Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46707

Physical and Mathematical Sciences

Crystalline Silicon Optical Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) Resonators for Precision Measurements
Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators combine very high optical quality factor (Q) with small size. Resonators made from low loss crystalline fluorites (CaF2, MgF2) may have Q as high as 1010 that make them unique devices for modern applications including ultrasensitive sensors, frequency control, and precision spectroscopy. While silicon is a promising material transparent from near infrared to terahertz frequencies, fundamental limit for Si WGM quality factor was not reached yet. In our paper, we presented experimental results on the preparation and testing of resonators at 1550 nm wavelength made from crystalline silicon grown and treated by different techniques. Q as high as 3x107 was demonstrated. Future steps need to reach a higher value and possible applications are discussed.
Investigation of the NO2 Formation in the Exhaust Duct of a Dual Fuel Test Engine
The formation of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the exhaust duct of a MAN dual fuel test engine has been investigated numerically. The dual fuel engine concept with premixed lean methane combustion ignited through diesel pilot flames reveals high potential for the abatement of the NOx formation. The drawback of this combustion method, however, is the high NO2 formation due to the increasing concentration of unburned hydrocarbons. This promotes the conversion of NO to NO2, which is toxic and characterized through its yellow color. The results presented in this paper cover a wide range of engine operation points from full load to part load for different air to fuel ratios. The effects of temperature, pressure and concentrations of unburned methane and nitric oxide on NO2 formation in the exhaust duct has been investigated on the basis of a zero-dimensional well stirred reactor model implemented in Cantera, which calculates the steady state of a uniform composition for a certain residence time. It can be shown that the simulated conversion of NO to NO2 match the experimental results fairly well. The partial oxidation of methane followed by CO production can be predicted as well. It can also be concluded that the lower temperature limit for which no conversion takes place, depends mainly on the concentration of the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust.
Precursors Signatures of Few Major Earthquakes in Italy Using Very Low Frequency Signal of 45.9kHz
Earthquakes still exist as a threating disaster. Being able to predict earthquakes will certainly help prevent substantial loss of life and property. Perhaps, Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency (VLF/LF) signal band (3-30 kHz), which is effectively reflected from D-layer of ionosphere, can be established as a tool to predict earthquake. On May 20 and May 29, 2012, earthquakes of magnitude 6.1 and 5.8 respectively struck Emilia-Romagna of Italy. A year back, on August 24, 2016, an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 struck Central Italy (42.7060 N and 13.2230 E) at 1:36 UT. We present the results obtained from the US Navy VLF Transmitter’s NSY signal of 45.9 kHz transmitted from Niscemi, in the province of Sicily, Italy and received at the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for 2012 and 2016. We analyzed the terminator times, their individual differences and nighttime fluctuation counts. We also analyzed trends, dispersion and nighttime fluctuation which gave us a possible precursors to these earthquakes. Since perturbations in VLF amplitude could also be due to various other factors like lightning, geomagnetic activities (storms, auroras etc.) and solar activities (flares, UV flux, etc.), we filtered the possible perturbations due to these agents to guarantee that the perturbations seen in VLF/LF amplitudes were as a precursor to Earthquakes. As our TRGCP path is North-south, the sunrise and sunset time in transmitter and receiver places matches making pathway for VLF/LF smoother and therefore hoping to obtain more natural data. To our surprise, we found many clear anomalies (as precursors) in terminator times 5 days to 16 days before the earthquakes. Moreover, using night time fluctuation method, we found clear anomalies 5 days to 13 days prior to main earthquakes. This exactly correlates with the findings of previous authors that ionospheric perturbations are seen few days to one month before the seismic activity. In addition to this, we were amazed to observe unexpected decrease of dispersion on certain anomalies where it was supposed to increase, thereby not supporting our finding to some extent. To resolve this problem, we devised a new parameter called dispersion nighttime (dispersion). On analyzing, this parameter decreases significantly on days of nighttime anomalies thereby supporting our precursors to much extent.
Critical Buckling Load of Chiral Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Embedded in an Elastic Medium
In the present study, the non-local critical buckling loads of chiral double-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium is studied using the non-local Timoshenko beam theory. The analytical equations are derived, and the solution for non- local critical buckling loads is obtained according to the governing equations of non-local theory. Influence of elastic medium, the buckling mode number, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads with and without elastic medium are studied and discussed. The Young’s modulus used in this study of three types of double-walled carbon nanotubes, armchair, zigzag and chiral tubules, are calculated based on molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the nonlocal critical buckling loads increase by increasing the mode number or diameter of double-walled carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, the elastic medium parameter and the length of double-walled carbon nanotubes play an important role on the increasing or decreasing of the critical loads. The present study is helpful in the use of double-walled carbon nanotubes in nanocomposites.
