Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53911

Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences

802
97528
The Evaluation of the Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics on Sperm Quality by Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis in Rats
Abstract:
Atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone have been frequently and chronically used to treat psychiatric disorders accompanied by psychosis mainly schizophrenia. Since these drugs are commonly used in male patients of reproductive age, it is required to determine the possible effects of them on the reproductive system. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the possible toxic effects of quetiapine, olanzapine and risperidone, which are the most frequently prescribed and chronically used psychiatric drugs, on sperm parameters. For this purpose, quetiapine (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg), olanzapine (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg), and risperidone (1.25, 2.5 and 3 mg/kg) were administered to male rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of this period, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. According to the results, sperm parameters were negatively affected by antipsychotic use.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
801
97413
Role of Natural Products in Drug Discovery of Anti-Biotic and Anti-Cancer Agents
Authors:
Abstract:
For many years, small organic molecules derived naturally from microbes and plants have delivered a number of expedient therapeutic drug agents. The search for naturally occurring lead compounds has continued in recent years as well, with the constituents of marine flora and fauna along with those of telluric microorganisms and plants being investigated for their anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activities. It has been observed that such promising lead molecules incline to promptly generate substantial attention among scientists like synthetic organic chemists and biologists. Subsequently, the availability of a given precious natural product sample may be enriched, and it may be possible to determine a preliminary idea of structure-activity relationships to develop synthetic analogues. For instance, anti-tumor drug topotecan is a synthetic chemical compound similar in chemical structure to camptothecin which is found in extracts of Camptotheca acuminate. Similarly, researchers at AstraZeneca discovered anti-biotic pyrrolamide through a fragment-based lead generation approach from kibdelomycin, which is isolated from Staphylococcus aureuss.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
800
95950
Synthesis of Brominated Pyrazoline Derived from Chalcone and Its Antimicrobial Activity
Abstract:
Despite the availability of antimicrobial agents in the market, the urge to study and find other chemical compounds with the better potential of replacing them still tempting the scientists. This experiment is in the aim to explore a novel brominated pyrazoline ring which was made from intermediate chalcone as a candidate to answer the challenge. Using green chemistry approach by microwave irradiation from domestic oven, both known chalcone and 5-(2-bromophenyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole were successfully synthesized. Pyrazoline’s structure was confirmed based on UV, IR, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and MS and together with its intermediate were examined against some microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) under agar diffusion method. The results collected during experiment revealed that both tested compounds showed weak activity on B.subtilis which was proven by a zone of inhibitions, while there was no zone of inhibitions observed in E. coli and C. albicans. This is suggested because of the bulky structure around pyrazoline could not provide the main ring to interact with microbial’s cell wall. The study shows that the proposed compound had the low capability as a promising antimicrobial agent, yet it still enriches the information about pyrazoline ring.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
799
95479
Pharmacovigilance in Hospitals: Retrospective Study at the Pharmacovigilance Service of UHE-Oran, Algeria
Abstract:
Medicines have undeniably played a major role in prolonging shelf life and improving quality. The absolute efficacy of the drug remains a lever for innovation, its benefit/risk balance is not always assured and it does not always have the expected effects. Prior to marketing, knowledge about adverse drug reactions is incomplete. Once on the market, phase IV drug studies begin. For years, the drug was prescribed with less care to a large number of very heterogeneous patients and often in combination with other drugs. It is at this point that previously unknown adverse effects may appear, hence the need for the implementation of a pharmacovigilance system. Pharmacovigilance represents all methods for detecting, evaluating, informing and preventing the risks of adverse drug reactions. The most severe adverse events occur frequently in hospital and that a significant proportion of adverse events result in hospitalizations. In addition, the consequences of hospital adverse events in terms of length of stay, mortality and costs are considerable. It, therefore, appears necessary to develop ‘hospital pharmacovigilance’ aimed at reducing the incidence of adverse reactions in hospitals. The most widely used monitoring method in pharmacovigilance is spontaneous notification. However, underreporting of adverse drug reactions is common in many countries and is a major obstacle to pharmacovigilance assessment. It is in this context that this study aims to describe the experience of the pharmacovigilance service at the University Hospital of Oran (EHUO). This is a retrospective study extending from 2011 to 2017, carried out on archived records of declarations collected at the level of the EHUO Pharmacovigilance Department. Reporting was collected by two methods: ‘spontaneous notification’ and ‘active pharmacovigilance’ targeting certain clinical services. We counted 217 statements. It involved 56% female patients and 46% male patients. Age ranged from 5 to 78 years with an average of 46 years. The most common adverse reaction was drug toxidermy. For the drugs in question, they were essentially according to the ATC classification of anti-infectives followed by anticancer drugs. As regards the evolution of declarations by year, a low rate of notification was noted in 2011. That is why we decided to set up an active approach at the level of some services where a resident of reference attended the staffs every week. This has resulted in an increase in the number of reports. The declarations came essentially from the services where the active approach was installed. This highlights the need for ongoing communication between all relevant health actors to stimulate reporting and secure drug treatments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
