Hope as a Predictor for Complicated Grief and Anxiety: A Bayesian Structural Equational Modeling Study
Bereavement is recognized as a universal challenging experience. It is important to gather research evidence on protective factors in bereavement. Hope is considered as one of the protective factors in previous coping studies. The present study aims to add knowledge by investigating hope at the first month after death to predict psychological symptoms altogether including complicated grief (CG), anxiety, and depressive symptoms at the seventh month. The data were collected via one-on-one interview survey in a longitudinal project with Hong Kong hospice users (sample size 105). Most participants were at their middle age (49-year-old on average), female (72%), with no religious affiliation (58%). Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM) analysis was conducted on the longitudinal dataset. The BSEM findings show that hope at the first month of bereavement negatively predicts both CG and anxiety symptoms at the seventh month but not for depressive symptoms. Age and gender are controlled in the model. The overall model fit is good. The current study findings suggest assessing hope at the first month of bereavement. Hope at the first month after the loss is identified as an excellent predictor for complicated grief and anxiety symptoms at the seventh month. The result from this sample is clear, so it encourages cross-cultural research on replicated modeling and development of further clinical application. Particularly, practical consideration for early intervention to increase the level of hope has the potential to reduce the psychological symptoms and thus to improve the bereaved persons’ wellbeing in the long run.
Developing Faith and Vocation in Professional and Cultural Contexts
During the past decades, the faith development theory (FDT) of James Fowler has been strongly debated. It refers to a in-depth understanding of the conceptualisation of God, human core values, meanings and beliefs across the life span. It also touches on the idea of vocation. Research has highlighted that the exploration of faith development has hardly been researched from in-depth qualitative, autobiographical perspectives and within specific cultural and professional contexts. The aim of this autobiographical study is to explore the FDT in the context of the self and the development within changing cultural and professional contexts. In a broader sense, the study contributes to the exploration of how particular aspects of a selected life are remembered and (re-)constructed. The study is methodologically anchored in Dilthey's modern hermeneutics and uses a autoethnographic, reflexive study approach of a single case to increase in-depth knowledge on FDT within a specific changing cultural and professional context. Qualitative quality criteria and ethical considerations are applied. Findings show that FD and vocation are associated with the cultural and professional context of the subject. This subject is informed by the contextual environment and informs it vice versa through her faith development. Faith, vocation, the cultural and the professional context are interlinked and this autobiographical study explores the interlinking elements through Fowler's FDT. Findings show further that faith development and vocation serve a salutogenetic resources at work when consciously (re-)constructed and transformed into a fit with the professional and cultural embeddedness. Conclusions on how to develop faith and vocation in specific contexts are drawn and the influence of the cultural and professional context is explored. Recommendations for future research and applied psychological practice are given.
Emotional Awareness and Working Memory as Predictive factors for the Habitual Use of
Cognitive Reappraisal among Adolescents
Background: Cognitive reappraisal refers to an emotion regulation strategy in which one changes the interpretation of emotion-eliciting events. Numerous studies show that cognitive reappraisal is associated with mental health and better social functioning. However the examination of the predictive factors of adaptive emotion regulation remains as an issue. The present study examined the factors contributing to the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal, with a focus on emotional awareness and working memory. Methods: Data was collected from 30 junior high school students, using a Japanese version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale for Children (LEAS-C), and N-back task. Results: A positive correlation between emotional awareness and cognitive reappraisal was observed in the high-working-memory group (r = .54, p < .05), whereas no significant relationship was found in the low-working-memory group. In addition, the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant interaction between emotional awareness and working memory capacity (F(1, 26) = 7.74, p < .05). Subsequent analysis of simple main effects confirmed that high working memory capacity significantly increases the use of cognitive reappraisal for high-emotional-awareness subjects, and significantly decreases the use of cognitive reappraisal for low-emotional-awareness subjects. Discussion: These results indicate that under the condition when one has an adequate ability for simultaneous processing of information, explicit understanding of emotion would contribute to adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. The findings are discussed along with neuroscientific claims.
Evaluation of the Curricular Content Domain Related to Topics of Human Sexuality in Teachers of Public Elementary Schools
The transformation of education in Mexico incorporates human sexuality subjects in its study plans for elementary education level, leaving aside the training of teachers to educate on such topics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the curricular content domain related to human sexuality subjects of public elementary school teachers in Mexico. For this, a transversal descriptive-prospective study with a quantitative focus has been conducted. The population for this study consisted of 109 fifth and sixth-grade teachers from a school zone of the State Education System. It was found in the results that fifth-grade teachers got a low achievement level, sixth-grade teachers got a medium achievement level, while teachers who give classes on both grades obtained a high achievement level on domain of curricular subjects related to sexuality. Likewise, a relation of different variables with the participant’s achievement level is exposed.
The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention
Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.
