polysiloxane phase) of column and dissociation of acetic acid with water (if diluent) while applying temperature gradient. Therefore, dimethyl sulfoxide was used as diluent to avoid these issues. But most the methods published for acetic acid quantification by GC-HS uses derivatisation technique to protect acetic acid. As per compendia, risk-based approach was selected as appropriate to determine the degree and extent of the validation process to assure the fitness of the procedure. Therefore, Total error concept was selected to validate the analytical procedure. An accuracy profile of ±40% was selected for lower level (quantitation limit level) and for other levels ±30% with 95% confidence interval (risk profile 5%). The method was developed using DB-Waxetr column manufactured by Agilent contains 530 µm internal diameter, thickness: 2.0 µm, and length: 30 m. A constant flow of 6.0 mL/min. with constant make up mode of Helium gas was selected as a carrier gas. The present method is simple, rapid, and accurate, which is suitable for rapid analysis of isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol and acetic acid in amino acids. The range of the method for isopropyl alcohol is 50ppm to 200ppm, ethanol is 50ppm to 3000ppm, methanol is 50ppm to 400ppm and acetic acid 100ppm to 400ppm, which covers the specification limits provided in European pharmacopeia. The accuracy profile and risk profile generated as part of validation were found to be satisfactory. Therefore, this method can be used for testing of residual solvents in amino acids drug substances.
834
97993
Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of Related Substance in Gentamicin Drug Substances
Abstract:
Gentamicin is a broad spectrum water-soluble aminoglycoside antibiotics produced by the fermentation process of microorganism known as Micromonospora purpurea. It is widely used for the treatment of infection caused by both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Gentamicin consists of a mixture of aminoglycoside components like C1, C1a, C2a, and C2. The molecular structure of Gentamicin and its related substances showed that it has lack of presence of chromophore group in the molecule due to which the detection of such components were quite critical and challenging. In this study, a simple Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method using ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed and validated for quantification of the related substances present in Gentamicin drug substances. The method was achieved by using Thermo Scientific Hypersil Gold analytical column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size) with isocratic elution composed of methanol: water: glacial acetic acid: sodium hexane sulfonate in the ratio 70:25:5:3 % v/v/v/w as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, column temperature was maintained at 30 °C and detection wavelength of 330 nm. The four components of Gentamicin namely Gentamicin C1, C1a, C2a, and C2 were well separated along with the related substance present in Gentamicin. The Limit of Quantification (LOQ) values were found to be at 0.0075 mg/mL. The accuracy of the method was quite satisfactory in which the % recovery was resulted between 95-105% for the related substances. The correlation coefficient (≥ 0.995) shows the linearity response against concentration over the range of Limit of Quantification (LOQ). Precision studies showed the % Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values less than 5% for its related substance. The method was validated in accordance with the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guideline with various parameters like system suitability, specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, limit of quantification, and robustness. This proposed method was easy and suitable for use for the quantification of related substances in routine analysis of Gentamicin formulations.
833
97700
In vitro and in vivo Assessment of Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of the Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
Abstract:
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder) is mostly predominant cause of dementia in the elderly. Prolonging the function of acetylcholine by inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase is most effective treatment therapy of AD. Traditionally Pterocarpus santalinus L. is widely known for its medicinal use. In this study, in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was investigated and methanolic extract of the plant showed significant activity. To confirm this activity (in vivo), learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. For the test, memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist). Anti-amnesic effect of the extract was investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. The study also includes brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results proved that scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly decreased by administration of the extract solution, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that bark extract of Pterocarpus santalinus can be better option for further studies on AD via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.
832
97528
The Evaluation of the Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics on Sperm Quality by Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis in Rats
Abstract:
Atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone have been frequently and chronically used to treat psychiatric disorders accompanied by psychosis mainly schizophrenia. Since these drugs are commonly used in male patients of reproductive age, it is required to determine the possible effects of them on the reproductive system. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the possible toxic effects of quetiapine, olanzapine and risperidone, which are the most frequently prescribed and chronically used psychiatric drugs, on sperm parameters. For this purpose, quetiapine (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg), olanzapine (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg), and risperidone (1.25, 2.5 and 3 mg/kg) were administered to male rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of this period, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. According to the results, sperm parameters were negatively affected by antipsychotic use.
831
97413
Role of Natural Products in Drug Discovery of Anti-Biotic and Anti-Cancer Agents
Authors:
Abstract:
For many years, small organic molecules derived naturally from microbes and plants have delivered a number of expedient therapeutic drug agents. The search for naturally occurring lead compounds has continued in recent years as well, with the constituents of marine flora and fauna along with those of telluric microorganisms and plants being investigated for their anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activities. It has been observed that such promising lead molecules incline to promptly generate substantial attention among scientists like synthetic organic chemists and biologists. Subsequently, the availability of a given precious natural product sample may be enriched, and it may be possible to determine a preliminary idea of structure-activity relationships to develop synthetic analogues. For instance, anti-tumor drug topotecan is a synthetic chemical compound similar in chemical structure to camptothecin which is found in extracts of Camptotheca acuminate. Similarly, researchers at AstraZeneca discovered anti-biotic pyrrolamide through a fragment-based lead generation approach from kibdelomycin, which is isolated from Staphylococcus aureuss.
