Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 42523

Psychological and Behavioral Sciences

The Efficacy of Motivation Management Training for Students' Academic Achievement and Self-Concept
This study examined the efficacy of motivation management training for students’ academic achievement and self-concept. The pretest–posttest quasi-experimental study used a cluster random sampling method to select subjects for the experimental (20 subjects) and control (20 subjects) groups. Posttest was conducted with both groups to determine the effect of the training. An academic achievement and academic self-concept questionnaire (grade point average requirement) was used for the pretest and posttest. The results showed that the motivation management training increased academic self-concept and academic achievement.
Clinician's Perspective of Common Factors of Change in Family Therapy: A Cross-National Exploration
Background: The two psychotherapy camps, the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and the common factors model, have competitively claimed specific explanations for therapy effectiveness. Recently, scholars called for empirical evidence to show the role of common factors in therapeutic outcome in marriage and family therapy. Purpose: This cross-national study aims to explore how clinicians, across different nations and theoretical orientations, attribute the contribution of common factors to therapy outcome. Method: A brief common factors questionnaire (CFQ-with a Cronbach’s Alpha, 0.77) was developed and administered in seven nations. A series of statistical analyses (paired-samples t-test, independent sample t-test, ANOVA) were conducted: to compare clinicians perceived contribution of total common factors versus model-specific factors, to compare each pair of common factors’ categories, and to compare clinicians from collectivistic nations versus clinicians from individualistic nation. Results: Clinicians across seven nations attributed 86% to common factors versus 14% to model-specific factors. Clinicians attributed 34% of therapeutic change to client’s factors, 26% to therapist’s factors, 26% to relationship factors, and 14% to model-specific techniques. The ANOVA test indicated each of the three categories of common factors (client 34%, therapist 26%, relationship 26%) showed higher contribution in therapeutic outcome than the category of model specific factors (techniques 14%). Clinicians with psychology degree attributed more contribution to model-specific factors than clinicians with MFT and counseling degrees who attributed more contribution to client factors. Clinicians from collectivistic nations attributed larger contributions to therapist’s factors (M=28.96, SD=12.75) than the US clinicians (M=23.22, SD=7.73). The US clinicians attributed a larger contribution to client’s factors (M=39.02, SD=1504) than clinicians from the collectivistic nations (M=28.71, SD=15.74). Conclusion: The findings indicate clinicians across the globe attributed more than two thirds of therapeutic change to CFs, which emphasize the training of the common factors model in the field. CFs, like model-specific factors, vary in their contribution to therapy outcome in relation to specific client, therapist, problem, treatment model, and sociocultural context. Sociocultural expectations and norms should be considered as a context in which both CFs and model-specific factors function toward therapeutic goals. Clinicians need to foster a cultural competency specifically regarding the divergent ways that CFs can be activated due to specific sociocultural values.
Prevalence and Effect of Substance Use and Psychological Co-Morbidities in Medical and Dental Students of a Medical University of Nepal
Background: Medical and Dental students are vulnerable to higher levels of Psychological distress than other age matched peers. Many studies reveals that there is high prevalence of psychoactive substance use and Psychiatric co-morbidities among them. Objectives: -To study the prevalence of substance use among medical and dental students of a Medical University. -To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in medical and dental students of a Medical University. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in which simple random sampling was done. Semi-structured questionnaire, AUDIT for alcohol use, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine dependence, Cannabis screening test (CAST), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used for the assessment. Results: Total sample size was 588 in which the mean age of participants was 22±2years. Among them the prevalence of alcohol users was 47.75%(281) in which 32%(90) were harmful users. Among 19.55%(115) nicotine users 56.5%(65), 37.4%(43), 6.1%(7) had low, low to moderate and moderate dependence respectively. The prevalence of cannabis users was 9%(53) with 45.3%(24), 18.9%(10) having low and high addiction respectively. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 25.3%(149) out of which 12.6%(74), 6.5%(38), 5.3%(31), 0.5%(3), 0.5%(3) had mild, borderline, moderate, severe and extreme depressive symptoms respectively. Similarly anxiety was recorded among 7.8%(46) students with 42 having moderate and 4 having severe anxiety symptoms. Among them 6.3%(37) had suicidal thoughts and 4(0.7%) of them had suicide attempt in last one year. Statistically significant association was noted with harmful alcohol users, Depression and suicidal attempts. Similar association was noted between Depression and suicide with moderate use of nicotine. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Psychoactive substance use and psychiatric co-morbidities noted in the studies sample. Statistically significant association was noted with Psychiatric co-morbidities and substance use.
