Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 45197

Psychological and Behavioral Sciences

Development and Preliminary Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Executive Functions for the General Population
Executive functions refer to the processes responsible for the regulation and control of cognitions, emotions, and behaviors that underlie adaptation responses. They include attention, working memory, planning, initiation, response selection, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, etc. However, according to the author's knowledge, no instrument is available to evaluate them in a self-reported and ecological way among general population. The aim of this study is to present the different steps leading to the development and preliminary validation of the Self-Report Measure of Executive Functions (SMEF). This questionnaire consists of 12 items divided equally into 4 dimensions: 1) attention (ability to remain focused and attentive in a task), 2) cognitive flexibility (ability to modify problem-solving strategy), 3) planning (ability to anticipate events, set goals, predict the steps to be taken, and strategies for performing complex tasks) and 4) emotional control (ability to inhibit emotional responses). Each item is evaluated through a frequency scale (from 1 = never to 5 = very often). An online version of the questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 521 French-Canadian self-employed workers (F= 414; M= 107). A principal component analysis, followed by a varimax rotation, revealed 4 factors explaining 73.4% of the variance: planning (20.9%), emotional control (19.9%), attention (16.8%), and cognitive flexibility (15.8%). Alpha coefficients for the 4 dimensions are respectively of .85, .86, .73, and .75. Correlations between the dimensions vary from .44 to .55. Initial results of fidelity and validity are positive and satisfactory, but further validation of the SMEF is required. Since one item strongly saturated on two factors, this latter need to be review. Moreover, particular attention should be paid to correlation between the SMEF and standardized tests of executive functions.
Ultrasound Enhanced Release of Active Targeting Liposomes Used for Cancer Treatment
Liposomes are popular lipid bilayer nanoparticles that are highly efficient in encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutic drugs. Liposomes promote a low risk controlled release of the drug avoiding the side effects of the conventional chemotherapy. One of the great potentials of liposomes is the ability to attach a wide range of ligands to their surface producing ligand-mediated active targeting of cancer tumour with limited adverse off-target effects. Ultrasound can also aid in the controlled and specified release of the drug from the liposomes by breaking it apart and releasing the drug in the specific location where the ultrasound is applied. Our research focuses on the synthesis of PEGylated liposomes (contain poly-ethylene glycol) encapsulated with the model drug calcein and studying the effect of low frequency ultrasound applied at different power densities on calcein release. In addition, moieties are attached to the surface of the liposomes for specific targeting of the cancerous cells which over-express the receptors of these moieties, ultrasound is then applied and the release results are compared with the moiety free liposomes. The results showed that attaching these moieties to the surface of the PEGylated liposomes not only enhance their active targeting but also stimulate calcein release from these liposomes.
Cognitive Behavioral Modification in the Treatment of Aggressive Behavior in Children
Cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) is a combination of cognitive and behavioral learning principles to shape and encourage the desired behaviors. A crucial element of cognitive-behavioral modification is that a change the behavior precedes awareness of how it affects others. CBM is oriented toward changing inner speech and learning to control behaviors through self-regulation techniques. It aims to teach individuals how to develop the ability to recognize, monitor and modify their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The review of literature emphasizes the efficiency the CBM approach in the treatment of children's hyperactivity and negative emotions such as anger. The results of earlier research show how impulsive and hyperactive behavior, agitation, and aggression may slow down and block the child from being able to actively monitor and participate in regular classes, resulting in the disruption of the classroom and the teaching process, and the children may feel rejected, isolated and develop long-term poor image of themselves and others. In this article, we will provide how the use of CBM, adapted to child's age, can incorporate measures of cognitive and emotional functioning which can help us to better understand the children’s cognitive processes, their cognitive strengths, and weaknesses, and to identify factors that may influence their behavioral and emotional regulation. Such a comprehensive evaluation can also help identify cognitive and emotional risk factors associated with aggressive behavior, specifically the processes involved in modulating and regulating cognition and emotions.
Towards Establishing a Rationale for Unbundling Employee Psychological Ownership Perception: An Empirical Examination
Purpose: The need to attract employees’ emotional attachment to organisations has increased the attention of organisational psychology scholars to the theory of psychological ownership. Existing studies have either explained psychological ownership as a stressor or as a mediating variable in influencing a desired behavioural outcome. There is limited literature that explains how psychological ownership is formed. This study unbundles the concept of psychological ownership and highlights the antecedents that best influence its composite components. Approach: A quantitative approach is used to collect data from 1525 employees from public and private sector organisations in Nigeria. Findings: Findings show that on the overall, psychological ownership is influenced by both collective and individual identity antecedents. However, when examined at the individual component levels of psychological ownership, the impact is different with each component of psychological ownership. Originality: Investigating psychological ownership as a single construct may be misleading. Unbundling psychological ownership enables the investigation of antecedents that best suits the components of psychological ownership and its emergence. Implication: Managers understanding of psychological ownership is enhanced with knowledge of the type of factors that influence employees’ psychological ownership. This may enable them to concentrate on the factors that best suits their circumstances.
Measuring the Effectiveness of Response Inhibition regarding to Motor Complexity: Evidence from the Stroop Effect
We studied the effectiveness of response inhibition in movements with different degrees of motor complexity when they were executed in isolation and alternately. Sixteen participants performed the Stroop task which was used as a measure of response inhibition. Participants responded by lifting the index finger and reaching the screen with the same finger. Both actions were performed separately and alternately in different experimental blocks. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare reaction time, movement time, kinematic errors and Movement errors across conditions (experimental block, movement, and congruency). Delta plots were constructed to perform distributional analyses of response inhibition and accuracy rate. The effectiveness of response inhibition did not show difference when the movements were performed in separated blocks. Nevertheless, it showed differences when they were performed alternately in the same experimental block, being more effective for the lifting action. This could be due to a competition of the available resources during a more complex scenario which also demands to adopt some strategy to avoid errors.