830
97340
Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Biological Activities of an Ethyl Acetate Extract from the Peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo
Abstract:
Hyperglycemia represents the main pathogenic factor in the development of diabetes complications and has been found associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which in turn increase cell dysfunction. Therefore, counteract oxidative species appears to be a suitable strategy for preventing the hyperglycemia-induce cell damage and support the pharmacotherapy of diabetes and metabolic diseases. Antidiabetic potential of many food sources has been linked to the presence of polyphenolic metabolites, particularly flavonoids such as quercetin and its glycosylated form rutin. In line with this evidence, in the present study, we assayed the potential anti-hyperglycemic activity of an ethyl acetate extract from the peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo (PGE), a fruit well known to traditional medicine for the beneficial properties of its edible juice. The effect of the extract on the glucidic metabolism has been evaluated by assessing its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, two digestive enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of dietary carbohydrates: their inhibition can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce glucose absorption, thus representing an important strategy for the management of hyperglycemia. Also, the PGE ability to block the release of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), whose accumulation is known to be responsible for diabetic vascular complications, was studied. The iron-reducing and chelating activities, which are the primary mechanisms by which AGE inhibitors stop their metal-catalyzed formation, were evaluated as possible antioxidant mechanisms. At last, the phenolic content of PGE was characterized by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Our results displayed the ability of PGE to inhibit α-amylase enzyme with a similar potency to the positive control: the IC₅₀ values were 52.2 (CL 27.7 - 101.2) µg/ml and 35.6 (CL 22.8 - 55.5) µg/ml for acarbose and PGE, respectively. PGE also inhibited the α-glucosidase enzyme with about a 25 higher potency than the positive controls of acarbose and quercetin. Furthermore, the extract exhibited ferrous and ferric ion chelating ability, with a maximum effect of 82.1% and 80.6% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml respectively, and reducing properties, reaching the maximum effect of 80.5% at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. At last, PGE was found able to inhibit the AGE production (maximum inhibition of 82.2% at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml), although with lower potency with respect to the positive control rutin. The phytochemical analysis of PGE displayed the presence of high levels of total polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids, among which ellagic acid, gallic acid and catechin were identified. Altogether these data highlight the ability of PGE to control the carbohydrate metabolism at different levels, both by inhibiting the metabolic enzymes and by affecting the AGE formation likely by chelating mechanisms. It is also noteworthy that peel from pomegranate, although being a waste of juice production, can be reviewed as a nutraceutical source. In conclusion, present results suggest the possible role of PGE as a remedy for preventing hyperglycemia complications and encourage further in vivo studies.
829
97311
Chemopreventive Properties of Cannabis sativa L. var. USO31 in Relation to Its Phenolic and Terpenoid Content
Abstract:
Cannabis sativa L. is one of the oldest cultivated plant species known not only for its voluptuous use but also for the wide application in food, textile, and therapeutic industries. Recently, the progress of biotechnologies applied to medicinal plants has allowed to produce different hemp varieties with low content of psychotropic phytoconstituents (tetrahydrocannabinol < 0.2% w/v), thus leading to a renewed industrial and therapeutic interest for this plant. In this context, in order to discover new potential remedies of pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical interest, the chemopreventive properties of different organic and hydroalcoholic extracts, obtained from the inflorescences of C. sativa L. var. USO31, collected in June and September harvesting, were assessed. Particularly, the antimutagenic activity towards the oxidative DNA-damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) was evaluated, and the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging power of the samples were assessed as possible mechanisms of antimutagenicity. Furthermore, the ability of the extracts to inhibit the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), whose overexpression has been found to play a critical role in neoplastic transformation and tumor progression, has been studied as a possible chemopreventive strategy. A careful phytochemical characterization of the extracts for phenolic and terpenoid composition has been obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Under our experimental condition, all the extracts were found able to interfere with the tBOOH-induced mutagenicity in WP2uvrAR strain, although with different potency and effectiveness. The organic extracts from both the harvesting periods were found to be the main effective antimutagenic samples, reaching about a 55% inhibition of the tBOOH-mutagenicity at the highest concentration tested (250 μg/ml). All the extracts exhibited radical scavenger activity against DPPH and ABTS radicals, with a higher potency of the hydroalcoholic samples. The organic extracts were also able to inhibit the G6PD enzyme, being the samples from September harvesting the highly potent (about 50% inhibition respect to the vehicle). At the phytochemical analysis, all the extracts resulted to contain both polar and apolar phenolic compounds. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of catechin and rutin as the major constituents of the hydroalcoholic extracts, with lower levels of quercetin and ferulic acid. The monoterpene carvacrol was found to be an ubiquitarian constituent. At GC-MS analysis, different terpenoids, among which caryophyllene sesquiterpenes, were identified. This evidence suggests a possible role of both polyphenols and terpenoids in the chemopreventive properties of the extracts from the inflorescences of C. sativa var. USO31. According to the literature, carvacrol and caryophyllene sesquiterpenes can contribute to the strong antimutagenicity although the role of all the hemp phytocomplex cannot be excluded. In conclusion, present results highlight a possible interest for the inflorescences of C. sativa var. USO31 as source of bioactive molecules and stimulate further studies in order to characterize its possible application for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical purposes.
