Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46707

Psychological and Behavioral Sciences

Contributions of Non-Formal Educational Spaces for the Scientific Literacy of Deaf Students
The school is a social institution that should promote learning situations that remain throughout life. Based on this, the teaching activities promoted in museum spaces can represent an educational strategy that contributes to the learning process in a more meaningful way. This article systematizes a series of elements that guide the use of these spaces for the scientific literacy of deaf students and as experiences of this nature are favorable for the school development through the concept of the circularity. The methodology for the didactic use of these spaces of non-formal education is one of the reflections developed in this study and how such environments can contribute to the learning in the classroom. To develop in the student the idea of association making him create connections with the curricular proposal and notice how the proposed activity is articulated. It is in our interest that the experience lived in the museum be shared collaborating for the construction of a scientific literacy and cultural identity through the research.
Emotional Characteristics of Preschoolers Due to Parameters of Family Interaction
The emotional sphere is one of the most important aspects of the child's development and significant factor in his psychological well-being. Present research aims to identify the relationships between emotional characteristics of preschoolers and parameters of family interaction: emotional interaction, parental styles, family adaptation, and cohesion. The study involved 40 people from Saint-Petersburg: 20 children (10 boys and 10 girls) from 5 to 6 years, Mage = 5 years 4 months and 20 mothers. Methods used were: Test 'Emotional identification' by E.Izotova, Empathy test by T. Gavrilova, Children's fears test by A. Zakharov, M. Panfilova, 'Parent-child emotional interaction questionnaire' by E. Zakharova, 'Analysis of family relationships questionnaire by E. Eidemiller and V. Yustitskis, Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales (FACES III) by D. X. Olson, J. Portner, I. Lavi. Сorrelation analysis revealed that the higher index of underdevelopment of parental feelings, the lower the child’s ability to identify emotions (p < 0,05), but at the same time, the higher ability to understand emotional states (p < 0,01), as in the case of hypoprotection (p < 0,05). Two last correlations can be explained by compensatory mechanism. This is also confirmed by negative correlations between maternal educational uncertainty and child’s ability to understand emotional states and between indulgence and child’s ability to perceive emotional states (p < 0,05). The more pronounced the phobia of a child's loss, the higher egocentric nature of child’s empathy (p < 0,05). The child’s fears have the greatest number of relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The more pronounced mother’s positive feelings in interaction, emotional support, acceptance of himself as a parent, desire for physical contact with child and the more adaptive the family system, the less the total number of child’s fears (p < 0,05). The more the mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, emotional support (p < 0,01), unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent and the desire for physical contact (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s spatial fears. Socially-mediated fears are associated with less pronounced mother's positive feelings in interaction, less emotional support and deficiency of demands, obligations (p < 0,05). Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters positively correlated with the excessive demands, obligations and excessive sanctions (p < 0,05). The more emotional support (p < 0,01), mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s fears of nightmares. This kind of fears is positively correlated with excessive demands, prohibitions (p < 0,05). The more adaptive the family system (p < 0,01), the higher family cohesion, mother's acceptance of himself as a parent and preference to childish traits (p < 0,05), the less fear of death. Thus, the children's fears have the closest relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The severity of fears, especially spatial, is connected, first of all, with the emotional side of the mother-parent interaction. Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters are associated with some characteristics of the parental styles, connected with the rigor of mothers. Correlations of the emotional identification are contradictory and require further clarification. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.
Emotional and Personal Characteristics of Children in Relation to the Parental Attitudes
The purpose of the research was to study the emotional and personal characteristics of preschool children in relation to the characteristics of child-parent interaction and deviant parental attitudes. The study involved 172 mothers and 172 children (85 boys and 87 girls) aged 4,5 to 7 years (mean age 6 years) living in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods used were, demographic questionnaire, projective drawing method 'House-Tree-Man', Test of anxiety (Temml, Dorki, Amen), technique of studying self-esteem 'Ladder', expert evaluation of sociability and aggressiveness, questionnaire for children-parent emotional interaction (E.I. Zaharova) and questionnaire 'Analysis of family relationships' (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitsky). Results. The greatest number of links with personal characteristics have received such parental deviant attitudes as overprotection and characteristics of authoritarian style (prohibitions, sanctions). If the mother has such peculiarities of the parental relationship, the child is characterized by lower self-esteem, increased anxiety, distrust of themselves and hostility. Children have more pronounced manifestations of aggression in a conniving and unstable style of parenting. The sensitivity of the mother is positively associated with children’s self-esteem. Unconditional acceptance of the child, the predominance of a positive emotional background, orientation to the state of the child during interaction promote the development of communication skills and reduce of aggressiveness. But the excessive closeness of the mother with the child can make it difficult to develop the communicative skills. Conclusions. The greatest influence on emotional and personal characteristics is provided by such features of the parental relation as overprotection, characteristics of authoritarian style, underdevelopment of the sphere of parental feelings, sensitivity of mother and behavioral manifestations of emotional interaction. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.
Impact of Workplace Psychology on Architect's Work Satisfaction
Architects are known for long and unfriendly work hours and thus adapt to routines mandated by nature and surroundings of their work. Work gratification among architects is necessary to have a healthy working condition that sequentially supports to create built environments as work satisfaction has been low among Architects and are also exposed to a number of stress factors like long working hours, the slow pace of work, high workload, and lack of job safety with low pay which negatively impacts their well-being. Additionally, architects have only a limited scope to use their creative skill. This paper studies the case of work satisfaction and the factors that impact it in the state of Indian architects. An eloquent survey in the form of a questionnaire and standardized interviews will be utilized to form a comprehensive method for the study. Factors that basically affect workplaces include restraining over thermal conditions, indoor air quality, recreational spaces, acoustics, views, lighting, and ergonomics. The expected outcome of the paper is to check architects' workplace psychology and their control on their work environment.