Calculation of Lattice Constants and Band Gaps for Generalized Quasicrystals of InGaN Alloy: A First Principle Study
This paper presents calculations of total energy of InGaN alloy carried out in a disordered quasirandom structure for a triclinic super cell. This structure replicates the disorder and composition effect in the alloy. First principle calculations within the density functional theory with the local density approximation approach is employed to accurately determine total energy of the system. Lattice constants and band gaps associated with the ground states are then estimated for different concentration ratios of the alloy. We provide precise results of quasirandom structures of the alloy and their lattice constants with the total energy and band gap energy of the system for the range of seven different composition ratios and their respective lattice parameters.
Complete Enumeration Approach for Calculation of Residual Entropy for Diluted Spin Ice
We consider the antiferromagnetic systems of Ising spins located at the sites of the hexagonal, triangular and pyrochlore lattices. Such systems can be diluted to a certain concentration level by randomly replacing the magnetic spins with nonmagnetic ones. Quite recently we studied density of states (DOS) was calculated by the Wang-Landau method. Based on the obtained data, we calculated the dependence of the residual entropy (entropy at a temperature tending to zero) on the dilution concentration for quite large systems (more than 2000 spins). In the current study, we obtained the same data for small systems (less than 20 spins) by a complete search of all possible magnetic configurations and compared the result with the result for large systems. The shape of the curve remains unchanged in both cases, but the specific values of the residual entropy are different because of the finite size effect.
Supercomputer Simulation of Magnetic Multilayers Films
The necessity of studying magnetic multilayer structures is explained by the prospects of their practical application as a technological base for creating new storages medium. Magnetic multilayer films have many unique features that contribute to increasing the density of information recording and the speed of storage devices. Multilayer structures are structures of alternating magnetic and nonmagnetic layers. In frame of the classical Heisenberg model, lattice spin systems with direct short- and long-range exchange interactions were investigated by Monte Carlo methods. The thermodynamic characteristics of multilayer structures, such as the temperature behavior of magnetization, energy, and heat capacity, were investigated. The processes of magnetization reversal of multilayer structures in external magnetic fields were investigated. The developed software is based on the new, promising programming language Rust. Rust is a new experimental programming language developed by Mozilla. The language is positioned as an alternative to C and C++. For the Monte Carlo simulation, the Metropolis algorithm and its parallel implementation using MPI and the Wang-Landau algorithm were used. We are planning to study of magnetic multilayer films with asymmetric Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction, interfacing effects and skyrmions textures. This work was supported by the state task of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russia # 3.7383.2017/8.9
Frustration Measure for Dipolar Spin Ice and Spin Glass
Usually under the frustrated magnetics, it understands such materials, in which ones the interaction between located magnetic moments or spins has competing character, and can not to be satisfied simultaneously. The most well-known and simplest example of the frustrated system is antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle. Physically, the existence of frustrations means, that one cannot select all three pairs of spins anti-parallel in the basic unit of the triangle. In physics of the interacting particle systems, the vector models are used, which are constructed on the base of the pair-interaction law. Each pair interaction energy between one-component vectors can take two opposite in sign values, excluding the case of zero. Mathematically, the existence of frustrations in system means that it is impossible to have all negative energies of pair interactions in the Hamiltonian even in the ground state (lowest energy). In fact, the frustration is the excitation, which leaves in system, when thermodynamics does not work, i.e. at the temperature absolute zero. The origin of the frustration is the presence at least of one ''unsatisfied'' pair of interacted spins (magnetic moments). The minimal relative quantity of these excitations (relative quantity of frustrations in ground state) can be used as parameter of frustration. If the energy of the ground state is Egs, and summary energy of all energy of pair interactions taken with a positive sign is Emax, that proposed frustration parameter pf takes values from the interval [0,1] and it is defined as pf=(Egs+Emax)/2Emax. For antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle pf=1/3. We calculated the parameters of frustration in thermodynamic limit for different 2D periodical structures of Ising dipoles, which were on the ribs of the lattice and interact by means of the long-range dipolar interaction. For the honeycomb lattice pf=0.3415, triangular - pf=0.2468, kagome - pf=0.1644. All dependencies of frustration parameter from 1/N obey to the linear law. The given frustration parameter allows to consider the thermodynamics of all magnetic systems from united point of view and to compare the different lattice systems of interacting particle in the frame of vector models. This parameter can be the fundamental characteristic of frustrated systems. It has no dependence from temperature and thermodynamic states, in which ones the system can be found, such as spin ice, spin glass, spin liquid or even spin snow. It shows us the minimal relative quantity of excitations, which ones can exist in system at T=0.