828
97109
Effect of Post and Pre Induced Treatment with Hesperidin in N-Methyl N-Nitrosourea Induced Mammary Gland Cancer in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats
Abstract:
The main objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of hesperidin in the treatment of breast cancer and causing less (or) no bone marrow depression which is the major side effect of the present anticancer drugs treating breast cancer, also to evaluate the mechanisms through which these compounds are exerting their effect. Breast cancer is induced by administering N-methyl N-Nitrosourea (MNU) at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Upon the termination of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed by the method of cervical dislocation. The animals were dissected along the ventral midline and were grossly examined for the presence of tumors. Then the tumours were removed along with the stroma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were estimated by using ELISA method. The first occurrence of palpable tumors was eight weeks after carcinogen treatment and the final tumour incidence was 100% in the MNU alone and topical treated rats. Whereas in rats of other treatment groups there is decreased tumour incidence which might be due to their antitumour activity. Hesperidin therapy inhibited angiogenesis which can be evident from the significant reduction in serum as well as tumour VEGF concentrations in comparison to the untreated mammary carcinoma bearing rats. Hesperidin is promising agents that exert direct antitumor and also antiangiogenic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Even though the potency is little lesser than standard drug vincristine, it has been proved to be safe without effecting haematological count.
827
97103
Nephroprotective Effect of Asparagus falcatus Leaf Extract on Adriamycin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats: A Dose Response Study
Abstract:
Adriamycin (ADR) is an effective anthracyclin antitumor drug, but its clinical use is limited due to renal toxicity. The leaves of Asparagus falcatus (Family: Liliaceae) have been used in the management of renal diseases since antiquity. In the present investigation, the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus was evaluated for acute nephroprotective activity in ADR induced nephrotoxic rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in healthy male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of ADR 20 mg/kg. The lyophilized powder of the aqueous refluxed (4h) leaf extract of A. falcatus was administered orally at three selected doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for three consecutive days. Fosinopril sodium (0.09 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. Administration of the plant extract and the standard drug was commenced 24 hours after the induction of nephrotoxicity to rats. The nephroprotective effect was determined by selected biochemical parameters and by the assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections. The results were compared to a group of control rats with ADR induced nephrotoxicity. A group of rats administered with the equivalent volume of normal saline served as the healthy control. Administration of ADR 20 mg/kg produced a significant increase in the concentrations of serum creatinine (61%) and urine protein (73%) followed by a significant decrease in serum total protein (21%) and albumin (44%) of the plant extract treated animals compared to the healthy control group (p < 0.05). The aqueous extract of Asparagus falcatus at the three doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg and the standard drug were found to decrease the elevation of concentrations of serum creatinine (33%, 51%, 54% and 42%) and urine protein (8%, 63%, 80% and 86%) respectively. The serum concentrations of total protein (12%, 17%, 29% and 12%) and albumin (3%, 17%, 17% and 16%) were significantly increased compared to the nephrotoxic control group respectively. Assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections demonstrated that ADR induced renal injury, as evidenced by loss of brush border, cytoplasmic vacuolization, pyknosis in renal tubular epithelial cells, haemorrhages, glomerular congestion and presence of hyaline casts. Treatment with the plant extract and the standard drug resulted in attenuation of the morphological destruction in rats. The results of the present study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus possesses significant nephroprotective activity against adriamycin induced acute nephrotoxicity. The improved kidney functions were supported with the results of selected biochemical parameters and histological changes observed on H and E stained sections of the kidney tissues in Wistar rats.
826
96554
Nephroprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Roxb.) Leaves in Adriamycin Induced Acute Renal Failure in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histopathological Assessment
Abstract:
The search for alternative pharmacological therapies based on natural extracts for renal failure has become an urgent need, due to paucity of effective pharmacotherapy. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the acute nephroprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Roxb.) (Family: Lamiaceae), a medicinal plant used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for the management of renal diseases in Sri Lanka. The study was performed in adriamycin (ADR) induced nephrotoxic in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups each with six rats. A single dose of ADR (20 mg/kg body wt., ip) was used for the induction of nephrotoxicity in all groups of rats except group one. The treatments were started 24 hours after induction of nephrotoxicity and continued for three days. Group one and two served as healthy and nephrotoxic control rats and were administered equivalent volumes of normal saline (0.9% NaCl) orally. Group three and four nephrotoxic rats were administered the lyophilized powder of the aqueous extract of P. amboinicus (400 mg/ kg body wt.; equivalent human therapeutic dose) and the standard drug, fosinopril sodium (0.09 mg/ kg body wt.) respectively. Urine and blood samples were collected from rats in each group at the end of the period of intervention for the estimation of selected renal parameters. H and E stained sections of the kidney tissues were examined for histopathological changes. Rats treated with the plant extract showed significant improvement in biochemical parameters and histopathological changes compared to ADR induced nephrotoxic group. The elevation of serum concentrations of creatinine and β2-microglobulin were decreased by 38%, and 66% in plant extract treated nephrotoxic rats respectively (p < 0.05). In addition, serum concentrations of total protein and albumin were significantly increased by 25% and 14% in rats treated with P. amboinicus respectively (p < 0.05). The results of β2 –microglobulin and serum total protein demonstrated a significant reduction in the elevated values in rats administered with the plant extract (400 mg/kg) compared to that of fosinopril (0.09 mg/kg). Urinary protein loss in 24hr urine samples was significantly decreased in rats treated with both fosinopril (86%) and P. ambonicus (56%) at the end of the intervention (p < 0.01). Accordingly, an attenuation of morphological destruction was observed in the H and E stained sections of the kidney with the treatments of plant extract and fosinopril. The results of the present study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of P. amboinicus possesses significant nephroprotective activity at the equivalent therapeutic dose of 400 mg/ kg against adriamycin induced acute nephrotoxicity.