Discrepancies between Self-, Peer and Teacher Evaluations of Social Competence and Interrelations to Social Phobia Symptoms
Adolescents’ biased perceptions about their social competence (SC), whether negatively or positively, serve to influence their socioemotional adjustment such as early feelings of social phobia (nowadays referred to as Social Anxiety Disorder-SAD). Despite the importance of biased self-perceptions in adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment, the extent to which discrepancies between self- and others’ evaluations of one’s SC are linked to social phobic symptoms remains unclear in the literature. This study examined the perceptual discrepancy profiles between self- and peers’ as well as between self- and teachers’ evaluations of adolescents’ SC and the interrelations of these profiles with self-reported social phobic symptoms. The participants were 390 1st graders (14 years old) of Finnish lower secondary school (50.8% boys, 49.2% girls). In contrast with variable-centered approaches that have mainly been used by previous studies when focusing on this subject, this study used latent profile analysis (LPA), a person-centered approach which can provide information regarding risk profiles by capturing the heterogeneity within a population and classifying individuals into groups. Regarding the model of self-peer discrepancies, LPA revealed the following five classes of discrepancy profiles: i) slightly positively biased perceptions of SC, ii) quite realistic perceptions of SC, iii) negatively biased perceptions of SC, iv) realistic perceptions of SC, and v) extremely positively biased perceptions of SC. Concerning the model of self-teacher discrepancies, LPA revealed the following five classes of discrepancy profiles: i) slightly positively biased perceptions of SC, ii) extremely negatively biased perceptions of SC, iii) negatively biased perceptions of SC, iv) realistic perceptions of SC, and v) extremely positively biased perceptions of SC. Adolescents with slightly positively biased perceptions of SC, extremely negatively biased perceptions and negatively biased perceptions reported the highest number of socio-phobic symptoms. Adolescents with realistic and quite realistic perceptions reported less socio-phobic symptoms compared to the previous groups. Adolescents with an extremely positively biased perception of their SC reported the lowest number of socio-phobic symptoms. The results point out both the negatively biased perceptions and the slightly positive biases of self-SC as maintainers of social phobic symptoms. Moreover, the negative association between extremely positively biased self-perception of SC and social phobic symptoms illustrates its potentially protective role in social phobia. Finally, the current findings highlight the importance of considering discrepancies between self- and others’ perceptions of one’s SC in clinical and research efforts. Interventions designed to prevent or moderate social phobic symptoms need to take into account individual needs rather than aiming for uniform treatment. Implications and future directions are discussed.
The Association between Psychosocial Characteristics, Training Variables and Well-Being: An Exploratory Study among Organizational Workers
Background: Training is essential to develop individuals’ expertise to meet current and future job demands and to improve work performance. At the same time, individuals’ well-being is crucial to ensure that they can fully and positively carry out their daily duties. In addition to the studies that have examined what constitutes well-being and the factors behind it, many researchers have investigated the predictors of training effectiveness and transfer of training. However, there has been very little integration between them. This study was an attempt to bridge the gap between training effectiveness predictors and well-being. Purpose: This research paper aimed to investigate the association between well-being among employees and psychosocial characteristics, together with training variables. Training variables consist of motivation to learn; learning; implementation intention; and cognitive dissonance. Methodology: In total, 210 workers who had undergone various training programs completed an online survey measuring various psychosocial characteristics, four training variables, and level of well-being. Findings: The results showed that certain types of positive psychosocial characteristics (e.g., positive personality, positive work behaviors, positive work and resources) predict motivation to learn, learning and implementation intention. Meanwhile, negative psychosocial characteristics (e.g. negative work demands and resources, negative coping) predict cognitive dissonance. Also, all the training variables had a moderate to high correlation with well-being. However, after controlling other variables (age, gender, education and psychosocial characteristics), none of the training variables predicted well-being. Self-determination theory, cognitive dissonance theory, and the DRIVE model were used to explain these findings. Conclusion: As there is limited research on the integration of training variables with well-being, this study gives a new perspective in the field of both training and well-being. Further investigations are needed to examine the relationships between them.
Treating Sleep Apnea with Alcohol Use Disorder through Using Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Case Analysis
A 37-year-old patient with alcohol use disorder (using alcohol to fall sleep) visited the outpatient clinic with main complaints of snoring and sleep apnea. The patient was drinking more than 5 times a week and taking medication for high blood pressure and alcoholic hepatitis. According to overnight polysomnography, the patient had severe sleep apnea with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): 64.9 and respiratory disturbance index (RDI): 67, and his alcohol use was aggravating his sleep apnea with AHII: 86.9 and RDI: 92.3. We conducted a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration in two conditions (with vs. without alcohol use) and tested whether AHI and RDI in these conditions differed. The results showed that CPAP titration was effective for reducing symptoms of sleep apnea in both conditions, as evidenced by a normal range of AHI and RDI (AHI 4.3, RDI: 4.5 and with AHI 4.4, and RDI: 4.7, respectively) at the optimal pressures 12. The patient has been using CPAP and reported improved quality of sleep and less alcohol use. In summary, the patient had worse sleep apnea after alcohol use, but CPAP was found to improve his sleep apnea, even after alcohol use.