798
95105
Abridging Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Discovery via LC-MS-TOF, NMR, in-silico Toxicity-Bioactivity Profiling for Therapeutic Purposing Zileuton Impurities: Need of Hour
Abstract:
The need for investigations protecting against toxic impurities though seems to be a primary requirement; the impurities which may prove non - toxic can be explored for their therapeutic potential if any to assist advanced drug discovery. The essential role of pharmaceutical analysis can thus be extended effectively to achieve it. The present study successfully achieved these objectives with characterization of major degradation products as impurities for Zileuton which has been used for to treat asthma since years. The forced degradation studies were performed to identify the potential degradation products using Ultra-fine Liquid-chromatography. Liquid-chromatography-Mass spectrometry (Time of Flight) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies were utilized effectively to characterize the drug along with five major oxidative and hydrolytic degradation products (DP’s). The mass fragments were identified for Zileuton and path for the degradation was investigated. The characterized DP’s were subjected to In-Silico studies as XP Molecular Docking to compare the gain or loss in binding affinity with 5-Lipooxygenase enzyme. One of the impurity of was found to have the binding affinity more than the drug itself indicating for its potential to be more bioactive as better Antiasthmatic. The close structural resemblance has the ability to potentiate or reduce bioactivity and or toxicity. The chances of being active biologically at other sites cannot be denied and the same is achieved to some extent by predictions for probability of being active with Prediction of Activity Spectrum for Substances (PASS) The impurities found to be bio-active as Antineoplastic, Antiallergic, and inhibitors of Complement Factor D. The toxicological abilities as Ames-Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity and Skin Irritancy were evaluated using Toxicity Prediction by Komputer Assisted Technology (TOPKAT). Two of the impurities were found to be non-toxic as compared to original drug Zileuton. As the drugs are purposed and repurposed effectively the impurities can also be; as they can have more binding affinity; less toxicity and better ability to be bio-active at other biological targets.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
797
93824
Time Dependent Biodistribution Modeling of 177Lu-DOTATOC Using Compartmental Analysis
Abstract:
In this study, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared under optimized conditions (radiochemical purity: > 99%, radionuclidic purity: > 99%). The percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID/g) was calculated for organs up to 168 h post injection. Compartmental model was applied to mathematical description of the drug behaviour in tissue at different times. The biodistribution data showed the significant excretion of the radioactivity from the kidneys. The adrenal and pancreas, as major expression sites for somatostatin receptor (SSTR), had significant uptake. A pharmacokinetic model of 177Lu-DOTATOC was presented by compartmental analysis which demonstrates the behavior of the complex.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
796
92985
Microwave Synthesis and Molecular Docking Studies of Azetidinone Analogous Bearing Diphenyl Ether Nucleus as a Potent Antimycobacterial and Antiprotozoal Agent
Abstract:
The present studies deal with the developing a series bearing a diphenyl ethers nucleus using structure-based drug design concept. A newer series of diphenyl ether based azetidinone namely N-(3-chloro-2-oxo-4-(3-phenoxyphenyl)azetidin-1-yl)-2-(substituted amino)acetamide (2a-j) have been synthesized by condensation of m-phenoxybenzaldehyde with 2-(substituted-phenylamino)acetohydrazide followed by the cyclisation of resulting Schiff base (1a-j) by conventional method as well as microwave heating approach as a part of an environmentally benign synthetic protocol. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis and were screened for in vitro antimicrobial, antitubercular and antiprotozoal activity. The compound 2f was found to be most active M. tuberculosis (6.25 µM) MIC value in the primary screening as well as this same derivative has been found potency against L. mexicana and T. cruzi with MIC value 2.09 and 6.69 µM comparable to the reference drug Miltefosina and Nifurtimox. To provide understandable evidence to predict binding mode and approximate binding energy of a compound to a target in the terms of ligand-protein interaction, all synthesized compounds were docked against an enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase of M. tuberculosis (PDB ID: 4u0j). The computational studies revealed that azetidinone derivatives have a high affinity for the active site of enzyme which provides a strong platform for new structure-based design efforts. The Lipinski’s parameters showed good drug-like properties and can be developed as an oral drug candidate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
795
92743
Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits
Abstract:
Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
794
92403
Gadolinium-Based Polymer Nanostructures as Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents
Abstract:
Recent advances in diagnostic imaging technology have significantly contributed to a better understanding of specific changes associated with diseases progression. Among different imaging modalities, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents a noninvasive medical diagnostic technique, which shows low sensitivity and long acquisition time and it can discriminate between healthy and diseased tissues by providing 3D data. In order to improve the enhancement of MRI signals, some imaging exams require intravenous administration of contrast agents (CAs). Recently, emerging research reports a progressive deposition of these drugs, in particular, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), in the body many years after multiple MRI scans. These discoveries confirm the need to have a biocompatible system able to boost a clinical relevant Gd-chelate. To this aim, several approaches based on engineered nanostructures have been proposed to overcome the common limitations of conventional CAs, such as the insufficient signal-to-noise ratios due to relaxivity and poor safety profile. In particular, nanocarriers, labeling or loading with CAs, capable of carrying high payloads of CAs have been developed. Currently, there’s no a comprehensive understanding of the thermodynamic contributions enable of boosting the efficacy of conventional CAs by using biopolymers matrix. Thus, considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, here it is reported a successful example of the next generation of these drugs where the commercial gadolinium chelate is incorporate into a biopolymer nanostructure, formed by cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA), with improved relaxation properties. In addition, they are highlighted the basic principles ruling biopolymer-CA interactions in the perspective of their influence on the relaxometric properties of the CA by adopting a multidisciplinary experimental approach. On the basis of these discoveries, it is clear that the main point consists in increasing the rigidification of readily-available Gd-CAs within the biopolymer matrix by controlling the water dynamics, the physicochemical interactions, and the polymer conformations. In the end, the acquired knowledge about polymer-CA systems has been applied to develop of Gd-based HA nanoparticles with enhanced relaxometric properties.