A Qualitative Investigation in the Development of Sense of Coherence in Systemic Family Therapy Trainees
he study investigated the work-role of psychosocial flourishing attributes in countering workplace bullying behaviour and turnover intention. A cross-sectional research design was utilised. Data on participants’ perceptions of work-place bullying, turnover intention and psychosocial flourishing were collected from N = 373 employees in various South African organisations. The self-report questionnaires consisted of a section on socio-demographic information and three measuring instruments namely the Negative Act Questionnaire-revised, Flourishing scale, and Turnover Intention Scale. Simple mediation modelling was utilised to determine psychosocial flourishing effects on workplace bullying-turnover intention. The results showed strong perceptions of workplace bullying to be related to high turnover intention with psychosocial flourishing partially explaining lower levels of turnover intent from strong perceptions of workplace bullying. Work-role psychological flourishing might be beneficial to workplace health and psychological safety as well as for reducing unwanted turn-over.
Reappraisal Inventiveness: Impact of Appropriate Brain Activation during Efforts to Generate Alternative Appraisals on Self-Reported Depression
Affective neuroscience shows a growing interest in recording brain activation patterns while individuals undergo affective challenges in order to identify indicators of both adaptive and maladaptive emotional responding. In this regard, the impact of assumedly appropriate brain activation during an emotion regulation task on individuals’ psychological well-being is of considerable importance. In the present study, EEG was recorded from eighty participants while they generated cognitive reappraisals for self-relevant, negative events. In line with the capability model of frontal EEG alpha asymmetry, the obtained prefrontal activity was then correlated with participant’s self-reported depression over the past week. As a result, individuals showing less left-lateralized brain activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive reappraisal efforts reported experiencing a greater amount of depressive symptoms. This effect was independent from self-efficacy beliefs in managing negative emotions. These findings underline the practical relevance of individual differences in appropriate brain activation during emotion regulation efforts and the assumedly related basic capacity for the generation of cognitive reappraisals to depressive experience in daily life.
The Psychosis Prodrome: Biomarkers of the Glutamatergic System and their Potential Role in Prediction and Treatment
The concept of the psychosis prodrome has allowed for the identification of adolescent and young adult patients who have a significantly elevated risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A number of different interventions have been tested in order to prevent or delay progression of symptoms. To date, there has been no consistent meta-analytical evidence to support efficacy of antipsychotic treatment for patients in the prodromal state, and their use remains therefore inconclusive. Although antipsychotics may manage symptoms transiently, they have not been found to prevent or delay onset of psychotic disorders. Furthermore, pharmacological intervention in high-risk individuals remains controversial, because of the antipsychotic side effect profile in a population in which only about 20 to 35 percent will eventually convert to psychosis over a two-year period, with even after two years conversion rates not exceeding 30 to 40 percent. This general estimate is additionally problematic, in that it ignores the fact that there is significant variation in individual risk among clinical high-risk cases. The current lack of reliable tests for at-risk patients makes it difficult to justify individual treatment decisions. Preventive treatment should ideally be dictated by an individual’s risk while minimizing potentially harmful medication exposure. This requires more accurate predictive assessments by using valid and accessible prognostic markers. The following will compare prediction and risk modification potential of behavioral biomarkers such as disturbances of basic sense of self and emotion awareness, neurocognitive biomarkers such as attention, working and declarative memory, and neurophysiological biomarkers such as glutamatergic abnormalities and NMDA receptor dysfunction. Identification of robust biomarkers could therefore not only provide more reliable means of psychosis prediction, but also help test and develop new clinical interventions targeted at the prodromal state.
The Mediation of Work-Role Psychosocial Flourishing on Workplace Bullying and Turnover Intention
The study investigated the work-role of psychosocial flourishing attributes in countering workplace bullying behaviour and turnover intention. A cross-sectional research design was utilised. Data on participants’ perceptions of workplace bullying, turnover intention, and psychosocial flourishing were collected from N = 373 employees in various South African organisations. The self-report questionnaires consisted of a section on socio-demographic information and three measuring instruments namely the Negative Act Questionnaire-revised, Flourishing Scale and Turnover Intention Scale. Simple mediation modelling was utilised to determine psychosocial flourishing effects on workplace bullying and turnover intention. The results showed strong perceptions of workplace bullying to be related to high turnover intention with psychosocial flourishing partially explaining lower levels of turnover intent from strong perceptions of workplace bullying. Work-role psychological flourishing might be beneficial to workplace health and psychological safety as well as for reducing unwanted turnover.
Educating Children Who Are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in Southern Africa: Challenges and Triumphs
There is a global move to integrate children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired into regular classrooms with their hearing peers with an inclusive education framework. This paper examines the current education situation for children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in South Africa, Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Qualitative data for this paper was obtained from the author’s experiences working as the Southern African Education Advisor for an international organization funding disability projects. It examines some of the challenges facing these children and their teachers relating to education. Challenges include cultural stigma relating to disability and deafness, a lack of hearing screening and early identification of deafness, schools in rural areas, special schools, specialist teacher training, equipment, understanding of how to implement policy, support, appropriate teaching methodologies, and sign language training and proficiency. On the other hand, in spite of the challenges some teachers are able to provide quality education to children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired. This paper examines both the challenges as well as what teachers are doing to overcome these.
