Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 39602

Psychological and Behavioral Sciences

The Oppressive Boss and Employees' Authoritarianism: The Relation between Suppression of Voice by Employers and Employees' Preferences for Authoritarian Political Leadership
In contemporary society, economically active people typically spend most of their waking hours doing their job. Having that in mind, this research examines how socialization at the workplace shapes political preferences. Innovatively, it examines, in particular, the possible relationship between employees’ voice suppression by the employer and the formation of their political preferences. Since the employer is perceived as an authority figure, their behavior might induce spillovers to attitudes about political authorities and authoritarian governance. Therefore, a positive effect of suppression of voice by employers on employees' preference for authoritarian governance is expected. Furthermore, this relation is expected to be mediated by two mechanisms: system justification and power distance. Namely, it is expected that suppression of voice would create a power distance organizational climate and increase employees’ acceptance of unequal distribution of power, as well as evoke attempts of oppression rationalization through system justification. The hypotheses will be tested on the data gathered within the first wave of Work and Politics Dataset 2017 (N=6000), which allows for a wide range of demographic and psychological control variables. Although a cross-sectional analysis to be used at this point does not allow for causal inferences, the confirmation of expected relationships would encourage and justify further longitudinal research on the same panel dataset, in order to get a clearer image of the causal relationship between employers' suppression of voice and workers' political preferences.
Engagement as a Predictor of Student Flourishing in the Online Classroom
It has been shown that traditional students flourish as a function of several factors including level of academic challenge, student/faculty interactions, active/collaborative learning, enriching educational experiences, and supportive campus environment. With the increase in demand for remote or online courses, factors that result in academic flourishing in the virtual classroom have become more crucial to understand than ever before. This study seeks to give insight into those factors that impact student learning, overall student wellbeing, and flourishing among college students enrolled in an online program. 4160 unique students participated in the completion of End of Course Survey (EOC) before final grades were released. Quantitative results from the survey are used by program directors as a measure of student satisfaction with both the curriculum and the faculty. In addition, students also submitted narrative comments in an open comment field. No prompts were given for the comment field on the survey. The purpose of this analysis was to report on the qualitative data available with the goal of gaining insight into what matters to students. Survey results from July 1st, 2016 to December 1st, 2016 were compiled into spreadsheet data sets. The analysis approach used involved both key word and phrase searches and reading results to identify patterns in responses and to tally the frequency of those patterns. In total, just over 25,000 comments were included in the analysis. Preliminary results indicate that it is the professor-student relationship, frequency of feedback and overall engagement of both instructors and students that are indicators of flourishing in college programs offered in an online format. This qualitative study supports the notion that college students flourish with regard to 1) education, 2) overall student well-being and 3) program satisfaction when overall engagement of both the instructor and the student is high. Ways to increase engagement in the online college environment were also explored. These include 1) increasing student participation by providing more project-based assignments, 2) interacting with students in meaningful ways that are both high in frequency and in personal content, and 3) allowing students to apply newly acquired knowledge in ways that are meaningful to current life circumstances and future goals.
Attachment as a Predictor for Cognitive Rigidity
Attachment model formed in childhood has an important impact on emotional development, personality, and social relationships. Attachment is also thought to have an impact on construction of affective-cognitive schemas and cognitive functioning. The aim of the current study was to verify whether there is an association between attachment and cognitive rigidity defined as dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The analysis of 180 participants (persons of a similar age and education level, number of men and women was equal) was conducted. To test the attachment styles, the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (ECR-R) was used. To examine cognitive rigidity, the Rokeach and Budner questionnaires were used. A multiple regression model was employed to examine whether attachment styles are predictors for dogmatism. The results confirmed that fearful-ambivalent attachment is the main predictor for dogmatism but not for intolerance of ambiguity.
Behavioural Experiments of Small Societies in Social Media: Facebook Expressions of Anchored Relationships
Communities and societies have been changing towards computer mediated communication. This paper explores online and offline identities and how relationships are formed and negotiated within internet environments which offer opportunities for people who know each other offline and move into relationships online. The expectations and norms of behavior within everyday life cause people to be embodied self. According to age categories of the Turkish Cypriots; their measurements of attitudes in Facebook will be investigated. Face to face field research and semi-structured interview methods are used in the study. Face to face interview has been done with Turkish Cypriot whom are using Facebook already. According to the study, in constructing a linkage between real and virtual identities mostly affected from societal relations serves as a societal grooming tool for Turkish Cypriots.
The Relationship between Work-Life Balance and Commitment to Change in Digital-Based Startup Company
The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between work-life balance and employee commitment to change in the digital-based startup company. Work-life balance comprises of work interference with personal life (WIPL), personal life interference with work (PLIW), work enhancement of personal life (WEPL), and personal life enhancement of work (PLEW) dimensions. Commitment to change comprises of affective commitment to change, continuance commitment to change, and normative commitment to change dimensions. This study used Commitment to Change Inventory and Work/Nonwork Scale. Data collection took 24 days by spreading online questionnaires to employees of the digital-based startup company. Total subjects who accomplished to filled questionnaires were 112 employees. The researcher used descriptive statistic and Pearson’s product-moment correlation as statistical analysis techniques. Results indicated there was a significant relationship between WEPL and normative commitment to change (r = 0,24, p < 0,05). Limitation of this study was not considered any third variables in this study, for example, was the locus of control. Results of this study could contribute to company as a consideration to attend to work-life balance since it was related to employee commitment to change.