A Pilot Study on the Sensory Processing Difficulty Pattern Association between the Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Deficit Child
Attention deficit hyperactivity deficit (ADHD) child display diverse sensory processing difficulty behaviors. There is less evidence to figure out how the association between executive function and sensory deficit. To determine whether sensory deficit influence the executive functions, we examined sensory processing by SPM and try to indicate hot/cold executive function (EF) by BRIEF2, respectively. We found that the hot executive function deficit might associate with auditory processing in a variety of settings, and vestibular input to maintain balance and upright posture; the cold EF deficit might opposite to the hot EF deficit, the vestibular sensory modulation difficulty association with emotion shifting and emotional regulation. These results suggest that sensory processing might be another consideration factor to influence the higher cognitive control or emotional regulation of EF. Overall, this study indicates the distinction between hot and cold EF impairments with different sensory modulation problem. Moreover, for clinician, it needs more cautious consideration to conduct intervention with ADHD.
Summer Is for Holidays: Editing Behaviour in Wikipedia
Everyone likes to spend the summer outside with friends and families without thinking about work. But how about people who work voluntarily? Are they eager during the whole year, regardless of seasons or holidays? In this paper, it is both investigated how the number of edits of Wikipedia articles changes over the year and whether there are more edits on the weekend than on weekdays because people see the writing of articles as a hobby which is done in their free time. Wikipedia is a free encyclopedia that is based on the contribution of such voluntary authors who create and improve articles without getting paid. In times where there exists a decrease in those persons contributing to freely available knowledge, it is not only important to understand their motivation but especially the way how and when they contribute. For this analysis, the number of edits in each year, day and minute since the beginning of Wikipedia was extracted for 17 categories. This resulted in over 23 million edits. With this information, a clearer picture of the typical authors can be drawn. Therefore, conclusion about their lives can be made and especially how to keep these authors contributing to Wikipedia.
The Evaluation of Child Maltreatment Severity and the Decision-Making Processes in the Child Protection System
Professionals working in child protection services (CPS) need to have common and clear criteria to identify cases of maltreatment and to differentiate levels of severity in order to determine when CPS intervention is required, its nature and urgency, and, in most countries, the service that will be in charge of the case (community or specialized CPS). Actually, decision-making process is complex in CPS, and, for that reason, such criteria are particularly important for who significantly contribute to that decision-making in child maltreatment cases. The main objective of this presentation is to describe the Maltreatment Severity Assessment Questionnaire (MSQ), specifically designed to be used by professionals in the CPS, which adopts a multidimensional approach and uses a scale of severity within subtypes. Specifically, we aim to provide evidence of validity and reliability of this tool, in order to improve the quality and validity of assessment processes and, consequently, the decision making in CPS. The total sample was composed of 1000 children and/or adolescents (51.1% boys), aged between 0 and 18 years old (M = 9.47; DP = 4.51). All the participants were referred to official institutions of the children and youth protective system. Children and adolescents maltreatment (abuse, neglect experiences and sexual abuse) were assessed with 21 items of the Maltreatment Severity Questionnaire (MSQ), by professionals of CPS. Each item (sub-type) was composed of four descriptors of increasing severity. Professionals rated the level of severity, using a 4-point scale (1= minimally severe; 2= moderately severe; 3= highly severe; 4= extremely severe). The construct validity of the Maltreatment Severity Questionnaire was assessed with a holdout method, performing an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) followed by a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The final solution comprised 18 items organized in three factors 47.3% of variance explained. ‘Physical neglect’ (eight items) was defined by parental omissions concerning the insurance and monitoring of the child’s physical well-being and health, namely in terms of clothing, hygiene, housing conditions and contextual environmental security. ‘Physical and Psychological Abuse’ (four items) described abusive physical and psychological actions, namely, coercive/punitive disciplinary methods, physically violent methods or verbal interactions that offend and denigrate the child, with the potential to disrupt psychological attributes (e.g., self-esteem). ‘Psychological neglect’ (six items) involved omissions related to children emotional development, mental health monitoring, school attendance, development needs, as well as inappropriate relationship patterns with attachment figures. Results indicated a good reliability of all the factors. The assessment of child maltreatment cases with MSQ could have a set of practical and research implications: a) It is a valid and reliable multidimensional instrument to measure child maltreatment, b) It is an instrument integrating the co-occurrence of various types of maltreatment and a within-subtypes scale of severity; c) Specifically designed for professionals, it may assist them in decision-making processes; d) More than using case file reports to evaluate maltreatment experiences, researchers could guide more appropriately their research about determinants and consequences of maltreatment.
Temporal Myopia in Sustainable Behavior under Uncertainty
Consumers in today’s world are confronted with the alarming consequences of unsustainable behavior such as pollution and resource degradation. In addition, they are facing an increase in uncertainty due to, for instance, economic instability and terror attacks. Although these two problems are central to consumers’ lives, occur on a global scale, and have significant impact on the world’s political, economic, environmental, and social landscapes, they have not been systematically studied in tandem before. Contributing to research on persuasion and pro-social behavior, this paper shows in five studies (three experimental studies and one field study) that the two problems are intertwined. We demonstrate that uncertainty leads to lower sustainable behavior in comparison to certainty (Studies 1 and 2) and that this is due to consumers displaying higher levels of temporal discounting (i.e., adopting a more immediate orientation; Study 2). Finally, providing valuable implications for policy makers and responsible marketers, we show that emphasizing the immediate benefits of sustainable behavior during uncertainty buffers the negative effect (Studies 3 and 4).