When Psychology Meet Ecology: Cognitive Flexibility for Quarry Rehabilitation
Ecological projects are often faced with reluctance from local communities hosting the project especially when this project involves variation from preset ideas or classical practices. This paper aims at appreciating the contribution of environmental psychology through cognitive flexibility exercises to improve the acceptability of local communities in adopting a more adapted ecological rehabilitation scenario. The study is based on two quarry sites located in Bekaa- Lebanon. Four groups were considered with different levels of involvement, as follows: Group 1; 50h of on-site training over 8 months, Group 2; 2 h of awareness raising session, Group 3; 2 h of flexibility exercises and a control group. The results show that persons who followed flexibility sessions accept comparably the ecological rehabilitation option over the more classical one. This is also the case for the people who followed a more time-demanding on-site training. Another experience was conducted on a third quarry site combining flexibility with awareness-raising. This research confirms that it is possible to reduce resistance to change thanks to an intervention limited in time. This methodological approach could be transferable to other environmental problems involving local communities and changes in preset perceptions.
Impact of Positive Psychology Education and Interventions on Well-Being
Interest in positive psychology is growing due to its emphasis on the assumption that people who are weighed down even by the heaviest psychological burdens care about much more in their lives than just the relief from their pathology. Positive psychology, thus, investigates human strengths and virtues and promotes well-being. Relying on this assumption, positive interventions have been continuously designed to build pleasure and happiness, joy and content, engagement and meaning, hope and optimism, satisfaction and gratitude, spirituality, and various other positive measures of well-being. In line with this model of positive psychology and interventions, this study investigated certain measures of well-being in a group of 45 students enrolled in an 18-week positive psychology course and simultaneously engaged in service-oriented interventions that they chose for themselves based on the course content and individual interests. Students’ well-being was measured at the beginning and end of the course. The well-being indicators included positive automatic thoughts, optimism and hope, satisfaction with life, and spirituality. A paired-samples t-test conducted to evaluate the impact of class content, and service-oriented interventions on students’ scores of well-being indicators indicated statistically significant increase from pre-class to post-class scores, with the effect sizes ranging from η² = .28 for Satisfaction with Life to η² = .43 for Hope. There were also significant gender differences in post-course well-being scores, with females having higher levels of well-being than males, η² = .16. A two-way between groups analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction effect of age by gender on the post-course well-being scores, F (4, 32) = 1.80, p < .05, partial η² = .10, with females in the age group of 56-65 having the highest scores of well-being in comparison to the males in the same age group. Regression analyses indicated that positive automatic thought significantly predicted hope (β = .37) and satisfaction with life (β = .67) in the pre-course analysis. In the post-course regression analysis, spiritual transcendence made a significant contribution to optimism (β = .37), and positive automatic thought made a significant contribution to both hope (β = .46) and satisfaction with life (β = .36). Finally, a significant test between pre-course and post-course regression coefficients indicated that the regression coefficients at pre-course were significantly different from post-course coefficients, suggesting that the positive psychology course and the interventions were helpful in raising the levels of well-being. The overall results suggest a substantial increase in the participants’ well-being scores after engaging in the positive-oriented interventions, implying a need for designing more positive interventions in education to promote well-being.
Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employees Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Tenure
This research examines the effects of positive psychological capital (or PsyCap) on employee’s outcomes (satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation behavior and individual creativity). This study conducted a meta-analysis of articles published in the Republic of Korea. As a result, positive psychological capital has a positive effect on the behavior of employees. Heterogeneity was identified among the studies included in the analysis and the context factors were analyzed; the study proposes contextual factors such as team tenure. The moderating effect of team tenure was not statistically significant. The implications were discussed based on the analysis results.
Gratitude, Forgiveness and Relationship Satisfaction in Dating College Students: A Parallel Multiple Mediator Model
Gratitude is one individual strength that not only facilitates the mental health, but also fosters the relationship satisfaction in the romantic relationship. In terms of moral effect theory and stress-and-coping theory of forgiveness, present study not only investigated the association between grateful disposition and relationship satisfaction, but also explored the mechanism by comprehensively examining the potential mediating roles of three profiles of forgiveness (trait forgivingness, decisional forgiveness, emotional forgiveness), another character strength that highly related to the gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct the multiple mediator model with a sample of 103 Chinese college students in dating relationship (39 male students and 64 female students, Mage = 19.41, SD = 1.34). Findings displayed that both gratitude and relationship satisfaction positively correlated with decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness. Emotional forgiveness was the only mediator, and it completely mediated the relationship between gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Gratitude was helpful in enhancing individuals’ perception of satisfaction in romantic relationship through replacing negative emotions toward partners with positive ones after transgression in daily life. It highlighted the function of emotional forgiveness in personal healing and peaceful state, which is important to the perception of satisfaction in relationship. Findings not only suggested gratitude could provide a stability for forgiveness, but also the mechanism of prosocial responses or positive psychological processes on relationship satisfaction. The significant roles of gratitude and emotional forgiveness could be emphasized in the intervention working on the romantic relationship development or reconciliation.