Neuroprotective Effects of Rosmarinic Acid in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural acid that is found in a variety of herbs, such as rosemary and has multiple biological activities such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of RA on dopaminergic system in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The mice received oral administration of RA before MPTP injection. Results showed that the tyrosine hydroxylase expression in SN reduced and the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum decreased in MPTP intoxicated PD mice. Pretreatment with RA significantly inhibited these changes. Further studies demonstrated that MPTP treatment increased the iron content, which was counteracted by pre-treatment with RA. In addition, RA could restore the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) induced by MPTP. This study provides evidence that RA could suppress MPTP-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system by regulating iron content and the expression of SOD. Thus, RA might be clinically evaluated for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.
Autonomy and Other Variables Related to the Expression of Love among Saudi Couples
The primary aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis presented by Self Determination theory which suggests that autonomy impacts positively the expression of love. Other hypotheses were also examined which suggest that other variables explain the expression of love, including: dyadic adjustment (dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction and dyadic cohesion), couple satisfaction, age, gender, the length of marriage, number of children and attachment styles. The participants were Saudi couples, which provided the opportunity to consider the influence of Saudi culture on the expression of love. A questionnaire was employed to obtain measures of all the relevant variables, including a measure of expression of love that was built from 27 items, constituting verbal, physical and caring features, and a measure of autonomy based on three features: authorship, interest-taking and susceptibility. Data were collected from both members of 34 Saudi couples. Descriptive analysis of both expression of love and autonomy was conducted. Correlation and regression were used to assess the relationships between expression of love and autonomy and other variables. Results indicated that Saudi couples who most often express their love tend to be more than somewhat autonomous. Not much difference was found between husbands and wives in expressing love, although wives were slightly more autonomous than husbands. Expression of love was enhanced by the autonomy of the participants to a greater extent when dyadic satisfaction was controlled, since the latter was negatively correlated with autonomy and had no effect on the expression of love. Basic psychological needs, dyadic consensus and dismissive-avoidant attachment improve the expression of love, while it is decreased by the number of children.
Trends in Economy and Employment Outcomes of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
This research aims to provide rehabilitation methodology and service delivery systems improvements, health and functioning improvements, and employment, independent living, family support, and economic and social self-sufficiency promotions for individuals with disabilities.   The statistical data, age, disability, education, employment, income, and other demographic and personal data, behind Trends in Employment Outcomes of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities provides a clear understanding of the critical social issues, developmental disabilities. Due to the fact that these statistical data are only similar within state borders and that the cause of developmental disabilities is different among people, it is difficult to draft a universal standard for everyone.  Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers and other non-profit and community service organizations also influence the statistics of people with developmental disabilities. The resources, at large, are used for those with chronic developmental disabilities, leading to a lack of funding for intellectual and cognitive disabilities. In other words, the distribution of funding is skewed against those of intellectual disabilities, barring them from their chance at living a regular life.
Study on the Role of Positive Emotions in Developmental Psychology
This paper examines the role of positive emotions in human psychology. By understanding Fredrickson and Lyubomirsky et al.’s on positive emotions, one can better understand people’s intuitive understanding, mental health and well-being. Fredrickson asserts that positive emotions create positive affects and personal resources, and Lyubomirsky et al. relate such positive resources to the creation of happiness and personal development. This paper finds that positive emotions play a significant role in the learning process, and they are instrumental in creating a long-lasting repertoire of personal resources and play an essential role in the development of the intuitive understanding of life variables, resilience in coping with life challenges, and ability to build more successful lives.
The Impact of a Model's Skin Tone and One's Ethnic Identification on Consumer Decision Making
SriLanka houses the lingerie product development and manufacturing subsidiary to renowned brands such as La Senza, Marks & Spencer, H & M, Etam, Lane Bryant and George.Over the last few years, they have produced local brands such as Amante to cater to the local and regional customers. Past research has identified factors such as quality, price and design to be vital when marketing lingerie to consumers. However, there has been minimum research that looks into the ethnically targeted market and skin colour within the Asian population. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to identify whether consumer preference for lingerie is influenced by the skin tone of the model wearing it. Moreover, the secondary aim was to investigate if the consumer preference for lingerie is influenced by the consumer’s ethnic identification with the skin tone of the model. An experimental design was used to explore the above aims. The participants constituted of 66 females residing in the western province of Sri Lanka and were gathered via convenience sampling. Six computerised images of a real model were used in the study, and her skin tone was digitally manipulated to express three different skin tones (light, tan and dark). Consumer preferences were measured through a ranking order scale that was constructed via a focus group discussion and ethnic identity was measured by the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised. Wilcoxon Signed- Rank test, Friedman test, and chi-square test of independence were carried out using SPSS version 20. The results indicated that majority of the consumers ethnically identified and preferred the tan skin over the light and dark skin tones. The findings support the existing literature that states there is a preference among consumers when models have a medium skin tone over a lighter skin tone. The preference for a tan skin tone in a model is consistent with the ethnic identification of the Sri Lankan sample. The study implies that lingerie brands should consider the model's skin tones when marketing the brand to different ethnic backgrounds.