825
96543
Knowledge-Attitude-Practice Survey Regarding High Alert Medication in a Teaching Hospital in Eastern India
Abstract:
Objective: Medication errors are a reality in all settings where medicines are prescribed, dispensed and used. High Alert Medications (HAM) are those that bear a heightened risk of causing significant patient harm when used in error. We conducted a knowledge-attitude-practice survey, among residents working in a teaching hospital, to assess the ground situation with regard to the handling of HAM. Methods: We plan to approach 242 residents among the approximately 600 currently working in the hospital through purposive sampling. Residents in all disciplines (clinical, paraclinical and preclinical) are being targeted. A structured questionnaire that has been pretested on 5 volunteer residents is being used for data collection. The questionnaire is being administered to residents individually through face-to-face interview, by two raters, while they are on duty but not during rush hours. Results: Of the 156 residents approached so far, data from 140 have been analyzed, the rest having refused participation. Although background knowledge exists for the majority of respondents, awareness levels regarding HAM are moderate, and attitude is non-uniform. The number of respondents correctly able to identify most ( > 80%) HAM in three common settings– accident and emergency, obstetrics and intensive care unit are less than 70%. Several potential errors in practice have been identified. The study is ongoing. Conclusions: Situation requires corrective action. There is an urgent need for improving awareness regarding HAM for the sake of patient safety. The pharmacology department can take the lead in designing awareness campaign with support from the hospital administration.
824
96486
Association between G2677T/A MDR1 Polymorphism with the Clinical Response to Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Abstract:
Introduction: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, resistance or poor response to disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) may be a reflection of the increase in g-P. The expression of g-P may be important in mediating the effluence of DMARD from the cell. In addition, P-glycoprotein is involved in the transport of cytokines, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-4, from normal lymphocytes activated to the surrounding extracellular matrix, thus influencing the activity of RA. The involvement of P-glycoprotein in the transmembrane transport of cytokines can serve as a modulator of the efficacy of DMARD. It was shown that a number of lymphocytes with glycoprotein P activity is increased in patients with RA; therefore, P-glycoprotein expression could be related to the activity of RA and could be a predictor of poor response to therapy. Objective: To evaluate in RA patients, if the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms is associated with differences in the rate of therapeutic response to disease-modifying antirheumatic agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Fifty seven patients with RA were included. They had an active disease according to DAS-28 (score >3.2). We excluded patients receiving biological agents. All the patients were followed during 6 months in order to identify the rate of therapeutic response according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. At the baseline peripheral blood samples were taken in order to identify the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms using PCR- Specific allele. The fragment was identified by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels stained with ethidium bromide. For statistical analysis, the genotypic and allelic frequencies of MDR1 gene polymorphism between responders and non-responders were determined. Chi-square tests as well as, relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed to identify differences in the risk for achieving therapeutic response. Results: RA patients had a mean age of 47.33 ± 12.52 years, 87.7% were women with a mean for DAS-28 score of 6.45 ± 1.12. At the 6 months, the rate of therapeutic response was 68.7 %. The observed genotype frequencies were: for G/G 40%, T/T 32%, A/A 19%, G/T 7% and for A/A genotype 2%. Patients with G allele developed at 6 months of treatment, higher rate for therapeutic response assessed by ACR20 compared to patients with others alleles (p=0.039). Conclusions: Patients with G allele of the - G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms had a higher rate of therapeutic response at 6 months with DMARD. These preliminary data support the requirement for a deep evaluation of these and other genotypes as factors that may influence the therapeutic response in RA.
823
96441
Xanthotoxin: A Plant Derived Furanocoumarin with Antipathogenic and Cytotoxic Activities
Abstract:
In recent years a great deal of efforts has been made to find natural derivative compounds to replace it's with synthetic drugs, herbicides or pesticides for management of human health and agroecosystem programs. This process can lead to a reduction in environmental harmful effects of synthetic chemicals. Xanthotoxin, as a furanocoumarin compound, found in some genera of the Apiaceae family of plants. The current work focuses on some xanthotoxin cytotoxicity and antipathogenic activities. The results indicated that xanthotoxin showed strong cytotoxic effects against LNCaP cell line with the IC₅₀ value of 0.207 mg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. After treatments of the cell line with 0.1 mg/ml of the compound, the viability of the cells was reached to zero. The current study revealed that xanthotoxin displayed strong antifungal activity against human or plant pathogen fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspegillusn flavus and Fusarum graminearum with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 52-68 µg/ml. The compound exhibited antibacterial effects on some Erwinia and Xanthomonas species of bacteria, as well
822
96400
Dual Mode Mobile Based Detection of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide for Determination of Live and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
Abstract:
Increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a big concern for the treatment of pathogenic diseases. The effect of treatment of patients with antibiotics often leads to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the pathogens. The detection of antibiotic or antimicrobial resistant bacteria (microbes) is quite essential as it is becoming one of the big threats globally. Here we propose a novel technique to tackle this problem. We are taking a step forward to prevent the infections and diseases due to drug resistant microbes. This detection is based on some unique features of silver (a noble metal) nanorods (AgNRs) which are fabricated by a physical deposition method called thermal glancing angle deposition (GLAD). Silver nanorods are found to be highly sensitive and selective for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. Color and water wetting (contact angle) of AgNRs are two parameters what are effected in the presence of this gas. H₂S is one of the major gaseous products evolved in the bacterial metabolic process. It is also known as gasotransmitter that transmits some biological singles in living systems. Nitric Oxide (NO) and Carbon mono oxide (CO) are two another members of this family. Orlowski (1895) observed the emission of H₂S by the bacteria for the first time. Most of the microorganism produce these gases. Here we are focusing on H₂S gas evolution to determine live/dead and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. AgNRs array has been used for the detection of H₂S from micro-organisms. A mobile app is also developed to make it easy, portable, user-friendly, and cost-effective.
