Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50776

Physical and Mathematical Sciences

641
89647
Evaluation of the Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion Thermal Effects in Hassi R'Mel Gas Processing Plant Using Fire Dynamics Simulator
Abstract:
During a fire in an oil and gas refinery, several thermal accidents can occur and cause serious damage to people and environment. Among these accidents, the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) is most observed and remains a major concern for risk decision-makers. It corresponds to a violent vaporization of explosive nature following the rupture of a vessel containing a liquid at a temperature significantly higher than its normal boiling point at atmospheric pressure. Their effects on the environment generally appear in three ways: blast overpressure, radiation from the fireball if the liquid involved is flammable and fragment hazards. In order to estimate the potential damage that would be caused by such an explosion, risk decision-makers often use quantitative risk analysis (QRA). This analysis is a rigorous and advanced approach that requires a reliable data in order to obtain a good estimate and control of risks. However, in most cases, the data used in QRA are obtained from the empirical correlations. These empirical correlations generally overestimate BLEVE effects because they are based on simplifications and do not take into account real parameters like the geometry effect. Considering that these risk analyses are based on an assessment of BLEVE effects on human life and plant equipment, more precise and reliable data should be provided. From this point of view, the CFD modeling of BLEVE effects appears as a solution to the empirical law limitations. In this context, the main objective is to develop a numerical tool in order to predict BLEVE thermal effects using the CFD code FDS version 6. Simulations are carried out with a mesh size of 1 m. The fireball source is modeled as a vertical release of hot fuel in a short time. The modeling of fireball dynamics is based on a single step combustion using an EDC model coupled with the default LES turbulence model. Fireball characteristics (diameter, height, heat flux and lifetime) issued from the large scale BAM experiment are used to demonstrate the ability of FDS to simulate the various steps of the BLEVE phenomenon from ignition up to total burnout. The influence of release parameters such as the injection rate and the radiative fraction on the fireball heat flux is also presented. Predictions are very encouraging and show good agreement in comparison with BAM experiment data. In addition, a numerical study is carried out on an operational propane accumulator in an Algerian gas processing plant of SONATRACH company located in the Hassi R’Mel Gas Field (the largest gas field in Algeria).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
640
86680
First Formaldehyde Retrieval Using the Raw Data Obtained from Pandora in Seoul: Investigation of the Temporal Characteristics and Comparison with Ozone Monitoring Instrument Measurement
Authors:
Abstract:
In this present study, for the first time, we retrieved the Formaldehyde (HCHO) Vertical Column Density (HCHOVCD) using Pandora instruments in Seoul, a megacity in northeast Asia, for the period between 2012 and 2014 and investigated the temporal characteristics of HCHOVCD. HCHO Slant Column Density (HCHOSCD) was obtained using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. HCHOSCD was converted to HCHOVCD using geometric Air Mass Factor (AMFG) as Pandora is the direct-sun measurement. The HCHOVCDs is low at 12:00 Local Time (LT) and is high in the morning (10:00 LT) and late afternoon (16:00 LT) except for winter. The maximum (minimum) values of Pandora HCHOVCD are 2.68×1016 (1.63×10¹⁶), 3.19×10¹⁶ (2.23×10¹⁶), 2.00×10¹⁶ (1.26×10¹⁶), and 1.63×10¹⁶ (0.82×10¹⁶) molecules cm⁻² in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. In terms of seasonal variations, HCHOVCD was high in summer and low in winter which implies that photo-oxidation plays an important role in HCHO production in Seoul. In comparison with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, the HCHOVCDs from the OMI are lower than those from Pandora. The correlation coefficient (R) between monthly HCHOVCDs values from Pandora and OMI is 0.61, with slop of 0.35. Furthermore, to understand HCHO mixing ratio within Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) in Seoul, we converted Pandora HCHOVCDs to HCHO mixing ratio in the PBL using several meteorological input data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). Seasonal HCHO mixing ratio in PBL converted from Pandora (OMI) HCHOVCDs are estimated to be 6.57 (5.17), 7.08 (6.68), 7.60 (4.70), and 5.00 (4.76) ppbv in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
639
86217
12x12 MIMO Terminal Antennas Covering the Whole LTE and WiFi Spectrum
Abstract:
A broadband resonant terminal antenna has been developed. It can be used in different MIMO arrangements such as 2x2, 4x4, 8x8, or even 12x12 MIMO configurations. The antenna covers the whole LTE and WiFi bands besides the existing 2G/3G bands (700-5800 MHz), without using any matching/tuning circuits. Matching circuits significantly reduce the efficiency of any antenna and reduce the battery life. They also reduce the bandwidth because they are frequency dependent. The antenna can be implemented in smartphone handsets, tablets, laptops, notebooks or any other terminal. It is also suitable for different IoT and vehicle applications. The antenna is manufactured from a flexible material and can be bent or folded and shaped in any form to fit any available space in any terminal. It is self-contained and does not need to use the ground plane, the chassis or any other component of the terminal. Hence, it can be mounted on any terminal at different positions and configurations. Its performance does not get affected by the terminal, regardless of its type, shape or size. Moreover, its performance does not get affected by the human body of the terminal’s users. Because of all these unique features of the antenna, multiples of them can be simultaneously used for MIMO diversity coverage in any terminal device with a high isolation and a low correlation factor between them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