Distributed Listening in Intensive Care: Nurses’ Collective Alarm Responses Unravelled through Auditory Spatiotemporal Trajectories
Auditory alarms play an integral role in intensive care nurses’ daily work. Most medical devices in the intensive care unit (ICU) are designed to produce alarm sounds in order to make nurses aware of immediate or prospective safety risks. The utilisation of sound as a carrier of crucial patient information is highly dependent on nurses’ presence - both physically and mentally. For ICU nurses, especially the ones who work with stationary alarm devices at the patient bed space, it is a challenge to display ‘appropriate’ alarm responses at all times as they have to navigate with great flexibility in a complex work environment. While being primarily responsible for a small number of allocated patients they are often required to engage with other nurses’ patients, relatives, and colleagues at different locations inside and outside the unit. This work explores the social strategies used by a team of nurses to comprehend and react to the information conveyed by the alarms in the ICU. Two main research questions guide the study: To what extent do alarms from a patient bed space reach the relevant responsible nurse by direct auditory exposure? By which means do responsible nurses get informed about their patients’ alarms when not directly exposed to the alarms? A comprehensive video-ethnographic field study was carried out to capture and evaluate alarm-related events in an ICU. The study involved close collaboration with four nurses who wore eye-level cameras and ear-level binaural audio recorders during several work shifts. At all time the entire unit was monitored by multiple video and audio recorders. From a data set of hundreds of hours of recorded material information about the nurses’ location, social interaction, and alarm exposure at any point in time was coded in a multi-channel replay-interface. The data shows that responsible nurses’ direct exposure and awareness of the alarms of their allocated patients vary significantly depending on work load, social relationships, and the location of the patient’s bed space. Distributed listening is deliberately employed by the nursing team as a social strategy to respond adequately to alarms, but the patterns of information flow prompted by alarm-related events are not uniform. Auditory Spatiotemporal Trajectory (AST) is proposed as a methodological label to designate the integration of temporal, spatial and auditory load information. As a mixed-method metrics it provides tangible evidence of how nurses’ individual alarm-related experiences differ from one another and from stationary points in the ICU. Furthermore, it is used to demonstrate how alarm-related information reaches the individual nurse through principles of social and distributed cognition, and how that information relates to the actual alarm event. Thereby it bridges a long-standing gap in the literature on medical alarm utilisation between, on the one hand, initiatives to measure objective data of the medical sound environment without consideration for any human experience, and, on the other hand, initiatives to study subjective experiences of the medical sound environment without detailed evidence of the objective characteristics of the environment.
Preference Classification Using the Emotional Affective Model and Frontal Alpha Asymmetry: An Electroencephalography Study
Preference is an instantaneous conscious decision that a person takes numerous times in a single day. Everyday decisions are mostly based on evaluating the suitability of an item in a particular context. In the field of behavioral neuroscience, hemispheric asymmetry is an electrophysiological measure that identifies the reactivity to affectively valenced stimuli. The left frontal regions tend to be more active during the experience of approach related emotions, and the right frontal regions tend to be more active during the experience of withdrawal related emotions. Anterior alpha asymmetry measurements reflect the difference in activity between the left and right hemispheres. This current research evaluates the effectiveness of using emotional affective state reactivity model to classify preference decisions taken by a consumer. Herein, the stimuli consist of different text with a single color, size, and font since these factors would elicit their own specific responses. In this experiment, context information was provided to 24 participants followed by a series of textual content (words) that appears on the display. The participants rated the suitability of the word to the explained context. EEG activity for the entire duration of the experiment is recorded. There are 43 contending words which were categorized into foreign origin words (Example: Allegresse), directly related words (Example: Beans and Cream, Cocobean) and non related words. This suitability/preference decisions were classified with good accuracy across different participants. Three machine learning algorithms viz. Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (67.4%), Gaussian SVM (67.3%), KNN (67.4%) outperformed others when alpha asymmetries were used to generate the feature vectors. This is comparable to the results from earlier research (62% - 84%). The findings can be applied to marketing research scenarios (focus group) to decide on a name of a brand among various competing names and use neuroscience tools to break a tie among preferences. This research can be extended to evaluate and analyze preference decisions for the final product or any other product stimuli. The effect of different properties of the feature of the product (color, font, etc.) on the alpha asymmetry needs further experimentation and research. This would open new frontiers in neuromarketing where the manufacturer can approach the consumer with the best product name. (This research is funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Govt of India under the Cognitive Science Research Initiative [SR/CSRI/50/2014(G)])
Psychosocial Predictors of Brand Loyalty in Pakistani Consumers
The current research focused on determining the factors that determine the brand loyalty in consumers. It was hypothesized that there are certain demographical features that lead the consumers to adhere more towards certain brands. Cross-sectional research design was used. The sample for the current research comprised of participants (N=500) from age group 16 to 55 years. The data was collected through self-constructed demographic questionnaire as well as from a self-constructed Brand Loyalty Questionnaire. Brand Loyalty Questionnaire was adapted after taking permission from researchers. A pilot study was conducted to chalk out all the ambiguities of the questionnaire. The final version was administered on 250 participants. The descriptive and inferential analyses were carried on through SPSS version 24.00 to explore the factors that determine Brand Loyalty. The findings revealed that there is a relationship between brand loyalty and brand loyalty demographics and certain factors emerged as significant predictors of brand loyalty in young and middle aged consumers. The research findings carry strong implications for organizational and consumer psychologists in particular and for professionals in marketing and policy making in general.