Analysis of Evolution of Higher Order Solitons by Numerical Simulation
Solitons are stable solution of nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Their stability is due to the exact combination between nonlinearity and dispersion which causes pulse broadening. Higher order solitons are born when nonlinear length is N multiple of dispersive length. Soliton order is determined by the number N itself. In this paper, evolution of higher order solitons is illustrated by simulation using Matlab. Results show that higher order solitons change their shape periodically, the reason why they are bad for transmission comparing to fundamental solitons which are constant. Partial analysis of a soliton of higher order explains that the periodic shape is due to the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion which are not equal during a period. This class of solitons has many applications such as generation of supercontinuum and the impulse compression on the Femtosecond scale. As a conclusion, the periodicity which is harmful to transmission can be beneficial in other applications.
Numerical Study of Coefficient of Blackness Effect on Dark Solitons
In this paper, blackness of dark solitons is considered. The exact combination between nonlinearity and dispersion is responsible of solitons stability. Dark solitons get born when dispersion is abnormal and balanced by nonlinearity, at the opposite of brillant solitons which is born by normal dispersion and nonlinearity together. Thanks to their stability, dark solitons are suitable for transmission by optical fibers. Dark solitons which are a solution of Nonlinear Schrodinger equation are simulated with Matlab to discuss the influence of coefficient of blackness. Results show that there is a direct proportion between the coefficient of blackness and the intensity of dark soliton. Those gray solitons are stable and convenient for transmission.
Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets
We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.
Next-Generation Lunar and Martian Laser Retro-Reflectors
There are laser retroreflectors on the Moon and no laser retroreflectors on Mars. Here we describe the design, construction, qualification and imminent deployment of next-generation, optimized laser retroreflectors on the Moon and on Mars (where they will be the first ones). These instruments are positioned by time-of-flight measurements of short laser pulses, the so-called 'laser ranging' technique. Data analysis is carried out with PEP, the Planetary Ephemeris Program of CfA (Center for Astrophysics). Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to Apollo/Lunokhod laser retro-reflector (CCR) arrays supplied accurate tests of General Relativity (GR) and new gravitational physics: possible changes of the gravitational constant Gdot/G, weak and strong equivalence principle, gravitational self-energy (Parametrized Post Newtonian parameter beta), geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law; it can also constraint gravitomagnetism. Some of these measurements also allowed for testing extensions of GR, including spacetime torsion, non-minimally coupled gravity. LLR has also provides significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. In fact, LLR first provided evidence of the existence of a fluid component of the deep lunar interior. In 1969 CCR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the LLR error budget. Since laser station range accuracy improved by more than a factor 100, now, because of lunar librations, current array dominate the error due to their multi-CCR geometry. We developed a next-generation, single, large CCR, MoonLIGHT (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity high-accuracy test) unaffected by librations that supports an improvement of the space segment of the LLR accuracy up to a factor 100. INFN also developed INRRI (INstrument for landing-Roving laser Retro-reflector Investigations), a microreflector to be laser-ranged by orbiters. Their performance is characterized at the SCF_Lab (Satellite/lunar laser ranging Characterization Facilities Lab, INFN-LNF, Frascati, Italy) for their deployment on the lunar surface or the cislunar space. They will be used to accurately position landers, rovers, hoppers, orbiters of Google Lunar X Prize and space agency missions, thanks to LLR observations from station of the International Laser Ranging Service in the USA, in France and in Italy. INRRI was launched in 2016 with the ESA mission ExoMars (Exobiology on Mars) EDM (Entry, descent and landing Demonstration Module), deployed on the Schiaparelli lander and is proposed for the ExoMars 2020 Rover. Based on an agreement between NASA and ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), another microreflector, LaRRI (Laser Retro-Reflector for InSight), was delivered to JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and integrated on NASA’s InSight Mars Lander in August 2017 (launch scheduled in May 2018). Another microreflector, LaRA (Laser Retro-reflector Array) will be delivered to JPL for deployment on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover. The first lunar landing opportunities will be from early 2018 (with TeamIndus) to late 2018 with commercial missions, followed by opportunities with space agency missions, including the proposed deployment of MoonLIGHT and INRRI on NASA’s Resource Prospectors and its evolutions. In conclusion, we will extend significantly the CCR Lunar Geophysical Network and populate the Mars Geophysical Network. These networks will enable very significantly improved tests of GR.
Ferromagnetic Potts Models with Multi Site Interaction
The Potts model has been widely explored in the literature for the last few decades. While many analytical and numerical results concern with the traditional two site interaction model in various geometries and dimensions, little is yet known about models where more than two spins simultaneously interact. We consider a ferromagnetic four site interaction Potts model on the square lattice (FFPS), where the four spins reside in the corners of an elementary square. Each spin can take an integer value 1,2,...,q. We write the partition function as a sum over clusters consisting of monochromatic faces. When the number of faces becomes large, tracing out spin configurations is equivalent to enumerating large lattice animals. It is known that the asymptotic number of animals with k faces is governed by λᵏ, with λ ≈ 4.0626. Based on this observation, systems with q < 4 and q > 4 exhibit a second and first order phase transitions, respectively. The transition nature of the q = 4 case is borderline. For any q, a critical giant component (GC) is formed. In the finite order case, GC is simple, while it is fractal when the transition is continuous. Using simple equilibrium arguments, we obtain a (zero order) bound on the transition point. It is claimed that this bound should apply for other lattices as well. Next, taking into account higher order sites contributions, the critical bound becomes tighter. Moreover, for q > 4, if corrections due to contributions from small clusters are negligible in the thermodynamic limit, the improved bound should be exact. The improved bound is used to relate the critical point to the finite correlation length. Our analytical predictions are confirmed by an extensive numerical study of FFPS, using the Wang-Landau method. In particular, the q=4 marginal case is supported by a very ambiguous pseudo-critical finite size behavior.