A Case Study on Parent-Child Relationship, Attachment Styles, and Romantic Relationship Quality of Illegitimate Emerging Adults
This study examined the attachment styles, parent-child relationship, and romantic relationship quality of five illegitimate emerging adults aged 18 to 23 years old. The researcher used self-report measures, inventory of parent and peer attachment, attachment style questionnaire, and network of relationship – relationship quality version in obtaining data. A semi-structured interview was also used to acquire qualitative data about the detailed perception and experiences on the attachment styles and parent-child relationship. Common themes of each variable were identified through thematic analysis. Results showed that four out of five participants depicted positive relationship to their fathers, while all of them reported to have positive relationship to their mothers. It was also found that four participants have preoccupied attachment style, while the other one has fearful attachment style. Common themes in describing their relationship with their mother include being close, influential to participants’ life, unbounded communication, favorable reason of trusting, and sometimes being inattentive. On the other hand, having distant relationship, limited communication about romantic relationship, uninfluential to participant’s life, and favorable reason of trusting were the common themes in describing relationship with father. Lastly, less trusting, being dependent, and emphasis on valuing intimacy were the common themes in describing their style of attachment.
The Crossroads of Magic and Wellbeing: A Review of Wellbeing-Focused Magic Programs, Empirical Studies, and Conceivable Theories
In recent years, magicians and scientists have begun collaborating to gain insight into various psychological functions in an attempt to develop a science of magic. However, despite some apparent applications, one underexplored area is the use of magic as a tool to enhance wellbeing. Several past and current magic programs focus on enhancing mental, emotional, social and physical wellbeing. The focus of these programs ranges from integrating magic with physical or psychological therapies to applications in street interventions, hospital environments or classroom settings. A few programs have been subject to empirical investigation and further studies have also explored the overlap of magic with wellbeing. These studies are reviewed in light of a proposed hierarchical model based on how the magic was applied, which encompasses whether effects on participants’ wellbeing arose from witnessing magic, discovering its secrets, performing magic, or using it to teach. Overall most methodologies were rather weak, but distinctions between the specific positive effects are still observed and are discussed. Furthermore, these positive effects on well-being can also be organized into interrelated physical, cognitive, social, and affective components. To conclude, possible explanations of the observed benefits are offered that draw upon findings from more established psychological research.
Children's Pro-Environmental Attitudes and Behavior: Results from the Qualitative and Quantitative Research from Lithuania
Environmental problems such as climate change, pollution, and loss of biodiversity have reached a level of serious crisis that needs to be addressed. Current children are the future decision-makers, who will not only face the outcomes of the crisis but also, will have to participate in solving it. Therefore, it is vital to understand children’s attitudes towards environmental protection as well as to educate them on the necessity of acting pro-environmentally. Educational systems may thus play an important role in promoting such attitudes and behaviors in young age. The objective of the study is to analyze Lithuanian children’s pro-environmental attitudes and behavior as well as the factors that predict it. The method of the study is twofold. First, during the qualitative research stage, several focus groups were conducted in order to better understand what do Lithuanian children know about environmental problems and environmental protection as well as what is their pro-environmental behavior. Study participants were 6-11-year-old children from Vilnius (Lithuania). For analyzing the data, content analysis technique is being used. Second, a representative sample of elementary school children from Lithuania will participate in a quantitative questionnaire study, which will be based on the results from the first stage of the research, i.e. level of children’s knowledge, their vocabulary related to the topic, etc. The second stage of the research will be aimed at analyzing children’s pro-environmental attitudes and behavior as well as the factors that predict it. Structural equation modeling will be used as a statistical analysis technique for analyzing the data. The expected findings will be a basis for interventions aimed at promoting children’s pro-environmental attitudes and behavior from the very beginning of their school age. Therefore, the results of the study are expected to provide researchers and practitioners with better knowledge of research-based and effective environmental education.
The Effect of Socio-Affective Variables in the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Employee Turnover Intention
Employee turnover leads to lowered productivity, decreased morale and work quality, and psychological effects associated with employee separation and replacement. Yet, it remains unknown why talented employees willingly withdraw from organizations. This uncertainty is worsened as studies; a) prioritise organizational over individual predictors resulting in restriction in range in turnover measurement; b) focus on actual rather than intended turnover thereby limiting conceptual understanding of the turnover construct and its relationship with other variables and; c) produce inconsistent findings across cultures, contexts and industries despite a clear need for a unified perspective. The current study addressed these gaps by adopting the theory of planned behavior framework (TPB) to examine socio-cognitive factors in organizational trust and individual turnover intentions among bankers and energy employees in Jamaica. In a comparative study of n=369 [nbank= 264; male=57 (22.73%); nenergy =105; male =45 (42.86)], it was hypothesized that organizational trust was a predictor of employee turnover intention, and the effect of individual, group, cognitive and socio-affective variables varied across industry. Findings from structural equation modelling confirmed the hypothesis, with a model of both cognitive and socio-affective variables being a better fit [CMIN (χ 2 ) = 800.067, df = 364, p ≤ .000; CFI = .950; RMSEA = .057 with 90% C.I. (.052 - .062); PCLOSE =.016; PNFI = .818 in predicting turnover intention. Findings are discussed in relation to socio-cognitive components of trust models and predicting negative employee behaviours across cultures and industries.
