Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 39602

Physical and Mathematical Sciences

Character Bioacoustics White-Rumped Shama Copsychus Malabaricus as a Cage-Bird
Indonesian people love to keep songbird in cage to be competed, such as White-rumped Shama (Copsychus malabaricus). Each individual White-rumped Shama will be pitted their song and try to imitate the rhythm of the enemy with its songs. This study was conducted to see the natural song characters of White-rumped Shama and song character from birds that had been trained and comparison in three different places in West Sumatra. Individuals were recorded totaling 30 individuals in three areas in West Sumatra namely Padang, Solok and Pariaman and sound recordings of White-rumped Shama in nature were taken in HBW and Xenocanto website. Research has done conducted from June to October 2016 at place group practice of birdsongs and recorded at 16:00 to 18:00 pm. These voices were analyzed by Avisoft SAS-Lab Lite inform of oscillogram and sonogram. Measured parameters included: the length of voice, repertoire size, number of syllable type, syllable repertoire, and song repertoire. The results showed that repertoire composition of White-rumped Shama in nature less than the sound which was trained and has repeat songs composed by the same type of repertoire composition. Comparison of song character White-rumped Shama in three different places in West Sumatra, those birds in Solok had the best quality of voice or song than Padang and Pariaman. It showed by higher repertoire composition in Solok.
Developing Optical Sensor with Laser Pulse Code Detection System Using Pulse Repetition Frequency Based on Microcontroller
In this paper, we describe and enhance detection and tracking of laser guided weapon decoding system based on microcontroller. The system is designed to receive the reflected pulse through a four quadrant laser detector and process the received laser pulses through an electronic circuit, which send data to the microcontroller for decoding laser signal reflected by the target. The laser seeker accuracy will be improved by the decoding system, which reduced the time of laser detection by reducing the number of received pulse to detect the code and generating a narrow gate signal to improve the anti-jamming ability. We implement a model of the laser pulse code detection system based on Pulse Repetition Frequency technique with two microcontroller units (MCU). MCU1 generates laser pulses with different codes and also communicate with switches to control which code is selected. MCU2 recognizes the laser code and locks the system at the specific code. The locked frequency can be changed in both MCUs by switches selection. The system is implemented and tested in Proteus Software for laser code compatibility, laser code rejection. The concept is hardware implemented and used to evaluate the performance of 4-quadrant detector with laser pulse code detection. The hardware system is tested for laser code compatibility, immunity to false laser codes and laser code resolution. The system test results show that the system can detect the laser code with only 3 received pulses based on the narrow gate signal and good agreement between simulation and measured system performance as presented.
Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level
Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.
Detection and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Using Infra-Red-Microscopy and Advanced Multivariate Analysis
Antimicrobial drugs have an important role in controlling illness associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. However, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global health-care problem. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients and in many cases can save lives. The conventional methods for susceptibility testing like disk diffusion are time-consuming and other method including E-test, genotyping are relatively expensive. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is rapid, safe, and low cost method that was widely and successfully used in different studies for the identification of various biological samples including bacteria. The new modern infrared (IR) spectrometers with high spectral resolution enable measuring unprecedented biochemical information from cells at the molecular level. Moreover, the development of new bioinformatics analyses combined with IR spectroscopy becomes a powerful technique, which enables the detection of structural changes associated with resistivity. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FTIR microscopy in tandem with machine learning algorithms for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in time span of few minutes. The bacterial samples, which were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF and examined for their susceptibility by the routine assay (micro-diffusion discs), are obtained from the bacteriology laboratories in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC). These samples were examined by FTIR microscopy and analyzed by advanced statistical methods. Our results, based on 550 E.coli samples, were promising and showed that by using infrared spectroscopic technique together with multivariate analysis, it is possible to classify the tested bacteria into sensitive and resistant with success rate higher than 85% for eight different antibiotics. Based on these preliminary results, it is worthwhile to continue developing the FTIR microscopy technique as a rapid and reliable method for identification antibiotic susceptibility.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis for Radon Dispersion Study and Mitigation
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the distribution of indoor radon concentration in a living room with elevated levels of radon concentration which varies from 22 Bqm-3 to 1533 Bqm-3 in 24 hours. Finite volume method (FVM) was used for the simulation. The simulation results were experimentally validated at 16 points in two horizontal planes (y=1.4m & y=2.0m) using pin-hole dosimeters and at 3 points using scintillation radon monitor (SRM). Passive measurement using pin-hole dosimeters were performed in all seasons. Another simulation was done to find a suitable position for a passive ventilation system for the effective mitigation of radon.