Effects of an Envious Experience on Schadenfreude and Economic Decisions Making
Social emotions are physiological, cognitive and behavioral phenomenon that intervene in the mechanisms of adaptation of individuals and their context. These are mediated by interpersonal relationship and language. Such emotions are subdivided into moral and comparison. The present research emphasizes two comparative emotions: Envy and Schadenfreude. Envy arises when a person lack of quality, possessions or achievements and these are superior in someone else. The Schadenfreude (SC) expresses the pleasure that someone experienced by the misfortune of the other. The relationship between both emotions has been questioned before. Hence there are reports showing that envy increases and modulates SC response. Other documents suggest that envy causes SC response. However, the methodological approach of the topic has been made through self-reports, as well as the hypothetical scenarios. Given this problematic, the neuroscience social framework provides an alternative and demonstrates that social emotions have neurophysiological correlates that can be measured. This is relevant when studying social emotions that are reprehensible like envy or SC are. When tested, the individuals tend to report low ratings due to social desirability. In this study, it was drawn up a proposal in research's protocol and the progress on its own piloting. The aim is to evaluate the effect of feeling envy and Schadenfreude has on the decision-making process, as well as the cooperative behavior in an economic game. To such a degree, it was proposed an experimental model that will provoke to feel envious by performing games against an unknown opponent. The game consists of asking general knowledge questions. The difficulty level in questions and the strangers' facial response have been manipulated in order to generate an ecological comparison framework and be able to arise both envy and SC emotions. During the game, an electromyography registry will be made for two facial muscles that have been associated with the expressiveness of envy and SC emotions. One of the innovations of the current proposal is the measurement of the effect that emotions have on a specific behavior. To that extent, it was evaluated the effect of each condition on the dictators' economic game. The main intention is to evaluate if a social emotion can modulate actions that have been associated with social norms, in the literacy. The result of the evaluation of a pilot model (without electromyography record and self-report) have shown an association between envy and SC, in a way that as the individuals report a greater sense of envy, the greater the chance to experience SC. The results of the economic game show a slight tendency towards profit maximization decisions. It is expected that at the time of using real cash this behavior will be strengthened and also to correlate with the responses of electromyography.
Counseling Field Issues in Developing Countries: A Case Example of Turkey
Counselling in Turkey has followed the developments in the United States since it was established. There is a strong influence of American counselling system on Turkey in counselling field. This following structure contains advantages as well as disadvantages. Therefore, professional development in Turkish counselling has experienced intermittent improvements and regressions. On the one hand, there is a strong growth in the quantity of counselling programs and counsellors and greater availability of counselling to Turkish citizens. On the other hand, evolution of qualifications needed to become a professional counsellor. Hence, the current status of counselling in Turkey reached a point that requires unique structural improvements in the counselling practice, counsellor education, and counselling approaches. This study summarized review of the Turkish counselling literature and discuss the future of counselling in Turkey by presenting (a) developments and current status of Turkish counselling system, which represent similar outcomes with other developing countries, (b) the needs of counselling profession and counsellor education, and (c) what we can change and what we cannot; therefore, canalizing counsellor educators’ (gatekeepers of the profession) energy in a useful way.
The Relationships between Parents Expectation and Test Anxiety
Parents’ expectation on their children influences several dynamics on their academic lives: (a) student motivation, (b) student academic self-efficacy, (c) parental involvement, and (d) teachers’ evaluation and expectations. Furthermore, parents are one of the most significant supporter for the children before, during, and after important exams. Turkish educational system includes several exams, and outcomes of these exams are very important for further grades. At the 8th grade, all students take an exam (TEOG) and students are placed on schools based on their exam scores. This exam is important for parents because they prefer to send their children to successful schools. Even private schools accept students in order to TEOG results. Naturally, students’ anxiety increases as well as parents and teachers’. In this study, we investigate connection between parents’ and teachers’ expectation, and students’ anxiety level of TEOG exam. This quantitative study investigated 300 eighth grade students’ test anxiety level and their view of their parents’, teachers’, and themselves’ expectations of them. We used Test Anxiety Inventory and demographic questionnaire, which also includes parents’ and teachers’ expectation from children. T- test was used to analyse data. Results showed parents’ and teachers’ expectations increases the test anxiety, but students’ own expectation do not influence on their own anxiety. Suggestions and future limitations are provided in the study.
Arguments against Innateness of Theory of Mind
The nativist-constructivist debate constitutes a considerable part of current research on mindreading. Peter Carruthers and his colleagues are known for their nativist position in the debate and take issue with constructivist views proposed by other researchers, with Henry Wellman, Alison Gopnik, and Ian Apperly at the forefront. More specifically, Carruthers together with Evan Westra propose a nativistic explanation of Theory of Mind Scale study results that Wellman et al. see as supporting constructivism. While allowing for development of the innate mindreading system, Westra and Carruthers base their argumentation essentially on a competence-performance gap, claiming that cross-cultural differences in Theory of Mind Scale progression as well as discrepancies between infants’ and toddlers’ results on verbal and non-verbal false-belief tasks are fully explainable in terms of acquisition of other, pragmatic, cognitive developments, which are said to allow for an expression of the innately present Theory of Mind understanding. The goal of the present paper is to bring together arguments against the view offered by Westra and Carruthers. It will be shown that even though Carruthers et al.’s interpretation has not been directly controlled for in Wellman et al.’s experiments, there are serious reasons to dismiss such nativistic views which Carruthers et al. advance. The present paper discusses the following issues that undermine Carruthers et al.’s nativistic conception: (1) The concept of innateness is argued to be developmentally inaccurate; it has been dropped in many biological sciences altogether and many developmental psychologists advocate for doing the same in cognitive psychology. Reality of development is a complex interaction of changing elements that is belied by the simplistic notion of ‘the innate.’ (2) The purported innate mindreading conceptual system posited by Carruthers ascribes adult-like understanding to infants, ignoring the difference between first- and second-order understanding, between what can be called ‘presentation’ and ‘representation.’ (3) Advances in neurobiology speak strongly against any inborn conceptual knowledge; neocortex, where conceptual knowledge finds its correlates, is said to be largely equipotential at birth. (4) Carruthers et al.’s interpretations are excessively charitable; they extend results of studies done with 15-month-olds to conclusions about innateness, whereas in reality at that age there has been plenty of time for construction of the skill. (5) Looking-time experiment paradigm used in non-verbal false belief tasks that provide the main support for Carruthers’ argumentation has been criticized on methodological grounds. In the light of the presented arguments, nativism in theory of mind research is concluded to be an untenable position.