821
96243
Antibiotic Prescribing in the Acute Care in Iraq
Abstract:
Background: Excessive and inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients remains an important patient safety and public health issue worldwide. Not only does this behavior incur unnecessary cost but it is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to obtain an insight into the prescribing patterns of antibiotics in surgical and medical wards, to help identify a scope for improvement in service delivery. Method: A simple point prevalence survey included a convenience sample of 200 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards in a government teaching hospital in Baghdad between October 2017 and April 2018. Data were collected by a trained pharmacy intern using a standardized form. Patient&rsquo;s demographics and details of the prescribed antibiotics, including dose, frequency of dosing and route of administration, were reported. Patients were included if they had been admitted at least 24 hours before the survey. Patients under 18 years of age, having a diagnosis of cancer or shock, or being admitted to the intensive care unit, were excluded. Data were checked and entered by the authors into Excel and were subjected to frequency analysis, which was carried out on anonymized data to protect patient confidentiality. Results: Overall, 88.5% of patients (n=177) received 293 antibiotics during their hospital admission, with a small variation between wards (80%-97%). The average number of antibiotics prescribed per patient was 1.65, ranging from 1.3 for medical patients to 1.95 for surgical patients. Parenteral third-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed at a rate of 54.3% (n=159) followed by nitroimidazole 29.4% (n=86), quinolones 7.5% (n=22) and macrolides 4.4% (n=13), while carbapenems and aminoglycosides were the least prescribed together accounting for only 4.4% (n=13). The intravenous route was the most common route of administration, used for 96.6% of patients (n=171). Indications were reported in only 63.8% of cases. Culture to identify pathogenic organisms was employed in only 0.5% of cases. Conclusion: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed at an alarming rate. This practice may provoke antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the patient outcome. Implementation of an antibiotic stewardship program is warranted to enhance the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.
820
96095
Additional Method for the Purification of Lanthanide-Labeled Peptide Compounds Pre-Purified by Weak Cation Exchange Cartridge
Abstract:
Aim: Purification of the final product, which is the last step in the synthesis of lanthanide-labeled peptide compounds, can be accomplished by different methods. Among these methods, the two most commonly used methods are C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) and weak cation exchanger cartridge elution. SPE C18 solid phase extraction method yields high purity final product, while elution from the weak cation exchanger cartridge is pH dependent and ineffective in removing colloidal impurities. The aim of this work is to develop an additional purification method for the lanthanide-labeled peptide compound in cases where the desired radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the final product can not be achieved because of pH problem or colloidal impurity. Material and Methods: For colloidal impurity formation, 3 mL of water for injection (WFI) was added to 30 mCi of 177LuCl3 solution and allowed to stand for 1 day. 177Lu-DOTATATE was synthesized using EZAG ML-EAZY module (10 mCi/mL). After synthesis, the final product was mixed with the colloidal impurity solution (total volume:13 mL, total activity: 40 mCi). The resulting mixture was trapped in SPE-C18 cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 10 ml saline to remove impurities to the waste vial. The product trapped in the cartridge was eluted with 2 ml of 50% ethanol and collected to the final product vial via passing through a 0.22μm filter. The final product was diluted with 10 mL of saline. Radiochemical purity before and after purification was analysed by HPLC method. (column: ACE C18-100A. 3µm. 150 x 3.0mm, mobile phase: Water-Acetonitrile-Trifluoro acetic acid (75:25:1), flow rate: 0.6 mL/min). Results: UV and radioactivity detector results in HPLC analysis showed that colloidal impurities were completely removed from the 177Lu-DOTATATE/ colloidal impurity mixture by purification method. Conclusion: The improved purification method can be used as an additional method to remove impurities that may result from the lanthanide-peptide synthesis in which the weak cation exchange purification technique is used as the last step. The purification of the final product and the GMP compliance (the final aseptic filtration and the sterile disposable system components) are two major advantages.
819
95950
Synthesis of Brominated Pyrazoline Derived from Chalcone and Its Antimicrobial Activity
Abstract:
Despite the availability of antimicrobial agents in the market, the urge to study and find other chemical compounds with the better potential of replacing them still tempting the scientists. This experiment is in the aim to explore a novel brominated pyrazoline ring which was made from intermediate chalcone as a candidate to answer the challenge. Using green chemistry approach by microwave irradiation from domestic oven, both known chalcone and 5-(2-bromophenyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole were successfully synthesized. Pyrazoline’s structure was confirmed based on UV, IR, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and MS and together with its intermediate were examined against some microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) under agar diffusion method. The results collected during experiment revealed that both tested compounds showed weak activity on B.subtilis which was proven by a zone of inhibitions, while there was no zone of inhibitions observed in E. coli and C. albicans. This is suggested because of the bulky structure around pyrazoline could not provide the main ring to interact with microbial’s cell wall. The study shows that the proposed compound had the low capability as a promising antimicrobial agent, yet it still enriches the information about pyrazoline ring.