The Impact of a Model's Skin Tone and Ethnic Identification on Consumer Decision Making
Sri Lanka housed the lingerie product development and manufacturing subsidiary to renowned brands such as La Senza, Marks & Spencer, H&M, Etam, Lane Bryant, and George. Over the last few years, they have produced local brands such as Amante to cater to the local and regional customers. Past research has identified factors such as quality, price, and design to be vital when marketing lingerie to consumers. However, there has been minimum research that looks into the ethnically targeted market and skin colour within the Asian population. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to identify whether consumer preference for lingerie is influenced by the skin tone of the model wearing it. Moreover, the secondary aim was to investigate if the consumer preference for lingerie is influenced by the consumer’s ethnic identification with the skin tone of the model. An experimental design was used to explore the above aims. The participants constituted of 66 females residing in the western province of Sri Lanka and were gathered via convenience sampling. Six computerized images of a real model were used in the study, and her skin tone was digitally manipulated to express three different skin tones (light, tan and dark). Consumer preferences were measured through a ranking order scale that was constructed via a focus group discussion and ethnic identity was measured by the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Friedman test, and chi square test of independence were carried out using SPSS version 20. The results indicated that majority of the consumers ethnically identified and preferred the tan skin over the light and dark skin tones. The findings support the existing literature that states there is a preference among consumers when models have a medium skin tone over a lighter skin tone. The preference for a tan skin tone in a model is consistent with the ethnic identification of the Sri Lankan sample. The study implies that lingerie brands should consider the model's skin tones when marketing the brand to different ethnic backgrounds.
Perceived Restorativeness Scale– 6: A Short Version of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale for Mixed (or Mobile) Devices
Most of the studies on the ability of environments to recover people’s cognitive resources have been conducted in laboratory using simulated environments (e.g., photographs, videos, or virtual reality), based on the implicit assumption that exposure to simulated environments has the same effects of exposure to real environments. However, the technical characteristics of simulated environments, such as the dynamic or static characteristics of the stimulus, critically affect their perception. Measuring perceived restorativeness in situ rather than in laboratory could increase the validity of the obtained measurements. Personal mobile devices could be useful because they allow accessing immediately online surveys when people are directly exposed to an environment. At the same time, it becomes important to develop short and reliable measuring instruments that allow a quick assessment of the restorative qualities of the environments. One of the frequently used self-report measures to assess perceived restorativeness is the “Perceived Restorativeness Scale” (PRS) based on Attention Restoration Theory. A lot of different versions have been proposed and used according to different research purposes and needs, without studying their validity. This longitudinal study reported some preliminary validation analyses on a short version of original scale, the PRS-6, developed to be quick and mobile-friendly. It is composed of 6 items assessing fascination and being-away. 102 Italian university students participated to the study, 84% female with age ranging from 18 to 47 (M = 20.7; SD = 2.9). Data were obtained through a survey online that asked them to report their perceived restorativeness of the environment they were in (and the kind of environment) and their positive emotion (Positive and Negative Affective Schedule, PANAS) once a day for seven days. Cronbach alpha and item-total correlations were used to assess reliability and internal consistency. Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) models were run to study the factorial structure (construct validity). Correlation analyses between PRS and PANAS scores were used to check discriminant validity. In the end, multigroup CFA models were used to study measurement invariance (configural, metric, scalar, strict) between different mobile devices and between day of assessment. On the whole, the PRS-6 showed good psychometric proprieties, similar to those of the original scale, and invariance across devices and days. These results suggested that the PRS-6 could be a valid alternative to assess perceived restorativeness when researchers need a brief and immediate evaluation of the recovery quality of an environment.
Relationship Demise After Having Children: An Analysis of Abandonment and Nuclear Family Structure vs. Supportive Community Cultures
There is an epidemic of couples separating after a child is born into a family, generally with the father leaving emotionally or physically in the first few years after birth. This separation creates high levels of stress for both parents, especially the primary parent, leaving her (or him) less available to the infant for healthy attachment and nurturing. The deterioration of the couple’s bond leaves parents increasingly under-resourced, and the dependent child in a compromised environment, with an increased likelihood of developing an attachment disorder. Objectives: To understand the dynamics of a couple, once the additional and extensive demands of a newborn are added to a nuclear family structure, and to identify effective ways to support all members of the family to thrive. Qualitative studies interviewed men, women, and couples after pregnancy and the early years as a family, regarding key destructive factors, as well as effective tools for the couple to retain a strong bond. In-depth analysis of a few cases, including the author’s own experience, reveal deeper insights about subtle factors, replicated in wider studies. Using a self-assessment survey, many fathers report feeling abandoned, due to the close bond of the mother-baby unit, and in turn, withdrawing themselves, leaving the mother without support and closeness to resource her for the baby. Fathers report various types of abandonment, from his partner to his mother, with whom he did not experience adequate connection as a child. The study identified a key destructive factor to be unrecognized wounding from childhood that was carried into the relationship. The study culminated in the naming of Male Postpartum Abandonment Syndrome (MPAS), describing the epidemic in industrialized cultures with the nuclear family as the primary configuration. A growing family system often collapses without a minimum number of adult caregivers per infant, approximately four per infant (3.87), which allows for proper healing and caretaking. In cases with no additional family or community beyond one or two parents, the layers of abandonment and trauma result in the deterioration of a couple’s relationship and ultimately the family structure. The solution includes engaging community in support of new families. The study identified (and recommends) specific resources to assist couples in recognizing and healing trauma and disconnection at multiple levels. Recommendations include wider awareness and availability of resources for healing childhood wounds and greater community-building efforts to support couples for the whole family to thrive.