Electrostatic Solitary Waves in Degenerate Relativistic Quantum Plasmas
A degenerate relativistic quantum plasma (DRQP) system (containing relativistically degenerate electrons, degenerate/non-degenerate light nuclei, and non-degenerate heavy nuclei) is considered to investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic solitary waves (in the ionic scale length) theoretically and numerically. The ion-acoustic solitons are found to be associated with the modified ion-acoustic waves (MIAWs) in which inertia (restoring force) is provided by mass density of the light or heavy nuclei (degenerate pressure of the cold electrons). A mechanical-motion analog (Sagdeev-type) pseudo-potential approach is adopted to study the properties of large amplitude solitary waves. The basic properties of the large amplitude MIAWs and their existence domain in terms of soliton speed (Mach number) are examined. On the other hand, a multi-scale perturbation approach, leading to an evolution equation for the envelope dynamics, is adopted to derive the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The criteria for the occurrence of modulational instability (MI) of the MIAWs are analyzed via the nonlinear dispersion relation of the NLSE. The possibility for the formation of highly energetic localized modes (e.g. peregrine solitons, rogue waves, etc.) is predicted in such DRQP medium. Peregrine solitons or rogue waves with amplitudes of several times of the background are observed to form in DRQP. The basic features of these modulated waves (e.g. envelope solitons, peregrine solitons, and rogue waves), which are found to form in DRQP, and their MI criteria (on the basis of different intrinsic plasma parameters), are investigated. It is emphasized that our results should be useful in understanding the propagation characteristics of localized disturbances and the modulation dynamics of envelope solitons, and their instability criteria in astrophysical DRQP system (e.g. white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc., where matters under extreme conditions are assumed to exist) and also in ultra-high density experimental plasmas.
Numerical Study of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor: Longitudinal and Transversal Detection of Temperature and Strain
Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) structure is an optical fiber periodically modulated. It acts as a selective filter of wavelength, whose the reflected peak is called Bragg wavelength, depends on the period of the fiber and the refractive index. The simulation of FBG is based on solving the Coupled Mode Theory equation by using the Transfer Matrix Method is carried out using MATLAB. It is found that spectral reflectivity is shifted when the change of temperature and strain is uniform. Under non-uniform temperature or strain perturbation, the spectrum is both shifted and destroyed. In case of transverse loading, reflectivity spectrum is split into two peaks, the first is specific to X axis, and the second belongs to Y axis. FBGs are used in civil engineering to detect perturbations applied to buildings.
Simulation of Reflection Loss for Carbon and Nickel-Carbon Thin Films
Maximal radar wave absorbing cannot be achieved by shaping alone. We have to focus on the parameters of absorbing materials as permittivity, permeability, and thickness so that best absorbing according to our necessity can happen. The real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity (εr' and εr") and permeability (µr' and µr") were measured. The measurement was in the frequency range between 2 to 12 GHz for Carbon black (C), and Carbon coated Nickel (Ni(C)) by using experimental results obtained from researchers of Masahiro Hotta and Danfeng Zhang respectively.The microwave absorbing property of carbon and Ni(C) is simulated in this study by Matlab software; In fact, we draw reflection loss (RL) for C and Ni-C via frequency. We have compared their absorption for 3-millimeter thickness and predicted for other thicknesses by using of electromagnetic wave transmission theory. The results showed that reflection loss position changes in low frequency with increasing of thickness. It is found that the Nano composites are not better than only nanoparticles in every time and that depends on our demands which one is better than another one; In other words, maximum absorbing frequencies play determining role in our selection. Also, we could find an optimal thickness for long wavelength absorbing in order to utilize them in protecting shields and covering.
Experimental Demonstration of Broadband Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier
In this paper, broadband design of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated and proved experimentally. High and broad gain is covered in C and L bands. The used technique combines, in one configuration, two double passes with split band structure for the amplification of two traveled signals one for the C band and the other for L band. This new topology is to investigate the trends of high gain and wide amplification at different status of pumping power, input wavelength, and input signal power. The presented paper is to explore the performance of EDFA gain using what it can be called double pass double branch wide band amplification configuration. The obtained results show high gain and wide broadening range of 44.24 dB and 80 nm amplification respectively.