Implicit and Explicit Mechanisms of Emotional Contagion
Emotional contagion is characterized as an automatic tendency to synchronize behaviors that facilitate emotional convergence among humans. It might thus play a pivotal role to understand the dynamics of key social interactions. However, a few research has investigated its potential mechanisms. We suggest two complementary but independent processes that may underlie emotional contagion. The efficient contagion hypothesis, based on fast and implicit bottom-up processes, modulated by familiarity and spread of activation in the emotional associative networks of memory. Secondly, the emotional contrast hypothesis, based on slow and explicit top-down processes guided by deliberated appraisal and hypothesis-testing. In order to assess these two hypotheses, an experiment with 39 participants was conducted. In the first phase, participants were induced (between-groups) to an emotional state (positive, neutral or negative) using a standardized video taken from the FilmStim database. In the second phase, participants classified and rated (within-subject) the emotional state of 15 faces (5 for each emotional state) taken from the POFA database. In the third phase, all participants were returned to a baseline emotional state using the same neutral video used in the first phase. In a fourth phase, participants classified and rated a new set of 15 faces. The accuracy in the identification and rating of emotions was partially explained by the efficient contagion hypothesis, but the speed with which these judgments were made was partially explained by the emotional contrast hypothesis. However, results are ambiguous, so a follow-up experiment is proposed in which emotional expressions and activation of the sympathetic system will be measured using EMG and EDA respectively.
Headache Masquerading as Common Psychiatric Disorders in Patients of Low Economic Class in a Tertiary Care Setting
Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the presence of various psychiatric disorders in patients reporting with a headache as the only symptom. Methodology: 200 patients with the chief complain of a headache who visited the psychiatric OPD of a tertiary care were investigated. Out of them 50 who had pure psychiatric illness without any other neurological disease were investigated, and their diagnosis was made. Independent sample t-tests were applied to generate results. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis seen in the sample was Depression (64%) out of which 47% showed features of Depression with anxious distress. Other psychiatric disorders seen were Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Attacks, Somatic Symptom Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. For pure psychiatry, headache related illnesses female to male ratio was 1.64. Conclusion: The increasing frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients who only visit the doctor seeking treat a headache shows the need for better identification of psychiatric disorders because proper diagnosis and target of psychiatric treatment shall give complete relief to the patient’s symptomatology.
Intervening into the World of a Cyber-Bully
Technology has always been a double edged sword. The constant rut of updating oneself to a better and newer version is the new norm. ‘Being Online’ is the latest addition to one’s everyday routine. Availability of various social online platforms being served on a platter topped with easy and cheap access to the internet makes it simple and doable for people of all social backgrounds. Interestingly, in India, a recent development is the line of demarcation between people from varied backgrounds, doing the vanishing act. One finds everybody on at least one, if not more, social platforms in a desire to stay connected. For instance, this ranges from sending a ‘WhatsApp’ message to a vegetable vendor for ordering your daily needs to vendors and small entrepreneurs. Even a rickshaw puller now has access to a mobile phone, an internet connection and apps/ platforms to stay connected. Recent observations show the extent to which everyone is hooked on to their mobile phones/ tabs/ laptops/ etc. Young mothers use them to distract their children and keep them busy while they finish the task at hand. Exposure to this part of the technology at such a tender age requires responsible and careful handling. Talking of adolescents, their self- image depends on their online social image to a large extent. There is a desire to be liked and accepted by the peer group at all times. Cyber-bullying is a by-product of the 24/7 availability of these resources. There is enough research-based evidence to prove the psychosocial and emotional impact on the development and well-being of the victim. The present paper attempts to understand the dynamics of cyber bullying vis-à-vis the developmental and mental health issues faced by the bully.
Stimulus-Response and the Innateness Hypothesis: Childhood Language Acquisition of “Genie”
Scholars have long disputed the relationship between the origins of language and human behavior. Historically, behaviorist psychologist B. F. Skinner argued that language is one instance of the general stimulus-response phenomenon that characterizes the essence of human behavior. Another, more recent approach argues, by contrast, that language is an innate cognitive faculty and does not arise from behavior, which might develop and reinforce linguistic facility but is not its source. Pinker, among others, proposes that linguistic defects arise from damage to the brain, both congenital and acquired in life. Much of his argument is based on case studies in which damage to the Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas of the brain results in loss of the ability to produce coherent grammatical expressions when speaking or writing; though affected speakers often utter quite fluent streams of sentences, the words articulated lack discernible semantic content. Pinker concludes on this basis that language is an innate component of specific, classically language-correlated regions of the human brain. Taking a notorious 1970s case of linguistic maladaptation, this paper queries the dominant materialist paradigm of language-correlated regions. Susan “Genie” Wiley was physically isolated from language interaction in her home and beaten by her father when she attempted to make any sort of sound. Though without any measurable resulting damage to the brain, Wiley was never able to develop the level of linguistic facility normally achieved in adulthood. Having received a negative reinforcement of language acquisition from her father and lacking the usual language acquisition period, in adulthood Wiley was able to develop language only at a quite limited level in later life. From a contemporary behaviorist perspective, this case confirms the possibility of language deficiency without brain pathology. Wiley’s potential language-determining areas in the brain were intact, and she was exposed to language later in her life, but she was unable to achieve the normal level of communication skills, deterring socialization. This phenomenon and others like it in the case limited literature on linguistic maladaptation pose serious clinical, scientific, and indeed philosophical difficulties for both of the major competing theories of language acquisition, innateness, and linguistic stimulus-response. The implications of such cases for future research in language acquisition are explored, with a particular emphasis on the interaction of innate capacity and stimulus-based development in early childhood.