638
86214
A Multiple Beam LTE Base Station Antenna with Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Sectorization
Abstract:
A low wind-load light-weight broad-band multi-beam base station antenna has been developed. It can generate any required number of beams with the required beamwidths. It can have horizontal and vertical sectorization at the same time. Vertical sectorization doubles the overall number of beams. It will be very valuable in LTE-A and 5G. It can be used to serve vertically split inner and outer cells, which improves system performance. The intersection between the beams of the proposed multi-beam antenna can be controlled by optimizing the design parameters of the antenna. The gain at the points of intersection between the beams, the null filling and the overlap between the beams can all be modified. The proposed multi-beam base station antenna can cover an unlimited number of wireless applications, regardless of their frequency bands. It can simultaneously cover all, current and future, wireless technology generations such as 2G, 3G, 4G (LTE), --- etc. For example, in LTE, it covers the bands 450-470 MHz, 690-960 MHz, 1.4-2.7 GHz and 3.3-3.8 GHz. It has at least 2 ports for each band in each beam for ±45° polarizations. It can include up to 72 ports or even more, which could facilitate any further needed capacity expansions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
637
85504
Peculiarities of Absorption near the Edge of the Fundamental Band of Irradiated InAs-InP Solid Solutions
Abstract:
The semiconductor devices are irreplaceable elements for investigations in Space (artificial Earth satellite, interplanetary space craft, probes, rockets) and for investigation of elementary particles on accelerators, for atomic power stations, nuclear reactors, robots operating on heavily radiation contaminated territories (Chernobyl, Fukushima). Unfortunately, the most important parameters of semiconductors dramatically worsen under irradiation. So creation of radiation-resistant semiconductor materials for opto and microelectronic devices is actual problem, as well as investigation of complicated processes developed in irradiated solid states. Homogeneous single crystals of InP-InAs solid solutions were grown with zone melting method. There has been studied the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy near fundamental absorption edge. This dependence changes dramatically with irradiation. The experiments were performed on InP, InAs and InP-InAs solid solutions before and after irradiation with electrons and fast neutrons. The investigations of optical properties were carried out on infrared spectrophotometer in temperature range of 10K-300K and 1mkm-50mkm spectral area. Radiation fluencies of fast neutrons was equal to 2·1018neutron/cm2 and electrons with 3MeV, 50MeV up to fluxes of 6·1017electron/cm2. Under irradiation, there has been revealed the exponential type of the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy with energy deficiency. The indicated phenomenon takes place at high and low temperatures as well at impurity different concentration and practically in all cases of irradiation by various energy electrons and fast neutrons. We have developed the common mechanism of this phenomenon for unirradiated materials and implemented the quantitative calculations of distinctive parameter; this is in a satisfactory agreement with experimental data. For the irradiated crystals picture get complicated. In the work, the corresponding analysis is carried out. It has been shown, that in the case of InP, irradiated with electrons (Ф=1·1017el/cm2), the curve of optical absorption is shifted to lower energies. This is caused by appearance of the tails of density of states in forbidden band due to local fluctuations of ionized impurity (defect) concentration. Situation is more complicated in the case of InAs and for solid solutions with composition near to InAs when besides noticeable phenomenon there takes place Burstein effect caused by increase of electrons concentration as a result of irradiation. We have shown, that in certain conditions it is possible the prevalence of Burstein effect. This causes the opposite effect: the shift of the optical absorption edge to higher energies. So in given solid solutions there take place two different opposite directed processes. By selection of solid solutions composition and doping impurity we obtained such InP-InAs, solid solution in which under radiation mutual compensation of optical absorption curves displacement occurs. Obtained result let create on the base of InP-InAs, solid solution radiation-resistant optical materials. Conclusion: It was established the nature of optical absorption near fundamental edge in semiconductor materials and it was created radiation-resistant optical material.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
636
84780
A Closed-Form Solution and Comparison for a One-Dimensional Orthorhombic Quasicrystal and Crystal Plate
Abstract:
The work includes derivation of the exact-closed form solution for simply supported quasicrystal and crystal plates by using propagator matrix method under surface loading and free vibration. As a numerical example a quasicrystal and a crystal plate are considered, and after investigation, the variation of displacement and stress fields along the thickness of these two plates are presented. Further, it includes analyzing the displacement and stress fields for two plates having two different stacking arrangement, i.e., QuasiCrystal/Crystal/QuasiCrystal and Crystal/QuasiCrystal/Crystal and comparing their results. This will not only tell us the change in the behavior of displacement and stress fields in two different materials but also how these get changed after trying their different combinations. For the free vibration case, Crystal and Quasicrystal plates along with their different stacking arrangements are considered, and displacements are plotted in all directions for different Mode Shapes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