Kyung Hee University
Rubidium salts have been commonly used as an electrolyte to improve the efficiency cycle of Li-ion batteries. In recent years, it has been implemented into large scale for further technological advances to improve the performance rate and better cyclability in the batteries. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful tool for obtaining the information in the electronic structure which involves the chemical state analysis in the active materials used in the batteries. However, this technique is not well suited for the industrial applications because it needs a synchrotron X-ray source and special sample file for in-situ measurements. In contrast to this, conventional wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer is nondestructive technique used to study the chemical shift in all transitions (K, L, M…) and does not require any special pre-preparation planning. In the present work, the fluorescent Lα, Lβ₁, Lβ₃,₄ and Lγ₂,₃ X-ray spectra of rubidium in different chemical forms (Rb₂CO₃, RbCl, RbBr and RbI) have been measured first time with high resolution wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer (Model: S8 TIGER, Bruker, Germany), equipped with an Rh anode X-ray tube (4-kW, 60 kV and 170 mA). In ₃₇Rb compounds, the measured energy shifts are in the range (-0.45 to -1.71) eV for Lα X-ray peak, (0.02 to 0.21) eV for Lβ₁, (0.04 to 0.21) eV for Lβ₃, (0.15 to 0.43) eV for Lβ₄ and (0.22 to 0.75) eV for Lγ₂,₃ X-ray emission lines. The chemical shifts in rubidium compounds have been measured by considering Rb₂CO₃ compounds taking as standard reference. A Voigt function is used to determine the central peak position of all compounds. Both positive and negative shifts have been observed in L shell emission lines. In Lα X-ray emission lines, all compounds show negative shift while in Lβ₁, Lβ₃,₄ and Lγ₂,₃ X-ray emission lines, all compounds show positive shift. These positive and negative shifts result increase or decrease in X-ray energy shifts. It looks like that ligands attached with central metal atom attract or repel the electrons towards or away from the parent nucleus. This pulling and pushing character of rubidium affects the central peak position of the compounds which cause chemical shift. To understand the chemical effect more briefly, factors like electronegativity, line intensity ratio, effective charge and bond length are responsible for the chemical state analysis in rubidium compounds. The effective charge has been calculated from Suchet and Pauling method while the line intensity ratio has been calculated by calculating the area under the relevant emission peak. In the present work, it has been observed that electro-negativity, effective charge and intensity ratio (Lβ₁/Lα, Lβ₃,₄/Lα and Lγ₂,₃/Lα) are inversely proportional to the chemical shift (RbCl > RbBr > RbI), while bond length has been found directly proportional to the chemical shift (RbI > RbBr > RbCl).
The Influence of Structural Disorder and Phonon on Metal-To-Insulator Transition of VO₂
We used temperature-dependent X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements to examine the local structural properties around vanadium atoms at the V K edge from VO₂ films. A direct comparison of simultaneously-measured resistance and XAFS from the VO₂ films showed that the thermally-driven structural phase transition (SPT) occurred prior to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) during heating, whereas these changed simultaneously during cooling. XAFS revealed a significant increase in the Debye-Waller factors of the V-O and V-V pairs in the {111} direction of the R-phase VO₂ due to the phonons of the V-V arrays along the direction in a metallic phase. A substantial amount of structural disorder existing on the V-V pairs along the c-axis in both M₁ and R phases indicates the structural instability of V-V arrays in the axis. The anomalous structural disorder observed on all atomic sites at the SPT prevents the migration of the V 3d¹ electrons, resulting in a Mott insulator in the M₂-phase VO₂. The anomalous structural disorder, particularly, at vanadium sites, effectively affects the migration of metallic electrons, resulting in the Mott insulating properties in M₂ phase and a non-congruence of the SPT, MIT, and local density of state. The thermally-induced phonons in the {111} direction assist the delocalization of the V 3d¹ electrons in the R phase VO₂ and the electrons likely migrate via the V-V array in the {111} direction as well as the V-V dimerization along the c-axis. This study clarifies that the tetragonal symmetry is essentially important for the metallic phase in VO₂.
Demonstrating a relationship of frequency and weight with Arduino Uno and Visual Basic Program
In this study, we have applied a digital scale to demonstrate the electricity concept of changing the capacity (C), due to the weight of an object, as a function of the distance between the conductor plates and the pressing down. By calibrating on standard scales with the Visual Basic program and the Arduino Uno microcontroller board, we can obtain the weight of the object from the frequency (ƒ) that is measured from the electronic circuit (Astable Multivibrator). Our results support the concept, showing a linear correlation between the frequency and weight with an equation y = –0.0112x + 379.78 and the R2 value of 0.95. In addition, the effects of silicone rods shrinkage, permittivity and temperature were also examined and have found to affect various graph patterns observed.