Heroic Villains: An Exploration of the Use of Narrative Plotlines and Emerging Identities within Recovery Stories of Former Substance Abusers
The purpose of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of how self-identity is negotiated and reconstructed by people in recovery from substance abuse. The approach draws on the notion that self-identity is constructed through stories. Specifically, dominant narratives of substance abuse involve the 'addict identity' in which the meaning of being an addict is constructed though social interaction and informed by broader social meanings of substance misuse, which are considered deviant. The addict is typically understood as out of control, weak and feckless. Users may unconsciously embody this addict identity which makes recovery less likely. Typical approaches to treatment employ the notion that recovery is much more likely when users change the way they think and feel about themselves by assembling a new identity. Recovery, therefore, involves a reconstruction of the self in a new light, which may mean rejecting a part of the self (the addict identity). One limitation is that previous research on this topic has been quantitative which, while useful, tells us little about how this process is best managed. Should one, for example, reject the past addict identity completely and move on to the new identity, or, is it more effective to accept the past identity and use this in the formation of the new non-user identity? The purpose of this research, then, is to explore how addicts in recovery have managed the transition between their past and current selves and whether this may inform therapeutic practice. Using a narrative approach, data were analyzed from five in-depth interviews with former addicts who had been abstinent for at least a year, and who were in some form of volunteering role at substance treatment services in the UK. Although participants' identified with a previous ‘addict identity,’ and made efforts to disassociate themselves from this, they also recognized that acceptance was an important part of reconstructing their new identity. The participants' narratives used familiar plot lines to structure their stories, in which they positioned themselves as the heroes in their own stories, rather than as victim of circumstance. Instead of rejecting their former addict identity, which would mean rejecting a part of the self, participants used their experience in a reconstructive and restorative way. The findings suggest that encouraging people to tell their story and accept their addict identity are important factors in successful recovery.
The Impact of Chess Training on Creativity in Children
Creativity is the ability to find hidden patterns, to make connections between seemingly unrelated phenomena, and to generate solutions. The child thinks beyond the usual solutions—using divergent thinking, thinking abstractly, weighing options, evaluating outcomes, and making decisions. The present study, funded by the Indian government, analyzed the effect of one-year chess training program on the creativity of school-going children of both genders. A pretest and posttest with control group design were used. The sample comprised 64 children: 32 children each in experimental (mean age = 11.86 years, SD = 1.44) and control (mean age = 12.03 years, SD = 1.14) groups. Children in the experimental group underwent weekly chess training with Winning Moves Chess Learning Program (Joseph, 2008) in the school. Children in the control group were engaged in routine extracurricular activities offered by the school. Creativity was assessed by Indian adaption of Wallach-Kogan Creativity Test. Pre-intervention equivalence of the two groups was established. Independent t-test analysis revealed that the experimental group had statistically significant gains in total creativity and Line Drawing and Pattern Meaning subtests compared to the control group. The game of chess uses primarily visuo-spatial strategies. The authors conclude that systematic chess training inculcates in the child the ability to think divergently, visualizing the pros and cons of the various chess moves. The child who develops the ability to think in creative ways in playing chess is likely to transfer this learning to dealing with life challenges creatively. Intensive chess training as a part of school activities appears to have a broad spectrum of outcomes. The educational implications are significant.
The Enhancement of Training of Military Pilots Using Psychophysiological Methods
Optimal human performance is a key goal in the professional setting of military pilots which is a highly challenging one. Aviation environment requires substantial cognitive effort and is rich in potential stressors. Therefore it is important to analyze variables such as mental workload to ensure safety conditions. Pilot mental workload could be measured through several tools, but most of them are very subjective. This paper details research conducted with military pilots using psychophysiological methods such as electroencephalography (EEG) and heart rate monitor (HR). The data were measured in the simulator as well as in a real flight conditions. All of the pilots were exposed to highly demanding flight tasks and showed big individual differences. On that basis, the individual pattern for each pilot was created counting different EEG features and heart rate variations. Later on, it was possible to distinguish the most difficult flight tasks for each pilot that should be more extensively trained. For the purpose of the training, an application was developed for the instructors to decide of the specific tasks to focus on in follow-up training. This complex system can help instructors detect mentally demanding parts of the flight and enhance training of military pilots to achieve optimal performance.
