Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 52563

Physical and Mathematical Sciences

598
93602
Application of Neutron Activation Analysis Technique for the Analysis of Soil Samples from Farmlands of Yebrage Hawariat, East Gojjam, Ethiopia
Abstract:
Farmers may not be conscious for their farmland’s nutrients, soil organic matter, water and air because they simply concerned only for their labor availability and soil fertility losses. The composition and proportion of these components greatly influence soil physical properties, including texture, structure, and porosity, the fraction of pore space in a soil. The soil of this farmland must be able to supply adequate amount of plant nutrients, in forms which can be absorbed by the crop, within its lifespan. Deficiencies or imbalances in the supply of any of essential elements can compromise growth, affecting root development, cell division, crop quality, crop yield and resistance to disease and drought. This study was conducted to fill this knowledge gap in order to develop economically vital and environmentally accepted nutrient management strategies for the use of soils in agricultural lands. The objective of this study is to assess the elemental contents and concentration of soil samples collected from farmlands of ‘Yebrage’ using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) techniques regardless of oxidation state, chemical form or physical locations. NAA is used to determine the elemental composition and concentrations present in a soil. The macro/micronutrient and organic matter deficiencies have been verified in agricultural soils through increased use of soil testing and plant analysis. The challenge for agriculture over the coming decades will meet the world’s increasing demands for food in a sustainable way. Current issues and future challenges point out that as long as agriculture remains a soil-based industry, major decreases in productivity likely to be attained ensuring that plants do not have adequate and balanced supply of nutrients.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
597
92867
High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions J₀(x) and Its Zeros
Abstract:
The Bessel function J₀(x) is very important in Electrodynamics and Physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which have high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous used of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. Here us in Pade method, rational functions are used, but now there combined with elementary functions us fractional powers hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, and others. The reason of this is that now power series of the exact function are used, but together with the asymptotic expansion, which usually includes fractional powers trigonometric functions and other type of elementary functions. The approximation must be a bridge between both expansions, and this can not be accomplished using only with rational functions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ∼ 4.9. In this case also the maximum relative error for the zeros is less than 0.003 which is for the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behaviour happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
596
92173
Graphic Procession Unit-Based Parallel Processing for Inverse Computation of Full-Field Material Properties Based on Quantitative Laser Ultrasound Visualization
Abstract:
Motivation and Objective: Ultrasonic guided waves become an important tool for nondestructive evaluation of structures and components. Guided waves are used for the purpose of identifying defects or evaluating material properties in a nondestructive way. While guided waves are applied for evaluating material properties, instead of knowing the properties directly, preliminary signals such as time domain signals or frequency domain spectra are first revealed. With the measured ultrasound data, inversion calculation can be further employed to obtain the desired mechanical properties. Methods: This research is development of high speed inversion calculation technique for obtaining full-field mechanical properties from the quantitative laser ultrasound visualization system (QLUVS). The quantitative laser ultrasound visualization system (QLUVS) employs a mirror-controlled scanning pulsed laser to generate guided acoustic waves traveling in a two-dimensional target. Guided waves are detected with a piezoelectric transducer located at a fixed location. With a gyro-scanning of the generation source, the QLUVS has the advantage of fast, full-field, and quantitative inspection. Results and Discussions: This research introduces two important tools to improve the computation efficiency. Firstly, graphic procession unit (GPU) with large amount of cores are introduced. Furthermore, combining the CPU and GPU cores, parallel procession scheme is developed for the inversion of full-field mechanical properties based on the QLUVS data. The newly developed inversion scheme is applied to investigate the computation efficiency for single-layered and double-layered plate-like samples. The computation efficiency is shown to be 80 times faster than unparalleled computation scheme. Conclusions: This research demonstrates a high-speed inversion technique for the characterization of full-field material properties based on quantitative laser ultrasound visualization system. Significant computation efficiency is shown, however not reaching the limit yet. Further improvement can be reached by improving the parallel computation. Utilizing the development of the full-field mechanical property inspection technology, full-field mechanical property measured by non-destructive, high-speed and high-precision measurements can be obtained in qualitative and quantitative results. The developed high speed computation scheme is ready for applications where full-field mechanical properties are needed in a nondestructive and nearly real-time way.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
595
91069
Investigating Nanocrystalline CaF2:Tm for Carbon Beam and Gamma Radiation Dosimetry
Abstract:
In the present investigation, initially nano-particles of CaF2 were prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method and later the prepared salt was activated by thulium (0.1 mol%) using the combustion technique. The final product was characterized and confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the nanophosphor were studied by irradiating it with 1.25 MeV of gamma radiation and 65 MeV of carbon (C6+) ion beam. For gamma rays, two prominent TL peaks were observed with a low temperature peak at around 1070C and a high temperature peak at around 1570C. Furthermore, the nanophosphor maintained a linear TL response for the entire range of studied doses i.e. 10 Gy to 2000 Gy for both the temperature peaks. Moreover, when the nanophosphor was irradiated with 65 MeV of C6+ ion beam the shape and structure of the glow curves remained spectacularly similar and the nanophosphor displayed a linear TL response for the full range of studied fluences i.e. 5*1010 ions/cm2 to 1 *1012 ions/ cm2. Finally, various tests like reproducibility test and batch homogeneity were also carried out to define the final product. Thus, co-precipitation method followed by combustion technique was successful in effectively producing dosimetric grade CaF2:Tm for dosimetry of gamma as well as carbon (C6+) beam.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
594
91066
Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications
Abstract:
A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
593
90278
Bismuth Telluride Topological Insulator: Physical Vapor Transport vs Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Abstract:
Topological insulator (TI) materials are insulating in the bulk and conducting in the surface. The unique electronic properties associated with these surface states make them strong candidates for exploring innovative quantum phenomena and as practical applications for quantum computing, spintronic and nanodevices. Many materials, including Bi₂Te₃, have been proposed as TIs and, in some cases, it has been demonstrated experimentally by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM) and/or magnetotransport measurements. A clean surface is necessary in order to make any of this measurements. Several techniques have been used to produce films and different kinds of nanostructures. Growth and characterization in situ is usually the best option although cleaving the films can be an alternative to have a suitable surface. In the present work, we report a comparison of Bi₂Te₃ grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ARPES. The Bi₂Te₃ samples grown by PVT, were cleaved in the ultra-high vacuum in order to obtain a surface free of contaminants. In both cases, the XRD shows a c-axis orientation and the pole diagrams proved the epitaxial relationship between film and substrate. The ARPES image shows the linear dispersion characteristic of the surface states of the TI materials. The samples grown by PVT, a relatively simple and cost-effective technique shows the same high quality and TI properties than the grown by MBE.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
592
89867
Variations of Total Electron Content over High Latitude Region during the 24th Solar Cycle
Abstract:
The effect of solar cycle and seasons on the total electron content has been investigated over high latitude region during 24th solar cycle (2010-2014). The total electron content data has been observed with the help of Global Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC monitoring (GISTM) system installed at Indian permanent scientific 'Maitri station' [70˚46’00”S 11˚43’56” E]. The dependence of TEC over a solar cycle has been examined by the performing linear regression analysis between the vertical total electron content (VTEC) and daily total sunspot numbers (SSN). It has been found that the season and level of geomagnetic activity has a considerable effect on the VTEC. It is observed that the VTEC and SSN follow better agreement during summer seasons as compared to winter and equinox seasons and extraordinary agreement during minimum phase (during the year 2010) of the solar cycle. There is a significant correlation between VTEC and SSN during quiet days of the years as compared to overall days of the years (2010-2014). Further, saturation effect has been observed during maximum phase (during the year 2014) of the 24th solar cycle. It is also found that Ap index and SSN has a linear correlation (R=0.37) and the most of the geomagnetic activity occurs during the declining phase of the solar cycle.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
591
89866
Impact of Geomagnetic Variation over Sub-Auroral Ionospheric Region during High Solar Activity Year 2014
Abstract:
The present work is an attempt to evaluate the sub-auroral ionospheric behavior under changing space weather conditions especially during high solar activity year 2014. In view of this, the GPS TEC along with Ionosonde data over Indian permanent scientific base 'Maitri', Antarctica (70°46′00″ S, 11°43′56″ E) has been utilized. The results suggested that the nature of ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic disturbances mainly depended upon the status of high latitudinal electro-dynamic processes along with the season of occurrence. Fortunately, in this study, both negative and positive ionospheric impact to the geomagnetic disturbances has been observed in a single year but in different seasons. The study reveals that the combination of equator-ward plasma transportation along with ionospheric compositional changes causes a negative ionospheric impact during summer and equinox seasons. However, the combination of pole-ward contraction of the oval region along with particle precipitation may lead to exhibiting positive ionospheric response during the winter season. Other than this, some Ionosonde based new experimental evidence also provided clear evidence of particle precipitation deep up to the low altitudinal ionospheric heights, i.e., up to E-layer by the sudden and strong appearance of E-layer at 100 km altitudes. The sudden appearance of E-layer along with a decrease in F-layer electron density suggested the dominance of NO⁺ over O⁺ at a considered region under geomagnetic disturbed condition. The strengthening of E-layer is responsible for modification of auroral electrojet and field-aligned current system. The present study provided a good scientific insight on sub-auroral ionospheric to the changing space weather condition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
590
89842
Synthesis and Thermoluminescence Study of Nanocrystalline Radiation Dosimeter CaSO₄:Ce/Sm/Dy
Abstract:
This paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of nanocrystalline CaSO₄ activated by Ce, Sm, and Dy. TL properties are investigated by chiefly changing the dopant element and also by varying the concentration of the dopant elements (from 0.05 mol % to 0.5 mol %) so as to establish the optimized dopant concentration for each of the activators. The method of salt preparation used is the typical chemical co-precipitation method and the technique used for characterization of the prepared samples is the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. Further, the phosphors are irradiated with gamma radiation from Co-60 (1.25 MeV) source (dose range- 30 Gy to 500 Gy). The optimized concentration (vis-a-vis TL peak intensity) of activator for CaSO₄:Ce is found to be 0.2 mol %, for CaSO₄:Sm it is 0.1 mol % and for CaSO₄:Dy it is 0.2 mol %. Further, the primary study of the TL response curves for all the three phosphors confirms linearity in the studied dose range (i.e., 30 Gy to 500 Gy). Finally, CaSO₄:Dy was also studied for its energy dependence property which plays an important role in defining the utility of a phosphor for dosimetric applications. The range of doses used for the energy dependence study was from 30 Gy to 500 Gy from Cs-137 (0.662 MeV). The nano-phosphors showed potential to be used as radiation dosimeter in the studied range of gamma radiation and thus must be studied for a wider range of doses.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
589
89647
Evaluation of the Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion Thermal Effects in Hassi R'Mel Gas Processing Plant Using Fire Dynamics Simulator
Abstract:
During a fire in an oil and gas refinery, several thermal accidents can occur and cause serious damage to people and environment. Among these accidents, the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) is most observed and remains a major concern for risk decision-makers. It corresponds to a violent vaporization of explosive nature following the rupture of a vessel containing a liquid at a temperature significantly higher than its normal boiling point at atmospheric pressure. Their effects on the environment generally appear in three ways: blast overpressure, radiation from the fireball if the liquid involved is flammable and fragment hazards. In order to estimate the potential damage that would be caused by such an explosion, risk decision-makers often use quantitative risk analysis (QRA). This analysis is a rigorous and advanced approach that requires a reliable data in order to obtain a good estimate and control of risks. However, in most cases, the data used in QRA are obtained from the empirical correlations. These empirical correlations generally overestimate BLEVE effects because they are based on simplifications and do not take into account real parameters like the geometry effect. Considering that these risk analyses are based on an assessment of BLEVE effects on human life and plant equipment, more precise and reliable data should be provided. From this point of view, the CFD modeling of BLEVE effects appears as a solution to the empirical law limitations. In this context, the main objective is to develop a numerical tool in order to predict BLEVE thermal effects using the CFD code FDS version 6. Simulations are carried out with a mesh size of 1 m. The fireball source is modeled as a vertical release of hot fuel in a short time. The modeling of fireball dynamics is based on a single step combustion using an EDC model coupled with the default LES turbulence model. Fireball characteristics (diameter, height, heat flux and lifetime) issued from the large scale BAM experiment are used to demonstrate the ability of FDS to simulate the various steps of the BLEVE phenomenon from ignition up to total burnout. The influence of release parameters such as the injection rate and the radiative fraction on the fireball heat flux is also presented. Predictions are very encouraging and show good agreement in comparison with BAM experiment data. In addition, a numerical study is carried out on an operational propane accumulator in an Algerian gas processing plant of SONATRACH company located in the Hassi R’Mel Gas Field (the largest gas field in Algeria).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
588
89637
Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermophysical Properties of Photothermal Fluid and Enhancement of Photothermal Deflection Signal
Abstract:
Thermophysical properties of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl₄), a photothermal fluid used frequently in Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS), containing different volume fractions of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs) and their effect on the amplitude of PDS signal are investigated. It is found that the presence of highly thermally conducting SWCNTs in CCl₄ enhances the heat transfer from heated sample to the adjoining photothermal fluid, resulting in an increase in the intensity of amplitude of PDS signal. With the increasing volume fraction of SWCNTs in CCl₄, the amplitude of PDS signal is nearly doubled for volume fraction fopt =3.7X10⁻³ %., after that the signal drops with a further increase in the fraction of SWCNTs. It is shown that the use of highly thermally conducting carbon nanotubes enhances the heat exchange coefficient between the heated sample surface and adjoining fluid, resulting to an enhancement of PDS signal and consequently the improvement in the sensitivity of PDS technique.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
587
89303
Light Sensitive Plasmonic Nanostructures for Photonic Applications
Abstract:
In this work, the performance of gold nanoparticles were investigated for stimulation of photosensitive materials for photonic applications. It was widely used for surface plasmon resonance experiments, not in the last place because of the manifestation of optical resonances in the visible spectral region. The localized surface plasmon resonance is rather easily observed in nanometer-sized metallic structures and widely used for measurements, sensing, in semiconductor devices and even in optical data storage. Firstly, gold nanoparticles on silica glass substrate satisfy the conditions for surface plasmon resonance in the green-red spectral range, where the chalcogenide glasses have the highest sensitivity. The gold nanostructures influence and enhance the optical, structural and volume changes and promote the exciton generation in gold nanoparticles/chalcogenide layer structure. The experimental results support the importance of localized electric fields in the photo-induced transformation of chalcogenide glasses as well as suggest new approaches to improve the performance of these optical recording media. Results may be utilized for direct, micrometre- or submicron size geometrical and optical pattern formation and used also for further development of the explanations of these effects in chalcogenide glasses. Besides of that, gold nanoparticles could be added to the organic light-sensitive material. The acrylate-based materials are frequently used for optical, holographic recording of optoelectronic elements due to photo-stimulated structural transformations. The holographic recording process and photo-polymerization effect could be enhanced by the localized plasmon field of the created gold nanostructures. Finally, gold nanoparticles widely used for electrochemical and optical sensor applications. Although these NPs can be synthesized in several ways, perhaps one of the simplest methods is the thermal annealing of pre-deposited thin films on glass or silicon surfaces. With this method, the parameters of the annealing process (time, temperature) and the pre-deposited thin film thickness influence and define the resulting size and distribution of the NPs on the surface. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is a very sensitive optical phenomenon and can be utilized for a large variety of sensing purposes (chemical sensors, gas sensors, biosensors, etc.). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical method which can significantly increase the yield of Raman scattering of target molecules adsorbed on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. The sensitivity of LSPR and SERS based devices is strongly depending on the used material and also on the size and geometry of the metallic nanoparticles. By controlling these parameters the plasmon absorption band can be tuned and the sensitivity can be optimized. The technological parameters of the generated gold nanoparticles were investigated and influence on the SERS and on the LSPR sensitivity was established. The LSPR sensitivity were simulated for gold nanocubes and nanospheres with MNPBEM Matlab toolbox. It was found that the enhancement factor (which characterize the increase in the peak shift for multi-particle arrangements compared to single-particle models) depends on the size of the nanoparticles and on the distance between the particles. This work was supported by GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00041 project, which is co-financed by the European Union and European Social Fund. Istvan Csarnovics is grateful for the support through the New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities, supported by the ÚNKP-17-4 Attila Bonyár and Miklós Veres are grateful for the support of the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
586
89302
Intensity-Enhanced Super-Resolution Amplitude Apodization Effect on the Non-Spherical Near-Field Particle-Lenses
Abstract:
A particle can function as a refractive lens to focus a plane wave, generating a narrow, high intensive, weak-diverging beam within a sub-wavelength volume, known as the ‘photonic jet’. Refractive index contrast (particle to background media) and scaling effect of the dielectric particle (relative-to-wavelength size) play key roles in photonic jet formation, rather than the shape of particle-lens. Waist (full width of half maximum, FWHM) of a photonic jet could be beyond the diffraction limit and smaller than the Airy disk, which defines the minimum distance between two objects to be imaged as two instead of one. Many important applications for imaging and sensing have been afforded based upon the super-resolution characteristic of the photonic jet. It is known that apodization method, in the form of an amplitude pupil-mask centrally situated on a particle-lens, can further reduce the waist of a photonic nanojet, however, usually lower its intensity at the focus due to blocking of the incident light. In this paper, the anomalously intensity-enhanced apodization effect was discovered in the near-field via numerical simulation. It was also experimentally verified by a scale model using a copper-masked Teflon cuboid solid immersion lens (SIL) with 22 mm side length under radiation of a plane wave with 8 mm wavelength. Peak intensity enhancement and the lateral resolution of the produced photonic jet increased by about 36.0 % and 36.4 % in this approach, respectively. This phenomenon may possess the scale effect and would be valid in multiple frequency bands.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
585
89113
Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence Intensity of Europium Dinuclear Complex
Abstract:
Quantum computation is a new and exciting field making use of quantum mechanical phenomena. In classical computers, information is represented as bits, with values either 0 or 1, but a quantum computer uses quantum bits in an arbitrary superposition of 0 and 1, enabling it to reach beyond the limits predicted by classical information theory. lanthanide ion quantum computer is an organic crystal, having a lanthanide ion. Europium is a favored lanthanide, since it exhibits nuclear spin coherence times, and Eu(III) is photo-stable and has two stable isotopes. In a europium organic crystal, the key factor is the mutual dipole-dipole interaction between two europium atoms. Crystals of the complex were formed by making a 2 :1 reaction of Eu(fod)3 and bpm. The transparent white crystals formed showed brilliant red luminescence with a 405 nm laser. The photoluminescence spectroscopy was observed both at room and cryogenic temperatures (300-14 K). The luminescence spectrum of [Eu(fod)3(μ-bpm) Eu(fod)3] showed characteristic of Eu(III) emission transitions in the range 570–630 nm, due to the deactivation of 5D0 emissive state to 7Fj. For the application of dinuclear Eu3+ complex to q-bit device, attention was focused on 5D0 -7F0 transition, around 580 nm. The presence of 5D0 -7F0 transition at room temperature revealed that at least one europium symmetry had no inversion center. Since the line was unsplit by the crystal field effect, any multiplicity observed was due to a multiplicity of Eu3+ sites. For q-bit element, more narrow line width of 5D0 → 7F0 PL band in Eu3+ ion was preferable. Cryogenic temperatures (300 K – 14 K) was applicable to reduce inhomogeneous broadening and distinguish between ions. A CCD image sensor was used for low temperature Photoluminescence measurement, and a far better resolved luminescent spectrum was gotten by cooling the complex at 14 K. A red shift by 15 cm-1 in the 5D0 - 7F0 peak position was observed upon cooling, the line shifted towards lower wavenumber. An emission spectrum at the 5D0 - 7F0 transition region was obtained to verify the line width. At this temperature, a peak with magnitude three times that at room temperature was observed. The temperature change of the 5D0 state of Eu(fod)3(μ-bpm)Eu(fod)3 showed a strong dependence in the vicinity of 60 K to 100 K. Thermal quenching was observed at higher temperatures than 100 K, at which point it began to decrease slowly with increasing temperature. The temperature quenching effect of Eu3+ with increase temperature was caused by energy migration. 100 K was the appropriate temperature for the observation of the 5D0 - 7F0 emission peak. Europium dinuclear complex bridged by bpm was successfully prepared and monitored at cryogenic temperatures. At 100 K the Eu3+-dope complex has a good thermal stability and this temperature is appropriate for the observation of the 5D0 - 7F0 emission peak. Sintering the sample above 600o C could also be a method to consider but the Eu3+ ion can be reduced to Eu2+, reasons why cryogenic temperature measurement is preferably over other methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