635
83207
Search for Flavour Changing Neutral Current Couplings of Higgs-up Sector Quarks at Future Circular Collider (FCC-eh)
Abstract:
In the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model, Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) is a good research field in terms of the observability at future colliders. Increased Higgs production with higher energy and luminosity in colliders is essential for verification or falsification of our knowledge of physics and predictions, and the search for new physics. Prospective electron-proton collider constituent of the Future Circular Collider project is FCC-eh. It offers great sensitivity due to its high luminosity and low interference. In this work, thq FCNC interaction vertex with off-shell top quark decay at electron-proton colliders is studied. By using [email protected] multi-purpose event generator, observability of tuh and tch couplings are obtained with equal coupling scenario. Upper limit on branching ratio of tree level top quark FCNC decay is determined as 0.012% at FCC-eh with 1 ab ^−1 luminosity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
634
82433
The Search of Anomalous Higgs Boson Couplings at the Large Hadron Electron Collider and Future Circular Electron Hadron Collider
Abstract:
The Higgs boson was discovered by the ATLAS and CMS experimental groups in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Production and decay properties of the Higgs boson, Standard Model (SM) couplings, and limits on effective scale of the Higgs boson’s couplings with other bosons are investigated at particle colliders. Deviations from SM estimates are parametrized by effective Lagrangian terms to investigate Higgs couplings. This is a model-independent method for describing the new physics. In this study, sensitivity to neutral gauge boson anomalous couplings with the Higgs boson is investigated using the parameters of the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) and the Future Circular electron-hadron Collider (FCC-eh) with a model-independent approach. By using [email protected] multi-purpose event generator with the parameters of LHeC and FCC-eh, the bounds on the anomalous Hγγ, HγZ and HZZ couplings in e− p → e− q H process are obtained. Detector simulations are also taken into account in the calculations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
633
81509
Investigation of the NO2 Formation in the Exhaust Duct of a Dual Fuel Test Engine
Abstract:
The formation of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the exhaust duct of a MAN dual fuel test engine has been investigated numerically. The dual fuel engine concept with premixed lean methane combustion ignited through diesel pilot flames reveals high potential for the abatement of the NOx formation. The drawback of this combustion method, however, is the high NO2 formation due to the increasing concentration of unburned hydrocarbons. This promotes the conversion of NO to NO2, which is toxic and characterized through its yellow color. The results presented in this paper cover a wide range of engine operation points from full load to part load for different air to fuel ratios. The effects of temperature, pressure and concentrations of unburned methane and nitric oxide on NO2 formation in the exhaust duct has been investigated on the basis of a zero-dimensional well stirred reactor model implemented in Cantera, which calculates the steady state of a uniform composition for a certain residence time. It can be shown that the simulated conversion of NO to NO2 match the experimental results fairly well. The partial oxidation of methane followed by CO production can be predicted as well. It can also be concluded that the lower temperature limit for which no conversion takes place, depends mainly on the concentration of the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
632
81436
Precursors Signatures of Few Major Earthquakes in Italy Using Very Low Frequency Signal of 45.9kHz
Abstract:
Earthquakes still exist as a threating disaster. Being able to predict earthquakes will certainly help prevent substantial loss of life and property. Perhaps, Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency (VLF/LF) signal band (3-30 kHz), which is effectively reflected from D-layer of ionosphere, can be established as a tool to predict earthquake. On May 20 and May 29, 2012, earthquakes of magnitude 6.1 and 5.8 respectively struck Emilia-Romagna of Italy. A year back, on August 24, 2016, an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 struck Central Italy (42.7060 N and 13.2230 E) at 1:36 UT. We present the results obtained from the US Navy VLF Transmitter’s NSY signal of 45.9 kHz transmitted from Niscemi, in the province of Sicily, Italy and received at the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for 2012 and 2016. We analyzed the terminator times, their individual differences and nighttime fluctuation counts. We also analyzed trends, dispersion and nighttime fluctuation which gave us a possible precursors to these earthquakes. Since perturbations in VLF amplitude could also be due to various other factors like lightning, geomagnetic activities (storms, auroras etc.) and solar activities (flares, UV flux, etc.), we filtered the possible perturbations due to these agents to guarantee that the perturbations seen in VLF/LF amplitudes were as a precursor to Earthquakes. As our TRGCP path is North-south, the sunrise and sunset time in transmitter and receiver places matches making pathway for VLF/LF smoother and therefore hoping to obtain more natural data. To our surprise, we found many clear anomalies (as precursors) in terminator times 5 days to 16 days before the earthquakes. Moreover, using night time fluctuation method, we found clear anomalies 5 days to 13 days prior to main earthquakes. This exactly correlates with the findings of previous authors that ionospheric perturbations are seen few days to one month before the seismic activity. In addition to this, we were amazed to observe unexpected decrease of dispersion on certain anomalies where it was supposed to increase, thereby not supporting our finding to some extent. To resolve this problem, we devised a new parameter called dispersion nighttime (dispersion). On analyzing, this parameter decreases significantly on days of nighttime anomalies thereby supporting our precursors to much extent.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