The Relationships between Autonomy-Based Insula Activity and Learning: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
Learners’ perceived autonomy predicts learners’ interest, engagement, and learning. To understand these processes, we conducted an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, participants saw the national flag and were asked to rate how much they freely wanted to learn about that particular national flag. The participants then learned the characteristics of the national flag. Results showed that (1) the degree of participants’ perceived autonomy was positively correlated with the degree of insula activity, (2) participants’ early-trial insula activity predicted corresponding late-trial dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity, and (3) the degree of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was positively correlated with the degree of participants’ learning about the characteristics of the national flag. Results suggest that learners’ perceived autonomy predicts learning through the mediation of insula activity associated with intrinsic satisfaction and 'pure self' processes.
Fitness Apparel and Body Cathexis of Women Consumers When and after Using Virtual Fitting Room
The growth of clothing and technology as a marketing tool has a great influence on online business owners to know how much the characteristics and psychology of consumers in influencing purchasing decisions made by Indonesian women consumers. One of the most important issues faced by Indonesian women consumers is the suitability of clothing. The suitability of clothing can affect the body cathexis, identity, and confidence. So the thematic analysis of clothing fitness and body cathexis of women consumers when and after using virtual fitting room technology to purchase decision is important to do. This research using group method of pre-post treatment and considers how the recruitment technique of snowball sampling, which uses interpersonal relations and connections between people, both includes and excludes individuals into 39 participants' social networks to access specific populations. The results obtained from the study that the results of body scans and photos of virtual fitting room results can be made an intervention in women consumers in assessing their body cathexis objectively in the process of making purchasing decisions. The study also obtained a regression equation Y = 0.830 + 0.290X1 + 0.292X2, showing a positive relationship between suitability of clothing and body cathexis which influenced purchasing decisions on women consumers and after (personal and psychological factors) using virtual fitting room, meaning that all independent variables influence Positive towards the purchasing decision of the women consumers.
Use of Circular 'Eyespot' Designs on Guarding and Conflict Items from Papua New Guinea: Evidence for the Use of Deimatic Display in Humans
Eyespots, concentric rings of colour resembling eyes, are commonly found across a range of taxa and are a form of deimatic display for the purpose of predator intimidation. There are visual similarities between some animal eyespots and some designs created by humans for the purpose of protection, such as talismans designed for the protection from the evil eye. As stylised eye designs have been shown to affect human behaviour in several contexts, we hypothesised that functional eye-like designs might have been used in human cultures for protection, guarding and intimidation. To test this, 1071 objects from Papua New Guinea were examined, a country characterized by frequent tribal conflict and where eyespots are frequently painted or carved onto various objects. It was predicted that objects used for guarding or protection such as shields, amulets and the prows of canoes would have more frequent eyespot patterns than domestic objects such as bags, pots and baskets. Chi-square tests of independence showed that canoe prows and shields had significantly more eyespots than baskets and bowls, with more than half of guarding objects displaying eyespots and almost no domestic objects with eyespot patterns. To test whether the eyespot designs were actually intimidating to observers an online survey was created a survey showing various shields with and without eyespot patterns, and 142 respondents were asked whether they found the designs intimidating without providing any further context. Shields containing eyespots were twice as likely to be considered intimidating as those painted with geometric designs. In particular, shields designated as “war shields” in the object description (not visible to survey participants) were considered particularly intimidating with more than four times the respondents considering then intimidating compared to geometric patterned shields. Furthermore, war shields with eyespots were considered more intimidating than geometric shields with a long spike. This research provides evidence for the use of eyespot designs for deimatic display in humans.
Exploration of FOMO, or the 'Fear of Missing out' and the Use of Mindfulness and Values-Based Interventions for Alleviating Its Effects and Bolstering Well-Being
The use of social media and networking sites play a significant role in the lives of adolescents and adults. While research supports that social support and connectedness in general is beneficial; the nature of communication and interaction through social media and its subsequent benefits and impacts could be arguably different. As such, this research aims to explore a specific facet of social media interaction called fear of missing out, or 'FOMO' and investigate its relationship within the context of life stressors, social media usage, anxiety and depressive-symptoms, mindfulness, and psychological well-being. FOMO is the 'uneasy and sometimes all-consuming feeling that you’re missing out—that your peers are doing, in the know about, or in possession of more or something better than you'. Research suggests that FOMO can influence an individual’s level of engagement with friends and social media consumption, drive decisions on participating in various online or offline activities, and ultimately impact mental health. This study hopes to explore the potentially mitigating influence of mindfulness and values-based interventions in reducing the discomfort and distress that can accompany FOMO and increase the sense of psychological well-being in allowing for a more thoughtful and deliberate engagement in life. This study will include an intervention component wherein participants (comprised of university students and adults in the community) will partake in a six-week, group-based intervention focusing on learning practical mindfulness skills and values-exploration exercises (along with a waitlist control group). In doing so, researchers hope to understand if interventions centered on increasing one’s awareness of the present moment and one’s internal values impact decision-making and well-being with regard to social interaction and relationships.