Intensive Neurophysiological Rehabilitation System: New Approach for Treatment of Children with Autism
Introduction: Rehabilitation of children with Autism is the issue of the day in psychiatry and neurology. It is attributed to constantly increasing quantity of autistic children - Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Existing rehabilitation approaches in treatment of children with Autism improve their medico- social and social- psychological adjustment. Experience of treatment for different kinds of Autistic disorders in International Clinic of Rehabilitation (ICR) reveals the necessity of complex intensive approach for healing this malady and wider implementation of a Kozyavkin method for treatment of children with ASD. Methods: 19 children aged from 3 to 14 years were examined. They were diagnosed ‘Autism’ (F84.0) with comorbid neurological pathology (from pyramidal insufficiency to para- and tetraplegia). All patients underwent rehabilitation in ICR during two weeks, where INRS approach was used. INRS included methods like biomechanical correction of the spine, massage, physical therapy, joint mobilization, wax-paraffin applications. They were supplemented by art- therapy, ergotherapy, rhythmical group exercises, computer game therapy, team Olympic games and other methods for improvement of motivation and social integration of the child. Estimation of efficacy was conducted using parent’s questioning and done twice- on the onset of INRS rehabilitation course and two weeks afterward. For efficacy assessment of rehabilitation of autistic children in ICR standardized tool was used, namely Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). This scale was selected because any rehabilitation approaches for the child with Autism can be assessed using it. Results: Before the onset of INRS treatment mean score according to ATEC scale was 64,75±9,23, it reveals occurrence in examined children severe communication, speech, socialization and behavioral impairments. After the end of the rehabilitation course, the mean score was 56,5±6,7, what indicates positive dynamics in comparison to the onset of rehabilitation. Generally, improvement of psychoemotional state occurred in 90% of cases. Most significant changes occurred in the scope of speech (16,5 before and 14,5 after the treatment), socialization (15.1 before and 12,5 after) and behavior (20,1 before and 17.4 after). Conclusion: As a result of INRS rehabilitation course reduction of autistic symptoms was noted. Particularly improvements in speech were observed (children began to spell out new syllables, words), there was some decrease in signs of destructiveness, quality of contact with the surrounding people improved, new skills of self-service appeared. The prospect of the study is further, according to evidence- based medicine standards, deeper examination of INRS and assessment of its usefulness in treatment for Autism and ASD.
An Exploratory Study of Effects of Parenting Styles on Maternal Expectation and Perception of Compliance among Adolescents
This study explored the contribution of parenting styles in the Maternal Perception of Compliance Model (MPCM). This model explores maternal expectations to illustrate the formation of maternal perception of severity of noncompliance in adolescent children. The methodology consisted of three stages: In the first stage, a focus group was held, and the data was analysed to fine-tune the interview schedule. In the second stage, a single interview was held, and the interview schedule was further modified. The third and the final stage consisted of interviewing six mothers who had adolescent children. They were chosen with ‘maximum variation’ approach to represent three tiered socioeconomic statuses, and Asian, white and black ethnicities. The data was thematically analysed in a hybrid fashion: inductive coding and deductive assignment of codes into discrete parenting styles. The study found: a) parenting styles are not always discrete and sometimes it can be mixed. b) The parenting styles are influenced by culture, socioeconomic status, transgenerational knowledge, academic knowledge, observational knowledge, self-reflective knowledge, and parental anxiety. c) The parenting style functioned a mediating mechanism where it attempted to converge discrepancies between parental expectations of compliance with maternal perception of severity of noncompliance. The findings of parenting styles were discussed in relation to MPCM.