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
793
91784
Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Heterocyclic Indole Derivatives
Abstract:
Free radicals, which are generated in many bioorganic redox processes, play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer, arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and age-related degenerative brain diseases. Exposures of normal cell to free radical damages several structures, oxidizes nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, or DNA. Compounds interfere with the action of reactive oxygen species might be useful in prevention and treatment of these pathologies. A series of indole compounds containing piperazine ring were synthesized. Coupling of indole-2-carboxylic acid with monosubstituted piperazines was accomplished with 1,1’-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in a good yield. The structures of prepared compounds were verified in good agreement with their 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), MS (mass spectrophotometry), and IR (infrared spectrophotometry) characteristics. In this work, all synthetized indole derivatives were screened in vitro for their antioxidative potential against vitamin E (α-tocopherol) using different antioxidant assays such as superoxide anion formation, lipid peroxidation levels in rat liver, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable radical scavenging activity. The synthesized compounds showed various levels of inhibition compared to vitamin E. This may give promising results for the development of new antioxidant agents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
792
91507
Chitosan Hydrogel Containing Nitric Oxide Donors with Potent Antibacterial Effect
Abstract:
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including vasodilatation, control of inflammatory pain, wound healing, and antibacterial activities. As NO is a free radical, the design of drugs that generates therapeutic amounts of NO in controlled spatial and time manners is still a challenge. In this study, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was incorporated into the thermoresponsive Pluronic F-127 (PL) - chitosan (CS) hydrogel, in an easy and economically feasible methodology. CS is a polysaccharide with known antimicrobial and biocompatibility properties. Scanning electron microscopy, rheology and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for hydrogel characterization. The results demonstrated that the hydrogel has a smooth surface, thermoresponsive behavior, and good mechanical stability. The kinetics of NO release and GSNO diffusion from GSNO-containing PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a sustained NO/GSNO release, in concentrations suitable for biomedical applications, at physiological and skin temperatures. The GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a concentration-dependent toxicity to Vero cells, and antimicrobial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.5 µg·mL-1 of hydrogel, which correspondents to 1 mmol·L-1 of GSNO). Interesting, the concentration range in which the NO-releasing hydrogel demonstrated antibacterial effect was not found toxic to Vero mammalian cell. Thus, GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel is suitable biomaterial for topical NO delivery applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
791
90883
In silico Designing of Imidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine as a Probable Lead for Potent Decaprenyl Phosphoryl-β-D-Ribose 2′-Epimerase (DprE1) Inhibitors as Antitubercular Agents
Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major worldwide concern whose control has been exacerbated by HIV, the rise of multidrug-resistance (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistance (XDR-TB) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The interest for newer and faster acting antitubercular drugs are more remarkable than any time. To search potent compounds is need and challenge for researchers. Here, we tried to design lead for inhibition of Decaprenyl phosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2′-epimerase (DprE1) enzyme. Arabinose is an essential constituent of mycobacterial cell wall. DprE1 is a flavoenzyme that converts decaprenylphosphoryl-D-ribose into decaprenylphosphoryl-2-keto-ribose, which is intermediate in biosynthetic pathway of arabinose. Latter, DprE2 converts keto-ribose into decaprenylphosphoryl-D-arabinose. We had a selection of 23 compounds from azaindole series for computational study, and they were drawn using marvisketch. Ligands were prepared using Maestro molecular modeling interface, Schrodinger, v10.5. Common pharmacophore hypotheses were developed by applying dataset thresholds to yield active and inactive set of compounds. There were 326 hypotheses were developed. On the basis of survival score, ADRRR (Survival Score: 5.453) was selected. Selected pharmacophore hypotheses were subjected to virtual screening results into 1000 hits. Hits were prepared and docked with protein 4KW5 (oxydoreductase inhibitor) was downloaded in .pdb format from RCSB Protein Data Bank. Protein was prepared using protein preparation wizard. Protein was preprocessed, the workspace was analyzed using force field OPLS 2005. Glide grid was generated by picking single atom in molecule. Prepared ligands were docked with prepared protein 4KW5 using Glide docking. After docking, on the basis of glide score top-five compounds were selected, (5223, 5812, 0661, 0662, and 2945) and the glide docking score (-8.928, -8.534, -8.412, -8.411, -8.351) respectively. There were interactions of ligand and protein, specifically HIS 132, LYS 418, TRY 230, ASN 385. Pi-pi stacking was observed in few compounds with basic Imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine ring. We had basic azaindole ring in parent compounds, but after glide docking, we received compounds with Imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine as a basic ring. That might be the new lead in the process of drug discovery.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