Stabilizing Effect of Magnetic Field in a Thermally Modulated Porous Layer
Nonlinear stability analysis is carried out to determine the effect of surface temperature modulation in an infinite horizontal porous layer heated from below. The layer is saturated by an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible and Newtonian fluid. The Brinkman model is used for momentum equation, and the Boussinesq approximation is invoked. The system is assumed to be bounded by rigid boundaries. The energy theory is implemented to find the global exponential stability region of the considered system. The results are analysed for arbitrary values of modulation frequency and amplitude. The existence of subcritical instability region is confirmed by comparing the obtained result with the known linear result. The vertical magnetic field is found to stabilize the system.
Constructing the Density of States from the Parallel Wang Landau Algorithm Overlapping Data
This work focuses on building an efficient universal procedure to construct a single density of states from the multiple pieces of data provided by the parallel implementation of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo based algorithm. The Ising and Pott models were used as the examples of the two-dimensional spin lattices to construct their densities of states. Sampled energy space was distributed between the individual walkers with certain overlaps. This was made to include the latest development of the algorithm as the density of states replica exchange technique. Several factors of immediate importance for the seamless stitching process have being considered. These include but not limited to the speed and universality of the initial parallel algorithm implementation as well as the data post-processing to produce the expected smooth density of states.
Design of a Remote Radiation Sensing Module Based on Portable Gamma Spectrometer
A personal gamma spectrometer has to be sensitive, pocket-sized, and carriable on the users. To serve these requirements, we developed the SiPM-based portable radiation detectors. The prototype uses a Ce:GAGG scintillator coupled to a silicon photomultiplier and a radio frequency(RF) module to measure gamma-ray, and can be accessed wirelessly or remotely by mobile equipment. The prototype device consumes roughly 4.4W, weighs about 180g (including battery), and measures 5.0 7.0. It is able to achieve 5.8% FWHM energy resolution at 662keV.
Simulation for the Magnetized Plasma Compression Study
Ongoing experimental and theoretical studies on magneto-inertial confinement fusion (Angara, C-2, CJS-100, General Fusion, MagLIF, MAGPIE, MC-1, YG-1, Omega) and new constructing facilities (Baikal, C-2W, Z300 and Z800) require adequate modeling and description of the physical processes occurring in high-temperature dense plasma in a strong magnetic field. This paper presents a mathematical model, numerical method, and results of the computer analysis of the compression process and the energy transfer in the target plasma, used in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The computer simulation of the compression process of the magnetized target by the high-power laser pulse and the high-speed plasma jets is presented. The characteristic patterns of the two methods of the target compression are being analysed.
Accuracy of Computed Tomography Dose Monitor Values: A Multicentric Study in India
The quality of Computed Tomography (CT) procedures has improved in recent years due to technological developments and increased diagnostic ability of CT scanners. Due to the fact that CT doses are the peak among diagnostic radiology practices, it is of great significance to be aware of patient’s CT radiation dose whenever a CT examination is preferred. CT radiation dose delivered to patients in the form of volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) values, is displayed on scanner monitors at the end of each examination and it is an important fact to assure that this information is accurate. The objective of this study was to estimate the CTDIvol values for great number of patients during the most frequent CT examinations, to study the comparison between CT dose monitor values and measured ones, as well as to highlight the fluctuation of CTDIvol values for the same CT examination at different centres and scanner models. The output CT dose indices measurements were carried out on single and multislice scanners for available kV, 5 mm slice thickness, 100 mA and FOV combination used. The 100 CT scanners were involved in this study. Data with regard to 15,000 examinations in patients, who underwent routine head, chest and abdomen CT were collected using a questionnaire sent to a large number of hospitals. Out of the 15,000 examinations, 5000 were head CT examinations, 5000 were chest CT examinations and 5000 were abdominal CT examinations. Comprehensive quality assurance (QA) was performed for all the machines involved in this work. Followed by QA, CT phantom dose measurements were carried out in South India using actual scanning parameters used clinically by the hospitals. From this study, we have measured the mean divergence between the measured and displayed CTDIvol values were 5.2, 8.4, and -5.7 for selected head, chest and abdomen procedures for protocols as mentioned above, respectively. Thus, this investigation revealed an observable change in CT practices, with a much wider range of studies being performed currently in South India. This reflects the improved capacity of CT scanners to scan longer scan lengths and at finer resolutions as permitted by helical and multislice technology. Also, some of the CT scanners have used smaller slice thickness for routine CT procedures to achieve better resolution and image quality. It leads to an increase in the patient radiation dose as well as the measured CTDIv, so it is suggested that such CT scanners should select appropriate slice thickness and scanning parameters in order to reduce the patient dose. If these routine scan parameters for head, chest and abdomen procedures are optimized than the dose indices would be optimal and lead to the lowering of the CT doses. In South Indian region all the CT machines were routinely tested for QA once in a year as per AERB requirements.
Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Cyperus rotundus Medicinal Plant by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission and ICP-MS Techniques
Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques have been employed in this work to determine the elements present in the root of Cyperus rotundus medicinal plant used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr were commonly identified and quantified by both PIXE and ICP-MS whereas the elements Li, Be, Al, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb and U were determined by ICP-MS and Cl, K, Ca, Ti and Br were determined by PIXE. The regional variation of elemental content has also been studied by analyzing the same plant collected from different geographical locations. Information on the elemental content of the medicinal plant would be helpful in correlating its ability in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and also in deciding the dosage of this herbal medicine from the metal toxicity point of view. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were also applied to the data matrix to understand the correlation among the elements.
Sequential Pulsed Electric Field and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Enriched Fractions from Button Mushroom Stalks
Edible mushrooms possess numerous functional components like homo- and hetero- β-glucans [β(1→3), β(1→4) and β(1→6) glucosidic linkages], chitins, ergosterols, bioactive polysaccharides and peptides imparting health beneficial properties to mushrooms. Some of the proven biological activities of mushroom extracts are antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, cholesterol lowering activity by inhibiting a key cholesterol metabolism enzyme i.e. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR), angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Application of novel extraction technologies like pulsed electric field (PEF) and high power ultrasound offers clean, green, faster and efficient extraction alternatives with enhanced and good quality extracts. Sequential PEF followed by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) were applied to recover bioactive enriched fractions from industrial white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk waste using environmentally friendly and GRAS solvents i.e. water and water/ethanol combinations. The PEF treatment was carried out at 60% output voltage, 2 Hz frequency for 500 pulses of 20 microseconds pulse width, using KCl salt solution of 0.6 mS/cm conductivity by the placing 35g of chopped fresh mushroom stalks and 25g of salt solution in the 4x4x4cm3 treatment chamber. Sequential UAE was carried out on the PEF pre-treated samples using ultrasonic-water-bath (USB) of three frequencies (25 KHz, 35 KHz and 45 KHz) for various treatment times (15-120 min) at 80°C. Individual treatment using either PEF or UAE were also investigation to compare the effect of each treatment along with the combined effect on the recovery and bioactivity of the crude extracts. The freeze dried mushroom stalk powder was characterised for proximate compositional parameters (dry weight basis) showing 64.11% total carbohydrate, 19.12% total protein, 7.21% total fat, 31.2% total dietary fiber, 7.9% chitin (as glucosamine equivalent) and 1.02% β-glucan content. The total phenolic contents (TPC) were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as gallic-acid-equivalents (GAE). The antioxidant properties were ascertained using DPPH and FRAP assays and expressed as trolox-equivalents (TE). HMGCR activity and molecular mass of β-glucans will be measured using the commercial HMG-CoA Reductase Assay kit (Sigma-Aldrich) and size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC), respectively. Effects of PEF, UAE and their combination on the antioxidant capacity, HMGCR inhibition and β-glucans content will be presented.