Envy and Schadenfreude Domains in a Model of Neurodegeneration
The study of moral emotions (i.e., Schadenfreude and envy) is critical to understand the ecological complexity of everyday interactions between cognitive, affective, and social cognition processes. Most previous studies in this area have used correlational imaging techniques and framed Schadenfreude and envy as monolithic domains. Here, we profit from a relevant neurodegeneration model to disentangle the brain regions engaged in three dimensions of Schadenfreude and envy: deservingness, morality, and legality. We tested 20 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 24 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as a contrastive neurodegeneration model, and 20 healthy controls on a novel task highlighting each of these dimensions in scenarios eliciting Schadenfreude and envy. Compared with the AD and control groups, bvFTD patients obtained significantly higher scores on all dimensions for both emotions. Interestingly, the legal dimension for both envy and Schadenfreude elicited higher emotional scores than the deservingness and moral dimensions. Furthermore, correlational analyses in bvFTD showed that higher envy and Schadenfreude scores were associated with greater deficits in social cognition, inhibitory control, and behavior. Brain anatomy findings (restricted to bvFTD and controls) confirmed differences in how these groups process each dimension. Schadenfreude was associated with the ventral striatum in all subjects. Also, in bvFTD patients, increased Schadenfreude across dimensions was negatively correlated with regions supporting social-value rewards, mentalizing, and social cognition (frontal pole, temporal pole, angular gyrus and precuneus). In all subjects, all dimensions of envy positively correlated with the volume of the anterior cingulate cortex, a region involved in processing unfair social comparisons. By contrast, in bvFTD patients, the intensified experience of envy across all dimensions was negatively correlated with a set of areas subserving social cognition, including the prefrontal cortex, the parahippocampus, and the amygdala. Together, the present results provide the first lesion-based evidence for the multidimensional nature of the emotional experiences of envy and Schadenfreude. Moreover, this is the first demonstration of a selective exacerbation of envy and Schadenfreude in bvFTD patients, probably triggered by atrophy to social cognition networks. Our results offer new insights into the mechanisms subserving complex emotions and moral cognition in neurodegeneration, paving the way for groundbreaking research on their interaction with other cognitive, social, and emotional processes.
Neural Correlates of Attention Bias to Threat during the Emotional Stroop Task in Schizophrenia
Background: Attention bias to threat play a role in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of delusional beliefs in schizophrenia in which patients emphasize the threatening characteristics of stimuli and prioritise them for processing. Cognitive control deficits arise when task-irrelevant emotional information elicits attentional bias and obstruct optimal performance. This study is investigating neural correlates of interference effect of linguistic threat and whether these effects are independent of delusional severity. Methods: Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neural correlates of interference effect of linguistic threat during the emotional Stroop task were investigated and compared patients with schizophrenia with high (N=17) and low (N=16) paranoid symptoms and healthy controls (N=20). Participants were instructed to identify the font colour of each word presented on the screen as quickly and accurately as possible. Stimuli types vary between threat-relevant, positive and neutral words. Results: Group differences in whole brain effects indicate decreased amygdala activity in patients with high paranoid symptoms compared with low paranoid patients and healthy controls. Regions of interest analysis (ROI) validated our results within the amygdala and investigated changes within the striatum showing a pattern of reduced activation within the clinical group compared to healthy controls. Delusional severity was associated with significant decreased neural activity in the striatum within the clinical group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the emotional interference mediated by the amygdala and striatum may reduce responsiveness to threat-related stimuli in schizophrenia and that attenuation of fMRI Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal within these areas might be influenced by the severity of delusional symptoms.
Visibility as a Catalyst for Driving LGBT-Inclusive Growth in India: Rethinking the Diversity and Inclusion Model
This paper critically examines the role of ‘disclosure and visibility’ of sexual minorities in a heteronormative organizational setting. The paper wishes to comment on the importance of promoting ‘visibility’ as an important catalyst in increasing the efficacy of outreach programs as part of diversity management practices as well as increasing the efficacy of teams. The aim of the research is to assess the pitfalls of not bringing ‘one’s authentic or whole self’ to work. In doing so, it will address whether Inclusive Leadership at the top propels employees to come out. The paper finally discusses and recommends strategies that could be helpful toward attaining and improving the visibility factor at a cross-functional level. This is a qualitative research with interviews and surveys conducted in inclusive workplace environments across various private sector companies in India.
Increased Envy and Schadenfreude in Parents of Newborns
, Hernando Santamaría-García
, Mateo Bernal
, Mario Valderrama
, Daniela Lizarazo
, Juliana Restrepo
, María Fernanda Barreto
, Angélica Parra
, Paula Torres
, Diana Matallana
, Jaime Silva
, José Santamaría-García
, Sandra Baez
Higher levels of oxytocin are associated with better performance on social cognition tasks. However, higher levels of oxytocin have also been associated with increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. Considering these antecedents, this study aims to explore social emotions (i.e., envy and schadenfreude) and other components of social cognition (i.e. ToM and empathy), in women in the puerperal period and their respective partners, compared to a control group of men and women without children or partners. Control women should be in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or taking oral contraceptives as they allow oxytocin levels to remain stable. We selected this population since increased levels of oxytocin are present in both mothers and fathers of newborn babies. Both groups were matched by age, sex, and education level. Twenty-two parents of newborns (11 women, 11 men) and 15 controls (8 women, 7 men) performed an experimental task designed to trigger schadenfreude and envy. In this task, each participant was shown a real-life photograph and a description of two target characters matched in age and gender with the participant. The task comprised two experimental blocks. In the first block, participants read 15 sentences describing fortunate events involving either character. After reading each sentence, participants rated the event in terms of how much envy they felt for the character (1=no envy, 9=extreme envy). In the second block, participants read and reported the intensity of their pleasure (schadenfreude, 1=no pleasure, 9=extreme pleasure) in response to 15 unfortunate events happening to the characters. Five neutral events were included in each block. Moreover, participants were assessed with ToM and empathy tests. Potential confounding variables such as general cognitive functioning, stress levels, hours of sleep and depression symptoms were also measured. Results showed that parents of newborns showed increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. These effects are not explained by any confounding factor. Moreover, no significant differences were found in ToM or empathy tests. Our results offer unprecedented evidence of specific differences in envy and schadenfreude levels in parents of newborns. Our findings support previous studies showing a negative relationship between oxytocin levels and negative social emotions. Further studies should assess the direct relationship between oxytocin levels in parents of newborns and the performance in social emotions tasks.