818
95827
Evaluation of Synthesis and Structure Elucidation of Some Benzimidazoles as Antimicrobial Agents
Abstract:
Benzimidazole, a structural isostere of indol and purine nuclei that can interact with biopolymers, can be identified as master key. So that benzimidazole compounds are important fragments in medicinal chemistry because of their wide range of biological activities including antimicrobial activity. We planned to synthesize some benzimidazole compounds for developing new antimicrobial drug candidates. In this study, we put some heterocyclic rings on second position and an amidine group on the fifth position of benzimidazole ring and synthesized them using a multiple step procedure. For the synthesis of the compounds, as the first step, 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzonitrile was reacted with cyclohexylamine in dimethyl formamide. Imidate esters (compound 2) were then prepared with absolute ethanol saturated with dry HCl gas. These imidate esters which were not too stable were converted to compound 3 by passing ammonia gas through ethanol. At the Pd / C catalyst, the nitro group is reduced to the amine group (compound 4). Finally, various aldehyde derivatives were reacted with sodium metabisulfite addition products to give compound 5-20. Melting points were determined on a Buchi B-540 melting point apparatus in open capillary tubes and are uncorrected. Elemental analyses were done a Leco CHNS 932 elemental analyzer. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian Mercury 400 MHz spectrometer using DMSO-d6. Mass spectra were acquired on a Waters Micromass ZQ using the ESI(+) method. The structures of them were supported by spectral data. The 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra and elemental analysis results agree with those of the proposed structures. Antimicrobial activity studies of the synthesized compounds are under the investigation.
817
95479
Pharmacovigilance in Hospitals: Retrospective Study at the Pharmacovigilance Service of UHE-Oran, Algeria
Abstract:
Medicines have undeniably played a major role in prolonging shelf life and improving quality. The absolute efficacy of the drug remains a lever for innovation, its benefit/risk balance is not always assured and it does not always have the expected effects. Prior to marketing, knowledge about adverse drug reactions is incomplete. Once on the market, phase IV drug studies begin. For years, the drug was prescribed with less care to a large number of very heterogeneous patients and often in combination with other drugs. It is at this point that previously unknown adverse effects may appear, hence the need for the implementation of a pharmacovigilance system. Pharmacovigilance represents all methods for detecting, evaluating, informing and preventing the risks of adverse drug reactions. The most severe adverse events occur frequently in hospital and that a significant proportion of adverse events result in hospitalizations. In addition, the consequences of hospital adverse events in terms of length of stay, mortality and costs are considerable. It, therefore, appears necessary to develop ‘hospital pharmacovigilance’ aimed at reducing the incidence of adverse reactions in hospitals. The most widely used monitoring method in pharmacovigilance is spontaneous notification. However, underreporting of adverse drug reactions is common in many countries and is a major obstacle to pharmacovigilance assessment. It is in this context that this study aims to describe the experience of the pharmacovigilance service at the University Hospital of Oran (EHUO). This is a retrospective study extending from 2011 to 2017, carried out on archived records of declarations collected at the level of the EHUO Pharmacovigilance Department. Reporting was collected by two methods: ‘spontaneous notification’ and ‘active pharmacovigilance’ targeting certain clinical services. We counted 217 statements. It involved 56% female patients and 46% male patients. Age ranged from 5 to 78 years with an average of 46 years. The most common adverse reaction was drug toxidermy. For the drugs in question, they were essentially according to the ATC classification of anti-infectives followed by anticancer drugs. As regards the evolution of declarations by year, a low rate of notification was noted in 2011. That is why we decided to set up an active approach at the level of some services where a resident of reference attended the staffs every week. This has resulted in an increase in the number of reports. The declarations came essentially from the services where the active approach was installed. This highlights the need for ongoing communication between all relevant health actors to stimulate reporting and secure drug treatments.
816
95149
Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Evidence of Factors Influencing the Practice in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Scoping Review
Abstract:
Background: Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a global concern, with a higher incidence in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite intense world-wide efforts to control and promote the rational use of antibiotics, continuing practices of SMA systematically exposes individuals and communities to the risk of antibiotic resistance and other undesirable antibiotic side effects. Moreover, it increases the health systems costs of acquiring more powerful antibiotics to treat the resistant infection. This review thus maps evidence on the factors influencing self-medication with antibiotics in these settings. Methods: The search strategy for this review involved electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCOhost (PubMed, CINAHL with Full Text, Health Source - Consumer Edition, MEDLINE), Google Scholar, BioMed Central and World Health Organization library, using the search terms:’ Self-Medication’, ‘antibiotics’, ‘factors’ and ‘reasons’. Our search included studies published from 2007 to 2017. Thematic analysis was performed to identify the patterns of evidence on SMA in LMICs. The mixed method quality appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2011 was employed to assess the quality of the included primary studies. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies included population from the rural (46,4%), urban (33,6%) and combined (20%) settings, of the following LMICs: Guatemala (2 studies), India (2), Indonesia (2), Kenya (1), Laos (1), Nepal (1), Nigeria (2), Pakistan (2), Sri Lanka (1), and Yemen (1). The total sample size of all 15 included studies was 7676 participants. The findings of the review show a high prevalence of SMA ranging from 8,1% to 93%. Accessibility, affordability, conditions of health facilities (long waiting, quality of services and workers) as long well as poor health-seeking behavior and lack of information are factors that influence SMA in LMICs. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, were the most frequently used for SMA. The major sources of antibiotics included pharmacies, drug stores, leftover drugs, family/friends and old prescription. Sore throat, common cold, cough with mucus, headache, toothache, flu-like symptoms, pain relief, fever, running nose, toothache, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection were the common disease symptoms managed with SMA. Conclusion: Although the information on factors influencing SMA in LMICs is unevenly distributed, the available information revealed the existence of research evidence on antibiotic self-medication in some countries of LMICs. SMA practices are influenced by social-cultural determinants of health and frequently associated with poor dispensing and prescribing practices, deficient health-seeking behavior and consequently with inappropriate drug use. Therefore, there is still a need to conduct further studies (qualitative, quantitative and randomized control trial) on factors and reasons for SMA to correctly address the public health problem in LMICs.
