Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53896

Physical and Mathematical Sciences

631
94711
Theoretical Investigation of the Singlet and Triplet Electronic States of ⁹⁰ZrS Molecules
Abstract:
The electronic structure of 90ZrS has been investigated using Ab-initio methods based on Complete Active Space Self Consistent Field and Multi-reference Configuration Interaction (CASSCF/MRCI). The number of predicted states has been extended to 14 singlet and 12 triplet lowest-lying states situated below 36000cm-1. The equilibrium energies of these 26 lowest-lying electronic states have been calculated in the 2S+1Λ(±) representation. The potential energy curves have been plotted in function of the inter-nuclear distances in a range of 1.5 to 4.5Å. Spectroscopic constants, permanent electric dipole moments and transition dipole moments between the different electronic states have also been determined. A discrepancy error of utmost 5% for the majority of values shows a good agreement with available experimental data. The ground state is found to be of symmetry X1Σ+ with an equilibrium inter-nuclear distance Re= 2.16Å. However, the (1)3Δ is the closest state to X1Σ+ and is situated at 514 cm-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the spin-orbit coupling has been investigated for all the predicted states of ZrS. 52 electronic components in the Ω(±) representation have been predicted. The energies of these components, the spectroscopic constants ωe, ωeχe, βe and the equilibrium inter-nuclear distances have been also obtained. The percentage composition of the Ω state wave-functions in terms of S-Λ states was calculated to identify their corresponding main parents. These (SOC) calculations have determined the shift between (1)3Δ1 and X1Σ+ states and confirmed the ground state type being 1Σ+.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
630
94060
An Autonomous Passive Acoustic System for Detection, Tracking and Classification of Motorboats in Portofino Sea
Abstract:
This work describes a real-time algorithm for detecting, tracking and classifying single motorboats, developed using the acoustic data recorded by a hydrophone array within the framework of EU LIFE + project ARION (LIFE09NAT/IT/000190). The project aims to improve the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins through a real-time simultaneous monitoring of their population and surface ship traffic. A Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) system is installed on two autonomous permanent marine buoys, located close to the boundaries of the Marine Protected Area (MPA) of Portofino (Ligurian Sea- Italy). Detecting surface ships is also a necessity in many other sensible areas, such as wind farms, oil platforms, and harbours. A PAM system could be an effective alternative to the usual monitoring systems, as radar or active sonar, for localizing unauthorized ship presence or illegal activities, with the advantage of not revealing its presence. Each ARION buoy consists of a particular type of structure, named meda elastica (elastic beacon) composed of a main pole, about 30-meter length, emerging for 7 meters, anchored to a mooring of 30 tons at 90 m depth by an anti-twist steel wire. Each buoy is equipped with a floating element and a hydrophone tetrahedron array, whose raw data are send via a Wi-Fi bridge to a ground station where real-time analysis is performed. Bottlenose dolphin detection algorithm and ship monitoring algorithm are operating in parallel and in real time. Three modules were developed and commissioned for ship monitoring. The first is the detection algorithm, based on Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) measurements, i.e., the evaluation of angular direction of the target respect to each buoy and the triangulation for obtaining the target position. The second is the tracking algorithm, based on a Kalman filter, i.e., the estimate of the real course and speed of the target through a predictor filter. At last, the classification algorithm is based on the DEMON method, i.e., the extraction of the acoustic signature of single vessels. The following results were obtained; the detection algorithm succeeded in evaluating the bearing angle with respect to each buoy and the position of the target, with an uncertainty of 2 degrees and a maximum range of 2.5 km. The tracking algorithm succeeded in reconstructing the real vessel courses and estimating the speed with an accuracy of 20% respect to the Automatic Identification System (AIS) signals. The classification algorithm succeeded in isolating the acoustic signature of single vessels, demonstrating its temporal stability and the consistency of both buoys results. As reference, the results were compared with the Hilbert transform of single channel signals. The algorithm for tracking multiple targets is ready to be developed, thanks to the modularity of the single ship algorithm: the classification module will enumerate and identify all targets present in the study area; for each of them, the detection module and the tracking module will be applied to monitor their course.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
629
93602
Application of Neutron Activation Analysis Technique for the Analysis of Soil Samples from Farmlands of Yebrage Hawariat, East Gojjam, Ethiopia
Abstract:
Farmers may not be conscious for their farmland’s nutrients, soil organic matter, water and air because they simply concerned only for their labor availability and soil fertility losses. The composition and proportion of these components greatly influence soil physical properties, including texture, structure, and porosity, the fraction of pore space in a soil. The soil of this farmland must be able to supply adequate amount of plant nutrients, in forms which can be absorbed by the crop, within its lifespan. Deficiencies or imbalances in the supply of any of essential elements can compromise growth, affecting root development, cell division, crop quality, crop yield and resistance to disease and drought. This study was conducted to fill this knowledge gap in order to develop economically vital and environmentally accepted nutrient management strategies for the use of soils in agricultural lands. The objective of this study is to assess the elemental contents and concentration of soil samples collected from farmlands of ‘Yebrage’ using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) techniques regardless of oxidation state, chemical form or physical locations. NAA is used to determine the elemental composition and concentrations present in a soil. The macro/micronutrient and organic matter deficiencies have been verified in agricultural soils through increased use of soil testing and plant analysis. The challenge for agriculture over the coming decades will meet the world’s increasing demands for food in a sustainable way. Current issues and future challenges point out that as long as agriculture remains a soil-based industry, major decreases in productivity likely to be attained ensuring that plants do not have adequate and balanced supply of nutrients.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