Moral Decision-Making in the Criminal Justice System: The Influence of Gruesome Descriptions
It has been shown that gruesome descriptions of harm can increase the punishment given to a transgressor. This biasing effect is mediated by negative emotions, which are elicited upon the presentation of gruesome descriptions. However, there is a lack of studies inquiring the influence of such descriptions on moral decision-making in people involved in the criminal justice system. Such populations are of special interest since they have experience dealing with gruesome evidence, but also formal education on how to assess evidence and gauge the appropriate punishment according to the law. Likewise, they are expected to be objective and rational when performing their duty, because their decisions can impact profoundly people`s lives. Considering these antecedents, the objective of this study was to explore the influence gruesome written descriptions on moral decision-making in this group of people. To that end, we recruited attorneys, judges and public prosecutors (Criminal justice group, CJ, n=30) whose field of specialty is criminal law. In addition, we included a control group of people who did not have a formal education in law (n=30), but who were paired in age and years of education with the CJ group. All participants completed an online, Spanish-adapted version of a moral decision-making task, which was previously reported in the literature and also standardized and validated in the Latin-American context. A series of text-based stories describing two characters, one inflicting harm on the other, were presented to participants. Transgressor's intentionality (accidental vs. intentional harm) and language (gruesome vs. plain) used to describe harm were manipulated employing a within-subjects and a between-subjects design, respectively. After reading each story, participants were asked to rate (a) the harmful action's moral adequacy, (b) the amount of punishment deserving the transgressor and (c) how damaging was his behavior. Results showed main effects of group, intentionality and type of language on all dependent measures. In both groups, intentional harmful actions were rated as significantly less morally adequate, were punished more severely and were deemed as more damaging. Moreover, control subjects deemed more damaging and punished more severely any type of action than the CJ group. In addition, there was an interaction between intentionality and group. People in the control group rated harmful actions as less morally adequate than the CJ group, but only when the action was accidental. Also, there was an interaction between intentionality and language on punishment ratings. Controls punished more when harm was described using gruesome language. However, that was not the case of people in the CJ group, who assigned the same amount of punishment in both conditions. In conclusion, participants with job experience in the criminal justice system or criminal law differ in the way they make moral decisions. Particularly, it seems that they are less sensitive to the biasing effect of gruesome evidence, which is probably explained by their formal education or their experience in dealing with such evidence. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to determine the impact this phenomenon has on the fulfillment of their duty.
Human Resource Practices and Employee Performance: The Mediating Role of Well-Being
Despite growing evidence of the existence of trade-offs between HR practices, employee well-being, and employee performance, the question remains how different dimensions of HR practices are associated with different types of employee well-being and different types of employee performance. The present study examines the associations between skill, motivation, and opportunity enhancing dimensions of HR practices and in-role and innovative job performance. It further considers the mediating effects of psychological, physical, and social employee well-being between these associations. Using data obtained from multiple sources, the results indicate that whereas physical and social employee well-being partially mediates the associations between skill- and opportunity-enhancing HR practices and in-role job performance, psychological employee well-being partially mediates the association between motivation-enhancing HR practices and innovative job performance. Our findings do not support the notion of trade-offs between HR practices, employee well-being, and employee performance, but rather advocate that employee well-being and employee performance can be parallel outcomes of HR practices.
The Effect of Object Presentation on Action Memory in School-Aged Children
Enacted tasks are typically remembered better than when the same task materials are only verbally encoded, a robust finding referred to as the enactment effect. It has been assumed that enactment effect is independent of object presence but the size of enactment effect can be increased by providing objects at study phase in adults. To clarify the issues in children, free recall and cued recall performance of action phrases with or without using real objects were compared in 410 school-aged children from four age groups (8, 10, 12 and 14 years old). In this study, subjects were instructed to learn a series of action phrases under three encoding conditions, participants listened to verbal action phrases (VTs), performed the phrases (SPTs: subject-performed tasks), and observed the experimenter perform the phrases (EPTs: experimenter-performed tasks). Then, free recall and cued recall memory tests were administrated. The results revealed that the real object compared with imaginary objects improved recall performance in SPTs and EPTs, but more so in VTs. It was also found that the object presence was not necessary for the occurrence of the enactment effect but it was changed the size of enactment effect in all age groups. The size of enactment effect was more pronounced for imaginary objects than the real object in both free recall and cued recall memory tests in children. It was discussed that SPTs and EPTs deferentially facilitate item-specific and relation information processing and providing the objects can moderate the processing underlying the encoding conditions.