631
81138
Calculation of Lattice Constants and Band Gaps for Generalized Quasicrystals of InGaN Alloy: A First Principle Study
Abstract:
This paper presents calculations of total energy of InGaN alloy carried out in a disordered quasirandom structure for a triclinic super cell. This structure replicates the disorder and composition effect in the alloy. First principle calculations within the density functional theory with the local density approximation approach is employed to accurately determine total energy of the system. Lattice constants and band gaps associated with the ground states are then estimated for different concentration ratios of the alloy. We provide precise results of quasirandom structures of the alloy and their lattice constants with the total energy and band gap energy of the system for the range of seven different composition ratios and their respective lattice parameters.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
630
80428
Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets
Abstract:
We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
629
80376
Next-Generation Lunar and Martian Laser Retro-Reflectors
Abstract:
There are laser retroreflectors on the Moon and no laser retroreflectors on Mars. Here we describe the design, construction, qualification and imminent deployment of next-generation, optimized laser retroreflectors on the Moon and on Mars (where they will be the first ones). These instruments are positioned by time-of-flight measurements of short laser pulses, the so-called 'laser ranging' technique. Data analysis is carried out with PEP, the Planetary Ephemeris Program of CfA (Center for Astrophysics). Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to Apollo/Lunokhod laser retro-reflector (CCR) arrays supplied accurate tests of General Relativity (GR) and new gravitational physics: possible changes of the gravitational constant Gdot/G, weak and strong equivalence principle, gravitational self-energy (Parametrized Post Newtonian parameter beta), geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law; it can also constraint gravitomagnetism. Some of these measurements also allowed for testing extensions of GR, including spacetime torsion, non-minimally coupled gravity. LLR has also provides significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. In fact, LLR first provided evidence of the existence of a fluid component of the deep lunar interior. In 1969 CCR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the LLR error budget. Since laser station range accuracy improved by more than a factor 100, now, because of lunar librations, current array dominate the error due to their multi-CCR geometry. We developed a next-generation, single, large CCR, MoonLIGHT (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity high-accuracy test) unaffected by librations that supports an improvement of the space segment of the LLR accuracy up to a factor 100. INFN also developed INRRI (INstrument for landing-Roving laser Retro-reflector Investigations), a microreflector to be laser-ranged by orbiters. Their performance is characterized at the SCF_Lab (Satellite/lunar laser ranging Characterization Facilities Lab, INFN-LNF, Frascati, Italy) for their deployment on the lunar surface or the cislunar space. They will be used to accurately position landers, rovers, hoppers, orbiters of Google Lunar X Prize and space agency missions, thanks to LLR observations from station of the International Laser Ranging Service in the USA, in France and in Italy. INRRI was launched in 2016 with the ESA mission ExoMars (Exobiology on Mars) EDM (Entry, descent and landing Demonstration Module), deployed on the Schiaparelli lander and is proposed for the ExoMars 2020 Rover. Based on an agreement between NASA and ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), another microreflector, LaRRI (Laser Retro-Reflector for InSight), was delivered to JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and integrated on NASA’s InSight Mars Lander in August 2017 (launch scheduled in May 2018). Another microreflector, LaRA (Laser Retro-reflector Array) will be delivered to JPL for deployment on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover. The first lunar landing opportunities will be from early 2018 (with TeamIndus) to late 2018 with commercial missions, followed by opportunities with space agency missions, including the proposed deployment of MoonLIGHT and INRRI on NASA’s Resource Prospectors and its evolutions. In conclusion, we will extend significantly the CCR Lunar Geophysical Network and populate the Mars Geophysical Network. These networks will enable very significantly improved tests of GR.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
628
80056
Simulation of Reflection Loss for Carbon and Nickel-Carbon Thin Films
Abstract:
Maximal radar wave absorbing cannot be achieved by shaping alone. We have to focus on the parameters of absorbing materials such as permittivity, permeability, and thickness so that best absorbing according to our necessity can happen. The real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity (εr' and εr") and permeability (µr' and µr") were obtained by simulation. The microwave absorbing property of carbon and Ni(C) is simulated in this study by MATLAB software; the simulation was in the frequency range between 2 to 12 GHz for carbon black (C), and carbon coated nickel (Ni(C)) with different thicknesses. In fact, we draw reflection loss (RL) for C and Ni-C via frequency. We have compared their absorption for 3-mm thickness and predicted for other thicknesses by using of electromagnetic wave transmission theory. The results showed that reflection loss position changes in low frequency with increasing of thickness. We found out that, in all cases, using nanocomposites as absorbance cannot get better results relative to pure nanoparticles. The frequency where absorption is maximum can determine the best choice between nanocomposites and pure nanoparticles. Also, we could find an optimal thickness for long wavelength absorbing in order to utilize them in protecting shields and covering.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
627
80047
Experimental Demonstration of Broadband Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier
Abstract:
In this paper, broadband design of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated and proved experimentally. High and broad gain is covered in C and L bands. The used technique combines, in one configuration, two double passes with split band structure for the amplification of two traveled signals one for the C band and the other for L band. This new topology is to investigate the trends of high gain and wide amplification at different status of pumping power, input wavelength, and input signal power. The presented paper is to explore the performance of EDFA gain using what it can be called double pass double branch wide band amplification configuration. The obtained results show high gain and wide broadening range of 44.24 dB and 80 nm amplification respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
626
79779
The Influence of Structural Disorder and Phonon on Metal-To-Insulator Transition of VO₂
Abstract:
We used temperature-dependent X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements to examine the local structural properties around vanadium atoms at the V K edge from VO₂ films. A direct comparison of simultaneously-measured resistance and XAFS from the VO₂ films showed that the thermally-driven structural phase transition (SPT) occurred prior to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) during heating, whereas these changed simultaneously during cooling. XAFS revealed a significant increase in the Debye-Waller factors of the V-O and V-V pairs in the {111} direction of the R-phase VO₂ due to the phonons of the V-V arrays along the direction in a metallic phase. A substantial amount of structural disorder existing on the V-V pairs along the c-axis in both M₁ and R phases indicates the structural instability of V-V arrays in the axis. The anomalous structural disorder observed on all atomic sites at the SPT prevents the migration of the V 3d¹ electrons, resulting in a Mott insulator in the M₂-phase VO₂. The anomalous structural disorder, particularly, at vanadium sites, effectively affects the migration of metallic electrons, resulting in the Mott insulating properties in M₂ phase and a non-congruence of the SPT, MIT, and local density of state. The thermally-induced phonons in the {111} direction assist the delocalization of the V 3d¹ electrons in the R phase VO₂ and the electrons likely migrate via the V-V array in the {111} direction as well as the V-V dimerization along the c-axis. This study clarifies that the tetragonal symmetry is essentially important for the metallic phase in VO₂.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
625
79479
Generation of Ultra-Broadband Supercontinuum Ultrashort Laser Pulses with High Energy
Authors:
Abstract:
The interaction of intense short nano- and picosecond laser pulses with plasma leads to reach variety of important applications, including time-resolved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), soft x-ray lasers, and laser-driven accelerators. The progress in generating of femtosecond down to sub-10 fs optical pulses has opened a door for scientists with an essential tool in many ultrafast phenomena, such as femto-chemistry, high field physics, and high harmonic generation (HHG). The advent of high-energy laser pulses with durations of few optical cycles provided scientists with very high electric fields, and produce coherent intense UV to NIR radiation with high energy which allows for the investigation of ultrafast molecular dynamics with femtosecond resolution. In this work, we could experimentally achieve the generation of a two-octave-wide supercontinuum ultrafast pulses extending from ultraviolet at 3.5 eV to the near-infrared at 1.3 eV in neon-filled capillary fiber. These pulses are created due to nonlinear self-phase modulation (SPM) in neon as a nonlinear medium. The measurements of the generated pulses were performed using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction. A full characterization of the output pulses was studied. The output pulse characterization includes the pulse width, the beam profile, and the spectral bandwidth. Under optimization conditions, the reconstructed pulse intensity autocorrelation function was exposed for the shorts possible pulse duration to achieve transform-limited pulses with energies up to 600µJ. Furthermore, the effect of variation of neon pressure on the pulse-width was studied. The nonlinear SPM found to be increased with the neon pressure. The obtained results may give an opportunity to monitor and control ultrafast transit interaction in femtosecond chemistry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
624
79355
Measurement of Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section of ₆₀Nd K X-Rays Elements with 26 ≤ Z≤ 90
Abstract:
Rayleigh scattering differential cross sections have been measured for the 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays. These measurements have been done in 44 elements with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 90 at an angle of 1390. The measurements are performed by using a radiation source consisting of an annular 60Nd foil excited by the 59.54 KeV γ-ray photons from 241Am radioactive source. The Nd Kα2, Kβ1,3 X-ray photons from the 60Nd annular foil (secondary photon source) are made to scatter from the target and the scattered photons are detected using Canberra made low energy Germanium (LEGe) detector. The measured Rayleigh scattering cross sections are compared with the theoretical MF, MFASF and the SM values. The noticeable deviations are observed from the MF, MFASF and SM values for 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
623
79176
The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid Membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Degradative solvent extraction (DSE) is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the DSE method has not been fully understood so far. The main reactions from the studies of the DSE method of biomass are dehydration, decarboxylation, and aromatization. The feasibility and advantages of liquid-membrane Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique have been proved to identify molecular components and quantitatively analyze of the hydroxyl groups of the main extraction product (solvent-soluble) of the DSE method without separation from the solvent. To study this process mechanism in-depth, the liquid-membrane FTIR technique is applied in this study. The solvent-treatment temperature is varied from 250 to 350oC to examine the changed occurring during the conversion of biomass of DSE method. The rice straw is treated in 1-methylnaphthalene at a different solvent-treatment temperature from 250 to 350oC with the residence time for 60 min. The FTIR spectrum of solvent-soluble associated with oxygen functional groups, the oxygen-hydrogen stretching (3600 - 3100 cm-1) and the carbonyl stretching (1800 - 1600 cm-1) regions, are then investigated. The obtained IR spectrum is deconvoluted to a series of bands in each region and the peak areas for each band are obtained. The content of oxygen in hydroxyl groups and in carboxylic acid are calculated from the FTIR analysis with the aid of the absorption coefficient, which has been derived using the known concentration reagents. It has been found that the oxygen obtained in the oxygen-hydrogen stretching region and in carboxylic acid in the carbonyl stretching region decreased slightly with increasing solvent-treatment temperature from 250 to 350oC. The relative quantity of hydrogen-bonded OH of soluble in the oxygen-hydrogen stretching region decreases from 300 to 350oC, which shows that dehydration reaction takes place between 300oC and 350oC. The results of deconvolution applied to the carbonyl stretching region, FTIR spectra reveal the presence of esters, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. As the relative change of carbonyl functional groups measured from the band areas in the solvent-soluble of biomass, the results decrease as increasing the solvent-treatment temperature. These functional groups may be removed by the decarboxylation by the carboxylic acid in the solvent-soluble of biomass changing to the form of carbon dioxide.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
622
78840
Structure and Magnetic Properties of M-Type Sr-Hexaferrite with Ca, La Substitutions
Abstract:
M-type Sr-hexaferrite (SrFe₁₂O₁₉) have been studied during the past decades because it is the most utilized materials in permanent magnets due to their low price, outstanding chemical stability, and appropriate hard magnetic properties. Many attempts have been made to improve the intrinsic magnetic properties of M-type Sr-hexaferrites (SrM), such as by improving the saturation magnetization (MS) and crystalline anisotropy by cation substitution. It is well proved that the Ca-La-Co substitutions are one of the most successful approaches, which lead to a significant enhancement in the crystalline anisotropy without reducing MS, and thus the Ca-La-Co-doped SrM have been commercialized in high-grade magnet products. In this research, the effect of respective doping of Ca and La into the SrM lattices were studied with assumptions that these elements could substitute both of Fe and Sr sites. The hexaferrite samples of stoichiometric SrFe₁₂O₁₉ (SrM) and the Ca substituted SrM with formulae of Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4), and also La substituted SrM of Sr₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and SrFe₁₂₋ₓLaₓOₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction processes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) with a Cu Kα radiation source (λ=0.154056 nm) was used for phase analysis. Microstructural observation was conducted with a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). M-H measurements were performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at 300 K. Almost pure M-type phase could be obtained in the all series of hexaferrites calcined at > 1250 ºC. Small amount of Fe₂O₃ phases were detected in the XRD patterns of Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and Sr₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) samples. Also, small amount of unidentified secondary phases without the Fe₂O₃ phase were found in the samples of SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ (x = 0.4) and SrFe₁₂₋ₓLaₓOₐ (x = 0.3, 0.4). Although the Ca substitution (x) into SrM structure did not exhibit a clear tendency in the cell parameter change in both series of samples, Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ and SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ , the cell volume slightly decreased with doping of Ca in the Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ samples and increased in the SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ samples. Considering relative ion sizes between Sr²⁺ (0.113 nm), Ca²⁺ (0.099 nm), Fe³⁺ (0.064 nm), these results imply that the Ca substitutes both of Sr and Fe in the SrM. A clear tendency of cell parameter change was observed in case of La substitution into Sr site of SrM ( Sr₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂Oₐ); the cell volume decreased with increase of x. It is owing to the similar but smaller ion size of La³⁺ (0.106 nm) than that of Sr²⁺. In case of SrFe₁₂₋ₓLaₓOₐ, the cell volume first decreased at x = 0.1 and then remained almost constant with increase of x from 0.2 to 0.4. These results mean that La only substitutes Sr site in the SrM structure. Besides, the microstructure and magnetic properties of these samples, and correlation between them will be revealed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