Influence of Gamma-Radiation Dosimetric Characteristics on the Stability of the Persistent Organic Pollutants
As a result of environmental pollution, the production of agriculture and foodstuffs inevitably contain residual amounts of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP). The special attention must be given to organic pollutants, including various organochlorinated pesticides (OCP). Among priorities, OCP is DDT (and its metabolite DDE), alfa-HCH, gamma-HCH (lindane). The control of these substances spends proceeding from requirements of sanitary norms and rules. During too time often is lost sight of that the primary product can pass technological processing (in particular irradiation treatment) as a result of which transformation of physicochemical forms of initial polluting substances is possible. The goal of the present work was to study the OCP radiation degradation at a various gamma-radiation dosimetric characteristics. The problems posed for goal achievement: to evaluate the content of the priority of OCPs in food; study the character the degradation of OCP in model solutions (with micro concentrations commensurate with the real content of their agricultural and food products) depending upon dosimetric characteristics of gamma-radiation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of OCP in food and model solutions by gas chromatograph Varian 3400 (Varian, Inc. (USA)); chromatography-mass spectrometer Varian Saturn 4D (Varian, Inc. (USA)) was carried out. The solutions of DDT, DDE, alpha- and gamma- isomer HCH (0.01, 0.1, 1 ppm) were irradiated on "Issledovatel" (60Co) and "Luch - 1" (60Co) installations at a dose 10 kGy with a variation of dose rate from 0.0083 up to 2.33 kGy/sec. It was established experimentally that OCP residual concentration in individual samples of food products (fish, milk, cereal crops, meat, butter) are evaluated as 10-1-10-4 mg/kg, the value of which depends on the factor-sensations territory and natural migration processes. The results were used in the preparation of model solutions OCP. The dependence of a degradation extent of OCP from a dose rate gamma-irradiation has complex nature. According to our data at a dose 10 kGy, the degradation extent of OCP at first increase passes through a maximum (over the range 0.23 – 0.43 Gy/sec), and then decrease with the magnification of a dose rate. The character of the dependence of a degradation extent of OCP from a dose rate is kept for various OCP, in polar and nonpolar solvents and does not vary at the change of concentration of the initial substance. Also in work conditions of the maximal radiochemical yield of OCP which were observed at having been certain: influence of gamma radiation with a dose 10 kGy, in a range of doses rate 0.23 – 0.43 Gy/sec; concentration initial OCP 1 ppm; use of solvent - 2-propanol after preliminary removal of oxygen. Based on, that at studying model solutions of OCP has been established that the degradation extent of pesticides and qualitative structure of OCP radiolysis products depend on a dose rate, has been decided to continue researches radiochemical transformations OCP into foodstuffs at various of doses rate.
Health Risk Assessment from Potable Water Containing Tritium and Heavy Metals
Obninsk is situated in the Kaluga region 100 km southwest of Moscow on the left bank of the Protva River. Several enterprises utilizing nuclear energy are operating in the town. A special attention in the region where radiation-hazardous facilities are located has traditionally been paid to radioactive gas and aerosol releases into the atmosphere; liquid waste discharges into the Protva river and groundwater pollution. Municipal intakes involve 34 wells arranged 15 km apart in a sequence north-south along the foot of the left slope of the Protva river valley. Northern and southern water intakes are upstream and downstream of the town, respectively. They belong to river valley intakes with mixed feeding, i.e. precipitation infiltration is responsible for a smaller part of groundwater, and a greater amount is being formed by overflowing from Protva. Water intakes are maintained by the Protva river runoff, the volume of which depends on the precipitation fallen out and watershed area. Groundwater contamination with tritium was first detected in a sanitary-protective zone of the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SRC-IPPE) by Roshydromet researchers when realizing the “Program of radiological monitoring in the territory of nuclear industry enterprises”. A comprehensive survey of the SRC-IPPE’s industrial site and adjacent territories has revealed that research nuclear reactors and accelerators where tritium targets are applied as well as radioactive waste storages could be considered as potential sources of technogenic tritium. All the above sources are located within the sanitary controlled area of intakes. Tritium activity in water of springs and wells near the SRC-IPPE is about 17.4 – 3200 Bq/l. The observed values of tritium activity are below the intervention levels (7600 Bq/l for inorganic compounds and 3300 Bq/l for organically bound tritium). The risk has being assessed to estimate possible effect of considered tritium concentrations on human health. Data on tritium concentrations in pipe-line drinking water were used for calculations. The activity of 3H amounted to 10.6 Bq/l and corresponded to the risk of such water consumption of ~ 3·10-7 year-1. The risk value given in magnitude is close to the individual annual death risk for population living near a NPP – 1.6·10-8 year-1 and at the same time corresponds to the level of tolerable risk (10-6) and falls within “risk optimization”, i.e. in the sphere for planning the economically sound measures on exposure risk reduction. To estimate the chemical risk, physical and chemical analysis was made of waters from all springs and wells near the SRC-IPPE. Chemical risk from groundwater contamination was estimated according to the EPA US guidance. The risk of carcinogenic diseases at a drinking water consumption amounts to 5·10-5. According to the classification accepted the health risk in case of spring water consumption is inadmissible. The compared assessments of risk associated with tritium exposure, on the one hand, and the dangerous chemical (e.g. heavy metals) contamination of Obninsk drinking water, on the other hand, have confirmed that just these chemical pollutants are responsible for health risk.