Generation of Ultra-Broadband Supercontinuum Ultrashort Laser Pulses with High Energy
The interaction of intense short nano- and picosecond laser pulses with plasma leads to reach variety of important applications, including time-resolved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), soft x-ray lasers, and laser-driven accelerators. The progress in generating of femtosecond down to sub-10 fs optical pulses has opened a door for scientists with an essential tool in many ultrafast phenomena, such as femto-chemistry, high field physics, and high harmonic generation (HHG). The advent of high-energy laser pulses with durations of few optical cycles provided scientists with very high electric fields, and produce coherent intense UV to NIR radiation with high energy which allows for the investigation of ultrafast molecular dynamics with femtosecond resolution. In this work, we could experimentally achieve the generation of a two-octave-wide supercontinuum ultrafast pulses extending from ultraviolet at 3.5 eV to the near-infrared at 1.3 eV in neon-filled capillary fiber. These pulses are created due to nonlinear self-phase modulation (SPM) in neon as a nonlinear medium. The measurements of the generated pulses were performed using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction. A full characterization of the output pulses was studied. The output pulse characterization includes the pulse width, the beam profile, and the spectral bandwidth. Under optimization conditions, the reconstructed pulse intensity autocorrelation function was exposed for the shorts possible pulse duration to achieve transform-limited pulses with energies up to 600µJ. Furthermore, the effect of variation of neon pressure on the pulse-width was studied. The nonlinear SPM found to be increased with the neon pressure. The obtained results may give an opportunity to monitor and control ultrafast transit interaction in femtosecond chemistry.
Measurement of Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section of ₆₀Nd K X-Rays Elements with 26 ≤ Z≤ 90
Rayleigh scattering differential cross sections have been measured for the 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays. These measurements have been done in 44 elements with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 90 at an angle of 1390. The measurements are performed by using a radiation source consisting of an annular 60Nd foil excited by the 59.54 KeV γ-ray photons from 241Am radioactive source. The Nd Kα2, Kβ1,3 X-ray photons from the 60Nd annular foil (secondary photon source) are made to scatter from the target and the scattered photons are detected using Canberra made low energy Germanium (LEGe) detector. The measured Rayleigh scattering cross sections are compared with the theoretical MF, MFASF and the SM values. The noticeable deviations are observed from the MF, MFASF and SM values for 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays.
The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid-Membrane Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Degradative solvent extraction (DSE) is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the DSE method has not been fully understood so far. The main reactions from the studies of the DSE method of biomass are dehydration, decarboxylation, and aromatization. The feasibility and advantages of liquid-membrane Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique have been proved to identify molecular components and quantitatively analyze of the hydroxyl groups of the main extraction product (solvent-soluble) of the DSE method without separation from the solvent. To study this process mechanism in-depth, the liquid-membrane FTIR technique is applied in this study. The solvent-treatment temperature is varied from 250 to 350oC to examine the changed occurring during the conversion of biomass of DSE method. The rice straw is treated in 1-methylnaphthalene at a different solvent-treatment temperature from 250 to 350oC with the residence time for 60 min. The FTIR spectrum of solvent-soluble associated with oxygen functional groups, the oxygen-hydrogen stretching (3600 - 3100 cm-1) and the carbonyl stretching (1800 - 1600 cm-1) regions, are then investigated. The obtained IR spectrum is deconvoluted to a series of bands in each region and the peak areas for each band are obtained. The content of oxygen in hydroxyl groups and in carboxylic acid are calculated from the FTIR analysis with the aid of the absorption coefficient, which has been derived using the known concentration reagents. It has been found that the oxygen obtained in the oxygen-hydrogen stretching region and in carboxylic acid in the carbonyl stretching region decreased slightly with increasing solvent-treatment temperature from 250 to 350oC. The relative quantity of hydrogen-bonded OH of soluble in the oxygen-hydrogen stretching region decreases from 300 to 350oC, which shows that dehydration reaction takes place between 300oC and 350oC. The results of deconvolution applied to the carbonyl stretching region, FTIR spectra reveal the presence of esters, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. As the relative change of carbonyl functional groups measured from the band areas in the solvent-soluble of biomass, the results decrease as increasing the solvent-treatment temperature. These functional groups may be removed by the decarboxylation by the carboxylic acid in the solvent-soluble of biomass changing to the form of carbon dioxide.