621
78831
Theoretical Analysis of Photoassisted Field Emission near the Metal Surface Using Transfer Hamiltonian Method
Abstract:
A model calculation of photoassisted field emission current (PFEC) by using transfer Hamiltonian method will be present here. When the photon energy is incident on the surface of the metals, such that the energy of a photon is usually less than the work function of the metal under investigation. The incident radiation photo excites the electrons to a final state which lies below the vacuum level; the electrons are confined within the metal surface. A strong static electric field is then applied to the surface of the metal which causes the photoexcited electrons to tunnel through the surface potential barrier into the vacuum region and constitutes the considerable current called photoassisted field emission current. The incident radiation is usually a laser beam, causes the transition of electrons from the initial state to the final state and the matrix element for this transition will be written. For the calculation of PFEC, transfer Hamiltonian method is used. The initial state wavefunction is calculated by using Kronig-Penney potential model. The effect of the matrix element will also be studied. An appropriate dielectric model for the surface region of the metal will be used for the evaluation of vector potential. FORTRAN programme is used for the calculation of PFEC. The results will be checked with experimental data and the theoretical results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
620
78757
Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications
Abstract:
We investigate sensing capabilities of a planar plasmonic THz waveguide. The waveguide is comprised of one dimensional array of periodically arranged sub wavelength scale corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure the plasmonic response. The THz waveguide transmission is observed for polyimide (as thin film) substance filling the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance supported by the waveguide. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in developing new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
619
78582
Gender Dimension of Migrations Influenced by Genocide and Feminicides around the Globe
Authors:
Abstract:
Gender dimension of migration analyzes the intersection in between the world statistics on male and female migrations, around the world, involving the questions of youth migrations. Comparative analyses of world migration statistics as methodology offer the insight into the position of women in labor market around world. There are different forms of youth debris in contemporary world. The main problems are illegal migration, feminization of poverty, kidnapping the girls in Nigeria, femicides in Juarez and Mexico. Illegal migrations involve forced labor, rape and prostitution. Transgender youth share ideas through the online media (anti-bullying videos) and develop their own styles such as anarcho-punk, rave, or rock. Therefore, the stronger gender equality laws and laws for protection of women on work should be enforced.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
618
78449
The Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Magnetic Properties of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ M-Type Hexaferrites
Abstract:
Recently, Ca₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂O₁₉ (Ca-La M-type) hexaferrites have been reported to possess higher crystalline anisotropy compared with SrFe₁₂O₁₉ (Sr M-type) hexaferrite without reducing its saturation magnetization (Ms), resulting in higher coercivity (Hc). While iron deficiency is known to be helpful for the growth and the formation of NiZn spinel ferrites, the effect of iron deficiency in Ca-La M-type hexaferrites has never been reported yet. In this study, therefore, we tried to investigate the effect of iron deficiency on the magnetic properties of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ hexaferrites prepared by solid state reaction. As-calcined powder was pressed into pellets and sintered at 1275~1325℃ for 4 h in air. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Powder XRD analyses revealed that Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ (0.75 ≦ y ≦ 2.15) ferrites calcined at 1250-1300℃ for 12 h in air were composed of single phase without the second phases. With increasing the iron deficiency, y, the lattice parameters a, c and unite cell volumes were decreased first up to y=10.25 and then increased again. The highest Ms value of 77.5 emu/g was obtainable from the sample of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ sintered at 1300℃ for 4 h in air. Detailed microstructures and magnetic properties of Ca-La M-type hexagonal ferrites will be presented for a discussion
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
617
78191
A Tunable Long-Cavity Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on Nonlinear Amplifier Loop Mirror
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable long-cavity passive mode-locked fiber laser. The mode locker is a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). The cavity frequency of the laser is 465 kHz because that 404m SMF is inserted in the cavity. A tunable bandpass filter with ~1nm 3dB bandwidth is inserted into the cavity to realize tunable mode locking. The passive mode-locked laser at a fixed wavelength is investigated in detail. The experimental results indicate that the laser operates in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser generates the rectangular pulses with 10.58 ns pulse duration, 70.28nJ single-pulse energy. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser keeps stable mode locking status in the range from 1523.4nm to 1575nm. During the whole tuning range, the SNR, the pulse duration, the output power and single pulse energy have a little fluctuation because that the gain of the EDF changes with the wavelength.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