A Possible Application Carbon-Dioxide-Enhanced Oil Recovery in Sarir Oil Fields Sirte Basin, Libya
The Sarir Oil field at Sirte Basin is a complex of three fields (Sarir "C", North Pool and Sarir "L" ) as the largest oil field in Libya was discovered by British Petroleum (BP) in November 1961 on a seismically defined structure. Oil Produced at Sarir is very waxy, with average 37.2˚API, paraffin base, sulfur-free oil, and is pumped through a 400km pipeline to the Mersa El Hariga terminal. Original Oil in Place (OOIP) is estimated to be 12 billion barrels of oil. The fluctuation in oil prices, the threatening of economic collapse, and declining Sarir oilfield productivity all highlights the need for improved and accelerated recovery. Most of the studies and reviews show that the amount of oil that can be extracted with primary drive mechanisms is about 20 % and by secondary recovery can reach up to 18% but using modern Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques; recovery can reach up to 17%. These techniques of EOR are essentially designed to recover oil commonly described as residual oil. The Sarir fields have been providing a large part of the crude oil, about 40% of oil have already been produced. Therefore 60% of the original oil remains stranded in place, and a considerable portion of it can be recovered using advanced CO₂-EOR recovery techniques according to oil properties and the reservoir characteristics of the Sarir oil fields.
Multi-Band, Polarization Insensitive, Wide Angle Receptive Metamaterial Absorber for Microwave Applications
This paper presents the design and simulation of a five band metamaterial absorber at microwave frequencies. The absorber unit cell consists of squares and strips arranged as the top layer and a metallic ground plane as the bottom layer on a dielectric substrate. Simulation results show five near perfect absorption bands at 3.15 GHz, 7.15 GHz, 11.12 GHz, 13.87 GHz, and 16.85 GHz with absorption magnitudes 99.68%, 99.05%, 96.98%, 98.36% and 99.44% respectively. Further, the proposed absorber exhibits polarization insensitivity and wide angle receptivity. The surface current analysis is presented to explain the mechanism of absorption in the structure. With these preferable features, the proposed absorber can be excellent choice for potential applications such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, radar cross section reduction.
Terahertz Surface Plasmon in Carbon Nanotube Dielectric Interface via Amplitude Modulated Laser
A carbon nanotube thin film coated on dielectric interface is employed to produce THz surface plasma wave (SPW). The carbon nanotube has its plasmon frequency in the THz range. The SPW field falls off away from the metal film both inside the dielectric as well as in free space. An amplitude modulated laser pulse normally incident, from free space on slow wave structure, exert a modulation frequency ponderomotive force on the free electrons of the CNT film and resonantly excite the THz surface plasma wave at the modulation frequency. Carbon nanotube based plasmonic nano-structure materials provides potentially more versatile approach to tightly confined surface modes in the THz range in comparison to noble metals.
Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments
Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is, therefore, mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic read-out. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are nonconductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1°C in a range 20 - 150°C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.
Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator: Optical and Dielectric Properties
The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants which suggest a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.
Magnetic Properties and Cytotoxicity of Ga-Mn Magnetic Ferrites Synthesised by the Citrate Sol-Gel Method
Magnetic spinel ferrites are materials that may possess adequate size, magnetic properties, and the heating ability for their potential use in biomedical applications. The magnetic Mn0.5Ga0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as the chelating agent of metallic precursors. The synthesized samples were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) showing a single phase of an inverse spinel structure. The saturation magnetization of crystalline powders was 45.9 emu/g, which was higher of both pure GaFe2O4 (14.2 emu/g) and MnFe2O4 (40.2 emu/g) synthesized under similar conditions, while the coercivity field was 27.9 Oe. The average particle size was 18 ± 7 nm. The heating ability of the magnetic nanoparticles was sufficient to increase the surrounding temperature up to 43.5°C in around 7 min, when a quantity of 4.5mg of MNPs per mL of liquid medium was tested. Cytotoxic effect (hemolysis assay) of MNPs was measured and the results showed hemolytic values below 1% in all tested cases. According to the results obtained, it is expected that these synthesized nanoparticles can be potentially used as thermoseeds for hyperthermia therapy.