Antarctica, Global Change and Deaf Education in Brazil
Teaching of science must transcend simple transmission of fundamental concepts and allow scientific literacy, as a process for understanding the human being as an integral part of a complex and interdependent whole. In this context, approaching the theme ‘Antarctica’ in deaf education is an important advance for teaching, considering that that continent has direct interactions with the climatic and environmental system of the planet. Therefore, textbooks can be important tools to enable the Deaf Community to access the discussion about the natural environment. A specific script was used to analyze textbooks adopted by schools in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region. Results show that none of the 14 analyzed books have a specific chapter on the theme, some presents images of the continent without reference to their environmental importance, and the complementary texts present in the analyzed material do not address the theme either. It is concluded that the study on Antarctica and global changes in elementary education is still incipient and the material used by most Brazilian public schools does not contemplate that subject in an accessible way for the deaf person. This fact represents the distance between deaf students and their environment, denoting the need for actions to promote that and other neglected themes in Science teaching.
Analyzing Inclusion Attempts: Simultaneous Performance of Two Teachers at the Same Classroom
Hiring a second teacher to accompany deaf students inserted at Brazilian inclusive school system has raised questions about its role in the educational process of deaf students. Federal policies determine that deaf students inserted in regular education are accompanied by sign language interpreters, which leads to the understanding that the second teacher should assume this function. However, what those professionals do is to assume the function of teaching deaf student, instead of the classroom main teacher. Historical-Cultural Psychology was used as a reference for analysis, which aimed to identify the social function of the second teacher in the classroom. Two studies were accomplished in the public schools of Sao Paulo State: In Study 1, videotaped lectures provided by the Department of Education for collective reflection about the second teacher's role were examined, to identify the social meaning of that professional activity. Study 2 aimed to analyze the process of assigning personal sense to the teacher activity, considering the opinions of 21 professionals from Sao Paulo. Those teachers were interviewed individually with the support of a semi-structured interview. The analysis method utilized was: empirical description of data; development of categories, for reality abstraction; identifying the unit analysis; and return to reality, in order to explain it. Study 1 showed that the social meaning of the second teacher's activity is, also, to teach. However, Study 2 showed that this meaning is not shared among professionals of the school, so they understand that they must act as sign language interpreters. That comprehension causes a disruption between social meaning and the personal sense they attach to their activity. It also shows the need of both teachers at the classroom planning and executing activity together. On the contrary, a relationship of subordination of one teacher to another was identified, excluding the second teacher and the deaf student of the main activity. Results indicate that the second teacher, as a teacher, must take the responsibility for deaf student education, consciously, and to promote the full development of the subjects involved.
Improving the Social Interactions of Students with Conduct Disorder in Dil Betigil Primary School
Conduct disorder has become a major health and social problem; it is the most common psychiatric problem diagnosed among students which affect the academic and social interaction of students. This intervention was conducted in Dil Betigil primary school. After identifying six students with conduct disorder in Dil Betigil primary school, the intervention was conducted using a true experimental research design specifically pretest and posttest control group design. Data from teachers and parents of the students with conduct disorder were collected using adapted conduct disorder scale and semi-structured interview. The independent sample t-test of Pretest results of both experimental and control group indicated that there is no statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups. Intervention is carried out to enhance their social interaction and to decrees aggressive, a serious violation of rules and theft behavior of students in collaboration with teachers and parents. After six intervention weeks the post-test result showed that there was statistically significant difference in aggression and serious violation between the experimental and control groups, but there was no statistically significant mean difference regarding deceitful or theft between the experimental and control group.
Impacts of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Academics, Behavior and Mental Health
Educators often report difficulty managing behavior problems and other mental health concerns that students display at school. These concerns also interfere with the learning process and can create distraction for teachers and other students. As such, schools play an important role in both preventing and intervening with students who experience these types of challenges. A number of models have been proposed to serve as a framework for delivering prevention and early intervention services in schools. One such model is called Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), which has been scaled-up to over 26,000 schools in the U.S. and many other countries worldwide. PBIS aims to improve a range of student outcomes through early detection of and intervention related to behavioral and mental health symptoms. PBIS blends and applies social learning, behavioral, and organizational theories to prevent disruptive behavior and enhance the school’s organizational health. PBIS focuses on creating and sustaining tier 1 (universal), tier 2 (selective), and tier 3 (individual) systems of support. Most schools using PBIS have focused on the core elements of the tier 1 supports, which includes the following critical features. The formation of a PBIS team within the school to lead implementation. Identification and training of a behavioral support ‘coach’, who serves as a on-site technical assistance provider. Many of the individuals identified to serve as a PBIS coach are also trained as a school psychologist or guidance counselor; coaches typically have prior PBIS experience and are trained to conduct functional behavioral assessments. The PBIS team also identifies a set of three to five positive behavioral expectations that are implemented for all students and by all staff school-wide (e.g., ‘be respectful, responsible, and ready to learn’); these expectations are posted in all settings across the school, including in the classroom, cafeteria, playground etc. All school staff define and teach the school-wide behavioral expectations to all students and review them regularly. Finally, PBIS schools develop or adopt a school-wide system to reward or reinforce students who demonstrate those 3-5 positive behavioral expectations. Staff and administrators create an agreed upon system for responding to behavioral violations that include definitions about what constitutes a classroom-managed vs. an office-managed discipline problem. Finally, a formal system is developed to collect, analyze, and use disciplinary data (e.g., office discipline referrals) to inform decision-making. This presentation provides a brief overview of PBIS and reports findings from a series of four U.S. based longitudinal randomized controlled trials (RCTs) documenting the impacts of PBIS on school climate, discipline problems, bullying, and academic achievement. The four RCTs include 80 elementary, 40 middle, and 58 high schools and results indicate a broad range of impacts on multiple student and school-wide outcomes. The session will highlight lessons learned regarding PBIS implementation and scale-up. We also review the ways in which PBIS can help educators and school leaders engage in data-based decision-making and share data with other decision-makers and stakeholders (e.g., students, parents, community members), with the overarching goal of increasing use of evidence-based programs in schools.