790
90560
Safety Profile of Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: A Post-Licensure Analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System, 2007-2017
Abstract:
The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) was shown to be the cause of different types of carcinomas, first of all of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Since the early 80s to today, thanks first to the preventive screening campaigns (pap-test) and following to the introduction of HPV vaccines on the market; the number of new cases of cervical cancer has decreased significantly. The HPV vaccines currently approved are three: Cervarix® (HPV2 - virus type: 16 and 18), Gardasil® (HPV4 - 6, 11, 16, 18) and Gardasil 9® (HPV9 - 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58), which all protect against the two high-risk HPVs (6, 11) that are mainly involved in cervical cancers. Despite the remarkable effectiveness of these vaccines has been demonstrated, in the recent years, there have been many complaints about their risk-benefit profile due to Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI). The purpose of this study is to provide a support about the ongoing discussion on the safety profile of HPV vaccines based on real life data deriving from spontaneous reports of suspected AEFIs collected in the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). VAERS is a freely-available national vaccine safety surveillance database of AEFI, co-administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We collected all the reports between January 2007 to December 2017 related to the HPV vaccines with a brand name (HPV2, HPV4, HPV9) or without (HPVX). A disproportionality analysis using Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) with 95% confidence interval and p value ≤ 0.05 was performed. Over the 10-year period, 54889 reports of AEFI related to HPV vaccines reported in VAERS, corresponding to 224863 vaccine-event pairs, were retrieved. The highest number of reports was related to Gardasil (n = 42244), followed by Gardasil 9 (7212) and Cervarix (3904). The brand name of the HPV vaccine was not reported in 1529 cases. The two events more frequently reported and statistically significant for each vaccine were: dizziness (n = 5053) ROR = 1.28 (CI95% 1.24 – 1.31) and syncope (4808) ROR = 1.21 (1.17 – 1.25) for Gardasil. For Gardasil 9, injection site pain (305) ROR = 1.40 (1.25 – 1.57) and injection site erythema (297) ROR = 1.88 (1.67 – 2.10) and for Cervarix, headache (672) ROR = 1.14 (1.06 – 1.23) and loss of consciousness (528) ROR = 1.71 (1.57 – 1.87). In total, we collected 406 reports of death and 2461 cases of permanent disability in the ten-year period. The events consisting of incorrect vaccine storage or incorrect administration were not considered. The AEFI analysis showed that the most frequently reported events are non-serious and listed in the corresponding SmPCs. In addition to these, potential safety signals arose regarding less frequent and severe AEFIs that would deserve further investigation. This already happened with the referral of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the adverse events POTS (Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome) and CRPS (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome) associated with anti-papillomavirus vaccines.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
789
90165
Neuroprotective Effect of Chrysin on Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy in Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and TLR-4/NF-κB Pathway
Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of chrysin on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic encephalopathy in rats. Also, the effect of chrysin on motor impairment, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis and histopathological damage was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five groups. The first group received the vehicle (distilled water) for 21 days and is considered as normal group. While the second one received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days during the third week of the experiment to induce HE and is considered as control group. The other three groups were orally administered chrysin for 21 days (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and starting from day 17; rats received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Chrysin reversed TAA-induced motor coordination in rotarod test, cognitive deficits in object recognition test (ORT) and attenuated serum ammonia, hepatic liver enzymes, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) brain contents. Chrysin administration also reduced Toll-4 receptor (TLR-4) gene expression, caspase-3 protein expression, hepatic necrosis and astrocyte swelling. This study depicts that chrysin exerted neuroprotective effect in TAA-induced HE rats, evidenced by improvement of cognitive deficits, motor incoordination and histopathological changes such as astrocyte swelling and vacuolization; hallmarks in HE, via reducing hyperammonemia, ameliorating hepatic function, in addition to its anti-oxidant, inactivation of TLR-4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, and anti-apoptotic effects.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
788
89786
The Ameliorative Effects of the Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonist/Inverse Agonist DL77 on MK801-Induced Memory Deficits in Rats
Abstract:
The involvement of Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) in memory and the potential role of H3R antagonists in pharmacological control of neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer disease (AD) is well established. Therefore, the memory-enhancing effects of the H3R antagonist DL77 on MK801-induced cognitive deficits were evaluated in passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and novel object recognition (NOR) tasks in adult male rats, applying donepezil (DOZ) as a reference drug. Animals pretreated with acute systemic administration of DL77 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) were significantly ameliorated in regard to MK801-induced memory deficits in PAP. The ameliorative effect of most effective dose of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was abrogated when animals were pretreated with a co-injection with the H3R agonist R-(α)-methylhistamine (RAMH, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, and in the NOR paradigm, DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed MK801-induced deficits long-term memory (LTM), and the DL77-provided procognitive effect was comparable to that of reference drug DOZ, and was reversed when animals were co-injected with RAMH (10 mg/kg, i.p.). However, DL77(5 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to alter short-term memory (STM) impairment in NOR test. Furthermore, DL77 (5 mg/kg) failed to induce any alterations of anxiety and locomotor behaviors of animals naive to elevated-plus maze (EPM), indicating that the ameliorative effects observed in PAP or NOR tests were not associated to alterations in emotions or in natural locomotion of tested animals. These results reveal the potential contribution of H3Rs in modulating CNS neurotransmission systems associated with neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., AD.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