Evaluation of the Heating Capability and In vitro Hemolysis of Nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (X = 0.3 and 0.4) Ferrites Prepared by Sol-Gel Method
Among the different cancer treatments that are currently used, hyperthermia has a promising potential due to the multiple benefits that are obtained by this technique. In general terms, hyperthermia is a method that takes advantage of the sensitivity of cancer cells to heat, in order to damage or destroy them. Within the different ways of supplying heat to cancer cells and achieve their destruction or damage, the use of magnetic nanoparticles has attracted attention due to the capability of these particles to generate heat under the influence of an external magnetic field. In addition, these nanoparticles have a high surface area and sizes similar or even lower than biological entities, which allow their approaching and interaction with a specific region of interest. The most used magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment are those based on iron oxides, mainly magnetite and maghemite, due to their biocompatibility, good magnetic properties and chemical stability. However, in order to fulfil more efficiently the requirements that demands the treatment of magnetic hyperthermia, there have been investigations using ferrites that incorporate different metallic ions, such as Mg, Mn, Co, Ca, Ni, Cu, Li, Gd, etc., in their structure. This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) ferrites by sol-gel method and their evaluation in terms of heating capability and in vitro hemolysis to determine the potential use of these nanoparticles as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia. It was possible to obtain ferrites with nanometric sizes, a single crystalline phase with an inverse spinel structure and a behavior near to that of superparamagnetic materials. Additionally, at concentrations of 10 mg of magnetic material per mL of water, it was possible to reach a temperature of approximately 45 °C, which is within the range of temperatures used for the treatment of hyperthermia. The results of the in vitro hemolysis assay showed that, at the concentrations tested, these nanoparticles are non-hemolytic, as their percentage of hemolysis is below 2%. Therefore, these materials can be used as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia.
Gravitational Wave Solutions in Modified Gravity Theories
In this paper, we formulate the wave equation in modified theories, particularly in f(R) theory, scalar-tensor theory, and metric palatine f(X) theory. We solve the wave equation in each case and try to find maximum possible solutions in the form polarization modes. It is found that modified theories present at most six modes however the mentioned metric theories allow four polarization modes, two of which are tensor in nature and other two are scalars.
Mathematical Modelling of Slag Formation in an Entrained-Flow Gasifier
Gasification processes are of great interest due to their generation of renewable energy in the form of syngas from biodegradable waste. It is, therefore, important to study the factors that play a role in the efficiency of gasification and the longevity of the machines in which gasification takes place. This study focuses on the latter, aiming to optimize an entrained-flow gasifier by reducing slag formation on its walls to reduce maintenance costs. A CFD mathematical model for an entrained-flow gasifier is constructed – the model of an actual gasifier is rendered in 3D and appropriately meshed. Then, the turbulent gas flow in the gasifier is modeled with the realizable k-ε approach, taking devolatilization, combustion and coal gasification into account. Various such simulations are conducted, obtaining results for different air inlet positions and by tracking particles of varying sizes undergoing devolatilization and gasification. The model identifies potential problematic zones where most particles collide with the gasifier walls, indicating risk regions where ash deposits could most likely form. In conclusion, the effects on the formation of an ash layer of air inlet positioning and particle size allowed in the main gasifier tank are discussed, and possible solutions for decreasing a number of undesirable deposits are proposed. Additionally, an estimate of the impact of different factors such as temperature, gas properties and gas content, and different forces acting on the particles undergoing gasification is given.
The Spectral Power Amplification on the Regular Lattices
We show that a simple transformation between the regular lattices (the square, the triangular, and the honeycomb) belonging to the same dimensionality can explain in a natural way the universality of the critical exponents found in phase transitions and critical phenomena. It suffices that the Hamiltonian and the lattice present similar writing forms. In addition, it appears that if a property can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality. In this study, we have restricted ourselves to show that the spectral power Amplification (SPA) can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality, we note that the SPA has not an effect on the critical exponents but is has an effect by the criticality temperature of the lattice, the generalisation to other lattice could be shown according to the containment principle.