Mechanisms of Action in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) in People with Physical and/or Psychological Conditions: A Systematic Review
Background: Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for people with psychological and physical problems. However, the mechanisms of action in these interventions that lead to beneficial physical and psychological outcomes have yet to be clearly identified. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review, systematically, the evidence to date on the mechanisms of action in mindfulness interventions in populations with physical and/or psychological conditions. Method: Searches of seven databases (PsycINFO, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ClinicalTrials.gov) were undertaken in June 2014 and July 2015. We evaluated to what extent the studies we identified met the criteria suggested by Kazdin for establishing mechanisms of action within a psychological treatment (2007, 2009). Results: We identified four trials examining mechanisms of mindfulness interventions in those with comorbid psychological and physical health problems and 14 in those with psychological conditions. These studies examined a diverse range of potential mechanisms, including mindfulness and rumination. Of these candidate mechanisms, the most consistent finding was that greater self-reported change in mindfulness mediated superior clinical outcomes. However, very few studies fully met the Kazdin criteria for examining treatment mechanisms. Conclusion: There was evidence that global changes in mindfulness are linked to better outcomes. This evidence pertained more to interventions targeting psychological rather than physical health conditions. While there is promising evidence that MBCT/MBSR intervention effects are mediated by hypothesised mechanisms, there is a lack of methodological rigour in the field of testing mechanisms of action for both MBCT and MBSR, which precludes definitive conclusions.
The Exploration of Persuasive Skills and Participants Characteristics in Pyramid-Sale: A Qualitative Study
Pyramid sales have been a widespread issue in China. Victims who are defrauded not only lose money but damage interpersonal relationship. A deeper understanding of pyramid-sale models can be beneficial to prevent potential victims from fraud and improve the property security. The goals of this study were to detect psychological characteristics of pyramid-sale sellers, and analyse persuasive skills in pyramid organizations. A qualitative study was conducted in this study. Participants (n=6) recruited by 'snowball' sampling from present pyramid-sale sellers (n=3) and imprisoned pyramid-sale sellers (n=3). All participants accepted semi-structured interview for collecting data. Content analysis was adopted for data coding and analysis. The results indicate that pyramid organizations are used to utilize their appearance packaging and celebrity effect to strengthen the positions in participants’ mind. The status gap between pyramid-sale sellers in same organization, as well as rewards to increase reputation, are used to motivate participants in pyramid. The most significant common characteristics among all participants are that they tend to possess a high sense of belongingness within the firm. Moreover, the expression of pyramid-sale sellers on gambling mentality is expected to growth as constantly losing money. Findings suggest that the psychological characteristics of pyramid-sale sellers in accordance with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, persuasive skills of pyramid organization confront to 'attitude-behaviour change model'. These findings have implication on 'immune education' that providing guidance for victims out of stuck and protecting ordinary people from the jeopardizing of pyramid sales.
The Different Improvement of Numerical Magnitude and Spatial Representation of Numbers to Symbolic Approximate Arithmetic: A Training Study of Preschooler
Spatial representation of numbers and numerical magnitude are important for preschoolers’ mathematical ability. Mental number line, a typical index to measure numbers spatial representation, and numerical comparison are both related to arithmetic obviously. However, they seem to rely on different mechanisms and probably influence arithmetic through different mechanisms. In line with this idea, preschool children were trained with two tasks to investigate which one is more important for approximate arithmetic. The training of numerical processing and number line estimation were proved to be effective. They both improved the ability of approximate arithmetic. When the difficulty of approximate arithmetic was taken into account, the performance in number line training group was not significantly different among three levels. However, two harder levels achieved significance in numerical comparison training group. Thus, comparing spatial representation ability, symbolic approximation arithmetic relies more on numerical magnitude. Educational implications of the study were discussed.