The Applications and Effects of the Career Courses of Taiwanese College Students with LEGO® Serious Play®
LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® is a kind of facilitated workshop of thinking and problem-solving approach. Participants built symbolic and metaphorical brick models in response to tasks given by the facilitator and presented these models to other participants. LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® applied the positive psychological mechanism of Flow and positive emotions to help participants perceiving self-experience and unknown fact and increasing the happiness of life by building bricks and narrating story. At present, LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® are often utilized for facilitating professional identity and strategy development to assist workers in career development. The researcher desires to apply LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® to the career courses of college students in order to promote their career ability. This study aimed to use the facilitative method of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® to develop the career courses of college students, then explore the effects of Taiwanese college students' positive and negative emotions, professional identity, and career sense of hope by LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® career courses. The researcher will regard strength as the core concept and use the facilitative mode of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® to develop the 8 weeks career courses, which including ‘career highlights’, ‘career strengths’, ‘professional identity’, ‘the 3 by 3 grid of career’, ‘career change’, ‘career coping’, ‘strength guiding principles’, ‘career visions’, etc. The researcher will adopt problem-oriented teaching method to give tasks which according to the weekly theme, use the facilitative mode of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® to guide participants to respond tasks by building bricks. Then participants will conduct group discussions, reports, and writing reflection journals weekly. Participants will be 50 second-grade college students. They will attend LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® career courses for 2 hours a week. The researcher will use ‘Positive and Negative Affect Schedule’ and ‘Career Hope Scale’ to conduct pre-test and post-test. The time points of implementation testing will be one week before courses starting, one day after courses ending respectively. Then the researcher will adopt repeated measures one-way ANOVA for analyzing data. The results revealed that the participants significantly presented immediate effect in a positive effect, negative effect, career agent, and career pathway. The researcher hopes to construct the mode of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® career courses by this study, and to make a substantial contribution to the future career teaching and researches of LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY®.
Neural Restoration Training Improves Visual Functions and Expands Visual Field of Patients with Homonymous Visual Field Defects
In recent years the introduction of visual rehabilitation for patients with homonymous visual field defects has been met with both enthusiasm and reserve. Despite the evidence that restitutive training produces expansion of visual field, several concerns have been raised. First, the use of only one technique to assess visual field expansion, often not incorporating a 2D eye tracking system assessment, does not rule out the possibility that the improvements reported are artifactual in nature, perhaps reflecting compensatory strategies rather than restitution of functions. Second, most training protocols involve detection of light stimuli presented at the transition zone (TZ) between the seeing and blindfield, thus activating alternative routes to process visual information with respect to the geniculo-striate pathway. These extrastriate pathways are unsuitable for mediating high resolution performance in daily visual tasks. Eight patients with homonymous visual field defects caused by trauma, cerebral ischemia or haemorrhage (lesion age > 6 months) were trained, from six to eight months, with Neural Restoration Therapy (NRT). NRT consisted in detecting low contrast Gabor patches, static, drifting or flickering, varying in spatial frequencies and orientation and randomly presented either along the TZ or within the blind field (and in a symmetrical position in normal field for control). Before and after the training we assessed visual fields expansion and improvement in high-level visual functions. Visual field was measured with three different perimetric testing: conventional Humphrey, High-resolution-dynamic perimetry (HRDP), transition-zone perimetry (TZP). Transfer to high-level functions was measured through letter identification task at the TZ and shape recognition within the blindfield. All tests performed with a 2D eye movements recording. All patients obtained, as a consequence of NRT, a significant increase in contrast sensitivity for the trained Gabor stimuli, so that their position along the transition zone could be shifted towards the blindfield during the training. NRT lead to significant visual field enlargement (5 deg on average). Results also showed an increase in visual acuity for SLOAN letters which, after NRT, become identifiable at increasing distances (between 2 to 12 deg) from the pretest individual TZ. Finally, for some patients, NRT also improved explicit recognition of geometrical shapes entirely presented within the blindfield. These results suggest that NRT may lead to visual field enlargement and translate into improved visual functions both at the TZ and within the blindfield.
Pupil Size: A Measure of Identification Memory in Target Present Lineups
Pupil size has been found to change irrespective of luminosity, suggesting that it can be used to make inferences about cognitive processes, such as cognitive load. To see whether identifying a target requires a different cognitive load to rejecting distractors, the effect of viewing a target (compared with viewing distractors) on pupil size was investigated using a sequential video lineup procedure with two lineup sessions. Forty one participants were chosen randomly via the university. Pupil sizes were recorded when viewing pre target distractors and post target distractors and compared to pupil size when viewing the target. Overall, pupil size was significantly larger when viewing the target compared with viewing distractors. In the first session, pupil size changes were significantly different between participants who identified the target (Hits) and those who did not. Specifically, the pupil size of Hits reduced significantly after viewing the target (by 26%), suggesting that cognitive load reduced following identification. The pupil sizes of Misses (who made no identification) and False Alarms (who misidentified a distractor) did not reduce, suggesting that the cognitive load remained high in participants who failed to make the correct identification. In the second session, pupil sizes were smaller overall, suggesting that cognitive load was smaller in this session, and there was no significant difference between Hits, Misses and False Alarms. Furthermore, while the frequency of Hits increased, so did False Alarms. These two findings suggest that the benefits of including a second session remain uncertain, as the second session neither provided greater accuracy nor a reliable way to measure it. It is concluded that pupil size is a measure of face recognition strength in the first session of a target present lineup procedure. However, it is still not known whether cognitive load is an adequate explanation for this, or whether cognitive engagement might describe the effect more appropriately. If cognitive load and cognitive engagement can be teased apart with further investigation, this would have positive implications for understanding eyewitness identification. Nevertheless, this research has the potential to provide a tool for improving the reliability of lineup procedures.