Effect of WAY 100,635 on the Behavioral Indicators of Anxiety and Anhedonia after Exposure to Chronic Stress
The serotonergic system is particularly involved in the regulation of the stress response, in fact, one of the main treatments for stress-related disorders is the use of serotonergic antidepressants. However, the specific mechanism by which they exert their therapeutic effect in such disorders remains unknown. 5-HT1A receptors play an important role in the mechanism of regulation of the stress response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 5-HT1A receptor-specific antagonist drug (WAY 100,635) on behavioral indicators of stress. We used 40 male Wistar rats of 250-350 grams housed in standard laboratory conditions and treated in accordance with the ethical standards of use and care of laboratory animals. Rats were subjected to an unpredictable chronic stress protocol for ten days; then they were divided into four groups to be administered with WAY 100,635 at doses 0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg respectively. The administration was intraperitoneal with saline as a vehicle for seven days. Finally, they were measured in tests of anxiety, anhedonia, and cognition. Statistically significant differences were found in all tests between groups, showing an anxiolytic effect of WAY 100,635 on the stress model, these results are related to the effect of the drug on the 5-HT1A autoreceptors, and it suggests that these particular receptors are importantly involved in the mechanisms of regulation of stress response.
Construction and Psychometric Characteristics of a Gender Group Identification Scale
Personal identity is the basis of a person's thoughts and actions and reflects the unique attributes of the person, while social identity is the basis for thoughts and actions among the members of a group and reflects the attributes and norms of the group that are internalized by the individual. Membership in social groups is fundamental for the survival of individuals. Throughout life, people belong to various groups depending on their gender, age, social class, nationality, occupation, etc., which have different levels of importance in their self-concept. The combinations of identities can interact with each other to form a unique social identity. One of the most important elements in the formation of social identity is the identification of gender, which refers to the degree in which belonging to a gender is important for the self-concept of individuals. The level of identification with a group as well as the valuation of their membership has an effect on several psychological variables such as the perception of personal competence, security, adaptation to the environment, behaviors to help others and the self-esteem, so it is important to have a valid and reliable scale to measure this construct. Historically, it has been measured with four items that only measure the degree of identification with the group, but not the evaluation of the group. Therefore, the present research develops and psychometrically analyzes the instrument of group identification of gender in a sample of 350 Mexican people between 18 and 27 years. Evidence of the construct validity of the instrument was obtained through a factorial analysis of principal components with Kaiser normalization and orthogonal rotation. The results indicate that the construct is composed with two factors and that the scale has appropriate psychometric characteristics, so it is a reliable scale for measuring the construct in both men and women.
Comparing Perceived Restorativeness in Natural and Urban Environment: A Meta-Analysis
A growing body of empirical research from different areas of inquiry suggest that brief contact with natural environment restore mental resources. The Attention Restoration Theory (ART) is the widely used and empirical founded theory developed to explain why exposure to nature helps people to recovery cognitive resources. It assumes that contact with nature allows people to free (and then recovery) voluntary attention resources and thus allows them to recover from a cognitive fatigue situation. However, it was suggested that some people could have more cognitive benefit after exposure to urban environment.The objective of this study is to report the results of a meta-analysis of studies (peer-reviewed articles) comparing the restorativeness (the quality to be restorative) perceived in natural environments than those perceived in urban environments. This meta-analysis intended to estimate how much nature environments (forests, parks, boulevards) are perceived to be more restorativeness than urban ones (i.e., the magnitude of the perceived restorativeness’ difference). Moreover, given the methodological difference betweenstudy, it studied the potential role of moderator variables as participants (student or other), instrument used (Perceived Restorativeness Scale or other), and procedure (in laboratory or in situ).PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Scopus, SpringerLINK, Web Of Science online database were used to identify all peer-review articles on restorativeness published to date (k = 167). Reference sections of obtained papers were examined for additional studies. Only 22 independent studies (with a total of 1677 participants) met inclusion criteria (direct exposure to environment, comparison between one outdoor environment with natural element and one without natural element, and restorativeness measured by self-report scale) and were included in meta-analysis. To estimate the average effect size, a random effect model (Restricted Maximum-likelihood estimator) was used because the studies included in the meta-analysis were conducted independently and using different methods in different populations, so no common effect-size was expected. The presence of publication bias was checked using trim and fill approach. Univariate moderator analysis (mixed effect model) were run to determine whether the variable coded moderated the perceived restorativeness difference. Results show that natural environments are perceived to be more restorativeness than urban environments, confirming from an empirical point of view what is now considered a knowledge gained in environmental psychology. The relevant information emerging from this study is the magnitude of the estimated average effect size, which is particularly high (d = 2.06) compared to those that are commonly observed in psychology. Significant heterogeneity between study was found (Q(20) = 502.31, p < .001;) and studies’ variability was very high (I2[C.I.]= 97.21% [95.18 – 98.75]). Subsequent univariate moderator analysis were not significant. Methodological difference (participants, instrument, and procedure) did not explain variability between study. Other methodological difference (e.g., research design, environment’s characteristics, light’s condition) could explain this variability between study. In the mine while, studies’ variability could be not due to methodological difference but to individual difference (age, gender, education level) and characteristics (connection to nature, environmental attitude). Furthers moderator analysis are working in progress.
The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Stem Cell Factor Levels in Serum of Adolescent and Young Adults with Mood Disorders: A Two Year Follow-Up Study
Introduction: Inflammation and cytokines have emerged as a promising target in mood disorders research; however there are still very limited numbers of study regarding inflammatory alterations among adolescents and young adults with mood disorders. The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) are the pleiotropic cytokines which may play an important role in mood disorders pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of these factors in serum of adolescent and young adults with mood disorders compared to healthy controls. Subjects: We involved 79 patients aged 12-24 years in 2-year follow-up study with a primary diagnosis of mood disorders: bipolar disorder (BP) and unipolar disorder with BP spectrum. Study group includes 23 males (mean age 19.08, SD 3.3) and 56 females (18.39, SD 3.28). Control group consisted 35 persons: 7 males (20.43, SD 4.23) and 28 females (21.25, SD 2.11). Clinical diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were assessed using Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (SCID) in young adults respectively. Clinical assessment includes evaluation of clinical factors and symptoms severity (rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale). Clinical and biological evaluations were made at control visits respectively at baseline (week 0), euthymia (at month 3 or 6) and after 12 and 24 months. Methods: Serum protein concentration was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) method. Human MIF and SCF DuoSet ELISA kits were used. In the analyses non-parametric tests were used: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman’s ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman correlation. We defined statistical significance as p < 0.05. Results: Comparing MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania at baseline and euthymia (at month 3 or 6) we did not find any statistical differences. At baseline patients with age above 18 years old had decreased MIF level compared to patients younger than 18 years. MIF level at baseline positively correlated with age (p=0.004). Positive correlations of SCF level at month 3 and 6 with depression or mania occurrence at month 24 (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively) was detected. Strong correlations between MIF and SCF levels at baseline (p=0.0005) and month 3 (p=0.03) were observed. Discussion: Our results did not show any differences in MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania and euthymia in young patients. Further studies on larger groups are recommended. Grant was founded by National Science Center in Poland no 2011/03/D/NZ5/06146.