The Role of Situational Attribution Training in Reducing Automatic In-Group Stereotyping in Females
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of Situational Attribution Training on reducing automatic in-group stereotyping in females. The experiment was conducted with the control of age and level of prejudice. 90 female participants were randomly assigned to two conditions: experimental and control group (each group was also divided into younger- and older-aged condition). Participants from the experimental condition were subjected to more extensive training. In the first part of the experiment, the experimental group took part in the first session of Situational Attribution Training while the control group participated in the Grammatical Training Control. In the second part of the research both groups took part in the Situational Attribution Training (which was considered as the second training session for the experimental group and the first one for the control condition). The training procedure was based on the descriptions of ambiguous situations which could be explained using situational or dispositional attributions. The participant’s task was to choose the situational explanation from two alternatives, out of which the second one presented the explanation based on neutral or stereotypically associated with women traits. Moreover, the experimental group took part in the third training session after two- day time delay, in order to check the persistence of the training effect. The main hypothesis stated that among participants taking part in the more extensive training, the automatic in-group stereotyping would be less frequent after having finished training sessions. The effectiveness of the training was tested by measuring the response time and the correctness of answers: the longer response time for the examples where one of two possible answers was based on the stereotype trait and higher correctness of answers was considered to be a proof of the training effectiveness. As the participants’ level of prejudice was controlled (using the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory), it was also assumed that the training effect would be weaker for participants revealing a higher level of prejudice. The obtained results did not confirm the hypothesis based on the response time: participants from the experimental group responded faster in case of situations where one of the possible explanations was based on stereotype trait. However, an interesting observation was made during the analysis of the answers’ correctness: regardless the condition and age group affiliation, participants made more mistakes while choosing the situational explanations when the alternative was based on stereotypical trait associated with the dimension of warmth. What is more, the correctness of answers was higher in the third training session for the experimental group in case when the alternative of situational explanation was based on the stereotype trait associated with the dimension of competence. The obtained results partially confirm the effectiveness of the training.
Relationships among Personality, Calling, Career Engagement and Self-Defeating Job Search Behavior in Chinese Undergraduate Students: The Mediating Effects of Career Adaptability
Based on the career construction therapy, this paper explores the relationship between Personality, Calling, Career engagement (CE) and Self-defeating job search behavior (procrastination, impulsive) among university students, as well as the intermediary role of Career adaptability (CA) in this relationship. 337 students were randomly selected from 2 universities to complete the Big Five Personality Scale, Brief Calling Scale, Career engagement (CE) Scale and the Job Search Procrastination and Impulsive Behavior Scale for statistical analyses including correlation analysis and regression analysis. The study results confirmed the significant positive impact of Calling on Career engagement (CE), and Career adaptability (CA) partial mediated the relationship between Calling and Career engagement (CE). Among the personality dimensions, Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience had a significant influence on Career engagement (CE), and the study confirmed Career adaptability(CA) mediated the relationship in this relationship. Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience and Neuroticism had significant influence on Job search procrastination (JSP); and Career adaptability (CA) mediated the relationship between Conscientiousness, Openness and Job search procrastination (JSP).
Impacts of Computer Assisted Instruction and Gender on High-Flyers Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude Towards Agricultural Economics in Southwest Nigeria
The use of computer-assisted instruction(CAI) has been suggested as a way out of the problem of Colleges of Education (CoE) in Southwest, Nigeria persistent high failure rate in and negative attitude towards Agricultural Economics (AE).The impacts of this are yet unascertained on high-flyers. This study, therefore, determined the impacts of CAI onhigh-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude towards AE concepts in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Fourty-nine 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to two groups (CAI, 22 and control, 27). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE Attitude Scale(r=0.80), Instructional guides and Teacher Performance Assessment Sheets were used for data collection. Data were analysed using t-test. The participants were 62.8% male with mean age of 22 years. Treatment had significant effects on high-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude (t = 17.44; df = 47, p < .5). Participants in CAI ( =71.03) had higher post attitude mean score compared to those in control ( = 64.92) groups. Gender had no significant effect on attitude (t= 3.06; df= 47, p > .5). The computer assisted instructional mode enhanced students’ attitude towards Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, CAI should be adopted for improved attitude towards agricultural economics concepts among high-flyers pre-service teachers.
Research on the Influence of Employees' Career Adaptability on Occupational Success: The Moderating Effect of Organizational Career Management and the Mediating Effect of Job Involvement
With the development of science and technology and the intensification of organizational change, employees are moving frequently between organizations. Currently, to strengthen employees’ career adaptability consciously will be helpful to their occupational success; therefore, it becomes a new trend for organizational human resources development and management. Based on the theory of career construction and resource conservation, this study establishes the theoretical model of the influence of career adaptability on occupational success, and uses questionnaire survey method to analyze 315 employees from enterprises and institutions. The results show that career adaptability has significant positive impact on job involvement and occupational success; job involvement plays a mediating role between career adaptability and occupational success; organizational career management plays a regulatory role in job involvement and occupational success. The research findings enrich and expand the theory of occupational success, which also provide valuable theoretical support for the employees’ career management practice.