Effects of the Gratitude Program on the Gratitude, Well-Being, Perceived Stress, and Stress Coping of Nurses
Little has been done to customize an appropriate program on gratitude for nurses, who work in high-stress environments. The purpose of this study is to design an appropriate program on gratitude for nurses and to investigate the effects of the program. Based on research done by Kaohsiung Medical University’s Positive Psychology Center, the only one of its kind in Taiwan, one of the top five strengths of nurses is gratitude. Instead of adapting from an older model created from past research, the Gratitude Workshop is developed from a quasi-experimental approach and designed with five additional dimensions that emphasize gratitude: thanking others, thanking one's surroundings, cherishing what one has, appreciating hardships, and appreciating the present. A sample of 84 nurses was randomly selected from the Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital; 43 of who participated in the nine-hour Gratitude Workshop that spanned over three weeks, while the other 41 were part of the waitlist control group. The pretest and posttest included five questionnaires: Inventory of Undergraduates' Gratitude, The Gratitude Questionnaire-6, Mental Health Continuum‐Short Form, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Results of the research showed that the Gratitude Workshop elevates gratitude, well-being, and perceived stress on the nurses; however, it was also found in the Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire that the Gratitude Workshop only heightened the regulation of emotions.
Analysis of the Social Problems of the Early Adolescents in Northeast China
The social problems of early adolescents in Northeast China were examined with the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). In this study, the data consisted of 2532 early adolescents. The relevant variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends, as independent variables have been included in this study. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 2532 participants. The analysis results indicated that sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends, as predictors can be used in a predictive model, which significantly predict the social problem T-score.
Gaualofa: Tsunami Impact and Samoan Grief Recovery
When a disaster strike, the resultant impact and devastation forces many people, particularly those directly affected, to re-examine the core dimensions of life that do not come from other life events. The way people respond to and try give meaning to their experiences resultant from the ruptures of trauma remains vital in grief recovery. On 29 October 2009, an earthquake of 8.3 magnitudes generated a galulolo (tsunami) wave that destroyed parts of American Samoa, Tonga and Samoa (previously Western Samoa). Aside from the physical and natural devastation, many people lost their lives and their livelihood. For health professionals who were called upon to provide psychosocial support, this calamity provided an ideal setting to examine and explore how those directly impacted recovered from the calamity. The experiences of a Samoan couple, Fia and Ola, becomes the key focus of this article, one that situates their mourning patterns and recovery journey in the context of Samoan culture. Examining grief from this perspective creates a cultural space to extend indigenous understanding on the complexities of grieving and customarily responses of Samoan people, like this couple, to disaster recovery.
An Investigation of the Effects of Emotional Experience Induction on Mirror Neurons System Activity with Regard to Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of emotional experience induction in the mirror neuron system (MNS) activity with regard to the spectrum of depressive symptoms. For this purpose, at first stage, 449 students of Kharazmi University of Tehran were selected randomly and completed the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Then, 36 students with standard Z-score equal or above +1.5 and equal or equal or below -1.5 were selected to construct two groups of high and low spectrum of depressive symptoms. In the next stage, the basic activity of mirror neurons system was recorded (mu wave) before presenting the positive and negative emotional video clips by Electroencephalography (EEG) technique. The findings related to emotion induction (neutral, negative and positive emotion) demonstrated that the activity of recorded mirror neuron areas had a significant difference between the depressive and non-depressive groups. These findings suggest that probably processing of negative emotions in depressive individuals is due to the idea that the mirror neurons in motor cortex matched up the activity of cognitive regions with the person’s schema. Considering the results of the present study, it could be said that the MNS provides a substrate where emotional disorders can be studied and evaluated.