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and It's Precursor Pro-BDNF Serum Levels in Adolescents with Mood Disorders: 2-Year Follow-up Study
Introduction: Neurotrophic factors have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) influences neuron differentiation in development as well as synaptic plasticity and neuron survival in adulthood. BDNF is widely studied in mood disorders and has been proposed as a biomarker for depression. BDNF is synthesized as precursor protein – proBDNF. Both forms are biologically active and exert opposite effects on neurons. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the serum levels of BDNF and proBDNF in unipolar and bipolar young patients below 24 years old during hypo/manic, depressive episodes and in remission compared to healthy control group. Methods: In a prospective 2 years follow-up study, we investigated alterations in levels of BDNF and proBDNF in 79 patients (23 males, mean age 19.08, SD 3.3 and 56 females, mean age 18.39, SD 3.28) diagnosed with mood disorders: unipolar and bipolar disorder compared with 35 healthy control subjects (7 males, mean age 20.43, SD 4.23 and 28 females, mean age 21.25, SD 2.11). Clinical characteristics including mood, comorbidity, family history, and treatment, were evaluated during control visits and clinical symptoms were rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. Serum BDNF and proBDNF concentrations were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) method. Serum BDNF and proBDNF levels were analysed with covariates: sex, age, age > 18 and < 18 years old, family history of affective disorders, drug-free vs. medicated status. Normality of the data was tested using Shapiro-Wilk test. Levene’s test was used to calculate homogeneity of variance. Non-parametric Tests: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman’s ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient were applied in analyses The statistical significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: BDNF and proBDNF serum levels did not differ between patients at baseline and controls as well as comparing patients in acute episode of depression/hypo/mania at baseline and euthymia (at month 3 or 6). Comparing BDNF and proBDNF levels between patients in euthymia and control group no differences have been found. Increased BDNF level in women compared to men at baseline (p=0.01) have been observed. BDNF level at baseline was negatively correlated with depression and mania occurence at 24 month (p=0.04). BDNF level at 12 month was negatively correlated with depression and mania occurence at 12 month (p=0.01). Correlation of BDNF level with sex have been detected (p=0.01). proBDNF levels at month 3, 6 and 12 negatively correlated with disease status (p=0.02, p=0.008, p=0.009, respectively). No other correlations of BDNF and proBDNF levels with clinical and demographical variables have been detected. Discussion: Our results did not show any differences in BDNF and proBDNF levels between depression, mania, euthymia, and controls. Imbalance in BDNF/proBDNF signalling may be involved in pathogenesis of mood disorders. Further studies on larger groups are recommended. Grant was founded by National Science Center in Poland no 2011/03/D/NZ5/06146.
EGF Serum Level in Diagnosis and Prediction of Mood Disorder in Adolescents and Young Adults
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a well-known neurotrophic factor that involves in neuronal growth and synaptic plasticity. The proteomic research provided in order to identify novel candidate biological markers for mood disorders focused on elevated EGF serum level in patients during depression episode. However, the EGF association with mood disorder spectrum among adolescents and young adults has not been studied extensively. In this study, we aim to investigate the serum levels of EGF in adolescents and young adults during hypo/manic, depressive episodes and in remission compared to healthy control group. In our study, we involved 80 patients aged 12-24 years in 2-year follow-up study with a primary diagnosis of mood disorder spectrum, and 35 healthy volunteers matched by age and gender. Diagnoses were established according to DSM-IV-TR criteria using structured clinical interviews: K-SADS for child and adolescents, and SCID for young adults. Clinical and biological evaluations were made at baseline and euthymic mood (at 3th or 6th month of treatment and after 1 and 2 years). The Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression were used for assessment. The study protocols were approved by the relevant ethics committee. Serum protein concentration was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) method. Human EGF (cat. no DY 236) DuoSet ELISA kit was used (R&D Systems). Serum EGF levels were analysed with following variables: age, age under 18 and above 18 years old, sex, family history of affective disorders, drug-free vs. medicated. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test the normality of the data. The homogeneity of variance was calculated with Levene’s test. EGF levels showed non-normal distribution and the homogeneity of variance was violated. Non-parametric tests: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskall-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman’s ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient was applied in the analyses The statistical significance level was set at p< 0.05. Elevated EGF level at baseline (p=0.001) and at month 24 (p=0.02) was detected in study subjects compared with controls. Increased EGF level in women at month 12 (p=0.02) compared to men in study group have been observed. Using Wilcoxon signed rank test differences in EGF levels were detected: decrease from baseline to month 3 (p=0.014) and increase comparing: month 3 vs. 24 (p=0.013); month 6 vs. 12 (p=0.021) and vs. 24 (p=0.008). EGF level at baseline was negatively correlated with depression and mania occurrence at 24 months. EGF level at 24 months was positively correlated with depression and mania occurrence at 12 months. No other correlations of EGF levels with clinical and demographical variables have been detected. The findings of the present study indicate that EGF serum level is significantly elevated in the study group of patients compared to the controls. We also observed fluctuations in EGF levels during two years of disease observation. EGF seems to be useful as an early marker for prediction of diagnosis, course of illness and treatment response in young patients during first episode od mood disorders, which requires further investigation. Grant was founded by National Science Center in Poland no 2011/03/D/NZ5/06146.