628
93318
Speckle-Based Phase Contrast Micro-Computed Tomography with Neural Network Reconstruction
Abstract:
X-ray phase contrast imaging has shown to yield a better contrast compared to conventional attenuation X-ray imaging, especially for soft tissues in the medical imaging energy range. This can potentially lead to better diagnosis for patients. However, phase contrast imaging has mainly been performed using highly brilliant Synchrotron radiation, as it requires high coherence X-rays. Many research teams have demonstrated that it is also feasible using a laboratory source, bringing it one step closer to clinical use. Nevertheless, the requirement of fine gratings and high precision stepping motors when using a laboratory source prevents it from being widely used. Recently, a random phase object has been proposed as an analyzer. This method requires a much less robust experimental setup. However, previous studies were done using a particular X-ray source (liquid-metal jet micro-focus source) or high precision motors for stepping. We have been working on a much simpler setup with just small modification of a commercial bench-top micro-CT (computed tomography) scanner, by introducing a piece of sandpaper as the phase analyzer in front of the X-ray source. However, it needs a suitable algorithm for speckle tracking and 3D reconstructions. The precision and sensitivity of speckle tracking algorithm determine the resolution of the system, while the 3D reconstruction algorithm will affect the minimum number of projections required, thus limiting the temporal resolution. As phase contrast imaging methods usually require much longer exposure time than traditional absorption based X-ray imaging technologies, a dynamic phase contrast micro-CT with a high temporal resolution is particularly challenging. Different reconstruction methods, including neural network based techniques, will be evaluated in this project to increase the temporal resolution of the phase contrast micro-CT. A Monte Carlo ray tracing simulation (McXtrace) was used to generate a large dataset to train the neural network, in order to address the issue that neural networks require large amount of training data to get high-quality reconstructions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
627
93201
A One Dimensional Particle in Cell Model for Excimer Lamps
Abstract:
In this work we study a planar lamp filled with neon-xenon gas. We use a one-dimensional particle in a cell with Monte Carlo simulation (PIC-MCC) to investigate the effect xenon concentration on the energy deposited on excitation, ionization and ions. A Xe-Ne discharge is studied for a gas pressure of 400 torr. The results show an efficient Xe20-Ne mixture with an applied voltage of 1.2KV; the xenon excitation energy represents 65% form total energy dissipated in the discharge. We have also studied electrical properties and the energy balance a discharge for Xe50-Ne which needs a voltage of 2kv; the xenon energy is than more important.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
626
93102
Spatial Architecture Impact in Mediation Open Circuit Voltage Control of Quantum Solar Cell Recovery Systems
Abstract:
The photocurrent generations are influencing ultra-high efficiency solar cells based on self-assembled quantum dot (QD) nanostructures. Nanocrystal quantum dots (QD) provide a great enhancement toward solar cell efficiencies through the use of quantum confinement to tune absorbance across the solar spectrum enabled multi-exciton generation. Based on theoretical predictions, QDs have potential to improve systems efficiency in approximate regular electrons excitation intensity greater than 50%. In solar cell devices, an intermediate band formed by the electron levels in quantum dot systems. The spatial architecture is exploring how can solar cell integrate and produce not only high open circuit voltage (> 1.7 eV) but also large short-circuit currents due to the efficient absorption of sub-bandgap photons. In the proposed QD system, the structure allows barrier material to absorb wavelengths below 700 nm while multi-photon processes in the used quantum dots to absorb wavelengths up to 2 µm. The assembly of the electronic model is flexible to demonstrate the atoms and molecules structure and material properties to tune control energy bandgap of the barrier quantum dot to their respective optimum values. In terms of energy virtual conversion, the efficiency and cost of the electronic structure are unified outperform a pair of multi-junction solar cell that obtained in the rigorous test to quantify the errors. The milestone toward achieving the claimed high-efficiency solar cell device is controlling the edge causes of energy bandgap between the barrier material and quantum dot systems according to the media design limits. Despite this remarkable potential for high photocurrent generation, the achievable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is fundamentally limited due to non-radiative recombination processes in QD solar cells. The orientation of voltage recovery system is compared theoretically with experimental Voc variation in mediation upper–limit obtained one diode modeling form at the cells with different bandgap (Eg) as classified in the proposed spatial architecture. The opportunity for improvement Voc is valued approximately greater than 1V by using smaller QDs through QD solar cell recovery systems as confined to other micro and nano operations states.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
625
93016
Low-Temperature Poly-Si Nanowire Junctionless Thin Film Transistors with Nickel Silicide
Abstract:
This work demonstrates the ultra-thin poly-Si (polycrystalline Silicon) nanowire junctionless thin film transistors (NWs JL-TFT) with nickel silicide contact. For nickel silicide film, this work designs to use two-step annealing to form ultra-thin, uniform and low sheet resistance (Rs) Ni silicide film. The NWs JL-TFT with nickel silicide contact exhibits the good electrical properties, including high driving current (>10⁷ Å), subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec.), and low parasitic resistance. In addition, this work also compares the electrical characteristics of NWs JL-TFT with nickel silicide and non-silicide contact. Nickel silicide techniques are widely used for high-performance devices as the device scaling due to the source/drain sheet resistance issue. Therefore, the self-aligned silicide (salicide) technique is presented to reduce the series resistance of the device. Nickel silicide has several advantages including low-temperature process, low silicon consumption, no bridging failure property, smaller mechanical stress, and smaller contact resistance. The junctionless thin-film transistor (JL-TFT) is fabricated simply by heavily doping the channel and source/drain (S/D) regions simultaneously. Owing to the special doping profile, JL-TFT has some advantages such as lower thermal the budget which can integrate with