Generative Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being in Mexican Elders
Since recent decades, the aging has been viewed from a more positive perspective, where is not only about losses and damage, but also about being on a stage where you can enjoy life and live with well-being and quality of life. The challenge to feel better is to find those resources that seniors have. For that reason, psychological well-being has shown interest in the study of the affect and life satisfaction (hedonic well-being), while from a more recent tradition, focus on the development of capabilities and the personal growth, considering both as the main indicators of the quality of life. A resource that can be used in the later age is generativity, which refers to the ability of older people to develop and grow through activities that contribute with the improvement of the context in which they live and participate. In this way the generative interest is understood as a favourable attitude that contribute to the common benefit while strengthening and enriching the social institutions, to ensure continuity between generations and social development. On the other hand, generative behavior, differentiating from generative interest, is the expression of that attitude reflected in activities that make a social contribution and a benefit for generations to come. Hence the purpose of the research was to test if there is an association between the generative behaviour type and the psychological well-being with their dimensions. For this reason 188 Mexican adults from 60 to 94 years old (M = 69.78), 67% women, 33% men, completed two instruments: The Ryff’s Well-Being Scales to measure psychological well-being with 39 items with two dimensions (Hedonic and Eudaimonic well-being), and the Loyola’s Generative Behaviors Scale, grouped in five categories: Knowledge transmitted to the next generation, things to be remember, creativity, be productive, contribution to the community, and responsibility of other people. In addition, the socio-demographic data sheet was tested, and self-reported health status. The results indicated that the psychological well-being and its dimensions were significantly associated with the presence of generative behavior, where the level of well-being was higher when the frequency of some generative behaviour excelled; finding that the behavior with greater psychological well-being (M = 81.04, SD = 8.18) was "things to be remembered"; while with greater hedonic well-being (M = 73.39, SD = 12.19) was the behavior "responsibility of other people"; and with greater Eudaimonic well-being (M = 84.61, SD = 6.63), was the behavior "things to be remembered”. The most important findings highlight the importance of generative behaviors in adulthood, finding empirical evidence that the generativity in the last stage of life is associated with well-being. However, by finding differences in the types of generative behaviors at the level of well-being, is proposed the idea that generativity is not situated as an isolated construct, but needs other contextualized and related constructs that can simultaneously operate at different levels, taking into account the relationship between the environment and the individual, encompassing both the social and psychological dimension.
The Idea of Reputation in a Post-Truth Era
This paper considers the importance of acquiring, cultivating, and protecting one’s personal online reputation in a post-truth era. Although the idea of the individual is essential psychological construct, the concept necessarily now includes our online reputation. The idea of this online reputation has expanded to become almost more important than any other factor in terms of our professional, social and psychological development. The discussion will first consider philosophical ideas of the self, followed by an examination of underlying concepts of perception and interpretation in a post-truth world. Then, the idea of the recent shift to a consideration of posted images, through words and photos, in the construction of self, will be discussed. Next, the relation between private personal life and exterior social life, including our reputation in a variety of realms will be addressed. This will include the adoption of specific strategies and behaviors, which facilitate accuracy, currency and necessary modifications with regard to our online reputation. Finally, specific ways in which we can negotiate the fluid dynamic between reputation, and inner and outer selves to optimum effect will conclude the discussion.
Structural and Functional Correlates of Reaction Time Variability in a Large Sample of Healthy Adolescents and Adolescents with ADHD Symptoms
Reaction time (RT) variability on cognitive tasks provides the index of the efficiency of executive control processes (e.g. attention and inhibitory control) and is considered to be a hallmark of clinical disorders, such as attention-deficit disorder (ADHD). Increased RT variability is associated with structural and functional brain differences in children and adults with various clinical disorders, as well as poorer task performance accuracy. Furthermore, the strength of functional connectivity across various brain networks, such as the negative relationship between the task-negative default mode network and task-positive attentional networks, has been found to reflect differences in RT variability. Although RT variability may provide an index of attentional efficiency, as well as being a useful indicator of neurological impairment, the brain substrates associated with RT variability remain relatively poorly defined, particularly in a healthy sample. Method: Firstly, we used the intra-individual coefficient of variation (ICV) as an index of RT variability from “Go” responses on the Stop Signal Task. We then examined the functional and structural neural correlates of ICV in a large sample of 14-year old healthy adolescents (n=1719). Of these, a subset had elevated symptoms of ADHD (n=80) and was compared to a matched non-symptomatic control group (n=80). The relationship between brain activity during successful and unsuccessful inhibitions and gray matter volume were compared with the ICV. A mediation analysis was conducted to examine if specific brain regions mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and ICV. Lastly, we looked at functional connectivity across various brain networks and quantified both positive and negative correlations during “Go” responses on the Stop Signal Task. Results: The brain data revealed that higher ICV was associated with increased structural and functional brain activation in the precentral gyrus in the whole sample and in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Lower ICV was associated with lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus in the whole sample and in the control group. Furthermore, our results indicated that activation in the precentral gyrus (Broadman Area 4) mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and behavioural ICV. Conclusion: This is the first study first to investigate the functional and structural correlates of ICV collectively in a large adolescent sample. Our findings demonstrate a concurrent increase in brain structure and function within task-active prefrontal networks as a function of increased RT variability. Furthermore, structural and functional brain activation patterns in the ACC, and medial frontal gyrus plays a role-optimizing top-down control in order to maintain task performance. Our results also evidenced clear differences in brain morphometry between adolescents with symptoms of ADHD but without clinical diagnosis and typically developing controls. Our findings shed light on specific functional and structural brain regions that are implicated in ICV and yield insights into effective cognitive control in healthy individuals and in clinical groups.