Patient Perspectives of a Long and Shorter Community Mental Health Program
Background: In Alberta, Canada, Primary Care Networks (PCNs) are groups of doctors and other health providers working together to provide primary care to patients. A prominent PCN challenge is to address the rising prevalence of chronic disease and mental health issues. The development of the 7-week Alberta Happiness Basics program in 2010 was in response to the need for community mental health programming. This provincial wide program aims to increase overall happiness and reduce negative thoughts and feelings through a cognitive-behavioral intervention. While the 7-week program has proven effective, a shortened 4-week program has additionally been developed. Aim: This paper compares primarily qualitative information from patients that participated in a 4- or 7-week version of the program. The information was used to evaluate and improve the program from a patient perspective. Methods: In this study, 51 program participants were interviewed to determine if the 4- and 7-week programs had similar success of producing lasting behavior change at 3, 6, and 9 months post-program. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic coding of interview guided constructs. Results: The participant’s perspective of the shorter program demonstrated similar integration of skills into daily life and benefits of social interaction that the 7-week program noted; however, a preference for the longer program length was identified through interviews with participants. The shorter program enhanced motivation to initiate behavior change and appealed to larger numbers of participants which is an important step in the behavior change process. Conclusion: The results of a qualitative theme analysis found both programs showed sustainable behavior change. The findings suggest a short-term behavioral intervention in primary care was effective in creating behavior change to address challenges to mental wellness.
Structural Correlates of Reduced Malicious Pleasure in Huntington's Disease
Schadenfreude refers to the perceiver’s experience of pleasure at another’s misfortune. This is a multidetermined emotion which can be evoked by hostile feelings and envy. The experience of Schadenfreude engages mechanisms implicated in diverse social cognitive processes. For instance, Schadenfreude involves heightened reward processing, accompanied by increased striatal engagement and it interacts with mentalizing and perspective-taking abilities. Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit reductions of Schadenfreude experience, suggesting a role of striatal degeneration in such an impairment. However, no study has directly assessed the relationship between regional brain atrophy in HD and reduced Schadenfreude. This study investigated whether gray matter (GM) atrophy in HD patients correlates with ratings of Schadenfreude. First, we compared the performance of 20 HD patients and 23 controls on an experimental task designed to trigger Schadenfreude and envy (another social emotion acting as a control condition). Second, we compared GM volume between groups. Third, we examined brain regions where atrophy might be associated with specific impairments in the patients. Results showed that while both groups showed similar ratings of envy, HD patients reported lower Schadenfreude. The latter pattern was related to atrophy in regions of the reward system (ventral striatum) and the mentalizing network (precuneus and superior parietal lobule). Our results shed light on the intertwining of reward and socioemotional processes in Schadenfreude, while offering novel evidence about their neural correlates. In addition, our results open the door to future studies investigating social emotion processing in other clinical populations characterized by striatal or mentalizing network impairments (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders).
Decrease in Olfactory Cortex Volume and Alterations in Caspase Expression in the Olfactory Bulb in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease
, Melissa Lessard-Beaudoin
, Amel Loudghi
, Raphael Chouinard-Watkins
, Melanie Plourde
, Frederic Calon
, C. Alexandre Castellano
, Stephen Cunnane
, Helene Payette
, Pierrette Gaudreau
, Rona K. Graham
Introduction: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Symptoms include memory dysfunction, and also alterations in attention, planning, language and overall cognitive function. Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of several neurological disorders including AD. Studying the mechanisms underlying the olfactory dysfunction may therefore lead to the discovery of potential biomarkers and/or treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Objectives: To determine if olfactory dysfunction predicts future cognitive impairment in the aging population and to characterize the olfactory system in a murine model expressing a genetic factor of AD. Method: For the human study, quantitative olfactory tests (UPSIT and OMT) have been done on 93 subjects (aged 80 to 94 years) from the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge) cohort accepting to participate in the ORCA secondary study. The telephone Modified Mini Mental State examination (t-MMSE) was used to assess cognition levels, and an olfactory self-report was also collected. In a separate cohort, olfactory cortical volume was calculated using MRI results from healthy old adults (n=25) and patients with AD (n=18) using the AAL single-subject atlas and performed with the PNEURO tool (PMOD 3.7). For the murine study, we are using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Result: Human Study: Based on the self-report, 81% of the participants claimed to not suffer from any problem with olfaction. However, based on the UPSIT, 94% of those subjects showed a poor olfactory performance and different forms of microsmia. Moreover, our results confirm that olfactory function declines with age. We also detected a significant decrease in olfactory cortical volume in AD individuals compared to controls. Murine study: Preliminary data demonstrate there is a significant decrease in expression levels of the proform of caspase-3 and the caspase substrate STK3, in the olfactory bulb of mice expressing human APOE4 compared with controls. In addition, there is a significant decrease in the expression level of the caspase-9 proform and caspase-8 active fragment. Analysis of the mature neuron marker, NeuN, shows decreased expression levels of both isoforms. The data also suggest that Iba-1 immunostaining is increased in the olfactory bulb of APOE4 mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusions: The activation of caspase-3 may be the cause of the decreased levels of STK3 through caspase cleavage and may play role in the inflammation observed. In the clinical study, our results suggest that seniors are unaware of their olfactory function status and therefore it is not sufficient to measure olfaction using the self-report in the elderly. Studying olfactory function and cognitive performance in the aging population will help to discover biomarkers in the early stage of the AD.