Increasing Student Engagement through Culturally-Responsive Classroom Management
Worldwide, ethnically and culturally diverse students are at increased risk for school failure, discipline problems, and dropout. Despite decades of concern about this issue of disparities in education and other fields (e.g., 'school to prison pipeline'), there has been limited empirical examination of models that can actually reduce these gaps in schools. Moreover, few studies have examined the effectiveness of in-service teacher interventions and supports specifically designed to reduce discipline disparities and improve student engagement. This session provides an overview of the evidence-based Double Check model which serves as a framework for teachers to use culturally-responsive strategies to engage ethnically and culturally diverse students in the classroom and reduce discipline problems. Specifically, Double Check is a school-based prevention program which includes three core components: (a) enhancements to the school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) tier-1 level of support; (b) five one-hour professional development training sessions, each of which addresses five domains of cultural competence (i.e., connection to the curriculum, authentic relationships, reflective thinking, effective communication, and sensitivity to students’ culture); and (c) coaching of classroom teachers using an adapted version of the Classroom Check-Up, which intends to increase teachers’ use of effective classroom management and culturally-responsive strategies using research-based motivational interviewing and data-informed problem-solving approaches. This paper presents findings from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the impact of Double Check, on office discipline referrals (disaggregated by race) and independently observed and self-reported culturally-responsive practices and classroom behavior management. The RCT included 12 elementary and middle schools; 159 classroom teachers were randomized either to receive coaching or serve as comparisons. Specifically, multilevel analyses indicated that teacher self-reported culturally responsive behavior management improved over the course of the school year for teachers who received the coaching and professional development. However, the average annual office discipline referrals issued to black students were reduced among teachers who were randomly assigned to receive coaching relative to comparison teachers. Similarly, observations conducted by trained external raters indicated significantly more teacher proactive behavior management and anticipation of student problems, higher student compliance, less student non-compliance, and less socially disruptive behaviors in classrooms led by coached teachers than classrooms led teachers randomly assigned to the non-coached condition. These findings indicated promising effects of the Double Check model on a range of teacher and student outcomes, including disproportionality in office discipline referrals among Black students. These results also suggest that the Double Check model is one of only a few systematic approaches to promoting culturally-responsive behavior management which has been rigorously tested and shown to be associated with improvements in either student or staff outcomes indicated significant reductions in discipline problems and improvements in behavior management. Implications of these findings are considered within the broader context of globalization and demographic shifts, and their impacts on schools. These issues are particularly timely, given growing concerns about immigration policies in the U.S. and abroad.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders in South Korea
This study examined a group-based intervention for alcohol use disorders based on the principles of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in patients (N=22; 63.7% female; M = 38.2 years old; 100% South Korean) in a residential alcohol addiction treatment program. Patients were randomly assigned to either ACT group (receiving the ACT intervention) or control group (receiving treatment as usual). The ACT intervention consisted of four 2-hr group sessions scheduled during two weeks. The first session focused on the negative effects of suppression and avoidance, and a rationale for defusion and acceptance using several of the well-known ACT metaphors (e.g., Two Scales Metaphor, Man in the Hole). The second session taught defusion and acceptance skills through such exercises as mindfulness, cutting a sour fruit, naming one’s thoughts, and physicalizing. The third session included another mindfulness exercise and encouraged the participants to identify their values and set up life goals. The last session included more discussion on values and life goals, especially related to family and intimacy. The effects of the interventions were assessed using intent-to-treat analyses. The ACT interventions resulted in smaller immediate gains in motivation to stay sober and reductions in depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance. In addition, at a 2-month follow up, those who attended the ACT group reported a lower average level of alcohol consumption and higher treatment attendance compared to the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that additional treatment and testing of ACT for alcohol use disorders will be crucial.
The Relationship between Incidental Emotions, Risk Perceptions and Type of Army Service
Military service in general, and in combat units in particular, can be physically and psychologically stressful. Therefore, type of service may have significant implications for soldiers during and after their military service including emotions, judgments and risk perceptions. Previous studies have focused on risk propensity and risky behavior among soldiers, however there is still lack of knowledge on the impact of type of army service on risk perceptions. The current study examines the effect of type of army service (combat versus non-combat service) and negative incidental emotions on risk perceptions. In 2014 a survey was conducted among 153 combat and non-combat Israeli soldiers. The survey was distributed in train stations and central bus stations in various places in Israel among soldiers waiting for the train/bus. Participants answered questions related to the levels of incidental negative emotions they felt, to their risk perceptions (chances to be hurt by terror attack, by violent crime and by car accident), and personal details including type of army service. The data in this research is unique because military service in Israel is compulsory, so that the Israeli population serving in the army is wide and diversified. The results indicate that currently serving combat participants were more pessimistic in their risk perceptions (for all type of risks) compared to the currently serving non-combat participants. Since combat participants probably experienced severe and distressing situations during their service, they became more pessimistic regarding their probabilities of being hurt in different situations in life. This result supports the availability heuristic theory and the findings of previous studies indicating that those who directly experience distressing events tend to overestimate danger. The findings also indicate that soldiers who feel higher levels of incidental fear and anger have pessimistic risk perceptions. In addition, respondents who experienced combat army service also have pessimistic risk perceptions if they feel higher levels of fear. In addition, the findings suggest that higher levels of the incidental emotions of fear and anger are related to more pessimistic risk perceptions. These results can be explained by the compulsory army service in Israel that constitutes a focused threat to soldiers' safety during their period of service. Thus, in this stressful environment, negative incidental emotions even during routine times correlate with higher risk perceptions. In conclusion, the current study results suggest that combat army service shapes risk perceptions and the way young people control their negative incidental emotions in everyday life. Recognizing the factors affecting risk perceptions among soldiers is important for better understanding the impact of army service on young people.