Differences in Parental Acceptance, Rejection, and Attachment and Associations with Adolescent Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction
Research and theory suggest that parenting and parent-child attachment influence emotional development and well-being. Studies indicate that adolescents often describe differences in relationships with each parent and may form different types of attachment to mothers and fathers. During adolescence and young adulthood, romantic partners may also become attachment figures, influencing well being, and providing a relational context for emotion skill development. Mothers, however, tend to be remain the primary attachment figure; fathers and romantic partners are more likely to be secondary attachment figures. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) participants would rate mothers as more accepting and less rejecting than fathers, 2) participants would rate secure attachment to mothers higher and insecure attachment lower compared to father and romantic partner, 3) parental rejection and insecure attachment would be negatively related to life satisfaction and emotional intelligence, and 4) secure attachment and parental acceptance would be positively related life satisfaction and emotional intelligence. After IRB and informed consent, one hundred fifty adolescents and young adults (ages 11-28, M = 19.64; 71% female) completed an online survey. Measures included parental acceptance, rejection, attachment (i.e., secure, dismissing, and preoccupied), emotional intelligence (i.e., seeking and providing comfort, use, and understanding of self emotions, expressing warmth, understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs), and well-being (i.e., self-confidence and life satisfaction). As hypothesized, compared to fathers’, mothers’ acceptance was significantly higher t (190) = 3.98, p = .000 and rejection significantly lower t (190) = - 4.40, p = .000. Group differences in secure attachment were significant, f (2, 389) = 40.24, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and fathers and between mothers and romantic partners; mothers had the highest mean score. Group differences in preoccupied attachment were significant, f (2, 388) = 13.37, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and romantic partners, and between fathers and romantic partners; mothers have the lowest mean score. However, group differences in dismissing attachment were not significant, f (2, 389) = 1.21, p = .30; scores for mothers and romantic partners were similar; father means score was highest. For hypotheses 3 and 4 significant negative correlations were found between life satisfaction and dismissing parent, and romantic attachment, preoccupied father and romantic attachment, and mother and father rejection variables; secure attachment variables and parental acceptance were positively correlated with life satisfaction. Self-confidence was correlated only with mother acceptance. For emotional intelligence, seeking and providing comfort were negatively correlated with parent dismissing and mother rejection; secure mother and romantic attachment and mother acceptance were positively correlated with these variables. Use and understanding of self-emotions were negatively correlated with parent and partner dismissing attachment, and parent rejection; romantic secure attachment and parent acceptance were positively correlated. Expressing warmth was negatively correlated with dismissing attachment variables, romantic preoccupied attachment, and parent rejection; whereas attachment secure variables were positively associated. Understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs were correlated with parent dismissing and preoccupied attachment variables and mother rejection; only secure father attachment was positively correlated.
A Systematic Review on Assessing the Prevalence, Types, and Predictors of Sleep Disturbances in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury
Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence, types, and predictors of sleep disturbances in childhood TBI. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. Out of the 547 articles assessed, 15 met selection criteria for this review. Results: Sleep disturbances were common in children and adolescents with TBI, irrespective of injury severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia were the most common sleep disturbances reported. Sleep disturbance was predicted by sex, injury severity, pre-existing sleep disturbances, younger age, pain, and high body mass index. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in childhood TBI, regardless of the injury severity. Routine assessment of sleep in survivors of childhood TBI is recommended.
Clothing and Personnel Selection: An Experimental Study to Test the Effects of Dress Style on Hirability Perceptions
The so called “red sneakers effect” refers to people’s inclination to infer status and competence from signals of nonconformity. In the current research, we explore an untested possible boundary condition to the red sneakers effect within the context of personnel selection. In two experimental studies (total N = 156), we examined how (non)conforming dress style interacts with the quality of a job applicant’s resume to determine hirability perceptions. We found that dress style indeed impacts hirability perceptions, but that the exact impact depends on the quality of the applicant’s resume. Results revealed that applicants with a low quality resume were punished for behaving in a nonconforming way, whereas applicants with a high quality resume appeared to have the leeway to dress as they please. Importantly, the observed interaction effect was mediated by perceptions of power. These findings suggest that nonconforming dress acts as a power-signaling mechanism in the context of personnel selection. However, the signaling effects of non-conforming dress style can backfire when accompanied by evidence that such posturing is not matched by cues of actual competence.
Personality-Focused Intervention for Adolescents: Impact on Bullying and Distress
Introduction: There is a lack of targeted prevention programs for reducing bullying and distress among adolescents involved in bullying. The current study aimed to examine the impact of a personality-targeted intervention (Preventure) on bullying (victimization and perpetration) and distress among adolescent victims/bullies with high-risk personality types. Method: A cluster randomized trial (RCT) was conducted in 26 secondary schools (2190 students) in NSW and Victoria, Australia, as part of the Climate Schools and Preventure trial. The schools were randomly allocated to Preventure (13 schools received Preventure, 13 did not). Students were followed up at 4 time points (6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-baseline). Preventure involves two group sessions, based on cognitive behavioral therapy, and tailored to four personality types shown to increase risk of substance misuse and other emotional and behavioural problems, including impulsivity, sensation-seeking, anxiety sensitivity and hopelessness. Students were allocated to the personality-targeted groups based on their scores on the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Bullying was measured using an amended version of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Scale. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Results: Among high-risk students classified as victims at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less victimization and distress over time than those in control schools. Among high-risk students classified as bullies at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less distress over time than those in control schools (no difference for perpetration). Conclusion: Preventure is a promising intervention for reducing bullying victimization and psychological distress among adolescents involved in bullying.