815
95105
Abridging Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Discovery via LC-MS-TOF, NMR, in-silico Toxicity-Bioactivity Profiling for Therapeutic Purposing Zileuton Impurities: Need of Hour
Abstract:
The need for investigations protecting against toxic impurities though seems to be a primary requirement; the impurities which may prove non - toxic can be explored for their therapeutic potential if any to assist advanced drug discovery. The essential role of pharmaceutical analysis can thus be extended effectively to achieve it. The present study successfully achieved these objectives with characterization of major degradation products as impurities for Zileuton which has been used for to treat asthma since years. The forced degradation studies were performed to identify the potential degradation products using Ultra-fine Liquid-chromatography. Liquid-chromatography-Mass spectrometry (Time of Flight) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies were utilized effectively to characterize the drug along with five major oxidative and hydrolytic degradation products (DP’s). The mass fragments were identified for Zileuton and path for the degradation was investigated. The characterized DP’s were subjected to In-Silico studies as XP Molecular Docking to compare the gain or loss in binding affinity with 5-Lipooxygenase enzyme. One of the impurity of was found to have the binding affinity more than the drug itself indicating for its potential to be more bioactive as better Antiasthmatic. The close structural resemblance has the ability to potentiate or reduce bioactivity and or toxicity. The chances of being active biologically at other sites cannot be denied and the same is achieved to some extent by predictions for probability of being active with Prediction of Activity Spectrum for Substances (PASS) The impurities found to be bio-active as Antineoplastic, Antiallergic, and inhibitors of Complement Factor D. The toxicological abilities as Ames-Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity and Skin Irritancy were evaluated using Toxicity Prediction by Komputer Assisted Technology (TOPKAT). Two of the impurities were found to be non-toxic as compared to original drug Zileuton. As the drugs are purposed and repurposed effectively the impurities can also be; as they can have more binding affinity; less toxicity and better ability to be bio-active at other biological targets.
814
94755
Pyridoxine Effectiveness and Safety for Postpartum Lactation Inhibition: A Systematic Review
Abstract:
Background: It has been suggested that pyridoxine has an anti-lactogenic effect. Studies of the efficacy of pyridoxine in suppressing lactation have reported conflicting results. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of high-dose pyridoxine in postpartum lactation inhibition. Methods: This systematic review included published trials that compared the efficacy and/or safety of pyridoxine to placebo or to other pharmacological agents for the inhibition of postpartum lactation. We searched PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane library, and the clinical trials registry to identify relevant literature. No limit was imposed on the year of publication of the studies, and the review included studies published until 15 January 2016. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Results: Seven studies were included, with a total of 1155 women, of which 471 women received pyridoxine. Three studies were randomized controlled trials, while the remaining four studies were non-randomized controlled trials. All of the included studies were relatively small (n = 18 – 482). The studies compared pyridoxine with placebo, bromocriptine, and/or stilboestrol. Pyridoxine was given orally, with a total daily dose of 450 – 600 mg for 5 to 7 days. Two trials (n = 349 participants) indicated that pyridoxine was effective in inhibiting lactation in approximately 95% of the enrolled patients. All other studies failed to demonstrate pyridoxine efficacy through either clinical assessment or prolactin level measurements. Pyridoxine safety was assessed by two trials in which no serious untoward side-effects were reported. Overall, the risk of bias for most of the studies was low to moderate. Conclusion: Current evidence supporting the effectiveness of high dose pyridoxine in the inhibition of postpartum lactation is inconsistent and insufficient. Larger randomized trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of pyridoxine in postpartum lactation inhibition. Acknowledgment: This review received a grant from the Medical Research Center of Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar (grant number: 15100/15).
813
93930
Evaluation of Neuroprotective Potential of Olea europaea and Malus domestica in Experimentally Induced Stroke Rat Model
Abstract:
Ischemic stroke is a neurological disorder with a complex pathophysiology associated with motor, sensory and cognitive deficits. Major approaches developed to treat acute ischemic stroke fall into two categories, thrombolysis and neuroprotection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-thrombolytic effects of Olea europaea (olive oil) and Malus domestica (apple cider vinegar) and their combination in rat stroke model. Furthermore, histopathological analysis was also performed to assess the severity of ischemia among treated and reference groups. Male albino rats (12 months age) weighing 300- 350gm were acclimatized and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion method for stroke induction. Olea europaea and Malus domestica was administered orally in dose of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg and combination was administered at dose of 0.375ml/kg and 1.5ml/kg prophylactically for consecutive 21 days. Negative control group was dosed with normal saline whereas piracetam (250mg/kg) was administered as reference. Neuroprotective activity of standard piracetam, Olea europaea, Malus domestica and their combination was evaluated by performing functional outcome tests i.e. Cylinder, pasta, ladder run, pole and water maize tests. Rats were subjected to surgery after 21 days of treatment for analysis from stroke recovery. Olea europaea and Malus domestica in individual doses of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively showed neuroprotection by significant improvement in ladder run test (121.6± 0.92;128.2 ± 0.73) as compare to reference (125.4 ± 0.74). Both test doses showed significant neuroprotection as compare to reference (9.60 ± 0.50) in pasta test (8.40 ± 0.24;9.80 ± 0.37) whereas with cylinder test, experimental groups showed significant increase in movements (6.60 ± 0.24; 8.40 ± 0.24) in contrast to reference (7.80 ± 0.37).There was a decrease in percentage time taken f to reach the hidden maize in water maize test (56.80 ± 0.58;61.80 ± 0.66) at doses 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively as compare to piracetam (59.40 ± 1.07). Olea europaea and Malus domestica individually showed significant reduction in duration of mobility (127.0 ± 0.44; 123.0 ± 0.44) in pole test as compare to piracetam (124.0 ± 0.70). Histopathological analysis revealed the significant extent of protection from ischemia after prophylactic treatments. Hence it is concluded that Olea europaea and Malus domestica are effective neuroprotective agents alone as compare to their combination.