Importance of Positive Education: A Focus on the Importance of Character Strength Building
Positive education, the inclusion of social, emotional and intellectual skills across a curriculum, is fundamental to the optimal functioning of young people in any society because it combines the best teaching practices with the principles of positive psychology. While learning institutions foster academic skills, little attention is being paid to the identification and development of character strengths and their integration into teaching. There is an increasing recognition of the important role education plays in equipping today’s youth with 21st century social skills. For youth to succeed in this highly competitive environment, there is a need for positive education that is focused on character strengths such as the growth of social, emotional and intellectual skills that promote the flourishing of well-rounded individuals. Character strength programs and awareness are a necessity if the human capital within a region is to be competitive, productive and happy. The Counselling & Wellbeing Centre at Amity University Dubai has consistently implemented Character Strength awareness workshops and has found that such workshops have increased student life satisfaction due to individual awareness of signature strengths. A positive education/positive psychology framework with its key focus on the development of character strengths can be fundamental to individual's confidence and self-awareness; thus allowing both optimum flourishing and functioning.
Effect of a Traffic Psychology Workshop on Enhancing Positive Attitudes towards Road Safety Awareness among Youths
This study examined the effectiveness of a Traffic Psychology Workshop in enhancing positive attitudes towards road safety awareness among youths. We predicted that youths’ attitudes towards road safety would be more positive after they participated in the one-day workshop. We examined their attitudes towards road safety awareness before and after they attended a one-day workshop. There were 21 participants who completed the pre and post-studies (9 males & 12 females, mean age 22.86, SD=2.03). A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test showed that the mean for post-test ranks for students’ attitudes towards road safety awareness was higher than the mean pre-test ranks, z =-3.16, p = .00. The study showed that the Traffic Psychology Module which focuses on the three elements: i) personality & emotion; Sensation, perception and visual; and mental workload could have positive effects on youths’ attitudes towards road safety awareness. We believe that the Traffic Psychology Module could be used as a guide by relevant authorities, such as the Sabah Road Safety Department, in implementing road safety awareness workshops and programs for the public, particularly road-users.
Temporal Progression of Episodic Memory as Function of Encoding Condition and Age: Further Investigation of Action Memory in School-Aged Children
Studies of adults' episodic memory have found that enacted encoding not only improve recall performance but also retrieve faster during the recall period. The current study focused on exploring the temporal progression of different encoding conditions in younger and older school children. 204 students from two age group of 8 and 14 participated in this study. During the study phase, we studied action encoding in two forms; participants performed the phrases by themselves (SPT), and observed the performance of the experimenter (EPT), which were compared with verbal encoding; participants listened to verbal action phrases (VT). At test phase, we used immediate and delayed free recall tests. We observed significant differences in memory performance as function of age group, and encoding conditions in both immediate and delayed free recall tests. Moreover, temporal progression of recall was faster in older children when compared with younger ones. The interaction of age-group and encoding condition was only significant in delayed recall displaying that younger children performed better in EPT whereas older children outperformed in SPT. It was proposed that enactment effect in form of SPT enhances item-specific processing, whereas EPT improves relational information processing and this differential processes are responsible for the results achieved in younger and older children. The role of memory strategies and information processing methods in younger and older children were considered in this study. Moreover, the temporal progression of recall was faster in action encoding in the form of SPT and EPT compared with verbal encoding in both immediate and delayed free recall and size of enactment effect was constantly increased throughout the recall period. The results of the present study provide further evidence that the action memory is explained with an emphasis on the notion of information processing and strategic views. These results also reveal the temporal progression of recall as a new dimension of episodic memory in children.
Study on the Neurotransmitters and Digestion of Amino Acids Affecting Psychological Chemical Imbalance
With technological advances in the computational biomedical field, the ability to measure neurotransmitters’ chemical imbalances that affect depression and anxiety has been established. By comparing the thermodynamics stability of amino acid supplements, such as glutamine, tyrosine, phe-nylalanine, and methionine, this research analyzes mood-regulating neurotransmitters, amino acid supplements, and antipsychotic substances (ie. Reserpine molecule and CRF complexes) in relation to depression and anxiety and suggests alternative complexes that are low in energy to act as more efficient treatments for mood disorders. To determine a molecule’s thermodynamic stability, this research examines the molecular energy using Avogadro, a software for building virtual molecules and calculating optimized geometry using GAFF (General Amber Force Field) and UFF (Universal Force Field). The molecules, built using Avogadro, is analyzed using their theoretical values and atomic properties.