An Exploratory Study of Wellbeing in Irish Primary Schools towards Developing a Shared Understanding amongst Teachers
Wellbeing in not only a national priority in Ireland but in the international context. A review of the literature highlights the consistent efforts of researchers to define the concept of wellbeing. This study sought to explore the understating of Wellbeing in Irish primary schools. National Wellbeing Guidelines in the Irish context frame the concept of wellbeing through a mental health paradigm, which is but one aspect of wellbeing. This exploratory research sought the views of Irish primary school teachers on their understanding of the concept of wellbeing and the practical application of strategies to promote wellbeing both in the classroom and across the school. Teacher participants from four counties in the West of Ireland were invited to participate in focus group discussion and workshops through the Education Centre Network. The purpose of this process was twofold; firstly to explore teachers’ understanding of wellbeing in the primary school context and, secondly, for teachers to be co-creators in the development of practical strategies for classroom and whole school implementation. The voice of the teacher participants was central to the research design. The findings of this study indicate that the definition of wellbeing in the Irish context is too abstract a definition for teachers and the focus on mental health dominates the discourse in relation to wellbeing. Few teachers felt that they were addressing wellbeing adequately in their classrooms and across the school. The findings from the focus groups highlighted that while teachers are incorporating a range of wellbeing strategies including mindfulness and positive psychology, there is a clear disconnect between the national definition and the implementation of national curricula which causes them concern. The teacher participants requested further practical strategies to promote wellbeing at whole school and classroom level within the framework of the Irish Primary School Curriculum and enable them to become professionally confident in developing a culture of wellbeing. In conclusion, considering wellbeing is a national priority in Ireland, this research promoted the timely discussion the wellbeing guidelines and the development of a conceptual framework to define wellbeing in concrete terms for practitioners. The centrality of teacher voices ensured the strategies proposed by this research is both practical and effective. The findings of this research have prompted the development of a national resource which will support the implementation of wellbeing in the primary school at both national and international level.
The Causal Relationships between Educational Environments and Rule-Breaking Behavior Issues in Early Adolescence
This study focused on early adolescent rule-breaking behavioral problems using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the rule-breaking behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 2532 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a path analysis method was used to explore the correlational and causal relationships among background variables and breaking behavior variables.
An Examination of the Effectiveness of iPad-Based Augmentative and Alternative Intervention on Acquisition, Generalization and Maintenance of the Requesting Information Skills of Children with Autism
Technology has been argued to offer distinct advantages and benefits for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to communicate. One aspect of this technology is augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems such as picture exchange or speech generation devices. Whilst there has been significant progress in teaching these children to request their wants and needs with AAC, there remains a need for developing technologies that can really make a difference in teaching them to ask questions. iPad-based AAC can be effective for communication. However, the effectiveness of this type of AAC in teaching children to ask questions needs to be examined. Thus, in order to examine the effectiveness of iPad-based AAC in teaching children with ASD to ask questions, This research will test whether iPad leads to more learning than a traditional approach picture and text cards does. Two groups of children who use AAC will be taught to ask ‘What is it?’ questions. With the first group, low-tech AAC picture and text cards will be used, while an iPad-based AAC application called Proloquo2Go will be used with the second group. Interviews with teachers and parents will be conducted before and after the experiment. The children’s perspectives will also be considered. The initial outcomes of this research indicate that iPad can be an effective tool to help children with autism to ask questions.
The Lived Experiences of Fathers with Children Who Have Cerebral Palsy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
Fathers are there not only to provide the financial stability of a family but a father is also there to provide the love and support that usually people would see as the mother’s responsibility. To describe the lived experiences and how fathers make sense of their lived experiences with their children who have cerebral palsy is the main objective of the study. A qualitative research using a thematic analysis was used for the study. The qualitative research focused on the personal narratives, self-report and expression of the participant’s memory in terms of how they tell their stories. The interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to focus on the experience of the participants on how they will describe their experiences, and to also add on that the IPA will also attempt to describe and explain the meaning of human experiences using interview, specifically on the father who have a child that suffers from cerebral palsy. For the sampling technique, the snowball technique was used to gather participants from the referral of other participants. The five non-randomly selected fathers will be served as the participants for the research. A self-made interview with an open-ended question was used as the research instrument; it includes profiling of the respondent as well as their experiences in taking care of their child that suffers from cerebral palsy. In analyzing a data, the researcher used the thematic analysis where in the interview was made into a transcript, then it was organized and divided themes. After that, the relations of each themes, was identified and it was later documented and translated into written text format using thematic grouping. Finally, the researcher analyzed each data according to its themes and put it in a table to be presented in the result section of the study And as for the result of the study, the researcher was able to come up with the four (4) main themes that most of the participants experienced and those are: The experiences in finding out about the condition of the Child, disclosing the condition of the child to the family and its emotional effect, The experiences of living the day of day realities in providing the physical, financial, emotional and a well balanced environment to the child, and the religious perspectives of the fathers. Along with those four (4) themes comes the subtheme which explains the themes in a more detailed explanation.