Psychophysiological Synchronization Between the Manager and the Subordinate During a Performance Review Discussion
Previous studies have shown that emotional intelligence (EI) has an important role in leadership and social interaction. On the other hand, physiological synchronization between two interacting participants has been related to, for example, intensity of the interaction, and interestingly also to empathy. It is suggested that the amount of covariation in physiological signals between the two interacting persons would also be related to how the discussion is perceived subjectively. To study the interrelations between physiological synchronization, emotional intelligence, and subjective perception of the interaction, performance review discussions between real manager – subordinate dyads were studied using psychophysiological measurements and self-reports. The participants consisted of 40 managers, of which 24 were female, and 78 of their subordinates, of which 45 were female. The participants worked in various fields, for example banking, education, and engineering. The managers had a normal performance review discussion with two subordinates, except two managers who, due to scheduling issues, had discussion with only one subordinate. The managers were on average 44.5 years old, and the subordinates on average 45.5 years old. Written consent, in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, was obtained from all the participants. After the discussion, the participants filled a questionnaire assessing their emotions during the discussion. This included a self-assessment manikin (SAM) scale for the emotional valence during the discussion, with a 9-point graphical scale representing a manikin whose facial expressions ranged from smiling and happy to frowning and unhappy. In addition, the managers filled EI360, a 37-item self-report trait emotional intelligence questionnaire. The psychophysiological activity of the participants was recorded using two Varioport-B portable recording devices. Cardiac activity (ECG, electrocardiogram) was measured with two electrodes placed on the torso. Inter-beat interval (IBI, time between two successive heart beats) was calculated from the ECG signals. The facial muscle activation (EMG, electromyography) was recorded on three sites of the left side of the face: zygomaticus major (cheek muscle), orbicularis oculi (periocular muscle), and corrugator supercilii (frowning muscle). The facial-EMG signals were rectified and smoothed, and cross-coherences were calculated between members of each dyad, for all the three EMG signals, for the baseline and discussion periods. The values were natural-log transformed to normalize the distributions. Higher cross-coherence during the discussion between the manager’s and the subordinate’s zygomatic muscles was related to more positive valence self-reported emotions, F(1; 66,137) = 7,051; p=0,01. Thus, synchronized cheek muscle activation, either due to synchronous smiling or talking, was related to more positive perception of the discussion. In addition, higher IBI synchronization between the manager and the subordinate during the discussion was related to the manager’s higher self-reported emotional intelligence, F(1; 27,981)=4,58; p=0,041. That is, the EI was related to synchronous cardiac activity and possibly to similar physiological arousal levels. The results imply that the psychophysiological synchronization could be a potentially useful index in the study of social interaction and a valuable tool in the coaching of leadership skills in organizational contexts.
Counselling for Mitigating the Psycho-Social Trauma of Flood Disaster Victims
Psycho-social trauma comes about when a traumatic event overloads an individual’s capacity to cope with his or her usual emotional state. Psycho-social trauma cannot be predicted based on the events that precede them. Flood is an environmental hazard that occurs naturally and relatively sudden as a result of climate change. It happens in a devastating way and kills people in thousands. Its consequences are particularly damaging in terms of properties and other economic/income generation structures. The focus of this work is on the physical wellbeing of the victim’s mental health. There is this assumption that women are more likely to suffer disproportionately in most disaster more especially flood hence they are more vulnerable due to reduced access to source of emergency. The core concept here is to prevent stress disorder in the victims of flood and provide coping interventions for traumatized people from the aftermath of major flood disaster leading to displacement from homes and work place. Most flood victims make more emotional investment and are more likely to experience more post traumatic stress disorder associated with flood and consequently become more devastated emotionally and psycho-socially as it happens. The authors have strong view that if psycho-social therapy is applied on victims irrespective of status, it will remove ugly memories of the trauma, extinguish the fears associated with the stressful events especially as it pertains to re-location and re-equipment of victims capacities as it appraise positively the vicissitudes of life challenges and consequently develop resilience. The conclusion requires an integrative approach involving experts from diverse field of human endeavours as it pulls out this victims from their implosive anxiety and depression associated with flood provoking trauma.
Career Decision-Making Difficulty and Emotional Quotient: Basis for a Career Guidance Intervention for City College of Angeles
This research presents the career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of one hundred fifty (150) college students of City College of Angeles, Academic Year 2016-2017. Independent sample T-test and Pearson r correlation were done to shifter and non-shifter in terms of their career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. A significant positive correlation revealed (r=.302) on career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. Also, a significant negative correlation revealed (r=-.329) on career decision making difficulty and a moderating variable which is age. The finding significantly shows that emotional quotient was associated and adds a significant incremental variance with career decision making difficulty. Moreover, age shows a moderating effect on career decision making difficulty by having a significant decline and increment on variables. Furthermore, categorization of career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of said participants are described in this study. In addition, career guidance interventions were suggested based on the results of this study.