787
88803
Development of Composition and Technology of Vincristine Nanoparticles Using High-Molecular Carbohydrates of Plant Origin
Abstract:
Current cancer therapy strategies are based on surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The problems associated with chemotherapy are one of the biggest challenges for clinical medicine. These include: low specificity, broad spectrum of side effects, toxicity and development of cellular resistance. Therefore, anti-cance drugs need to be develop urgently. Particularly, in order to increase efficiency of anti-cancer drugs and reduce their side effects, scientists work on formulation of nano-drugs. The objective of this study was to develop composition and technology of vincristine nanoparticles using high-molecular carbohydrates of plant origin. Plant polysacharides, particularly, soy bean seed polysaccharides, flaxseed polysaccharides, citrus pectin, gum arabic, sodium alginate were used as objects. Based on biopharmaceutical research, vincristine containing nanoparticle formulations were prepared. High-energy emulsification and solvent evaporation methods were used for preparation of nanosystems. Polysorbat 80, polysorbat 60, sodium dodecyl sulfate, glycerol, polyvinyl alcohol were used in formulation as emulsifying agent and stabilizer of the system. The ratio of API and polysacharides, also the type of the stabilizing and emulsifying agents are very effective on the particle size of the final product. The influence of preparation technology, type and concentration of stabilizing agents on the properties of nanoparticles were evaluated. For the next stage of research, nanosystems were characterized. Physiochemical characterization of nanoparticles: their size, shape, distribution was performed using Atomic force microscope and Scanning electron microscope. The present study explored the possibility of production of NPs using plant polysaccharides. Optimal ratio of active pharmaceutical ingredient and plant polysacharids, the best stabilizer and emulsifying agent was determined. The average range of nanoparticles size and shape was visualized by SEM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
786
88694
Spectrophotometric Determination of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid in Pharmaceutical Samples
Authors:
Abstract:
A Simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for the quantitative analysis of determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid is described. This method is based on the reaction of 5-aminosalicylic acid with nitrite in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with acetylacetone in basic medium to form azo dyes, which shows absorption maxima at 470 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 0.5-11.2 gml-1 of 5-aminosalicylic acid with acetylacetone. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of 5-aminosalicylic acid -acetylacetone azo dye is 2.672 ×104 lmol-1cm-1, 5.731 × 10-3 gcm-2 respectively. The dye formed is stable for 10 hrs. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters are evaluated. Interference due to foreign organic compounds have been investigated. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid in pharmaceutical samples.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
785
85741
The Cell Viability Study of Extracts of Bark, Flowers, Leaves and Seeds of Indian Dhak Tree, Flame of Forest
Abstract:
In pharmaceutical research and new drug development, medicinal plants have important roles. Similarly, Indian dhak tree belonging to family Fabaceae has been widely used in the traditional Indian medical system of ‘Ayurveda’ for the treatment of a variety of ailments. Hence the cell viability study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the activity of extracts of various parts like flower, bark, leaf, seed by conducting MTT assay method along with other pharmacognostical studies. The methanolic extracts of bark, flowers, leaves, and seeds were used for the study. The cell viability MTT assay was performed using the standard operating procedures. The extracts were dissolved in DMSO and serially diluted with complete medium to get the concentrations range of test concentration. DMSO concentration was kept < 0.1% in all the samples. HUVEC cells maintained in appropriate conditions were seeded in 96 well plates and treated with different concentrations of the test samples and incubated at 37°C, 5% CO₂ for 96 hours. MTT reagent was added to the wells and incubated for 4 hours; the dark blue formazan product formed by the cells was dissolved in DMSO under a safety cabinet and read at 550nm. Percentage inhibitions were calculated and plotted with the concentrations used to calculate the IC50 values. The bark, flower, leaves and seed extracts have shown the cytotoxicity activity and can be further studied for antiangiogenesis activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
784
85711
Achieving Appropriate Use of Antibiotics through Pharmacists’ Intervention at Practice Point: An Indian Study Report
Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance AR is a global issue, India started to redress the issues of antibiotic resistance late and it plans to have: active surveillance of microbial resistance and promote appropriate use of antibiotics. The present study attempted to achieve appropriate use of antibiotics through pharmacists’ intervention at practice point. In a quasi-experimental prospective cohort study, the cases with bacteremia from four hospitals were identified during 2015 and 2016 for intervention. The pharmacists centered intervention: active screening of each prescription and comparing with the selection of antibiotics with susceptibility of the bacteria. Wherever irrationality noticed, it was brought to the notice of the treating physician for making changes. There were two groups: intervention group and control group without intervention. The active screening and intervention in 915 patients has reduced therapeutic regimen time in patients with bacteremia. The intervention group showed the decreased duration of hospital stay 3.4 days from 5.1 days. Further, multivariate modeling of patients who were in control group showed that patients in the intervention group had a significant decrease in both duration of hospital stay and infection-related mortality. Unlike developed countries, pharmacists are not active partners in patient care in India. This unique attempt of pharmacist’ invention was planned in consultation with hospital authorities which proved beneficial in terms of reducing the duration of treatment, hospital stay, and infection-related mortality. This establishes the need for a collaborative decision making among the health workforce in patient care at least for promoting rational use of antibiotics, an attempt to combat resistance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