[Keynote Speech]: Evidence-Based Outcome Effectiveness Longitudinal Study on Three Approaches to Reduce Proactive and Reactive Aggression in Schoolchildren: Group CBT, Moral Education, Bioneurological Intervention
While aggression had high stability throughout developmental stages and across generations, it should be the top priority of researchers and frontline helping professionals to develop prevention and intervention programme for aggressive children and children at risk of developing aggressive behaviours. Although there is a substantial amount of anti-bullying programmes, they gave disappointingly small effect sizes. The neglectful practical significance could be attributed to the overly simplistic categorisation of individuals involved as bullies or victims. In the past three decades, the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression has been well-proved. As children displaying reactively aggressive behaviours have distinct social-information processing pattern with those showing proactively aggressive behaviours, it is critical to identify the unique needs of the two subtypes accordingly when designing an intervention. The onset of reactive aggression and proactive aggression was observed at earliest in 4.4 and 6.8 years old respectively. Such findings called for a differential early intervention targeting these high-risk children. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the author was the first to establish an evidence-based intervention programme against reactive and proactive aggression. With the largest samples in the world, the author, in the past 10 years, explored three different approaches and their effectiveness against aggression quantitatively and qualitatively with longitudinal design. The three approaches presented are (a) cognitive-behavioral approach, (b) moral education, with Chinese marital arts and ethics as the medium, and (c) bioneurological measures (omega-3 supplementation). The studies adopted a multi-informant approach with repeated measures before and after the intervention, and follow-up assessment. Participants were recruited from primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. In the cognitive-behavioral approach, 66 reactive aggressors and 63 proactive aggressors, aged from 11 to 17, were identified from 10,096 secondary-school children with questionnaire and subsequent structured interview. Participants underwent 10 group sessions specifically designed for each subtype of aggressor. Results revealed significant declines in aggression levels from the baseline to the follow-up assessment after 1 year. In moral education through the Chinese martial arts, 315 high-risk aggressive children, aged 6 to 12 years, were selected from 3,511 primary-school children and randomly assigned into four types of 10-session intervention group, namely martial-skills-only, martial-ethics-only, both martial-skills-and-ethics, and physical fitness (placebo). Results showed only the martial-skills-and-ethics group had a significant reduction in aggression after treatment and 6 months after treatment comparing with the placebo group. In the bioneurological approach, 218 children, aged from 8 to 17, were randomly assigned to the omega-3 supplement group and the placebo group. Results revealed that compared with the placebo group, the omega-3 supplement group had significant declines in aggression levels at the 6-month follow-up assessment. All three approaches were effective in reducing proactive and reactive aggression. Traditionally, intervention programmes against aggressive behaviour often adapted the cognitive and/or behavioural approach. However, cognitive-behavioural approach for children was recently challenged by its demanding requirement of cognitive ability. Traditional cognitive interventions may not be as beneficial to an older population as in young children. The present study offered an insightful perspective in aggression reduction measures.
Flow as a Positive Intervention for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
A research is proposed in the present paper to explore the role of flow in coping with traumatic experiences and attaining post-traumatic growth. A grounded theory research is proposed to be carried by analyzing memoirs of people who have been through trauma. A pilot study was carried out on two memoirs of women who were held captive for over ten years and were sexually assaulted repeatedly. The role of flow in their coping experiences was explored by analyzing the books. Some of the flow activities that were used by them were- drawing and daydreaming. Their narratives show the evidence for flow as having cathartic and healing effects on them. Applicability of the findings can take two forms: 1. Flow can be applied as a preventive technique to help the people who are going through trauma, 2. Flow can be adopted into a positive intervention to help people suffering from PTSD.
Development of an Instrument: The Contemporary Adolescent Well-Being Scale (CAWBS)
The aim of the present study was to develop a contemporaneous instrument measuring adolescent’s subjective well-being (SWB). The instrument development underwent a three-phase pilot study. Phase one (N = 31) used a qualitative approach to generate domains of SWB relevant to adolescents. During the second phase (N = 22), items were tested targeting these domains. Finally, the third phase (N = 22) assisted in addition, deletion and refinement according to the first two phases of the pilot. A total of 49 items were retained for the final version of the instrument. The Contemporary Adolescent Well-Being Scale (CAWBS) was administered to 1071 school children (599 girls) aged between ten to 18 years old (M = 14,70; SD = 1.45) from Queensland, Australia. Results confirmed the seven-factor construct hypothesized and explained 45% of the variance. The questionnaire pertained to seven domains of adolescent’s SWB, namely; Overall life satisfaction; Bullying; Body image; Social connectedness; Activities; Control appraisal; and Negative feelings. Reliability was shown to be acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from .58 to .89. Future research should refine the CAWBS and investigate the psychometric properties of this instrument.
Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Person–Organization Fit, Organizational Support, and Feelings of Violation
This study aims to examine whether perceived organizational support moderates the relationship between person–former organization fit and person–organization fit after the mediating effect of feelings of violation. A two-stage data collection method was used. Based on our research requirements, we only approached participants who were involuntary turnover from their former organizations and looking for a new job. Our final usable sample was comprised of a total of 264 participants from Taiwan. We followed Muller, Judd, and Yzerbyt, and Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes’s suggestions to test our moderated mediation model. This study found that employee perceived organizational support moderated the indirect effect of person–former organization fit on person–organization fit (through feelings of violation). Our study ends with a discussion of the main research findings and their limitations and presents suggestions regarding the direction of future studies and the empirical implications of the results.