812
93824
Time Dependent Biodistribution Modeling of 177Lu-DOTATOC Using Compartmental Analysis
Abstract:
In this study, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared under optimized conditions (radiochemical purity: &gt; 99%, radionuclidic purity: &gt; 99%). The percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID/g) was calculated for organs up to 168 h post injection. Compartmental model was applied to mathematical description of the drug behaviour in tissue at different times. The biodistribution data showed the significant excretion of the radioactivity from the kidneys. The adrenal and pancreas, as major expression sites for somatostatin receptor (SSTR), had significant uptake. A pharmacokinetic model of 177Lu-DOTATOC was presented by compartmental analysis which demonstrates the behavior of the complex.
811
93446
Application of Exhaust Gas-Air Brake System in Petrol and Diesel Engine
Abstract:
The possible role of the engine brake is to convert a power-producing engine into a power-absorbing retarding mechanism. In this braking system, exhaust gas (EG) from the internal combustion (IC) engines is used to operate air brake in the automobiles. Airbrake is most used braking system in vehicles. In the proposed model, instead of air brake, EG is used to operate the brake lever and stored in a specially designed tank. This pressure of EG is used to operate the pneumatic cylinder and brake lever. Filters used to remove the impurities from the EG, then it is allowed to store in the tank. Pressure relief valve is used to achieve a specific pressure in the tank and helps to avoid further damage to the tank as well as in an engine. The petrol engine is used in the proposed EG braking system. The petrol engine is chosen initially because it produces less impurity in the exhaust than diesel engines. Moreover, exhaust brake system (EBS) for the Diesel engines is composed of gate valve, pneumatic cylinder and exhaust brake valve with the on-off solenoid. Exhaust brake valve which is core component of EBS should have characteristics such as high reliability and long life. In a diesel engine, there is butterfly valve in exhaust manifold connected with solenoid switch which is used to on and off the butterfly valve. When butterfly valve closed partially, then the pressure starts built up inside the exhaust manifold and cylinder that actually resist the movement of piston leads to crankshaft getting stops resulting stopping of the flywheel. It creates breaking effect in a diesel engine. The exhaust brake is a supplementary breaking system to the service brake. It is noted that exhaust brake increased 2-3 fold the life of service brake may be due to the creation of negative torque which retards the speed of the engine. More study may also be warranted for the best suitable design of exhaust brake in a diesel engine.
810
93158
Evaluation of Trabectedin Safety and Effectiveness at a Tertiary Cancer Center at Qatar: A Retrospective Analysis
Abstract:
Purpose: Trabecatine is a is a potent marine-derived antineoplastic drug which binds to the minor groove of the DNA, bending DNA towards the major groove resulting in a changed conformation that interferes with several DNA transcription factors, repair pathways and cell proliferation. Trabectedin was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA; London, UK) for the treatment of adult patients with advanced stage soft tissue sarcomas in whom treatment with anthracyclines and ifosfamide has failed, or for those who are not candidates for these therapies. The recommended dosing regimen is 1.5 mg/m2 IV over 24 hours every 3 weeks. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review available data on the safety and efficacy of trabectedin used as indicated for patients at a Tertiary Cancer Center at Qatar. Methods: A medication administration report generated in the electronic health record identified all patients who received trabectedin between November 1, 2015 and November 1, 2017. This retrospective chart review evaluated the indication of trabectedin use, compliance to administration protocol and the recommended monitoring parameters, number of patients improved on the drug and continued treatment, number of patients discontinued treatment due to side-effects and the reported side effects. Progress and discharged notes were utilized to report experienced side effects during trabectedin therapy. A total of 3 patients were reviewed. Results: Total of 2 out of 3 patients who received trabectedin were receiving it for non-FDA and non-EMA, approved indications; metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma and ovarian cancer stage IV with poor prognosis. And only one patient received it as indicated for leiomyosarcoma of left ureter with metastases to liver, lungs and bone. None of the patients has continued the therapy due to development of serious side effects. One patient had stopped the medication after one cycle due to disease progression and transient hepatic toxicity, the other one had disease progression and developed 12 % reduction in LVEF after 12 cycles of trabectedin, and the third patient deceased, had disease progression on trabectedin after the 10th cycle that was received through peripheral line which resulted in developing extravasation and left arm cellulitis requiring debridement. Regarding monitoring parameters, at baseline the three patients had ECHO, and Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) but it was not monitored during treatment as recommended. Conclusion: Utilizing this medication as indicated with performing the appropriate monitoring parameters as recommended can benefit patients who are receiving it. It is important to reinforce the intravenous administration via central intravenous line, the re-assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiogram or multigated acquisition (MUGA) scan at 2- to 3-month intervals thereafter until therapy is discontinued, and CPK and LFTs levels prior to each administration of trabectedin.