The Effect of Mindfulness on Eating Enjoyment and Behavior in Preschool and Elementary Children: A Field Experiment across Four Schools
Sixty-five children across four school research sites participated in the present experiment, which was designed to examine whether mindfulness promotes eating enjoyment and diverse eating behaviors in preschool- and early elementary-age children. Children, ages 3-9 years old, were randomly assigned to a 4-week mindfulness intervention condition or a 4-week exposure, control condition. Each week for four days, children received one of four different foods (celery, cauliflower, kidney beans, or garbanzo beans). Children either received instructions to mindfully engage with the food or were given the food and allowed to eat without mindfulness prompts from the researchers. Following the eating exercise, they recorded the amount eaten and rated their enjoyment level. Across all sessions, researchers modeled eating behaviors for the children by eating all the offered food. Results suggested that a brief mindfulness intervention promoted more diverse eating behaviors and more overall food consumption of typically not preferred and unfamiliar foods (celery, cauliflower, and garbanzo beans), compared with an exposure, control condition in preschool children and elementary-age children. However, food enjoyment ratings did not significantly differ between the two conditions for any of the foods. Implications of the finding for addressing eating behavior of young children are considered.
The Effects of Future Priming on Resource Concern
Climate changes, including rising sea levels and increases in global temperature, can have major effects on resource availability, leading to increased competition for resources and rising food prices. The abstract nature and often delayed consequences of many ecological problems cause people focus on immediate, specific, and personal events and circumstances that compel immediate and emotional involvement. This finding may be explained by the challenges humans have in imagining themselves in the future, a shortcoming that interferes with decision-making involving far-off rewards, and leads people to indicate a lower concern toward the future than to present circumstances. The present study sought to assess whether priming people to think of themselves in the future might strengthen the connection to their future selves and stimulate environmentally-protective behavior. We hypothesize that priming participants to think about themselves in the future would increase concern for the future environment. 45 control participants were primed to think about themselves in the present, and 42 participants were primed to think about themselves in the futures. After priming, the participants rated their concern over access to clean water, food, and energy on a scale of 1 to 10. They also rated their predicted care levels for the environment at age points 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 on a scale of 1(not at all) to 10 (very much). Predicted care levels at age 90 for the experimental group was significantly higher than for the control group. Overall the experimental group rated their concern for resources higher than the control. In comparison to the control group (M=7.60, SD=2.104) participants in the experimental group had greater concern for clean water (M=8.56, SD=1.534). In comparison to the control group (M=7.49, SD=2.041) participants in the experimental group were more concerned about food resources (M=8.41, SD=1.830). In comparison to the control group (M=7.22, SD=1.999) participants in the experimental group were more concerned about energy resources (M=8.07, SD=1.967). This study assessed whether a priming strategy could be used to encourage pro-environmental practices that protect limited resources. Future-self priming helped participants see past short term issues and focus on concern for the future environment.
Emotional Intelligence as a Correlate of Conflict Management Styles among Managers and Supervisors in Work Organizations in Nigeria
The study investigated emotional intelligence as a correlate of conflict management styles among managers and supervisors in work organization. The study was a survey and Ex-post facto design was employed. A total of 407 participants took part in the study, and the participants were selected across different work organizations in the six (6) existing Geo-political zones in Nigeria, namely South-West, South East, South-South, North-East, North-West and North-Central. Questionnaire format was used for data collection in the study. Collected data were analyzed by both the Descriptive and Inferential Statistics, specifically using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. The findings revealed that considerate leadership style was significantly and positively related to the use of collaborating conflict management style, [r(405) = .50**, P < .01]; Considerate leadership style was significantly and positively related to the use of compromising conflict management style, [r(405) = .3**, P < .01]; Considerate leadership style was significantly and positively related to accommodation conflict management style, [r(405) = .64**, P < .01]; Considerate leadership style was not significantly related to competing conflict management style, [r(405) = .07, P > .05]; Considerate leadership style was significantly and negatively related to avoiding conflict management style, [r(405) = -.38**, P < .01]. Further, initiating structural leadership style was significantly and positively related to competing conflict management style, [r(405) = .33**, P < .01], avoiding conflict management style, [r(405) = .41**, P < .01]; collaborating conflict management style [r(405) = 51**, P < .01]. However, the findings showed that initiating structural leadership style was significantly and negatively related to compromising style, [r(405) = -.57**, P < .01] and accommodating style, [r(405) = -.13**, P < .01]. The findings were extensively discussed in relation to the existing body of literature. Moreover, it was concluded that leadership styles of managers and supervisors play a crucial role in the choice and use of conflict management styles in work organizations in Nigeria.
Grandparent's Psychologically Control, Parent's Well-Being and the Coparenting Practice among Vietnamese Families
Parenting psychological control (PPC) is a parenting manner of which intrusive tactics such as guilt induction, shaming or love withdrawal is adopted to manipulate the child's behavior, emotion and beliefs. PPC has been widely reported to be associated with both psychological dysfunction and low self-esteem in adolescents. Highly demanding and restrictive parenting was also found to related to high rate of risk behaviors, depression, anxiety and anti-social behaviors in adults who co-live with their parents. In many cultures like that of Asia, adults keep on co-live with their parents even after having their own families, and this is not an uncommon practice. Due to the culture obligation of family relationship and the filial piety, children are expected to stay with their parents to taking care of them when they get older, and the parents are also expected to co-live with their children in order to support them with grandchild care. As one become a grandparent, however, it does not means one stop being the parent to their own child. The effect of PPC if exist thus might continue to interfere one’s relationship with their adult children and also their adult child’s parenting. This study was designed to examine that effect of PPC on adults’ life as parents. Data was collected from 501 Vietnamese parents whose children between the age of 2 to 12 and having their parent living with them or taking care of the grandchild on daily basic. Findings show that grandparent psychological control (GPPC) is significantly associated with parent’s harsh parenting, parent’s well-being, and parent-grandparent coparenting relationship. Significantly, GPPC is the strongest predictor for the coparenting conflict between parent and grandparent.