high-k/metal-gate easier than conventional MOSFETs (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors), longer effective channel length than conventional MOSFETs, and avoidance of complicated source/drain engineering. To solve JL-TFT has turn-off problem, JL-TFT needs ultra-thin body (UTB) structure to reach fully depleted channel region in off-state. On the other hand, the drive current (Iᴅ) is declined as transistor features are scaled. Therefore, this work demonstrates ultra thin poly-Si nanowire junctionless thin film transistors with nickel silicide contact. This work investigates the low-temperature formation of nickel silicide layer by physical-chemical deposition (PVD) of a 15nm Ni layer on the poly-Si substrate. Notably, this work designs to use two-step annealing to form ultrathin, uniform and low sheet resistance (Rs) Ni silicide film. The first step was promoted Ni diffusion through a thin interfacial amorphous layer. Then, the unreacted metal was lifted off after the first step. The second step was annealing for lower sheet resistance and firmly merged the phase.The ultra-thin poly-Si nanowire junctionless thin film transistors NWs JL-TFT with nickel silicide contact is demonstrated, which reveals high driving current (>10⁷ Å), subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec.), and low parasitic resistance. In silicide film analysis, the second step of annealing was applied to form lower sheet resistance and firmly merge the phase silicide film. In short, the NWs JL-TFT with nickel silicide contact has exhibited a competitive short-channel behavior and improved drive current.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
624
92867
High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions J₀(x) and Its Zeros
Abstract:
The Bessel function J₀(x) is very important in Electrodynamics and Physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which have high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous used of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. Here us in Pade method, rational functions are used, but now there combined with elementary functions us fractional powers hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, and others. The reason of this is that now power series of the exact function are used, but together with the asymptotic expansion, which usually includes fractional powers trigonometric functions and other type of elementary functions. The approximation must be a bridge between both expansions, and this can not be accomplished using only with rational functions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ∼ 4.9. In this case also the maximum relative error for the zeros is less than 0.003 which is for the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behaviour happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
623
92408
CuIn₃Se₅ Colloidal Nanocrystals and Its Ink-Coated Films for Photovoltaics
Abstract:
CuIn₃Se₅ material is indexed as ordered vacancy compounds having excellent matching properties with CuInGaSe (CIGS) solar absorber layer. For example, the valence band offset of CuIn₃Se₅ with CIGS is nearly 0.3 eV, and the lattice mismatch is less than 1%, besides the absence of discontinuity in their conduction bands. Thus, CuIn₃Se₅ can work as a passivation layer for repelling holes from CIGS/CdS interface and hence to reduce the interface carriers recombination and consequently enhancing the efficiency of CIGS/CdS solar cells. Theoretically, it was reported earlier that an improvement in the efficiency of p-CIGS-based solar cell with a thin ~100 nm of n-CuIn₃Se₅ layer is expected. Recently, a reported experiment demonstrated significant improvement in the efficiency of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown CIGS solar cells from 13.4 to 14.5% via inserting a thin layer of MBE-grown Cu(In,Ga)₃Se₅ layer at the CdS/CIGS interface. It should be mentioned that CuIn₃Se₅ material in either bulk or thin film form, are usually fabricated by high vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., three-source co-evaporation, RF sputtering, flash evaporation, and molecular beam epitaxy). In addition, achieving photosensitive films of n-CuIn₃Se₅ material is important for new hybrid organic/inorganic structures, where inorganic photo-absorber layer, with n-type conductivity, can form n–p junction with organic p-type material (e.g., conductive polymers). A detailed study of the physical properties of CuIn₃Se₅ is still necessary for better understanding of device operation and further improvement of solar cells performance. Here, we report on the low-cost synthesis of CuIn₃Se₅ material in nano-scale size, with an average diameter ~10nm, using simple solution-based colloidal chemistry. In contrast to traditionally grown bulk tetragonal CuIn₃Se₅ crystals using high Vacuum-based technology, our colloidal CuIn₃Se₅ nanocrystals show cubic crystal structure with a shape of nanoparticles and band gap ~1.33 eV. Ink-coated thin films prepared from these nanocrystals colloids; display n-type character, 1.26 eV band gap and strong photo-responsive behavior with incident white light. This suggests the potential use of colloidal CuIn₃Se₅ as an active layer in all-solution-processed thin film solar cells.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
622
92398
Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Grown by Modified Chemical Surface Deposition Method
Abstract:
We report on deposition of smooth, pinhole-free, low-surface roughness ( < 4nm) and high optical quality cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films on glass substrates using our new method based on chemical surface deposition principle. In this method, cadmium acetate and thiourea are used as reactants under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-vis transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. Interestingly, we found that XRD pattern of the deposited films has dramatically changed when the growth temperature was raised during the reaction. Namely, the XRD measurements reveal a structural change of CdS film from Cubic to Hexagonal phase upon increase in the growth temperature from 75 °C to 200 °C. Furthermore, the deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed from observation of both sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Also, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap and crystal structure of the deposited CdS films; can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands alignments between CdS and other light harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of all-solution processed solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
621
92173
Graphic Procession Unit-Based Parallel Processing for Inverse Computation of Full-Field Material Properties Based on Quantitative Laser Ultrasound Visualization
Abstract:
Motivation and Objective: Ultrasonic guided waves become an important tool for nondestructive evaluation of structures and components. Guided waves are used for the purpose of identifying defects or evaluating material properties in a nondestructive way. While guided waves are applied for evaluating material properties, instead of knowing the properties directly, preliminary signals such as time domain signals or frequency domain spectra are first revealed. With the measured ultrasound data, inversion calculation can be further employed to obtain the desired mechanical properties. Methods: This research is development of high speed inversion calculation technique for obtaining full-field mechanical properties from the quantitative laser ultrasound visualization system (QLUVS). The quantitative laser ultrasound visualization system (QLUVS) employs a mirror-controlled scanning pulsed laser to generate guided acoustic waves traveling in a two-dimensional target. Guided waves are detected with a piezoelectric transducer located at a fixed location. With a gyro-scanning of the generation source, the QLUVS has the advantage of fast, full-field, and quantitative inspection. Results and Discussions: This research introduces two important tools to improve the computation efficiency. Firstly, graphic procession unit (GPU) with large amount of cores are introduced. Furthermore, combining the CPU and GPU cores, parallel procession scheme is developed for the inversion of full-field mechanical properties based on the QLUVS data. The newly developed inversion scheme is applied to investigate the computation efficiency for single-layered and double-layered plate-like samples. The computation efficiency is shown to be 80 times faster than unparalleled computation scheme. Conclusions: This research demonstrates a high-speed inversion technique for the characterization of full-field material properties based on quantitative laser ultrasound visualization system. Significant computation efficiency is shown, however not reaching the limit yet. Further improvement can be reached by improving the parallel computation. Utilizing the development of the full-field mechanical property inspection technology, full-field mechanical property measured by non-destructive, high-speed and high-precision measurements can be obtained in qualitative and quantitative results. The developed high speed computation scheme is ready for applications where full-field mechanical properties are needed in a nondestructive and nearly real-time way.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
620
91943
Simulation of 1D Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon Mixtures
Abstract:
This work aims at modeling electric discharges in gas mixtures. The mathematical model mimics the ignition process in a commercial spark-plug when a high voltage is applied to the plug terminals. A longitudinal unidimensional Cartesian domain is chosen for the simulation region. Energy and mass transfer are considered for a macroscopic fluid representation, while energy transfer in molecular collisions and chemical reactions are contemplated at microscopic level. The macroscopic model is represented by a set of uncoupled partial differential equations. Microscopic effects are studied within a discrete model for electronic and molecular collisions in the frame of ZDPlasKin, a plasma modeling numerical tool. The BOLSIG+ solver is employed in solving the electronic Boltzmann equation. An operator splitting technique is used to separate microscopic and macroscopic models. The simulation gas is a mixture of atomic Argon neutral, excited and ionized. Spatial and temporal evolution of such species and temperature are presented and discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
619
91381
Stability of Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium Points in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem with Oblateness up to Zonal Harmonic J₄ of Both Primaries
Abstract:
In this paper, we examined the location and stability of Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium points in the elliptic restricted three-body problem of an infinitesimal body when both primaries are taken as oblate spheroids with oblateness up to zonal harmonic J₄. The positions of the Equilibrium points L₆,₇ and their stability depend on the oblateness of the primaries and the eccentricity of their orbits. We explored the problem numerically to show the effects of parameters involved in the position and stability of the Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium points for the systems: HD188753 and Gliese 667. It is found that their positions are affected by the oblateness of the primaries, eccentricity and the semi-major axis of the orbits, but its stability behavior remains unchanged and is unstable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
618
91145
Two-Dimensional Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulation of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Flow around Complex Geometries with Mixed Convection
Abstract:
In this present paper, the thermos-fluid dynamics considering the mixed convection (natural and forced convection) and the turbulence flow around complex geometries have been studied. In these applications, it was necessary to analyze the influence between the flow field and the heated immersed body with constant temperature on its surface. This paper presents a study about the Newtonian incompressible two-dimensional fluid around isothermal geometry using the immersed boundary method (IBM) with the virtual physical model (VPM). The numerical code proposed for all simulations satisfy the calculation of temperature considering Dirichlet boundary conditions. Important dimensionless numbers such as Strouhal number is calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), other dimensionless are calculated, such as Nusselt number, drag and lift coefficients, velocity and pressure. Streamlines and isothermal lines are presented for each simulation showing the flow dynamics and patterns. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations for mixed convection were discretized using the finite difference method for space and a second order Adams-Bashforth method for time considering the fractional step method to couple the calculation of pressure, velocity and temperature. This work used for simulation of turbulence, the Smagorinsky and Spalart-Allmaras models. The first model is based on the local equilibrium hypothesis for small scales and hypothesis of Boussinesq, such that the energy is injected into a spectrum of the turbulence, being equal to the energy dissipated by the convective effects. While in the Spalart-Allmaras, use only one transport equation for turbulent viscosity, being established. The results were compared with numerical data, validating the effect of heat-transfer together with turbulence models. The IBM/VPM is a powerful tool to simulate flow around complex geometries. The results showed a good numerical convergence in relation the references adopted.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
617
91069
Investigating Nanocrystalline CaF2:Tm for Carbon Beam and Gamma Radiation Dosimetry
Abstract:
In the present investigation, initially nano-particles of CaF2 were prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method and later the prepared salt was activated by thulium (0.1 mol%) using the combustion technique. The final product was characterized and confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the nanophosphor were studied by irradiating it with 1.25 MeV of gamma radiation and 65 MeV of carbon (C6+) ion beam. For gamma rays, two prominent TL peaks were observed with a low temperature peak at around 1070C and a high temperature peak at around 1570C. Furthermore, the nanophosphor maintained a linear TL response for the entire range of studied doses i.e. 10 Gy to 2000 Gy for both the temperature peaks. Moreover, when the nanophosphor was irradiated with 65 MeV of C6+ ion beam the shape and structure of the glow curves remained spectacularly similar and the nanophosphor displayed a linear TL response for the full range of studied fluences i.e. 5*1010 ions/cm2 to 1 *1012 ions/ cm2. Finally, various tests like reproducibility test and batch homogeneity were also carried out to define the final product. Thus, co-precipitation method followed by combustion technique was successful in effectively producing dosimetric grade CaF2:Tm for dosimetry of gamma as well as carbon (C6+) beam.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
616
91066
Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications
Abstract:
A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
615
90278
Bismuth Telluride Topological Insulator: Physical Vapor Transport vs Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Abstract:
Topological insulator (TI) materials are insulating in the bulk and conducting in the surface. The unique electronic properties associated with these surface states make them strong candidates for exploring innovative quantum phenomena and as practical applications for quantum computing, spintronic and nanodevices. Many materials, including Bi₂Te₃, have been proposed as TIs and, in some cases, it has been demonstrated experimentally by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM) and/or magnetotransport measurements. A clean surface is necessary in order to make any of this measurements. Several techniques have been used to produce films and different kinds of nanostructures. Growth and characterization in situ is usually the best option although cleaving the films can be an alternative to have a suitable surface. In the present work, we report a comparison of Bi₂Te₃ grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ARPES. The Bi₂Te₃ samples grown by PVT, were cleaved in the ultra-high vacuum in order to obtain a surface free of contaminants. In both cases, the XRD shows a c-axis orientation and the pole diagrams proved the epitaxial relationship between film and substrate. The ARPES image shows the linear dispersion characteristic of the surface states of the TI materials. The samples grown by PVT, a relatively simple and cost-effective technique shows the same high quality and TI properties than the grown by MBE.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
614
90031
Directional Search for Dark Matter Using Nuclear Emulsion
Abstract:
A variety of experiments have been developed over the past decades, aiming at the detection of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) via their scattering in an instrumented medium. The sensitivity of these experiments has improved with a tremendous speed, thanks to a constant development of detectors and analysis methods. Detectors capable of reconstructing the direction of the nuclear recoil induced by the WIMP scattering are opening a new frontier to possibly extend Dark Matter searches beyond the neutrino background. Measurement of WIMP’s direction will allow us to detect the galactic origin of dark matter and, therefore to have a clear signal-background separation. The NEWSdm experiment, based on nuclear emulsions, is intended to measure the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear coils with a solid-state detector, thus with high sensitivity. We discuss the discovery potential of a directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made of newly developed nuclear emulsions and novel read-out systems achieving nanometric resolution. We also report results of a technical test conducted in Gran Sasso.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
613
89867
Variations of Total Electron Content over High Latitude Region during the 24th Solar Cycle
Abstract:
The effect of solar cycle and seasons on the total electron content has been investigated over high latitude region during 24th solar cycle (2010-2014). The total electron content data has been observed with the help of Global Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC monitoring (GISTM) system installed at Indian permanent scientific 'Maitri station' [70˚46’00”S 11˚43’56” E]. The dependence of TEC over a solar cycle has been examined by the performing linear regression analysis between the vertical total electron content (VTEC) and daily total sunspot numbers (SSN). It has been found that the season and level of geomagnetic activity has a considerable effect on the VTEC. It is observed that the VTEC and SSN follow better agreement during summer seasons as compared to winter and equinox seasons and extraordinary agreement during minimum phase (during the year 2010) of the solar cycle. There is a significant correlation between VTEC and SSN during quiet days of the years as compared to overall days of the years (2010-2014). Further, saturation effect has been observed during maximum phase (during the year 2014) of the 24th solar cycle. It is also found that Ap index and SSN has a linear correlation (R=0.37) and the most of the geomagnetic activity occurs during the declining phase of the solar cycle.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
612
89866
Impact of Geomagnetic Variation over Sub-Auroral Ionospheric Region during High Solar Activity Year 2014
Abstract:
The present work is an attempt to evaluate the sub-auroral ionospheric behavior under changing space weather conditions especially during high solar activity year 2014. In view of this, the GPS TEC along with Ionosonde data over Indian permanent scientific base 'Maitri', Antarctica (70°46′00″ S, 11°43′56″ E) has been utilized. The results suggested that the nature of ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic disturbances mainly depended upon the status of high latitudinal electro-dynamic processes along with the season of occurrence. Fortunately, in this study, both negative and positive ionospheric impact to the geomagnetic disturbances has been observed in a single year but in different seasons. The study reveals that the combination of equator-ward plasma transportation along with ionospheric compositional changes causes a negative ionospheric impact during summer and equinox seasons. However, the combination of pole-ward contraction of the oval region along with particle precipitation may lead to exhibiting positive ionospheric response during the winter season. Other than this, some Ionosonde based new experimental evidence also provided clear evidence of particle precipitation deep up to the low altitudinal ionospheric heights, i.e., up to E-layer by the sudden and strong appearance of E-layer at 100 km altitudes. The sudden appearance of E-layer along with a decrease in F-layer electron density suggested the dominance of NO⁺ over O⁺ at a considered region under geomagnetic disturbed condition. The strengthening of E-layer is responsible for modification of auroral electrojet and field-aligned current system. The present study provided a good scientific insight on sub-auroral ionospheric to the changing space weather condition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