Mesoporous BiVO4 Thin Films as Efficient Visible Light Driven Photocatalyst
Photocatalytic processes play key role in the production of a new source of energy (as hydrogen), design of self-cleaning surfaces or for the environment preservation. The most challenging task deals with the purification of water distinguished by high efficiency. In the mentioned process, organic pollutants in solutions are decomposed to the simple, non-toxic compounds as H2O and CO2. The most known photocatalytic materials are ZnO, CdS and TiO2 semiconductors with a particular involvement of TiO2 as an efficient photocatalysts even with a high band gap equal to 3.2 eV which exploit only UV radiation from solar emitted spectrum. However, promising material with visible light induced photoactivity was searched through the monoclinic polytype of BiVO4 which has energy gap about 2.4 eV. As required in heterogeneous photocatalysis, the high contact surface is required. Also, BiVO4 as photocatalyst can be optimized by increasing its surface area by achieving the mesoporous structure synthesize. The main goal of the present work consists in the synthesis and characterization of BiVO4 mesoporous thin film. The synthesis method based on sol-gel was carried out using a standard surfactants such as P123 and F127. The thin film was deposited by spin and dip coating method. Then, the structural analysis of the obtained material was performed thanks to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface of resulting structure was investigated using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The computer simulations based on modeling the optical and electronic properties of bulk BiVO4 by using DFT (density functional theory) methodology were carried out. The semiempirical parameterized method PM6 was used to compute the physical properties of BiVO4 nanostructures. The Raman and IR absorption spectra were also measured for synthesized mesoporous material, and the results were compared with the theoretical predictions. The simulations of nanostructured BiVO4 have pointed out the occurrence of quantum confinement for nanosized clusters leading to widening of the band gap. This result overcame the relevance of nanosized objects to harvest wide part of the solar spectrum. Also, a balance was searched experimentally through the mesoporous nature of the films devoted to enhancing the contact surface as required for heterogeneous catalysis without to lower the nanocrystallite size under some critical sizes inducing an increased band gap. The present contribution will discuss the relevant features of the mesoporous films with respect to their photocatalytic responses.
Structural, Magnetic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Iridium Double Perovskites with Ir⁵⁺
Recently, the iridate double perovskite Sr₂YIrO₆ has attracted considerable attention due to the report of unexpected magnetism in this Ir⁵⁺ material, in which according to the Jeff model, a non-magnetic ground state is expected. Structural, magnetic and thermodynamic investigations of Sr₂YIrO₆ and Ba2YIrO6 single crystals, with emphasis on the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat will be presented. The single crystals were grown by using SrCl₂ and BaCl₂ as flux. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements performed on several crystals from different preparation batches showed a high quality of the crystals, proven by the good internal consistency of the data collected using the full-sphere mode and an extremely low R factor. In agreement with the expected non-magnetic ground state of Ir⁵⁺ (5d4) in these iridates, no magnetic transition is observed down to 430 mK. Moreover, our results suggest that the low-temperature anomaly observed in the specific heat is not related to the onset of long-range magnetic order. Instead, it is identified as a Schottky anomaly caused by paramagnetic impurities present in the sample, of the order of
Polyaniline/Partially Exfoliated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Based Nanocomposites with Redox-Active Gel Electrolyte for Supercapacitors
In the present study, we report all solid state high energy density symmetric supercapacitors based on Polyaniline (PANI)/partially exfoliated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Px-MWCNT) nanocomposites with redox active gel polymer electrolyte for supercapacitor application. An organically reversible redox-active approach adopted to achieve the significant enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with supercapacitors lacking in redox active electrolyte. The specific capacitance was found to be in the order of 39%, 82% and 129% increase for PANI, Px-MWCNT, and PANI/Px-MWCNT-50 respectively. The polymer grafted morphology of nanocomposite (PANI/Px-MWCNT-50) as an electrode material with redox-active gel polymer electrolyte exhibit synergistic effect in specific capacitance enhancement with excellent charge-discharge rate capability and electrochemical stability (80.1% capacitive retention after 2000 cycles) than pure PANI (69.4% capacitive retention after 2000 cycles) based supercapacitor.