Construction of Gender Identities within Infertility Treatment: A Discursive Approach
This research is justified by literature in two research fields. The field of gender identity and infertility; and literature on patient-centered care within infertility. Western societies are strongly pro-natal where having one’s own children is for heterosexual men and women the expected social norm. While ultimate femininity is linked to motherhood, masculinity is associated with the ability to make a woman pregnant. As such, infertility is at the core of gender identities and can be perceived as an assault on ones’ identity. Couples undergoing the treatment face potential involuntary childlessness and their traditional gender roles are therefore threatened. The research gives insight into how construction of gender identities is handled within actual infertility consultations and in interviews with patients and interviews with clinicians. According to research on patient-centered care one of the reasons contributing to the discontinuation of infertility treatment is problematic communication with the clinical staff. However, evidence-based research within this area is mostly missing where existing recommendations to improve the care are mainly theoretical. The research fills this gap in literature. The research employs three studies: interviews with infertility clinicians; interviews with couples in treatment; ethnographic observations of actual consultations; A discursive approach which views discourse as a tool which is deployed to construct different versions of social reality was deployed. Specifically, Discursive Psychology, which deals with psychological constructs will be used. The preliminary findings from the first study suggest that the clinicians employ traditional gender identities to explain gendered behavior of their patients in consultations. They have also employed religious beliefs, the level of education and characteristics of the treatment. Interestingly, the identity of a doctor was used to justify the clinicians’ attitude towards shared decision-making. Patients’ understanding of the treatment information was constructed as different to that of clinicians and this was employed to explain the difficulties that clinicians face in consultations. Findings from the second study revealed that clinicians seemed to struggle more when dealing in their consultations with male infertility. They employed discursive devices, lightening the topic and signaling sensitivity. Findings from the third study suggest that men tend to normalize the treatment process and minimize the suffering their partner goes through. This has been resisted by their partners, who constructed the support they received from their man as insufficient. This might be reflective of traditional gender identities, and might suggest that the men view the needed support differently to their women. These findings already provide a valuable contribution to the field of interest.
Deceptive Behaviors of Young Children in a Guessing Game
The standard view of lay people in the Philippine society is that young children do not lie and that if they do, their lies are easily detectable. The present study investigated the deceptive behaviors of 373 children aged 2-8 using the temptation resistance paradigm. Children were instructed that they will participate in a game where they are to guess the color of a candy placed inside a downward facing cup. After the instruction was given to them, they are left alone in a room with the cup on top of a table for 15 minutes. The researcher observed the number of children who peeked at the card as well as number of those who confessed to the said act. Age, gender, IQ, and having autism seem to influence the frequency of peeking and confession of the participants.
Social Networking Sites and Narcissism among Generation Z
Social Networking Sites has an undeniable contribution but also a downgrading effect in our society when used inappropriately. It has effects on an individual’s physical, academic, social, emotional, and behavioral aspects in life, a reason to take account to the possible risks it can have with the future generations, specifically the Generation Z. Determining if SNS Usage has an effect on an individual’s Narcissistic Tendencies, how common narcissism is among these individuals and to provide additional information about the Generation Z in the Philippines is the purpose of this study. A total of 342 participants were gathered. Results indicated that there is a low significance of SNS as a predictor to Narcissism. Also, results showed that there is a low level of narcissism among Generation Z.
Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation among Undergraduate College Students
A person dies every 40 seconds throughout the world due to suicide-related behaviors. Suicidal ideation is a strong precursor to suicide completion. It is one of the major health challenges faced by the world today thus, it is highly substantial. The present study investigated the influence of personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics in predicting suicidal ideation. Using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised and the Big Five Inventory, the degree of suicidal ideation and the associated personality traits were identified. Out of 194 students from the allied health courses, the findings suggest that the college students are at-risk and have passive thoughts about suicide. Using multiple regression analysis, there was an identified significant relationship among the factors associated with suicidal ideation, particularly the number of persons in the household, living arrangement, attendance in church activities, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Findings can help in the development of campus-based suicide prevention programs.
The Level of Stress and Coping Stress Strategies of Young People with Profound Hearing Impairment
This article is focused on the issues of stress and coping with the stress of young people with profound hearing loss. Perceptional disorders, especially visual or hearing defects, are the reason of homeostasis dysfunction. Biopsychological development can become poor. A substitute reality is formed as a result of compensatory activities of other senses. The hearing disorder itself is a stress-inducing factor, affecting the quality of human functioning. In addition, the limitations of perceptual capabilities in the context of the functioning environment can contribute to increasing the amount of stressors, as well as the specific sensitivity to the stressors, and the use of specific strategies to overcome the difficulties. The appropriate study was conducted on a sample of 92 students, aged 16 -19 years old, 43 females, 49 males. For diagnostic purposes, the standardized psychological' research tools were used. The level of the stress and the strategies of coping with the stress were evaluated. The results of the research indicate that level of the stress is indifferent. The most frequently chosen strategies for coping with the stress in the sample are concentrated on 1) acceptation, 2) 'doing something different', 3) searching of emotional supporting, 4) searching of instrumental supporting, and the factors (grouped items) of coping with the stress are concentrated on 1) searching of support, 2) acceptance. The relationships in both male and female research groups were specified. Also the relationships between the highlighted variables were determined.