584
89002
Performance of the Strong Stability Method in the Univariate Classical Risk Model
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the performance of the strong stability method of the univariate classical risk model. We interest to the stability bounds established using two approaches. The first based on the strong stability method developed for a general Markov chains. The second approach based on the regenerative processes theory . By adopting an algorithmic procedure, we study the performance of the stability method in the case of exponential distribution claim amounts. After presenting numerically and graphically the stability bounds, an interpretation and comparison of the results have been done.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
583
88981
Investigating the Invalidity of the Law of Energy Conservation Based on Waves Interference Phenomenon Inside a Ringed Waveguide
Authors:
Abstract:
Law of energy conservation is one of the fundamental laws of physics. Energy is conserved, and the total amount of energy is constant. It can be transferred from one object to another and changed from one state to another. However, in the case of wave interference, this law faces important contradictions. Based on the presented mathematical relationship in this paper, it seems that validity of this law depends on the path of energy wave, like light, in which it is located. In this paper, by using some fundamental concepts in physics like the constancy of the electromagnetic wave speed in a specific media and wave theory of light, it will be shown that law of energy conservation is not valid in every condition and in some circumstances, it is possible to increase energy of a system with a determined amount of energy without any input.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
582
88298
Enhancement of Raman Scattering using Photonic Nanojet and Whispering Gallery Mode of a Dielectric Microstructure
Abstract:
We report the enhancement of Raman scattering signal by one order of magnitude using photonic nanojet (PNJ) of a lollipop shaped dielectric microstructure (LSDM) fabricated by a pulsed CO₂ laser. Here, the PNJ is generated by illuminating sphere portion of the LSDM with non-resonant laser. Unlike the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, this technique is simple, and the obtained results are highly reproducible. In addition, an efficient technique is proposed to enhance the SERS signal with the help of high quality factor optical resonance (whispering gallery mode) of a LSDM. From the theoretical simulations, it has been found that at least an order of magnitude enhancement in the SERS signal could be achieved easily using the proposed technique. We strongly believe that this report will enable the research community for improving the Raman scattering signals.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
581
86680
First Formaldehyde Retrieval Using the Raw Data Obtained from Pandora in Seoul: Investigation of the Temporal Characteristics and Comparison with Ozone Monitoring Instrument Measurement
Authors:
Abstract:
In this present study, for the first time, we retrieved the Formaldehyde (HCHO) Vertical Column Density (HCHOVCD) using Pandora instruments in Seoul, a megacity in northeast Asia, for the period between 2012 and 2014 and investigated the temporal characteristics of HCHOVCD. HCHO Slant Column Density (HCHOSCD) was obtained using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. HCHOSCD was converted to HCHOVCD using geometric Air Mass Factor (AMFG) as Pandora is the direct-sun measurement. The HCHOVCDs is low at 12:00 Local Time (LT) and is high in the morning (10:00 LT) and late afternoon (16:00 LT) except for winter. The maximum (minimum) values of Pandora HCHOVCD are 2.68×1016 (1.63×10¹⁶), 3.19×10¹⁶ (2.23×10¹⁶), 2.00×10¹⁶ (1.26×10¹⁶), and 1.63×10¹⁶ (0.82×10¹⁶) molecules cm⁻² in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. In terms of seasonal variations, HCHOVCD was high in summer and low in winter which implies that photo-oxidation plays an important role in HCHO production in Seoul. In comparison with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, the HCHOVCDs from the OMI are lower than those from Pandora. The correlation coefficient (R) between monthly HCHOVCDs values from Pandora and OMI is 0.61, with slop of 0.35. Furthermore, to understand HCHO mixing ratio within Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) in Seoul, we converted Pandora HCHOVCDs to HCHO mixing ratio in the PBL using several meteorological input data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). Seasonal HCHO mixing ratio in PBL converted from Pandora (OMI) HCHOVCDs are estimated to be 6.57 (5.17), 7.08 (6.68), 7.60 (4.70), and 5.00 (4.76) ppbv in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
580
86521
Characterization of Electrical Transport across Ultra-Thin SrTiO₃ and BaTiO₃ Barriers in Tunnel Junctions
Abstract:
We report the electrical transport through voltage-current curves (I-V) in tunnels junction GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d/ insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d, and Nb/insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d is analyzed using a conducting atomic force microscope (CAFM) at room temperature. The measurements were obtained on tunnel junctions with different areas (900 μm², 400 μm² and 100 μm²). Trilayers with GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d (GBCO) as the bottom electrode, SrTiO₃ (STO) or BaTiO₃ (BTO) as the insulator barrier (thicknesses between 1.6 nm and 4 nm), and GBCO or Nb as the top electrode were grown by DC sputtering on (100) SrTiO₃ substrates. For STO and BTO barriers, asymmetric IV curves at positive and negative polarization can be obtained using electrodes with different work function. The main difference is that the BTO is a ferroelectric material, while in the STO the ferroelectricity can be produced by stress or deformation at the interfaces. In addition, hysteretic IV curves are obtained for BTO barriers, which can be ascribed to a combined effect of the FE reversal switching polarization and an oxygen vacancy migration. For GBCO/ BTO/ GBCO heterostructures, the IV curves correspond to that expected for asymmetric interfaces, which indicates that the disorder affects differently the properties at the bottom and top interfaces. Our results show the role of the interface disorder on the electrical transport of conducting/ insulator/ conduction heterostructures, which is relevant for different applications, going from resistive switching memories (at room temperature) to Josephson junctions (at low temperatures). The superconducting transition of the GBCO electrode was characterized by electrical transport using the 4-prong configuration with low density of topological defects and with Tc over liquid N₂ can be obtained for thicknesses of 16 nm, our results demonstrate that GBCO films with an average root-mean-square (RMS) smaller than 1 nm and areas (up 100 um²) free of 3-D topological defects can be obtained.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
579
85504
Peculiarities of Absorption near the Edge of the Fundamental Band of Irradiated InAs-InP Solid Solutions
Abstract:
The semiconductor devices are irreplaceable elements for investigations in Space (artificial Earth satellite, interplanetary space craft, probes, rockets) and for investigation of elementary particles on accelerators, for atomic power stations, nuclear reactors, robots operating on heavily radiation contaminated territories (Chernobyl, Fukushima). Unfortunately, the most important parameters of semiconductors dramatically worsen under irradiation. So creation of radiation-resistant semiconductor materials for opto and microelectronic devices is actual problem, as well as investigation of complicated processes developed in irradiated solid states. Homogeneous single crystals of InP-InAs solid solutions were grown with zone melting method. There has been studied the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy near fundamental absorption edge. This dependence changes dramatically with irradiation. The experiments were performed on InP, InAs and InP-InAs solid solutions before and after irradiation with electrons and fast neutrons. The investigations of optical properties were carried out on infrared spectrophotometer in temperature range of 10K-300K and 1mkm-50mkm spectral area. Radiation fluencies of fast neutrons was equal to 2·1018neutron/cm2 and electrons with 3MeV, 50MeV up to fluxes of 6·1017electron/cm2. Under irradiation, there has been revealed the exponential type of the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy with energy deficiency. The indicated phenomenon takes place at high and low temperatures as well at impurity different concentration and practically in all cases of irradiation by various energy electrons and fast neutrons. We have developed the common mechanism of this phenomenon for unirradiated materials and implemented the quantitative calculations of distinctive parameter; this is in a satisfactory agreement with experimental data. For the irradiated crystals picture get complicated. In the work, the corresponding analysis is carried out. It has been shown, that in the case of InP, irradiated with electrons (Ф=1·1017el/cm2), the curve of optical absorption is shifted to lower energies. This is caused by appearance of the tails of density of states in forbidden band due to local fluctuations of ionized impurity (defect) concentration. Situation is more complicated in the case of InAs and for solid solutions with composition near to InAs when besides noticeable phenomenon there takes place Burstein effect caused by increase of electrons concentration as a result of irradiation. We have shown, that in certain conditions it is possible the prevalence of Burstein effect. This causes the opposite effect: the shift of the optical absorption edge to higher energies. So in given solid solutions there take place two different opposite directed processes. By selection of solid solutions composition and doping impurity we obtained such InP-InAs, solid solution in which under radiation mutual compensation of optical absorption curves displacement occurs. Obtained result let create on the base of InP-InAs, solid solution radiation-resistant optical materials. Conclusion: It was established the nature of optical absorption near fundamental edge in semiconductor materials and it was created radiation-resistant optical material.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
578
85404
Synthesis of KCaVO4:Sm³⁺/PMMA Luminescent Nanocomposites and Their Optical Property Measurements
Abstract:
The present work reports synthesis of nanocomposites (NCs) of phosphor (KCaVO4:Sm3+) embedded poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) using solution casting method and their optical properties measurements for their possible application in making flexible luminescent films. X-ray diffraction analyses were employed to obtain the structural parameters as crystallinity, shape and size of the obtained NCs. The emission and excitation spectra were obtained using Photoluminescence spectroscopy to quantify the spectral properties of these fluorescent polymer/phosphor films. Optical energy gap has been estimated using UV-VIS spectroscopy while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was exploited to measure the thermal properties of the NC films in terms of their thermal stability, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity etc.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
577
85398
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors with Backside Metal-Trench Design
Abstract:
In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) having Al₂O₃ gate-dielectric and backside metal-trench structure are investigated. The Al₂O₃ gate oxide was formed by using a cost-effective non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. In order to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency, metal trenches were etched 3-µm deep and evaporated with a 150-nm thick Ni film on the backside of the Si substrate. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET (Schottky-gate HFET) has demonstrated improved maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max) of 1.08 (0.86) A/mm at VDS = 8 V, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 4 (2) V, on/off-current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 8.9 × 10⁸ (7.4 × 10⁴), subthreshold swing (SS) of 140 (244) mV/dec, two-terminal off-state gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD) of -191.1 (-173.8) V, turn-on voltage (Von) of 4.2 (1.2) V, and three-terminal on-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BVDS) of 155.9 (98.5) V. Enhanced power performances, including saturated output power (Pout) of 27.9 (21.5) dBm, power gain (Gₐ) of 20.3 (15.5) dB, and power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.3% (34.8%), are obtained. Superior breakdown and RF power performances are achieved. The present In₀.₁₈Al₀.₈₂N/AlN/GaN MOS-HFET design with backside metal-trench is advantageous for high-power circuit applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
576
85274
Stability Bound of Ruin Probability in a Reduced Two-Dimensional Risk Model
Abstract:
In this work, we introduce the qualitative and quantitative concept of the strong stability method in the risk process modeling two lines of business of the same insurance company or an insurance and reinsurance companies that divide between them both claims and premiums with a certain proportion. The approach proposed is based on the identification of the ruin probability associate to the model considered, with a stationary distribution of a Markov random process called a reversed process. Our objective, after clarifying the condition and the perturbation domain of parameters, is to obtain the stability inequality of the ruin probability which is applied to estimate the approximation error of a model with disturbance parameters by the considered model. In the stability bound obtained, all constants are explicitly written.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
575
85196
Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
Abstract:
In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
574
83799
A Model of Preventing Global Financial Crisis: Gauss Law Model Proposal Used in Electrical Field Calculations
Abstract:
This article examines the relationship between economics and physics, starting with Adam Smith, with a new econophysics approach in Economics-Physics with the Gauss Law model proposal using for the Electric Field calculation, which will allow us to anticipate the Global Financial Crisis. For this purpose, the similarities between the Gauss Law using the electric field calculations and the global financial crisis have been explained on the formula, and a model has been suggested to predict the risks of the financial systems from the electricity field calculations. Thus, this study is expected to help for preventing the Global Financial Crisis with the contribution of the science of economics and physics from the aspect of econophysics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
573
83651
Solar and Galactic Cosmic Ray Impacts on Ambient Dose Equivalent Considering a Flight Path Statistic Representative to World-Traffic
Abstract:
The earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays that can be of either galactic or solar origin. Thus, humans are exposed to high levels of galactic radiation due to altitude aircraft. The typical total ambient dose equivalent for a transatlantic flight is about 50 μSv during quiet solar activity. On the contrary, estimations differ by one order of magnitude for the contribution induced by certain solar particle events. Indeed, during Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) event, the Sun can emit particles of sufficient energy and intensity to raise radiation levels on Earth's surface. Analyses of GLE characteristics occurring since 1942 showed that for the worst of them, the dose level is of the order of 1 mSv and more. The largest of these events was observed on February 1956 for which the ambient dose equivalent rate is in the orders of 10 mSv/hr. The extra dose at aircraft altitudes for a flight during this event might have been about 20 mSv, i.e. comparable with the annual limit for aircrew. The most recent GLE, occurred on September 2017 resulting from an X-class solar flare, and it was measured on the surface of both the Earth and Mars using the Radiation Assessment Detector on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover. Recently, Hubert et al. proposed a GLE model included in a particle transport platform (named ATMORAD) describing the extensive air shower characteristics and allowing to assess the ambient dose equivalent. In this approach, the GCR is based on the Force-Field approximation model. The physical description of the Solar Cosmic Ray (i.e. SCR) considers the primary differential rigidity spectrum and the distribution of primary particles at the top of the atmosphere. ATMORAD allows to determine the spectral fluence rate of secondary particles induced by extensive showers, considering altitude range from ground to 45 km. Ambient dose equivalent can be determined using fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. The objective of this paper is to analyze the GCR and SCR impacts on ambient dose equivalent considering a high number statistic of world-flight paths. Flight trajectories are based on the Eurocontrol Demand Data Repository (DDR) and consider realistic flight plan with and without regulations or updated with Radar Data from CFMU (Central Flow Management Unit). The final paper will present exhaustive analyses implying solar impacts on ambient dose equivalent level and will propose detailed analyses considering route and airplane characteristics (departure, arrival, continent, airplane type etc.), and the phasing of the solar event. Preliminary results show an important impact of the flight path, particularly the latitude which drives the cutoff rigidity variations. Moreover, dose values vary drastically during GLE events, on the one hand with the route path (latitude, longitude altitude), on the other hand with the phasing of the solar event. Considering the GLE occurred on 23 February 1956, the average ambient dose equivalent evaluated for a flight Paris - New York is around 1.6 mSv, which is relevant to previous works This point highlights the importance of monitoring these solar events and of developing semi-empirical and particle transport method to obtain a reliable calculation of dose levels.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
572
83610
Surface and Bulk Magnetisation Behavior of Isolated Ferromagnetic NiFe Nanowires
Abstract:
In this issue, surface and bulk magnetisation behavior of template released isolated ferromagnetic Ni60Fe40 nanowires of relatively thick diameters (~200 nm), deposited from a dilute suspension onto pre-patterned insulating chips have been investigated experimentally, using a highly sensitive magneto-optical Ker effect (MOKE) magnetometry and magneto-resistance (MR) measurements, respectively. The MR data were consistent with the theoretical predictions of the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect. The MR measurements, in all the angles of investigations, showed large features and a series of nonmonotonic 'continuous small features' in the resistance profiles. The extracted switching fields from these features and MOKE loops were compared with each other and with the switching fields reported in the literature that adopted the same investigative techniques on the similar compositions and dimensions of nanowires. A large difference between MOKE switching fields and the fields extracted from the large features and a rational agreement with the fields obtained from the small features was noticed. The disparate between MOKE and MR results is attributed to the variance in the micromagnetic structure of the surface and the bulk of such ferromagnetic nanowires. This result was ascertained using micromagnetic simulations on an individual: cylindrical and rectangular cross-sections NiFe nanowires, with the same diameter/thickness of the experimental wires, using the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF) package. Where, the simulated loops showed different switching events, indicating that such wires have at least two magnetic states in the reversal process and the micromagnetic spin structures during switching was complicated. These results further supported the difference between surface and bulk magnetisation behavior in these nanowires. This work suggests that a combination of MOKE and MR measurements is required to fully understand the magnetisation behaviour of such relatively thick isolated cylindrical ferromagnetic nanowires.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
571
83530
Imaging 255nm Tungsten Thin Film Adhesion with Picosecond Ultrasonics
Abstract:
In the electronic or in the photovoltaic industries, components are made from wafers which are stacks of thin film layers of a few nanometers to serval micrometers thickness. Early evaluation of the bounding quality between different layers of a wafer is one of the challenges of these industries to avoid dysfunction of their final products. Traditional pump-probe experiments, which have been developed in the 70’s, give a partial solution to this problematic but with a non-negligible drawback. In fact, on one hand, these setups can generate and detect ultra-high ultrasounds frequencies which can be used to evaluate the adhesion quality of wafer layers. But, on the other hand, because of the quiet long acquisition time they need to perform one measurement, these setups remain shut in punctual measurement to evaluate global sample quality. This last point can lead to bad interpretation of the sample quality parameters, especially in the case of inhomogeneous samples. Asynchronous Optical Sampling (ASOPS) systems can perform sample characterization with picosecond acoustics up to 106 times faster than traditional pump-probe setups. This last point allows picosecond ultrasonic to unlock the acoustic imaging field at the nanometric scale to detect inhomogeneities regarding sample mechanical properties. This fact will be illustrated by presenting an image of the measured acoustical reflection coefficients obtained by mapping, with an ASOPS setup, a 255nm thin-film tungsten layer deposited on a silicone substrate. Interpretation of the coefficient reflection in terms of bounding quality adhesion will also be exposed. Origin of zones which exhibit good and bad quality bounding will be discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
570
83207
Search for Flavour Changing Neutral Current Couplings of Higgs-up Sector Quarks at Future Circular Collider (FCC-eh)
Abstract:
In the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model, Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) is a good research field in terms of the observability at future colliders. Increased Higgs production with higher energy and luminosity in colliders is essential for verification or falsification of our knowledge of physics and predictions, and the search for new physics. Prospective electron-proton collider constituent of the Future Circular Collider project is FCC-eh. It offers great sensitivity due to its high luminosity and low interference. In this work, thq FCNC interaction vertex with off-shell top quark decay at electron-proton colliders is studied. By using [email protected] multi-purpose event generator, observability of tuh and tch couplings are obtained with equal coupling scenario. Upper limit on branching ratio of tree level top quark FCNC decay is determined as 0.012% at FCC-eh with 1 ab ^−1 luminosity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
569
82897
Improving Radiation Efficiency Using Metamaterial in Pyramidal Horn Antenna
Abstract:
The proposed metamaterial design help to increase the radiation efficiency at 2.9 GHz by reducing the side and back lobes by making the phase difference of the waves emerging from the phase center of the horn antenna same after passing through metamaterial array. The unit cell of the metamaterial is having concentric ring structure made of copper of 0.035 mm thickness on both sides of FR4 sheet. The inner ring diameter is kept as 3 mm, and the outer ring diameters are changed according to the path and tramission phase difference of the unit cell from the phase center of the antenna in both the horizontal and vertical direction, i.e., in x- and y-axis. In this case, the ring radius varies from 3.19 mm to 6.99 mm with the respective S21 phase difference of -62.25° to -124.64°. The total phase difference can be calculated by adding the path difference of the respective unit cell in the array to the phase difference of S21. Taking one of the unit cell as the reference, the total phase difference between the reference unit cell and other cells must be integer multiple of 360°. The variation of transmission coefficient S21 with the ring radius is greater than -6 dB. The array having 5 x 5 unit cell is kept inside the pyramidal horn antenna (L X B X H = 295.451 x 384.233 x 298.66 mm3) at a distance of 36.68 mm from the waveguide throat. There is an improvement in side lobe level in E-plane by 14.6 dB when the array is used. The front to back lobe ration is increased by 1 dB by using the array. The proposed antenna with metamaterial array can be used in beam shaping for wireless power transfer applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):