Computational Analysis and Daily Application of the Key Neurotransmitters involved in Happiness: Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin, and Endorphins
Happiness and pleasure are a result of dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, and endorphin levels in the body. In order to increase the four neurochemical levels, it is important to associate daily activities with its corresponding neurochemical releases. This includes setting goals, maintaining social relationships, laughing frequently, and exercising regularly. The likelihood of experiencing happiness increases when all four neurochemicals are released at the optimal level. The achievement of happiness is important because it increases healthiness, productivity, and the ability to overcome adversity. To process emotions, electrical brain waves, brain structure, and neurochemicals must be analyzed. This research uses Chemcraft and Avogadro to determine the theoretical and chemical properties of the four neurochemical molecules. Each neurochemical molecule’s thermodynamic stability is calculated to observe the efficiency of the molecules. The study found that among dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin, beta-endorphin has the lowest optimized energy of 388.510 kJ/mol. Beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter involved in mitigating pain and stress, is the most thermodynamically stable and efficient molecule that is involved in the process of happiness. Through examining such properties of happiness neurotransmitters, the science of happiness is better understood.
Moderating Role of Psychological Contract in Relationship between Moral Disengagement and Counterproductive Work Behavior
The current study examined the relationship between moral disengagement, psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that there is likely to be a significant relationship between moral disengagement, psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that moral disengagement is likely to significantly predict counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that psychological contract is likely to moderate the relationship between moral disengagement, and counterproductive work behavior. Cross-sectional survey research design was used for the study. The sample consisted of 500 middle managers, age ranging between 30-45 years working in private and public sector. The measures used were Moral Disengagement Scale, Psychological Contract Scale, and Counterproductive Work Behavior. Series of Correlation analyses, Regression analysis, moderation analysis and t-test was run in order to execute descriptive and inferential analyses. The findings revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between moral disengagement and counterproductive work behaviors. Psychological contract significantly mediated the relationship between moral disengagement and counterproductive work behaviors. There were significant gender differences reported in psychological contract and counterproductive work behaviors. The insightful findings carry significant implication for organizational psychologists and organizational stakeholders.
Application of Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment to Children with Down Syndrome
This study is a collaborative project between the American University of Central Asia and parent association of children with Down syndrome ‘Sunterra’ that took place in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. The purpose of the study was to explore whether principles and techniques of applied behavior analysis (ABA) could be used to teach children with Down syndrome socially significant behaviors. ABA is considered to be one of the most effective treatment for children with autism, but little research is done on the particularity of using ABA to children with Down syndrome. The data for the study was received during clinical observations; work with children with Down syndrome and interviews with their mothers. The results show that many ABA principles make the work with children with Down syndrome more effective. Although such children very rarely demonstrate aggressive behavior, they show a lot of escape-driven and attention seeking behaviors that are reinforced by their parents and educators. Thus functional assessment can be done to assess the function of problem behavior and to determine appropriate treatment. Prompting and prompting fading should be used to develop receptive and expressive language skills, and enhance motor development. Even though many children with Down syndrome work for praise, it is still relevant to use tangible reinforcement and to know how to remove them. Based on the results of the study, the training for parents of children with Down syndrome will be developed in Kyrgyzstan, country, where children with Down syndrome are not accepted to regular kindergartens and where doctors in maternity hospitals tell parents that their child will never talk, walk and recognize them
Impact of Chess Intervention on Cognitive Functioning of Children
Chess is a useful tool to enhance general and specific cognitive functioning in children. The present study aims to assess the impact of chess on cognitive in children and to measure the differential impact of socio-demographic factors like age and gender of the child on the effectiveness of the chess intervention.This research study used an experimental design to study the impact of the Training in Chess on the intelligence of children. The Pre-test Post-test Control Group Design was utilized. The research design involved two groups of children: an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group consisted of children who participated in the one-year Chess Training Intervention, while the control group participated in extra-curricular activities in school. The main independent variable was training in chess. Other independent variables were gender and age of the child. The dependent variable was the cognitive functioning of the child (as measured by IQ, working memory index, processing speed index, perceptual reasoning index, verbal comprehension index, numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, non-verbal reasoning, social intelligence, language, conceptual thinking, memory, visual motor and creativity). The sample consisted of 200 children studying in Government and Private schools. Random sampling was utilized. The sample included both boys and girls falling in the age range 6 to 16 years. The experimental group consisted of 100 children (50 from Government schools and 50 from Private schools) with an equal representation of boys and girls. The control group similarly consisted of 100 children. The dependent variables were assessed using Binet-Kamat Test of Intelligence, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV (India) and Wallach Kogan Creativity Test. The training methodology comprised Winning Moves Chess Learning Program - Episodes 1–22, lectures with the demonstration board, on-the-board playing and training, chess exercise through workbooks (Chess school 1A, Chess school 2, and tactics) and working with chess software. Further students games were mapped using chess software and the brain patterns of the child were understood. They were taught the ideas behind chess openings and exposure to classical games were also given. The children participated in mock as well as regular tournaments. Preliminary analysis carried out using independent t tests with 50 children indicates that chess training has led to significant increases in the intelligent quotient. Children in the experimental group have shown significant increases in composite scores like working memory and perceptual reasoning. Chess training has significantly enhanced the total creativity scores, line drawing and pattern meaning subscale scores. Systematically learning chess as part of school activities appears to have a broad spectrum of positive outcomes.