The Generalized Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Solutions in Modeling the Cosmological Black Holes
In spite of the numerous attempts to close the discussion about the influence of cosmological expansion on local gravitationally bounded systems, this question arises in literature again and again and remains still far from its final resolution. Here one of the main problems is the problem of obtaining a physically adequate model of strongly gravitating object immersed in non-static cosmological background. Such objects are usually called ‘cosmological’ black holes and are of great interest in wide set of cosmological and astrophysical areas. In this work the set of new exact solutions of the Einstein equations is derived for the flat space that generalizes the known Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution for the case of nonzero pressure. The solutions obtained are pretending to describe the black hole immersed in nonstatic cosmological background and give a possibility to investigate the hot problems concerning the effects of the cosmological expansion in gravitationally bounded systems, the structure formation in the early universe, black hole thermodynamics and other related problems. It is shown that each of the solutions obtained contains either the Reissner-Nordstrom or the Schwarzschild black hole in the central region of the space. It is demonstrated that the approach of the mass function use in solving of the Einstein equations allows clear physical interpretation of the resulting solutions, that is of much benefit to any their concrete application.
Contrast-to-Noise Ratio Comparison of Different Calcification Types in Dual Energy Breast Imaging
Various substitute materials of calcifications are used in phantom measurements and simulation studies in mammography. These include calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminum. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values of the different calcification types using the dual energy method. The constructed calcification phantom consisted of three different calcification types and thicknesses: hydroxyapatite, calcite and calcium oxalate of 100, 200, 300 thicknesses. The breast tissue equivalent materials were polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate slabs simulating adipose tissue and glandular tissue, respectively. The total thickness was 4.2 cm with 50% fixed glandularity. The low- (LE) and high-energy (HE) images were obtained from a tungsten anode using 40 kV filtered with 0.1 mm cadmium and 70 kV filtered with 1 mm copper, respectively. A high resolution complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) X-ray detector was used. The total mean glandular dose (MGD) and entrance surface dose (ESD) from the LE and HE images were constrained to typical levels (MGD=1.62 mGy and ESD=1.92 mGy). On average, the CNR of hydroxyapatite calcifications was 1.4 times that of calcite calcifications and 2.5 times that of calcium oxalate calcifications. The higher CNR values of hydroxyapatite are attributed to its attenuation properties compared to the other calcification materials, leading to higher contrast in the dual energy image. This work was supported by Grant Ε.040 from the Research Committee of the University of Patras (Programme K. Karatheodori).
Flux-Gate vs. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance (AMR) Magnetic Sensors Characteristics in Closed-Loop Operation
The increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements over the past decades has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as of more advanced measurement techniques. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance (AMR) sensors have emerged as a promising solution for applications requiring high resolution, providing an ideal balance between performance and cost. However, certain issues of AMR sensors such as non-linear response and measurement noise are rarely discussed in the relevant literature. In this work, an analog closed loop compensation system is proposed, developed and tested as a means to eliminate the non-linearity of AMR response, reduce the 1/f noise and enhance the sensitivity of magnetic sensor. Additional performance aspects, such as cross-axis and hysteresis effects are also examined. This system was analyzed using an analytical model and a P-Spice model, considering both the sensor itself as well as the accompanying electronic circuitry. In addition, a commercial closed loop architecture Flux-Gate sensor (calibrated and certified), has been used for comparison purposes. Three different experimental setups have been constructed for the purposes of this work, each one utilized for DC magnetic field measurements, AC magnetic field measurements and Noise density measurements respectively. The DC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to calibrate and characterize the system under consideration. A high-accuracy DC power supply has been used for providing the operating current to the Helmholtz coils. The results were recorded by a multichannel voltmeter The AC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to examine the effective bandwidth not only of the proposed system but also for the Flux-Gate sensor. A voltage controlled current source driven by a function generator has been utilized for the Helmholtz coil excitation. The result was observed by the oscilloscope. The third experimental apparatus incorporated an AC magnetic shielding construction composed of several layers of electric steel that had been demagnetized prior to the experimental process. Each sensor was placed alone and the response was captured by the oscilloscope. The preliminary experimental results indicate that closed loop AMR response presented a maximum deviation of 0.36% with respect to the ideal linear response, while the corresponding values for the open loop AMR system and the Fluxgate sensor reached 2% and 0.01% respectively. Moreover, the noise density of the proposed close loop AMR sensor system remained almost as low as the noise density of the AMR sensor itself, yet considerably higher than that of the Flux-Gate sensor. All relevant numerical data are presented in the paper.