Structure and Magnetic Properties of M-Type Sr-Hexaferrite with Ca, La Substitutions
M-type Sr-hexaferrite (SrFe₁₂O₁₉) have been studied during the past decades because it is the most utilized materials in permanent magnets due to their low price, outstanding chemical stability, and appropriate hard magnetic properties. Many attempts have been made to improve the intrinsic magnetic properties of M-type Sr-hexaferrites (SrM), such as by improving the saturation magnetization (MS) and crystalline anisotropy by cation substitution. It is well proved that the Ca-La-Co substitutions are one of the most successful approaches, which lead to a significant enhancement in the crystalline anisotropy without reducing MS, and thus the Ca-La-Co-doped SrM have been commercialized in high-grade magnet products. In this research, the effect of respective doping of Ca and La into the SrM lattices were studied with assumptions that these elements could substitute both of Fe and Sr sites. The hexaferrite samples of stoichiometric SrFe₁₂O₁₉ (SrM) and the Ca substituted SrM with formulae of Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4), and also La substituted SrM of Sr₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and SrFe₁₂₋ₓLaₓOₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction processes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) with a Cu Kα radiation source (λ=0.154056 nm) was used for phase analysis. Microstructural observation was conducted with a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). M-H measurements were performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at 300 K. Almost pure M-type phase could be obtained in the all series of hexaferrites calcined at > 1250 ºC. Small amount of Fe₂O₃ phases were detected in the XRD patterns of Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and Sr₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) samples. Also, small amount of unidentified secondary phases without the Fe₂O₃ phase were found in the samples of SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ (x = 0.4) and SrFe₁₂₋ₓLaₓOₐ (x = 0.3, 0.4). Although the Ca substitution (x) into SrM structure did not exhibit a clear tendency in the cell parameter change in both series of samples, Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ and SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ , the cell volume slightly decreased with doping of Ca in the Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ samples and increased in the SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ samples. Considering relative ion sizes between Sr²⁺ (0.113 nm), Ca²⁺ (0.099 nm), Fe³⁺ (0.064 nm), these results imply that the Ca substitutes both of Sr and Fe in the SrM. A clear tendency of cell parameter change was observed in case of La substitution into Sr site of SrM ( Sr₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂Oₐ); the cell volume decreased with increase of x. It is owing to the similar but smaller ion size of La³⁺ (0.106 nm) than that of Sr²⁺. In case of SrFe₁₂₋ₓLaₓOₐ, the cell volume first decreased at x = 0.1 and then remained almost constant with increase of x from 0.2 to 0.4. These results mean that La only substitutes Sr site in the SrM structure. Besides, the microstructure and magnetic properties of these samples, and correlation between them will be revealed.
Theoretical Analysis of Photoassisted Field Emission near the Metal Surface Using Transfer Hamiltonian Method
A model calculation of photoassisted field emission current (PFEC) by using transfer Hamiltonian method will be present here. When the photon energy is incident on the surface of the metals, such that the energy of a photon is usually less than the work function of the metal under investigation. The incident radiation photo excites the electrons to a final state which lies below the vacuum level; the electrons are confined within the metal surface. A strong static electric field is then applied to the surface of the metal which causes the photoexcited electrons to tunnel through the surface potential barrier into the vacuum region and constitutes the considerable current called photoassisted field emission current. The incident radiation is usually a laser beam, causes the transition of electrons from the initial state to the final state and the matrix element for this transition will be written. For the calculation of PFEC, transfer Hamiltonian method is used. The initial state wavefunction is calculated by using Kronig-Penney potential model. The effect of the matrix element will also be studied. An appropriate dielectric model for the surface region of the metal will be used for the evaluation of vector potential. FORTRAN programme is used for the calculation of PFEC. The results will be checked with experimental data and the theoretical results.
Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications
Planar plasmonic terahertz waveguides have been widely examined in the last decade owing to its significance in slow light phenomenon, band pass and band stop filter, achromatic quarter wave plate etc. In this paper, we investigate sensing capabilities of the planar plasmonic terahertz guide wave devices. In our proposed configuration, the waveguide is comprised of one-dimensional array of periodically arranged sub-wavelength corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure plasmonic response. We first examine the dispersion relations of the fundamental terahertz mode supported by the plasmonic waveguides. The terahertz waveguide transmission is observed for the thin film polyimide substance that fills the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity, and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance. We employ a semi-analytical transmission line resistor, inductor and capacitor (RLC) circuit model to elucidate our numerical observations. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V-shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in the development of new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.
Trinary Affinity—Mathematic Verification and Application (1): Construction of Formulas for the Composite and Prime Numbers
Trinary affinity is a description of existence: every object exists as it is known and spoken of, in a system of 2 differences (denoted dif1, dif₂) and 1 similarity (Sim), equivalently expressed as dif₁ / Sim / dif₂ and kn / 0 / tkn (kn = the known, tkn = the 'to be known', 0 = the zero point of knowing). They are mathematically verified and illustrated in this paper by the arrangement of all integers onto 3 columns, where each number exists as a difference in relation to another number as another difference, and the 2 difs as arbitrated by a third number as the Sim, resulting in a trinary affinity or trinity of 3 numbers, of which one is the known, the other the 'to be known', and the third the zero (0) from which both the kn and tkn are measured and specified. Consequently, any number is horizontally specified either as 3n, or as '3n – 1' or '3n + 1', and vertically as 'Cn + c', so that any number seems to occur at the intersection of its X and Y axes and represented by its X and Y coordinates, as any point on Earth’s surface by its latitude and longitude. Technically, i) primes are viewed and treated as progenitors, and composites as descending from them, forming families of composites, each capable of being measured and specified from its own zero called in this paper the realistic zero (denoted 0r, as contrasted to the mathematic zero, 0m), which corresponds to the constant c, and the nature of which separates the composite and prime numbers, and ii) any number is considered as having a magnitude as well as a position, so that a number is verified as a prime first by referring to its descriptive formula and then by making sure that no composite number can possibly occur on its position, by dividing it with factors provided by the composite number formulas. The paper consists of 3 parts: 1) a brief explanation of the trinary affinity of things, 2) the 8 formulas that represent ALL the primes, and 3) families of composite numbers, each represented by a formula. A composite number family is described as 3n + f₁‧f₂. Since there are an infinitely large number of composite number families, to verify the primality of a great probable prime, we have to have it divided with several or many a f₁ from a range of composite number formulas, a procedure that is as laborious as it is the surest way to verifying a great number’s primality. (So, it is possible to substitute planned division for trial division.)