Influence of Alcohol Consumption on Attention in Wistar Albino Rats
This Research investigated the influence of alcohol consumption on attention in Wister albino rats. It was designed to test whether or not alcohol consumption affected visual and auditory attention. The sample of this study comprise of 3males albino rats and 3 females albino rats which were randomly assigned to 3 (male/female each) groups, 1, 2 and 3. The first group which was experimental Group 1 received 4ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). The second group which was experimental group 2 received 2ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). Third group which was the control group only received water (placebo), all these happened within a period of 2 days. Three hypotheses were advanced and testedf in the study. Hypothesis 1 stated that there will be no significant difference between the response speed of albino rats that consume alcohol and those that consume water on visual attention using 5-CSRTT. This was confirmed (DF (2, 9) = 0.72, P
Predicting Who Is Going to Respond to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Psychosis Using Supervised Machine Learning
There has been an increasing interest in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms by which psychological interventions exert their therapeutic effect. Approximately 50% of patients respond to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) making it important to better understand the factors that determine treatment outcomes. To date, no studies have examined whether neuroimaging can make clinically useful predictions about who will respond to CBTp. To this end, we availed of machine learning methods capable of making these predictions about response on an individual patient basis. Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n=22) completed a social affective processing task during functional magnetic imaging prior to receiving CBTp. Multivariate regression analyses on brain responses to socially threatening facial affect significantly predicted symptom improvement, with distinct neural signatures for psychotic (r=0.40, P=0.03) and affective (r=0.48, P=0.01) symptoms. Whereas accurate prediction of psychotic symptoms was largely based on functional activity across visual and parietal regions, affective symptoms were predicted by activity across frontal and cerebellar regions. As a proof of concept, these findings confirm that pre-treatment brain activity can predict CBTp treatment response and enhance our understanding of the neural networks that mediate symptom improvement. This study provides a foundation for larger scale studies that may ultimately lead to greater precision and tailoring of interventions offered to individual patients.
Moving on or Deciding to Let Go: The Effects of Emotional and Decisional Forgiveness on Intentional Forgetting
Different types of forgiveness (emotional and decisional) have been shown to have differential effects on incidental forgetting of information related to a prior transgression. The present study explored the extent to which emotional and decisional forgiveness also influenced intentional forgetting; that is, the extent to which forgetting occurs following an explicit instruction to forget. Using the List-Method Directed Forgetting (LMDF) paradigm, 236 participants were presented with a hypothetical transgression and then assigned to an emotional forgiveness, a decisional forgiveness, or a no-forgiveness manipulation. Participants were then presented with two-word lists each comprising transgression-relevant and transgression-irrelevant words. Following the presentation of the first list, participants were told to either remember or forget the previously learned list of words. Participants in the emotional forgiveness condition were found to remember fewer relevant and more irrelevant transgression-related words, while the opposite was true for both decisional forgiveness and no-forgiveness conditions. Furthermore, when directed to forget words in List 1, participants in the decisional and no-forgiveness conditions were less able to forget relevant transgression-related words in comparison to participants in the emotional forgiveness condition. This study suggests that emotional forgiveness plays a pivotal role in the intentional forgetting of transgression-related information. The potential implications of these findings for coping with unpleasant incidents will be considered.
Informational Habits and Ideology as Predictors for Political Efficacy: A Survey Study of the Brazilian Political Context
Political participation, can be a somewhat tricky subject to define, not in small part due to the constant changes in the concept fruit of the effort to include new forms of participatory behavior that go beyond traditional institutional channels. With the advent of the internet and mobile technologies, defining political participation has become an even more complicated endeavor, given de amplitude of politicized behaviors that are expressed throughout these mediums, be it in the very organization of social movements, in the propagation of politicized texts, videos and images, or in the micropolitical behaviors that are expressed in daily interaction. In fact, the very frontiers that delimit physical and digital spaces have become ever more diluted due to technological advancements, leading to a hybrid existence that is simultaneously physical and digital, not limited, as it once was, to the temporal limitations of classic communications. Moving away from those institutionalized actions of traditional political behavior, an idea of constant and fluid participation, which occurs in our daily lives through conversations, posts, tweets and other digital forms of expression, is discussed. This discussion focuses on the factors that precede more direct forms of political participation, interpreting the relation between informational habits, ideology, and political efficacy. Though some of the informational habits can be considered political participation, by some authors, a distinction is made to establish a logical flow of behaviors leading to participation, that is, one must gather and process information before acting on it. To reach this objective, a quantitative survey is currently being applied in Brazilian social media, evaluating feelings of political efficacy, social and economic issue-based ideological stances and informational habits pertaining to collection, fact-checking, and diversity of sources and ideological positions present in the participant’s political information network. The measure being used for informational habits relies strongly on a mix of information literacy and political sophistication concepts, bringing a more up-to-date understanding of information and knowledge production and processing in contemporary hybrid (physical-digital) environments. Though data is still being collected, preliminary analysis point towards a strong correlation between information habits and political efficacy, while ideology shows a weaker influence over efficacy. Moreover, social ideology and economic ideology seem to have a strong correlation in the sample, such intermingling between social and economic ideals is generally considered a red flag for political polarization.