783
85709
Role of Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Diseases and Drug Discovery in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Abstract:
The present study was conducted to study the role of medicinal plants used to cure different ailments in Azad Kashmir. Various ethno medicinal surveys were carried out during 2016 to enlist the uses of plants against various ailments by rural communities of the area. Information was obtained from 60 local people including 45 males (10 traditional health practitioners) and 15 females by semi structured interviews and group discussions. 65 plant species belonging to 45 families were reported. The dominant plant habit was herbaceous (56%) while decoction was the most common method of utilization (40%). The most cited turmoil was the gastrointestinal disorders. The data obtained were analyzed using ethno medicinal indices such as FL, UV, ICF, FC, and RFC. Results revealed that various species had numerous uses in curing of diseases. So conservation of biodiversity of these medicinal plants and traditional knowledge can play important role in improving the local health conditions of rural people and modern drug discovery and development.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
782
85707
Awareness of Drug Interactions among Physicians at Governmental Health Centers in Bahrain
Abstract:
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent a significant cause of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The rate of DDIs is rapidly increasing worldwide with the increasing proportion of ageing population and frequent requirement of polypharmacy-prescription of multiple drugs to treat comorbidities. Prescribing physicians are responsible for checking their prescriptions for the presence and severity of DDIs. However, since a large number of new drugs are approved and marketed every year, new interactions between medications are increasingly reported. Consequently, it is no longer practical for physicians to rely only upon their previous knowledge of medicine to avoid potential DDIs. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of physicians working at primary healthcare centers in Bahrain towards DDIs and how they manage them during their practice. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, physicians working at all governmental primary healthcare centers in Bahrain were invited to voluntarily, privately and anonymously respond to a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire aims to assess their self-reported knowledge of DDIs and how they check for them in their practice. The participants were requested to provide socio demographic data and information related to their attitudes towards DDIs including strategies they employ for detecting and managing them, and their awareness of drugs which commonly cause DDIs. At the end of the questionnaire, an open-ended item was added to allow participants to further add any comment. Findings and Conclusions: The study is going on currently, and the results and conclusions will be presented at the conference.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
781
85414
Design, Development and Characterization of Pioglitazone Transdermal Drug Delivery System
Abstract:
The main aim of this research work was to design and development characterization of Pioglitazone transdermal drug delivery system by using various polymers such as Olibanum with different concentration by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, percentage elongation break test and weight uniformity. The diffusion studies were performed by using modified Franz diffusion cells. The result of dissolution studies shows that formulation, F3 (Olibanum with 50 mg) showed maximum release of 99.95 % in 12hrs, whereas F1 (Olibanum and EC backing membrane) showed minimum release of 93.65% in 12 hr. Based on the drug release and physicochemical values obtained the formulation F3 is considered as an optimized formulation which shows higher percentage of drug release of 99.95 % in 12 hr. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of pioglitazone.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
780
85177
Implementation of Synthesis and Quality Control Procedures of ¹⁸F-Fluoromisonidazole Radiopharmaceutical
Abstract:
Tissue hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors leading to decreased sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the clinical context, tumor hypoxia assessment employing the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer ¹⁸F-fluoromisonidazole ([¹⁸F]FMISO) is helpful for physicians for planning and therapy adjusting. The aim of this work was to implement the synthesis of 18F-FMISO in a TRACERlab® MXFDG module and also to establish the quality control procedure. [¹⁸F]FMISO was synthesized at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN/Brazil) using an automated synthesizer (TRACERlab® MXFDG, GE) adapted for the production of [¹⁸F]FMISO. The FMISO chemical standard was purchased from ABX. 18O- enriched water was acquired from Center of Molecular Research. Reagent kits containing eluent solution, acetonitrile, ethanol, 2.0 M HCl solution, buffer solution, water for injections and [¹⁸F]FMISO precursor (dissolved in 2 ml acetonitrile) were purchased from ABX. The [¹⁸F]FMISO samples were purified by Solid Phase Extraction method. The quality requirements of [¹⁸F]FMISO are established in the European Pharmacopeia. According to that reference, quality control of [¹⁸F]FMISO should include appearance, pH, radionuclidic identity and purity, radiochemical identity and purity, chemical purity, residual solvents, bacterial endotoxins, and sterility. The duration of the synthesis process was 53 min, with radiochemical yield of (37.00 ± 0.01) % and the specific activity was more than 70 GBq/µmol. The syntheses were reproducible and showed satisfactory results. In relation to the quality control analysis, the samples were clear and colorless at pH 6.0. The spectrum emission, measured by using a High-Purity Germanium Detector (HPGe), presented a single peak at 511 keV and the half-life, determined by the decay method in an activimeter, was (111.0 ± 0.5) min, indicating no presence