611
89842
Synthesis and Thermoluminescence Study of Nanocrystalline Radiation Dosimeter CaSO₄:Ce/Sm/Dy
Abstract:
This paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of nanocrystalline CaSO₄ activated by Ce, Sm, and Dy. TL properties are investigated by chiefly changing the dopant element and also by varying the concentration of the dopant elements (from 0.05 mol % to 0.5 mol %) so as to establish the optimized dopant concentration for each of the activators. The method of salt preparation used is the typical chemical co-precipitation method and the technique used for characterization of the prepared samples is the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. Further, the phosphors are irradiated with gamma radiation from Co-60 (1.25 MeV) source (dose range- 30 Gy to 500 Gy). The optimized concentration (vis-a-vis TL peak intensity) of activator for CaSO₄:Ce is found to be 0.2 mol %, for CaSO₄:Sm it is 0.1 mol % and for CaSO₄:Dy it is 0.2 mol %. Further, the primary study of the TL response curves for all the three phosphors confirms linearity in the studied dose range (i.e., 30 Gy to 500 Gy). Finally, CaSO₄:Dy was also studied for its energy dependence property which plays an important role in defining the utility of a phosphor for dosimetric applications. The range of doses used for the energy dependence study was from 30 Gy to 500 Gy from Cs-137 (0.662 MeV). The nano-phosphors showed potential to be used as radiation dosimeter in the studied range of gamma radiation and thus must be studied for a wider range of doses.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
610
89647
Evaluation of the Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion Thermal Effects in Hassi R'Mel Gas Processing Plant Using Fire Dynamics Simulator
Abstract:
During a fire in an oil and gas refinery, several thermal accidents can occur and cause serious damage to people and environment. Among these accidents, the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) is most observed and remains a major concern for risk decision-makers. It corresponds to a violent vaporization of explosive nature following the rupture of a vessel containing a liquid at a temperature significantly higher than its normal boiling point at atmospheric pressure. Their effects on the environment generally appear in three ways: blast overpressure, radiation from the fireball if the liquid involved is flammable and fragment hazards. In order to estimate the potential damage that would be caused by such an explosion, risk decision-makers often use quantitative risk analysis (QRA). This analysis is a rigorous and advanced approach that requires a reliable data in order to obtain a good estimate and control of risks. However, in most cases, the data used in QRA are obtained from the empirical correlations. These empirical correlations generally overestimate BLEVE effects because they are based on simplifications and do not take into account real parameters like the geometry effect. Considering that these risk analyses are based on an assessment of BLEVE effects on human life and plant equipment, more precise and reliable data should be provided. From this point of view, the CFD modeling of BLEVE effects appears as a solution to the empirical law limitations. In this context, the main objective is to develop a numerical tool in order to predict BLEVE thermal effects using the CFD code FDS version 6. Simulations are carried out with a mesh size of 1 m. The fireball source is modeled as a vertical release of hot fuel in a short time. The modeling of fireball dynamics is based on a single step combustion using an EDC model coupled with the default LES turbulence model. Fireball characteristics (diameter, height, heat flux and lifetime) issued from the large scale BAM experiment are used to demonstrate the ability of FDS to simulate the various steps of the BLEVE phenomenon from ignition up to total burnout. The influence of release parameters such as the injection rate and the radiative fraction on the fireball heat flux is also presented. Predictions are very encouraging and show good agreement in comparison with BAM experiment data. In addition, a numerical study is carried out on an operational propane accumulator in an Algerian gas processing plant of SONATRACH company located in the Hassi R’Mel Gas Field (the largest gas field in Algeria).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
609
89637
Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermophysical Properties of Photothermal Fluid and Enhancement of Photothermal Deflection Signal
Abstract:
Thermophysical properties of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl₄), a photothermal fluid used frequently in Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS), containing different volume fractions of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs) and their effect on the amplitude of PDS signal are investigated. It is found that the presence of highly thermally conducting SWCNTs in CCl₄ enhances the heat transfer from heated sample to the adjoining photothermal fluid, resulting in an increase in the intensity of amplitude of PDS signal. With the increasing volume fraction of SWCNTs in CCl₄, the amplitude of PDS signal is nearly doubled for volume fraction fopt =3.7X10⁻³ %., after that the signal drops with a further increase in the fraction of SWCNTs. It is shown that the use of highly thermally conducting carbon nanotubes enhances the heat exchange coefficient between the heated sample surface and adjoining fluid, resulting to an enhancement of PDS signal and consequently the improvement in the sensitivity of PDS technique.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
608
89331
Self-Action of Pyroelectric Spatial Soliton in Undoped Lithium Niobate Samples with Pyroelectric Mechanism of Nonlinear Response
Abstract:
Compensation for the nonlinear diffraction of narrow laser beams with wavelength of 532 and the formation of photonic waveguides and waveguide circuits due to the contribution of pyroelectric effect to the nonlinear response of lithium niobate crystal have been experimentally demonstrated. Complete compensation for the linear and nonlinear diffraction broadening of light beams is obtained upon uniform heating of an undoped sample from room temperature to 55 degrees Celsius. An analysis of the light-field distribution patterns and the corresponding intensity distribution profiles allowed us to estimate the spacing for the channel waveguides. The observed behavior of bright soliton beams may be caused by their coherent interaction, which manifests itself in repulsion for anti-phase light fields and in attraction for in-phase light fields. The experimental results of this study showed a fundamental possibility of forming optically complex waveguide structures in lithium niobate crystals with pyroelectric mechanism of nonlinear response. The topology of these structures is determined by the light field distribution on the input face of crystalline sample. The optical induction of channel waveguide elements by interacting spatial solitons makes it possible to design optical systems with a more complex topology and a possibility of their dynamic reconfiguration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
607
89303
Light Sensitive Plasmonic Nanostructures for Photonic Applications
Abstract:
In this work, the performance of gold nanoparticles were investigated for stimulation of photosensitive materials for photonic applications. It was widely used for surface plasmon resonance experiments, not in the last place because of the manifestation of optical resonances in the visible spectral region. The localized surface plasmon resonance is rather easily observed in nanometer-sized metallic structures and widely used for measurements, sensing, in semiconductor devices and even in optical data storage. Firstly, gold nanoparticles on silica glass substrate satisfy the conditions for surface plasmon resonance in the green-red spectral range, where the chalcogenide glasses have the highest sensitivity. The gold nanostructures influence and enhance the optical, structural and volume changes and promote the exciton generation in gold nanoparticles/chalcogenide layer structure. The experimental results support the importance of localized electric fields in the photo-induced transformation of chalcogenide glasses as well as suggest new approaches to improve the performance of these optical recording media. Results may be utilized for direct, micrometre- or submicron size geometrical and optical pattern formation and used also for further development of the explanations of these effects in chalcogenide glasses. Besides of that, gold nanoparticles could be added to the organic light-sensitive material. The acrylate-based materials are frequently used for optical, holographic recording of optoelectronic elements due to photo-stimulated structural transformations. The holographic recording process and photo-polymerization effect could be enhanced by the localized plasmon field of the created gold nanostructures. Finally, gold nanoparticles widely used for electrochemical and optical sensor applications. Although these NPs can be synthesized in several ways, perhaps one of the simplest methods is the thermal annealing of pre-deposited thin films on glass or silicon surfaces. With this method, the parameters of the annealing process (time, temperature) and the pre-deposited thin film thickness influence and define the resulting size and distribution of the NPs on the surface. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is a very sensitive optical phenomenon and can be utilized for a large variety of sensing purposes (chemical sensors, gas sensors, biosensors, etc.). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical method which can significantly increase the yield of Raman scattering of target molecules adsorbed on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. The sensitivity of LSPR and SERS based devices is strongly depending on the used material and also on the size and geometry of the metallic nanoparticles. By controlling these parameters the plasmon absorption band can be tuned and the sensitivity can be optimized. The technological parameters of the generated gold nanoparticles were investigated and influence on the SERS and on the LSPR sensitivity was established. The LSPR sensitivity were simulated for gold nanocubes and nanospheres with MNPBEM Matlab toolbox. It was found that the enhancement factor (which characterize the increase in the peak shift for multi-particle arrangements compared to single-particle models) depends on the size of the nanoparticles and on the distance between the particles. This work was supported by GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00041 project, which is co-financed by the European Union and European Social Fund. Istvan Csarnovics is grateful for the support through the New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities, supported by the ÚNKP-17-4 Attila Bonyár and Miklós Veres are grateful for the support of the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
606
89302
Intensity-Enhanced Super-Resolution Amplitude Apodization Effect on the Non-Spherical Near-Field Particle-Lenses
Abstract:
A particle can function as a refractive lens to focus a plane wave, generating a narrow, high intensive, weak-diverging beam within a sub-wavelength volume, known as the ‘photonic jet’. Refractive index contrast (particle to background media) and scaling effect of the dielectric particle (relative-to-wavelength size) play key roles in photonic jet formation, rather than the shape of particle-lens. Waist (full width of half maximum, FWHM) of a photonic jet could be beyond the diffraction limit and smaller than the Airy disk, which defines the minimum distance between two objects to be imaged as two instead of one. Many important applications for imaging and sensing have been afforded based upon the super-resolution characteristic of the photonic jet. It is known that apodization method, in the form of an amplitude pupil-mask centrally situated on a particle-lens, can further reduce the waist of a photonic nanojet, however, usually lower its intensity at the focus due to blocking of the incident light. In this paper, the anomalously intensity-enhanced apodization effect was discovered in the near-field via numerical simulation. It was also experimentally verified by a scale model using a copper-masked Teflon cuboid solid immersion lens (SIL) with 22 mm side length under radiation of a plane wave with 8 mm wavelength. Peak intensity enhancement and the lateral resolution of the produced photonic jet increased by about 36.0 % and 36.4 % in this approach, respectively. This phenomenon may possess the scale effect and would be valid in multiple frequency bands.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
605
89234
Implementation of Integer Sub-Decomposition Method on Elliptic Curves with J-Invariant 1728
Abstract:
In this paper, we present the idea of implementing the Integer Sub-Decomposition (ISD) method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The ISD method was proposed in 2013 to compute scalar multiplication in elliptic curves, which remains to be the most expensive operation in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). However, the original ISD method only works on integer number field and solve integer scalar multiplication. By extending the method into the complex quadratic field, we are able to solve complex multiplication and implement the ISD method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The curve with j-invariant 1728 has a unique discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field. This unique discriminant of quadratic field yields a unique efficiently computable endomorphism, which later able to speed up the computations on this curve. However, the ISD method needs three endomorphisms to be accomplished. Hence, we choose all three endomorphisms to be from the same imaginary quadratic field as the curve itself, where the first endomorphism is the unique endomorphism yield from the discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
604
89113
Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence Intensity of Europium Dinuclear Complex
Abstract:
Quantum computation is a new and exciting field making use of quantum mechanical phenomena. In classical computers, information is represented as bits, with values either 0 or 1, but a quantum computer uses quantum bits in an arbitrary superposition of 0 and 1, enabling it to reach beyond the limits predicted by classical information theory. lanthanide ion quantum computer is an organic crystal, having a lanthanide ion. Europium is a favored lanthanide, since it exhibits nuclear spin coherence times, and Eu(III) is photo-stable and has two stable isotopes. In a europium organic crystal, the key factor is the mutual dipole-dipole interaction between two europium atoms. Crystals of the complex were formed by making a 2 :1 reaction of Eu(fod)3 and bpm. The transparent white crystals formed showed brilliant red luminescence with a 405 nm laser. The photoluminescence spectroscopy was observed both at room and cryogenic temperatures (300-14 K). The luminescence spectrum of [Eu(fod)3(μ-bpm) Eu(fod)3] showed characteristic of Eu(III) emission transitions in the range 570–630 nm, due to the deactivation of 5D0 emissive state to 7Fj. For the application of dinuclear Eu3+ complex to q-bit device, attention was focused on 5D0 -7F0 transition, around 580 nm. The presence of 5D0 -7F0 transition at room temperature revealed that at least one europium symmetry had no inversion center. Since the line was unsplit by the crystal field effect, any multiplicity observed was due to a multiplicity of Eu3+ sites. For q-bit element, more narrow line width of 5D0 → 7F0 PL band in Eu3+ ion was preferable. Cryogenic temperatures (300 K – 14 K) was applicable to reduce inhomogeneous broadening and distinguish between ions. A CCD image sensor was used for low temperature Photoluminescence measurement, and a far better resolved luminescent spectrum was gotten by cooling the complex at 14 K. A red shift by 15 cm-1 in the 5D0 - 7F0 peak position was observed upon cooling, the line shifted towards lower wavenumber. An emission spectrum at the 5D0 - 7F0 transition region was obtained to verify the line width. At this temperature, a peak with magnitude three times that at room temperature was observed. The temperature change of the 5D0 state of Eu(fod)3(μ-bpm)Eu(fod)3 showed a strong dependence in the vicinity of 60 K to 100 K. Thermal quenching was observed at higher temperatures than 100 K, at which point it began to decrease slowly with increasing temperature. The temperature quenching effect of Eu3+ with increase temperature was caused by energy migration. 100 K was the appropriate temperature for the observation of the 5D0 - 7F0 emission peak. Europium dinuclear complex bridged by bpm was successfully prepared and monitored at cryogenic temperatures. At 100 K the Eu3+-dope complex has a good thermal stability and this temperature is appropriate for the observation of the 5D0 - 7F0 emission peak. Sintering the sample above 600o C could also be a method to consider but the Eu3+ ion can be reduced to Eu2+, reasons why cryogenic temperature measurement is preferably over other methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
603
89002
Performance of the Strong Stability Method in the Univariate Classical Risk Model
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the performance of the strong stability method of the univariate classical risk model. We interest to the stability bounds established using two approaches. The first based on the strong stability method developed for a general Markov chains. The second approach based on the regenerative processes theory . By adopting an algorithmic procedure, we study the performance of the stability method in the case of exponential distribution claim amounts. After presenting numerically and graphically the stability bounds, an interpretation and comparison of the results have been done.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
602
88995
The Formation of Thin Copper Films on Graphite Surface Using Magnetron Sputtering Method
Abstract:
The magnetron sputtering deposition method is often used to obtain thin film coatings. The main advantage of magnetron vaporization compared to other deposition methods is the high rate erosion of the cathode material (e.g., copper, aluminum, etc.) and the ability to operate under low-pressure conditions. The structure of the formed coatings depends on the working parameters of the magnetron deposition system, which is why it is possible to influence the properties of the growing film, such as morphology, crystal orientation, and dimensions, stresses, adhesion, etc. The properties of these coatings depend on the distance between the substrate and the magnetron surface, the vacuum depth, the gas used, etc. Using this deposition technology, substrates are most often placed near the anode. The magnetic trap of the magnetrons for localization of electrons in the cathode region is formed using a permanent magnet system that is on the side of the cathode. The scientific literature suggests that, after insertion of a small amount of copper into graphite, the electronic conductivity of graphite increase. The aim of this work is to create thin (up to 300 nm) layers on a graphite surface using a magnetron evaporation method, to investigate the formation peculiarities and microstructure of thin films, as well as the mechanism of copper diffusion into graphite inner layers at different thermal treatment temperatures. The electron scanning microscope was used to investigate the microrelief of the coating surface. The chemical composition is determined using the EDS method, which shows that, with an increase of the thermal treatment of the copper-carbon layer from 200 °C to 400 °C, the copper content is reduced from 8 to 4 % in atomic mass units. This is because the EDS method captures only the amount of copper on the graphite surface, while the temperature of the heat treatment increases part of the copper because of the diffusion processes penetrates into the inner layers of the graphite. The XRD method shows that the crystalline copper structure is not affected by thermal treatment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):