Validation of the Formula for Air Attenuation Coefficient for Acoustic Scale Models
Methodology of measurement of sound absorption coefficient in scaled models is based on the ISO 354 standard. The measurement is realised indirectly - the coefficient is calculated from the reverberation time of an empty chamber as well as a chamber with an inserted sample. It is crucial to maintain the atmospheric conditions stable during both measurements. Possible differences may be amended basing on the formulas for atmospheric attenuation coefficient α given in ISO 9613-1. Model studies require scaling particular factors in compliance with specified characteristic numbers. For absorption coefficient measurement, these are for example: frequency range or the value of attenuation coefficient m. Thanks to the possibilities of modern electroacoustic transducers, it is no longer a problem to scale the frequencies which have to be proportionally higher. However, it may be problematic to reduce values of the attenuation coefficient. It is practically obtained by drying the air down to a defined relative humidity. Despite the change of frequency range and relative humidity of the air, ISO 9613-1 standard still allows the calculation of the amendment for little differences of the atmospheric conditions in the chamber during measurements. The paper discusses a number of theoretical analyses and experimental measurements performed in order to obtain consistency between the values of attenuation coefficient calculated from the formulas given in the standard and by measurement. The authors performed measurements of reverberation time in a chamber made in a 1/8 scale in a corresponding frequency range, i.e. 800 Hz - 40 kHz and in different values of the relative air humidity (40% 5%). Based on the measurements, empirical values of attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared with theoretical ones. In general, the values correspond with each other, but for high frequencies and low values of relative air humidity the differences are significant. Those discrepancies may directly influence the values of measured sound absorption coefficient and cause errors. Therefore, the authors made an effort to determine an amendment minimizing described inaccuracy.
Engineering Method to Measure the Impact Sound Improvement with Floor Coverings
Methodology used to measure the reduction of transmitted impact sound by floor coverings situated on a massive floor is described in ISO 10140-3: 2010. To carry out such tests, the standardised reverberation room separated by a standard floor from the second measuring room are required. The need to have a special laboratory results in high cost and low accessibility of this measurement. The authors propose their own engineering method to measure the impact sound improvement with floor coverings. This method does not require standard rooms and floor. This paper describes the measurement procedure of proposed engineering method. Further, verification tests were performed. Validation of the proposed method was based on the analytical model, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model and empirical measurements. The received results were related to corresponding ones obtained from ISO 10140-3:2010 measurements. The study confirmed the usefulness of the engineering method.
Experimental Verification of Similarity Criteria for Sound Absorption of Perforated Panels
Scaled modeling is very common in the areas of science such as aerodynamics or fluid mechanics, since defining characteristic numbers enables to determine relations between objects under test and their models. In acoustics, scaled modeling is aimed mainly at investigation of room acoustics, sound insulation and sound absorption phenomena. Despite such a range of application, there is no method developed that would enable scaling acoustical perforated panels freely, maintaining their sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range. However, conducted theoretical and numerical analyses have proven that it is not physically possible to obtain given sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range by directly scaling only all of the physical dimensions of a perforated panel, according to a defined characteristic number. This paper is a continuation of the research mentioned above and presents practical evaluation of theoretical and numerical analyses. The measurements of sound absorption coefficient of perforated panels were performed in order to verify previous analyses and as a result find the relations between full-scale perforated panels and their models which will enable to scale them properly. The measurements were conducted in a one-to-eight model of a reverberation chamber of Technical Acoustics Laboratory, AGH. Obtained results verify theses proposed after theoretical and numerical analyses. Finding the relations between full-scale and modeled perforated panels will allow to produce measurement samples equivalent to the original ones. As a consequence, it will make the process of designing acoustical perforated panels easier and will also lower the costs of prototypes production. Having this knowledge, it will be possible to emulate in a constructed model panels used, or to be used, in a full-scale room more precisely and as a result imitate or predict the acoustics of a modeled space more accurately.