of radioactive contaminants, besides the desirable radionuclide (¹⁸F). The samples showed concentration of tetrabutylammonium (TBA) < 50μg/mL, assessed by visual comparison to TBA standard applied in the same thin layer chromatographic plate. Radiochemical purity was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results were 100%. Regarding the residual solvents tested, ethanol and acetonitrile presented concentration lower than 10% and 0.04%, respectively. Healthy female mice were injected via lateral tail vein with [¹⁸F]FMISO, microPET imaging studies (15 min) were performed after 2 h post injection (p.i), and the biodistribution was analyzed in five-time points (30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min) after injection. Subsequently, organs/tissues were assayed for radioactivity with a gamma counter. All parameters of quality control test were in agreement to quality criteria confirming that [¹⁸F]FMISO was suitable for use in non-clinical and clinical trials, following the legal requirements for the production of new radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
779
85105
Assessement of Aminopolyether on ¹⁸F-FDG Samples
Abstract:
The quality control procedures of a radiopharmaceutical include the assessment of its chemical purity. The method suggested by international pharmacopoeias consiste of a thin layer chormatographic run. In this paper, the method proposed by United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is compared to a direct method to determine the final concentration of aminopolyether in ¹⁸F-FDG preparations. The new approach (no chromatographic run) was achieved by placing the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate directly on an iodine vapor chamber. Both methods were validated and showed adequate results to determine the concentration of aminopolyether in ¹⁸F-FDG preparations. However, the direct method is more sensitive, faster and simpler when compared to the compendial method (with chromatographic run), and it may be chosen for use in routine quality control of ¹⁸F-FDG.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
778
84939
Influence of ABCB1 2677G > T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism on Warfarin Maintenance Therapy among Patients with Prosthetic Heart Valve
Abstract:
The dose requirement of warfarin to achieve target INR range varies in patients with prosthetic heart valve. This variation in is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Earlier studies have identified role of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirement. Warfarin being a substrate for drug transporter, P-glycoprotein coded by ABCB1 gene, may also be influenced by its genetic polymorphisms. This study was aimed to study the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), ABCB1 2677G > T on warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients with steady-state International Normalized Ratio (INR). The median dose requirement was significantly different between the genotype groups GG vs. GT (35 ± 20; 42.5 ± 18, p < 0.05), GG vs. TT (35 ± 20; 41.25 ± 25, p< 0.05). There was no significant difference between GT vs. TT. In conclusion, patients with variant allele require a higher weekly maintenance dose of warfarin compared to patients without variant allele.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
777
84655
Rational Design of Potent Compounds for Inhibiting Ca2+ -Dependent Calmodulin Kinase IIa, a Target of Alzheimer’s Disease
Abstract:
Ca2+ - dependent calmodulin kinase IIa (CaMKIIa) has recently been found to associate with protein tau missorting and polymerization in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). However, there has yet inhibitors targeting CaMKIIa to investigate the correlation between CaMKIIa activity and protein tau polymer formation. Combining virtual screening and our statistics in binding contribution scoring function (BCSF), we rationally identified potential compounds that bind to specific CaMKIIa active site and specificity-affinity distribution of the ligand within the active site. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we identified structural stability of CaMKIIa and potent inhibitors, and site-directed bonding, separating non-specific and specific molecular interaction features. Despite of variation in confirmation of simulation time, interactions of the potent inhibitors were found to be strongly associated with the unique chemical features extracted from molecular binding poses. In addition, competitive inhibitors within CaMKIIa showed an important molecular recognition pattern toward specific ligand features. Our approach combining virtual screening with BCSF may provide an universally applicable method for precise identification in the discovery of compounds.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
776
84651
In-Depth Analysis on Sequence Evolution and Molecular Interaction of Influenza Receptors (Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase)
Abstract:
Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) play an important role in host immune evasion across influenza virus evolution process. The correlation between HA and NA evolution in respect to epitopic evolution and drug interaction has yet to be investigated. In this study, combining of sequence to structure evolution and statistical analysis on epitopic/binding site specificity, we identified potential therapeutic features of HA and NA that show specific antibody binding site of HA and specific binding distribution within NA active site of current inhibitors. Our approach introduces the use of sequence variation and molecular interaction to provide an effective strategy in establishing experimental based distributed representations of protein-protein/ligand complexes. The most important advantage of our method is that it does not require complete dataset of complexes but rather directly inferring feature interaction from sequence variation and molecular interaction. Using correlated sequence analysis, we additionally identified co-evolved mutations associated with maintaining HA/NA structural and functional variability toward immunity and therapeutic treatment. Our investigation on the HA binding specificity revealed unique conserved stalk domain interacts with unique loop domain of universal antibodies (CR9114, CT149, CR8043, CR8020, F16v3, CR6261, F10). On the other hand, NA inhibitors (Oseltamivir, Zaninamivir, Laninamivir) showed specific conserved residue contribution and similar to that of NA substrate (sialic acid) which can be exploited for drug design. Our study provides an important insight into rational design and identification of novel therapeutics targeting universally recognized feature of influenza HA/NA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
775
82969
Treatment of Neuronal Defects by Bone Marrow Stem Cells Differentiation to Neuronal Cells Cultured on Gelatin-PLGA Scaffolds Coated with Nano-Particles