616
78167
The Effect of Varying Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Resolution and Field-of-View Centralization on the Effective Radiation Dose
Abstract:
Introduction: Estimating the potential radiation risk for a widely used imaging technique such as cone beam CT (CBCT) is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying two CBCT technical factors, the voxel size (VOX) and the Field-of-View (FOV) centralization, on the radiation dose. Methodology: The head and neck slices of a RANDO® man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories) were used with nanoDot™ OSLD dosimeters to measure the absorbed radiation dose at 25 predetermined sites. Imaging was done using the i-CAT® (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA, USA) CBCT unit. The VOX was changed for every three cycles of exposures from 0.2mm to 0.3mm and then 0.4mm. Then the FOV was centered on the maxilla and mandible alternatively while holding all other factors constant. Finally, the effective radiation dose was calculated for each view and voxel setting. Results: The effective radiation dose was greatest when the smallest VOX was chosen. When the FOV was centered on the maxilla, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the eyes and parotid glands. While on the mandible, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the sublingual and submandibular glands. Conclusion: Minor variations in the CBCT exposure factors significantly affect the effective radiation dose and thus the radiation risk to the patient. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when choosing these parameters especially for vulnerable patients such as children.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
615
77979
Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer
Abstract:
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
614
77947
New Neuroplasmonic Sensor Based on Soft Nanolithography
Abstract:
New neuro plasmonic sensor based on one dimensional plasmonic nano-grating has been prepared. To record neural activity, the sample has been exposed under different infrared laser and then has been calculated by ellipsometry parameters. Our results show that we have efficient sensitivity to different laser excitation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
613
77921
1D PIC Simulation of Cold Plasma Electrostatic Waves beyond Wave-Breaking Limit
Abstract:
Electrostatic Waves in plasma have emerged as a new source for the acceleration of charged particles. The accelerated particles have a wide range of applications, for example in cancer therapy to cutting and melting of hard materials. The maximum acceleration can only be achieved when the amplitude of the plasma wave stays below a critical limit known as wave-breaking amplitude. Beyond this limit amplitude of the wave diminishes dramatically as the coherent energy of the wave starts to convert into random kinetic energy. In this work, spatiotemporal evolution of non-relativistic electrostatic waves in a cold plasma has been studied in the wave-breaking regime using a 1D particle-in-cell simulation (PIC). It is found that plasma gets heated after the wave-breaking but a fraction of initial energy always remains with the remnant wave in the form of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) mode in warm plasma. Another interesting finding of this work is that the frequency of the resultant BGK wave is found be below electron plasma frequency which decreases with increasing initial amplitude and the acceleration mechanism after the wave-breaking is also found to be different from the previous work. In order to explain the results observed in the numerical experiments, a simplified theoretical model is constructed which exhibits a good agreement with the simulation. In conclusion, it is shown in this work that electrostatic waves get shower after the wave-breaking and a fraction of initial coherent energy always remains with remnant wave. These investigations have direct relevance in wakefield acceleration experiments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
612
77796
Kinetics and Adsorption Studies of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution Using Melon Husk
Abstract:
The adsorption of tetracycline from aqueous solution was carried out using melon husk as a low-cost adsorbent. The adsorption was characterized using standard methods and values obtained were; pH = 7.80, bulk density = 0.43 g/mL, ash content = 2.2 %, moisture content = 8.27 %, attrition = 1%, and iodine number = 552 mg/g. Adsorption capacity was found to vary with initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and temperature, the maximum adsorption capacity in each case was found to be at; 30 mg/L for concentration, 0.8 g for adsorbent dose, 5 for pH, 60 minutes for time and 30 °C for temperature. FTIR analysis was done to analyses the surface functional groups which shows the presence of O-H stretch, at 3743.92 corresponding to alcohol, phenols, C-H stretch at 2923.27 indicative of alkanes, H-C=O: C-H stretch at 2725.76 corresponding to aldehyde, C-C stretch at 1462.72 corresponding to aromatic, SEM analysis carried out revealed a rough and smooth morphology of the uncontacted and contacted adsorbent respectively. The experimental data judging from the R2 values fitted best into the Temkin isotherm. The fitting of tetracycline adsorption into the pseudo second order kinetic model (R2 of 0.9992) is suggestive of chemisorption for the adsorbent.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):