Factors in the Journey towards the Adoption of Sustainable Home Improvements by Home Owner Associations: A Qualitative Study
A large amount of dwellings in the Netherlands are collectively owned. By law, these properties must have a homeowner association (HOA) in which all owners are united. All members have a vote regarding maintenance and enhancements, including energy efficiency and energy production investments. No single household is allowed to invest in sustainable improvements that affect collective parts of the property, such as the roof. Homeowners will have to come to an agreement together. This makes the process complicated, and time and effort consuming, also for the involved product and service providers. In the current research, factors are uncovered that have an effect on the decision-making process from orientation until the official voting. In addition, it was explored how HOAs are currently being supported in their journey towards adopting sustainable home improvements. In order to uncover the relevant factors semi-structured interviews were held with eight product or service providers to HOAs, and with twenty HOA members (mostly chairmen) who experienced a successful or unsuccessful process towards sustainable home improvements. Findings were mapped onto the customer journey model in order to structure the experiences of HOAs during the dynamic decision making process. The results show that HOAs go through a journey consisting of five steps, from the search for possible enhancements until the meeting where all members vote about the sustainable enhancement. The journey is triggered by an internal motive (e.g., a high energy bill) or an external motive (e.g. a friend who recommends solar PV), and usually takes a couple of years. In each step, there are a number of factors that play an important role, with a total of fourteen factors. These factors can be rational (e.g., the amount of up-to-date knowledge about sustainable technologies; and the financial resources) or relational (e.g., the engagement of members; and the presence of a leader). Regarding the support for HOAs, the available information for HOAs is fragmented. In addition, there are relatively few tools available to support HOAs in their journey compared to the support that is available for private home owners. The rare tools that are available focus on the beginning and the end of the journey. Also, the subsidies that are available do not match with the journey of HOAs. As a consequence of the complex decision making process and the lack of support tools to help the decision makers (HOAs) these dwellings aren’t energy efficient nor producing energy. Hereby not fulfilling the enormous assignment of the Paris Climate Goals. In conclusion, there is an urgency and a lot of potential to stimulate and support HOAs. Insights in the journey – and the factors in each step – can be used by product and service providers that (would like to) stimulate and facilitate HOAs. By identifying in which step of the journey a HOA is at a certain point in time, they can adapt their services to the relevant factors. Hereby the process will become more efficient and effective.
The Effects of Current and Future Priming on Pro-Environmental Attitudes
This study assessed strategies to stimulate engagement with future environmental needs. 32 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions which involved imagining and drawing: 1) a generic person in current life, 2) one’s self in current life or 3) one’s self in the future. Participants before and after the intervention indicated connectedness to their selves 50 years in the future on an adapted Future Self-Continuity Scale. A significant interaction (p = .03) showed no difference in connectedness into one’s future self in the control group, a decrease in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the present and an increase in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the future. Results suggest attention to one’s present life circumstances may interfere with one’s connection with future environmental issues but imagining one’s future life may stimulate actions that result in future environmental protection.
Selective Effect of Occipital Alpha Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation in Perception and Working Memory
Rhythmic activity in different frequencies could subserve distinct functional roles during visual perception and visual mental imagery. In particular, alpha band activity is thought to play a role in active inhibition of both task-irrelevant regions and processing of non-relevant information. In the present blind placebo-controlled study we applied alpha transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in the occipital cortex both during a basic visual perception and a visual working memory task. To understand if the role of alpha is more related to a general inhibition of distractors or to an inhibition of task-irrelevant regions, we added a non visual distraction to both the tasks.Sixteen adult volunteers performed both a simple perception and a working memory task during 10 Hz tACS. The electrodes were placed over the left and right occipital cortex, the current intensity was 1 mA peak-to-baseline. Sham stimulation was chosen as control condition and in order to elicit the skin sensation similar to the real stimulation, electrical stimulation was applied for short periods (30 s) at the beginning of the session and then turned off. The tasks were split in two sets, in one set distracters were included and in the other set, there were no distracters. Motor interference was added by changing the answer key after subjects completed the first set of trials.The results show that alpha tACS improves working memory only when no motor distracters are added, suggesting a role of alpha tACS in inhibiting non-relevant regions rather than in a general inhibition of distractors. Additionally, we found that alpha tACS does not affect accuracy and hit rates during the visual perception task. These results suggest that alpha activity in the occipital cortex plays a different role in perception and working memory and it could optimize performance in tasks in which attention is internally directed, as in this working memory paradigm, but only when there is not motor distraction. Moreover, alpha tACS improves working memory performance by means of inhibition of task-irrelevant regions while it does not affect perception.
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program and Health-Related Quality of Life; A Randomized Control Trial
Pakistan being the developing country is facing double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. The aspect of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease in developing countries is the dire need for public health specialists, clinicians and policy makers. There is some evidence that psychotherapeutic measures, including psychotherapy, recreation, exercise and stress management training have positive impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases but there are some contradictory findings as well. Cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) has not yet fully implemented in Pakistan. Psychological, physical and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes needs assessment with respect to its practicality, effectiveness, and success. Objectives: To determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures of post MI patients compared to the usual care. Hypothesis: Post MI patients who receive the interventions (CRP) will have better HRQoL as compared to those who receive the usual cares. Methods: The randomized control trial was conducted at a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar. LRH is the biggest hospital of the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total 206 participants who had recent first myocardial infarction were inducted in the study. Participants were randomly allocated into two group i.e. usual care group (UCG) and cardiac rehabilitation group (CRG) by permuted-block randomization (PBR) method. CRP was conducted in CRG in two phases. Three HRQoL outcomes i.e. general health questionnaire (GHQ), self-rated health (SRH) and MacNew quality of life after myocardial infarction (MacNew QLMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits among both groups. Data were entered and analyzed by appropriate statistical test in STATA version 12. Results: A total of 195 participants were assessed at the follow-up period due to lost-to-follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 53.66 + 8.3 years. Males were dominant in both groups i.e. 150 (76.92%). Regarding educational status, majority of the participants were illiterate in both groups i.e. 128 (65.64%). Surprisingly, there were 139 (71.28%) who were non-smoker on the whole. The comorbid status was positive in 120 (61.54%) among all the patients. The SRH at follow-up among UCG and CRG was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.93, 4.19) and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.52) respectively (p< 0.001). GHQ at the follow-up of UCG and CRG was 20.91 (95% CI: 18.83, 21.97) and 7.43 (95% CI: 6.59, 8.27) respectively (p< 0.001). The MacNew QLMI at follow-up of UCG and CRG was 3.82 (95% CI: 3.7, 3.94) and 5.62 (95% CI: 5.5, 5.74) respectively (p< 0.001). All the HRQoL measures showed strongly significant improvement in the CRG at follow-up period. Conclusion: HRQOL improved in post MI patients after comprehensive CRP. Education of the patients and their supervision is needed when they are involved in their rehabilitation activities. It is concluded that establishing CRP in cardiac units, recruiting post-discharged MI patients and offering them CRP does not impose high costs and can result in significant improvement in HRQoL measures. Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000832370