Abstract:
Introduction: Although the application of a new strategy remains a remarkable challenge for treatment of disabilities due to neuronal defects, progress in Nanomedicine and tissue engineering, suggesting the new medical methods. One of the promising strategies for reconstruction and regeneration of nervous tissue is replacing of lost or damaged cells by specific scaffolds after Compressive, ischemic and traumatic injuries of central nervous system. Furthermore, ultrastructure, composition, and arrangement of tissue scaffolds are effective on cell grafts. We followed implantation and differentiation of mesenchyme stem cells to neural cells on Gelatin Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds coated with iron nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of stem cells to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells under topographical cues and morphogenic factors. Methods and Materials: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) was obtained by primary cell culturing of adult rat bone marrow got from femur bone by flushing method. BMMSCs were incubated with DMEM/F12 (Gibco), 15% FBS and 100 U/ml pen/strep as media. Then, BMMSCs seeded on Gel/PLGA scaffolds and tissue culture (TCP) polystyrene embedded and incorporated by Fe Nano particles (FeNPs) (Fe3o4 oxide (M w= 270.30 gr/mol.). For neuronal differentiation, 2×10 5 BMMSCs were seeded on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffolds was cultured for 7 days and 0.5 µ mol. Retinoic acid, 100 µ mol. Ascorbic acid,10 ng/ml. Basic fibroblast growth factor (Sigma, USA), 250 μM Iso butyl methyl xanthine, 100 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, and 0.2 % B27 (Invitrogen, USA) added to media. Proliferation of BMMSCs was assessed by using MTT assay for cell survival. The morphology of BMMSCs and scaffolds was investigated by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Expression of neuron-specific markers was studied by immunohistochemistry method. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and statistical significance was determined by Turkey’s test. Results: Our results revealed that differentiation and survival of BMMSCs into motor neuron-like cells on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs as a biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds were better than those cultured in Gel/PLGA in absence of FeNPs and TCP scaffolds. FeNPs had raised physical power but decreased capacity absorption of scaffolds. Well defined oriented pores in scaffolds due to FeNPs may activate differentiation and synchronized cells as a mechanoreceptor. Induction effects of magnetic FeNPs by One way flow of channels in scaffolds help to lead the cells and can facilitate direction of their growth processes. Discussion: Progression of biological properties of BMMSCs and the effects of FeNPs spreading under magnetic field was evaluated in this investigation. In vitro study showed that the Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffold provided a suitable structure for motor neuron-like cells differentiation. This could be a promising candidate for enhancing repair and regeneration in neural defects. Dynamic and static magnetic field for inducing and construction of cells can provide better results for further experimental studies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
774
82494
Antibacterial Potentials of the Leaf Extracts of Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata) on Wound Isolates
Abstract:
The antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed) was evaluated against four wound isolates: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae at the concentrations of 200mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively. S. aureus and E. coli showed high susceptibility to the various extracts than the other test isolates. The aqueous extract showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 16 ± 3.00 at concentration of 200mg/ml and as low as 8 ± 0.00 at concentration of 25mg/ml; E. coli showed susceptibility with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 18 ± 2.00 and 10 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to the aqueous extract. Methanol extract showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition at 28 ± 4.00 and 12 ± 2.30 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively; while E. coli was susceptible with mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 18 ± 2.00 and as low as 12 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed considerable susceptibility with mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 13 ± 1.00 and 12 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively. The ethanol extract showed activity against S. aureus with a mean diameter zone of inhibition of 15 ± 2.00 and 9 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively: E. coli showed susceptibility with a mean diameter zone of inhibition of 20 ± 4.00 and 13 ± 2.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed considerable susceptibility with a mean diameter zone of inhibition of 13 ± 1.00 and 9 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively. The results above indicate the efficacy and potency of the crude extracts of Chromolaena odorata leaf on the tested wound isolates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
773
82084
The Retrospective Investigation of the Impacts of Alien Taxa on Human Health: A Case Study of Two Poison Information Centers
Abstract:
Alien species cause considerable negative impacts on biodiversity, economy and public health. Impacts of alien species on public health have received a degree of attention worldwide, largely in developed countries, but scarce in developing countries. Here, we provide a review of human exposures and poisonings cases from native and alien plant species reported to poison information centers. A retrospective review of the Tygerberg Poison Information Centre (TPIC) and Poisons Information Centre (PIC) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH) was conducted over approximately 2-year period (1 June 2015 through to 06 March 2017). Combined, TPIC and PIC handled 626 cases during the 2-year period. Toxicity cases were more abundant in Gauteng (47.1%), followed by Western Cape (29.4%). The primary mechanism of injury was ingestion (96.7%), and all cases were predominantly accidental. Most reported cases involved infants (20.6%), with few fully-grown adults related cases (5.8%). Adults presented minor to moderate toxicity, while infants none to minor toxicity. We conclude that reported toxicity cases on human health are biased towards few alien species and that several cases relate to unknown species of mushrooms. Public awareness is essential to reducing the poisoning incidences.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):