Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54355

Psychological and Behavioral Sciences

1044
97495
The Role of Authority's Testimony in Preschoolers' Ownership Judgment: A Study with Conflicting Cues Method
Abstract:
Authorities often intervene in children’s property conflicts, which may affect young children’s ownership understanding. First possession is a typical rule of ownership judgment. We recruited Chinese preschoolers as subjects and investigated their ownership reasoning regarding first possession, by setting three conditions via a conflicting cues method, in which a third party (mother or peer friend)’s testimony was always opposite to the cue of first possession (authority/non-authority testimony condition), or only the cue of first possession was present (no testimony condition). In Study A, we examined forty-two 3- and 5-year olds’ attribution and justification of ownership. The results showed while 5-year olds gave more support for the first possessor as the owner across three conditions, 3-year olds’ choice for the first possessor had no difference from the non-first possessor in the authority testimony condition. Moreover, 3-year olds tended to justify by reference to what mother said in the authority testimony condition, 5-year olds consistently referred to the first possession in three conditions. In Study B, we added two ownership questions to quantify children’s ability of ownership reasoning with four age groups (n = 32 for the 3-year-olds, n = 33 for the 4-year-olds, n = 27 for the 5-year olds and n = 30 for the adults) to explore the developmental trajectory further. It revealed that while 5-year olds’ performances were similar to the adults’ and always judged the first possessor as owner in three conditions, 3- and 4-year olds’ performed at chance level in the authority testimony condition. The results imply that Chinese young preschooler’s ownership reasoning was susceptible to authority’s testimony. Family authority may play an important role in diluting children’s adherence to ownership principles, which will be helpful for children to learn to share with others.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1043
97181
A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Ethical Standards in Social and Behavioral Research
Authors:
Abstract:
The paper is to analyze research ethics in social and behavioral sciences from a cross-cultural perspective. A multi-phase study investigated implementations of ethical standards and guidelines in higher institutions in China. Institutional policies and procedures on human subject research and perceptions of human subject protection were assessed in the Chinese research universities from different regions. The findings of the study indicate that the implementations of ethical standards and guidelines vary from institution to institution and from region to region. Education and cultural backgrounds of the participants influence their perceptions of the welfare and privacy of human subjects. The results of the study reveal great differences and complexities in ethical standards for the protection of human subjects of research in contrast to the Western world. The Chinese collectivistic values and the cooperative-harmonious democracy play a significant role in perceiving and implementing ethical guidelines. Chinese researchers find themselves a long way to go before seeing implementations of regulations and guidelines on human subject research in social and behavioral sciences.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1042
96933
Relationship between Learning Methods and Learning Outcomes: Focusing on Discussions in Learning
Abstract:
Although there is ample evidence that student involvement enhances learning, college education is still mainly centered on lectures. However, in recent years, the effectiveness of discussions and the use of collective intelligence have attracted considerable attention. This study intends to examine the empirical effects of discussions on learning outcomes in various conditions. Eighty eight college students participated in the study and were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 was told to review material after a lecture, as in a traditional lecture-centered class. Students were given time to review the material for themselves after watching the lecture in a video clip. Group 2 participated in a discussion in groups of three or four after watching the lecture. Group 3 participated in a discussion after studying on their own. Unlike the previous two groups, students in Group 3 did not watch the lecture. The participants in the three groups were tested after studying. The test questions consisted of memorization problems, comprehension problems, and application problems. The results showed that the groups where students participated in discussions had significantly higher test scores. Moreover, the group where students studied on their own did better than that where students watched a lecture. Thus discussions are shown to be effective for enhancing learning. In particular, discussions seem to play a role in preparing students to solve application problems. This is a preliminary study and other age groups and various academic subjects need to be examined in order to generalize these findings. We also plan to investigate what kind of support is needed to facilitate discussions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1041
96607
Anti-Social Media: Implications of Social Media in the Form of Stressors on Our Daily Lives
Abstract:
This research aims to investigate the role of social media (Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in our daily lives and its implication on our everyday routine in the form of stressors. The study has been validated by a social media survey with 150 social media users belonging to various age groups. The study explores how social media can make an individual anti-social in his or her life offline. To explain the phenomenon, we have proposed and evaluated a model based on social media usage and stressors including burnout and social overload. Results, through correlation and regression tests, have revealed that with increase in social media usage, social overload and burnout also increases. Evidence for the fact that excessive social media usage causes social overload and burnout has been provided in the study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1040
96340
Study on the Focus of Attention of Special Education Students in Primary School
Abstract:
Special Education in Taiwan has been facing difficulties including shortage of teachers and lack in resources. Some students need to receive special education are thus not identified or admitted. Fortunately, information technologies can be applied to relieve some of the difficulties. For example, on-line multimedia courseware can be used to assist the learning of special education students and take pretty much workload from special education teachers. However, there may exist cognitive variations between students in special or regular educations, which suggests the design of online courseware requires different considerations. This study aims to investigate the difference in focus of attention (FOA) between special and regular education students of primary school in viewing the computer screen. The study is essential as it helps courseware developers in determining where to put learning elements that matter the most on the right position of screen. It may also assist special education specialists to better understand the subtle differences among various subtypes of learning disabilities. This study involves 76 special education students (among them, 39 are students with mental retardation, MR, and 37 are students with learning disabilities, LDs) and 42 regular education students. The participants were asked to view a computer screen showing a picture partitioned into 3 × 3 areas with each area filled with text or icon. The subjects were then instructed to mark on the prior given paper sheets, which are also partitioned into 3 × 3 grids, the areas corresponding to the pictures on the computer screen that they first set their eyes on. The data are then collected and analyzed. Major findings are listed: 1. In both text and icon scenario, significant differences exist in the first preferred FOA between special and regular education students. The first FOA for the former is mainly on area 1 (upper left area, 53.8% / 51.3% for MR / LDs students in text scenario; and 53.8% / 56.8% for MR / LDs students in icons scenario), while the latter on area 5 (middle area, 50.0% and 57.1% in text and icons scenarios). 2. The second most preferred area in text scenario for students with MR and LDs are area 2 (upper-middle, 20.5%) and 5 (middle area, 24.3%). In icons scenario, the results are similar, but lesser in percentage. 3. Students with LDs that show similar preference (either in text or icons scenarios) in FOA to regular education students tend to be of some specific sub-type of learning disabilities. For instance, students with LDs that chose area 5 (middle area, either in text or icon scenario) as their FOA are mostly ones that have reading or writing disability. Also, three (out of 13) subjects in this category, after going through the rediagnosis process, were excluded from being learning disabilities. In summary, the findings suggest when designing multimedia courseware for students with MR and LDs, the essential learning elements should be placed on area 1, 2 and 5. In addition, FOV preference may also potentially be used as an indicator for diagnosing students with LDs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1039
96152
Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations Theory
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper offers a critique of Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington's thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between 'groups' and 'categories'. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain the capacity for concerted action, i.e., become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations' transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington's clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of the presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1038
95998
A Comparative Study of Resilience in Third Culture Kids and Non Third Culture Kids
Abstract:
We live in the ‘age of migration’ where global migration and repatriation is the stark reality of human lives in the contemporary world. With increasing number of people migrating and repatriating for education, work, or crisis situations, there is an ever-growing need for active research into the effects of repatriation and migration on the psychological well-being of the migrants and expatriates. Moving across borders has resulted in individual developing a third culture and hence such individual are known as Third Culture Kids (TCKs). The aim of the study was to understand the difference in the resilience between Third Culture Kids and Non- Third Culture Kids and gain an insight into how resilience is shaped by migratory experience. The sample comprised of 200 participants that included 100 TCKs and 100 Non-TCKs. The participants were in the age range group of 17-26 years and were pursuing their college education in various parts of the world. The variable of Resilience was measured using the Resilience scale developed and standardized on TCK population which included subtests; Emotional Regulation, Impulse Control, Causal Analysis, Self Efficacy, Realistic Optimism, Empathy and Reaching Out. The data was obtained from in-person sessions and over Skype. The data was analyzed using independent sample t-tests. Results indicated that there is a significant difference between TCKs and Non-TCKs on Impulse Control, Causal Analysis, Realistic Optimism, Empathy and Reaching Out. However, no significant difference was found on the sub-variables of Self Efficacy and Emotional Regulation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1037
95975
Psychological Contract Breach and Violation Relationships with Stress and Wellbeing
Abstract:
Negative emotions resulting from the breach of perceived obligations by an employer is called the psychological contract violation. Employees perceiving breach and feelings of negative emotions result in adverse outcomes for both the employee and employer. This paper aims to identify the relationships between contract breach, violation, stress and wellbeing and investigate whether fairness and self-efficacy mediate the relationships. A mixed method approach was used to analyze the online-surveys and semi-structured interviews with the police officers. It was identified that the psychological contract violation predicts stress and job-related well-being. Fairness and self-efficacy were identified as significant mediators to understand the underlying mechanisms of association. Whilst, in the interviews social support was identified as a popular mediator. Practical implications for employers are discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1036
95907
Challenges, Chances and Possibilities during the Change Management Process of the National Defence Academy Vienna
Authors:
Abstract:
The National Defence Academy, an element of the Austrian Ministry of Defence, is undergoing a transition process leading the Academy towards a new target structure that is currently being developed. In so doing, in addition to a subject-oriented approach, also an employee-oriented process was introduced. This process was initiated by the Ministry of Defence and should lead the National Defence Academy into a new constellation. During this process, the National Defence Academy worked in very special adapted World Café sessions. The “change manager” dealed with very different issues. They took the data feedback from the sessions and prepared with the feedback and information from the guidance the next session. So they got various information and a very different picture around the academy. It was very helpful to involve most of the employees of the academy during this process and to take their knowledge and wisdom. The process himself started with very different feelings and ended with great consent. A very interesting part of this process was also that the commander and his deputy worked together during all of this sessions and they answered all questions from the employees in time. The adapted World Café phases were necessary to deal with the information of the staff and to implement these absolutely needful data into this process. In cooperation with the responsible Headquarters, the first items resulting from the World Café phases could already be fed back to the employees and be implemented. The staff-oriented process is currently supported via a point of contact, through which the staff can contribute ideas as well, but also by the active information policy on the part of the Headquarters. The described change process makes innovative innovations possible. So far, in the event of change processes staff members have been entrusted only with the concrete implementation plan and tied into the process when the respective workplaces were to be re-staffed. The procedure described here can be seen as food-for-thought for further change processes. The findings of this process are that a staff oriented process can lead an organisation into a new era of thinking and working. This process has shown, that a lot of innovative ideas can also take place in a ministry. This process can be a background for a lot of change management processes in ministries and governmental and non-governmental organisations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1035
95477
Language Use in Autobiographical Memory Transcripts as a Window into Attachment Style and Personality
Abstract:
If language reveals internal psychological processing, then it is also likely that language use in autobiographical memory transcripts may be used as a window into attachment style and related personality features. The current study, therefore, examined the possible associations between attachment style, negative affectivity, social inhibition, and linguistic features extracted from autobiographical memory transcripts. Young adult participants (n = 61) filled out attachment and personality questionnaires, and orally reported a relationship-related memory. Memories were audio-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Using a computerized linguistic extraction tool, positive affect words, negative affect words, and cognition words were extracted. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients revealed that attachment anxiety was negatively correlated with cognition words (r2 = -0.26, p = 0.047) and that negative affectivity was negatively correlated with positive affect words (r2 = -0.32, p = 0.012). The findings suggest that attachment style and personality are associated with speech styles indicative of both emotionality and depth of processing. Because attachment styles, negative affectivity, and social inhibition are associated with poor mental health outcomes, analyses of key linguistics features in autobiographical memory narratives may provide reliable screening tools for mental wellbeing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1034
95030
Examining Procrastination and Delay among Individuals with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Abstract:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and procrastination are often discussed in relation to problems with self-regulation and executive functioning (EF). The small body of extant research that has explored the relations between these variables has many limitations particularly in terms of the samples used and the measurement of procrastination. In this study, we recruited a sample of undergraduate students with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of ADHD (n = 48, 66.7% females) as well as a sample of student volunteers without ADHD (n = 68, 75.8% females) to investigate the relations between ADHD subtypes, EF, procrastination and other forms of delay. We used the newly developed Multidimensional Measure of Academic Procrastination and Delay Questionnaire. As hypothesized, the results revealed that individuals with ADHD displayed significantly more irrational delay, general procrastination and academic procrastination compared to individuals without ADHD. This study contributed to the research literature indicating that individuals with ADHD struggle with procrastination as a result of symptoms of ADHD and EF deficits. Theses results provide support for adopting a new language when describing procrastination problems among individuals with ADHD, and they have implications for the nature of academic accommodations and interventions for individuals with ADHD.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1033
94583
The Effect of "Trait" Variance of Personality on Depression: Application of the Trait-State-Occasion Modeling
Authors:
Abstract:
Both preexisting cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of personality-depression relationship have suffered from one main limitation: they ignored the stability of the construct of interest (e.g., personality and depression) can be expected to influence the estimate of the association between personality and depression. To address this limitation, the Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) modeling was adopted to analyze the sources of variance of the focused constructs. A TSO modeling was operated by partitioning a state variance into time-invariant (trait) and time-variant (occasion) components. Within a TSO framework, it is possible to predict change on the part of construct that really changes (i.e., time-variant variance), when controlling the trait variances. 750 high school students were followed for 4 waves over six-month intervals. The baseline data (T1) were collected from the senior high schools (aged 14 to 15 years). Participants were given Beck Depression Inventory and Big Five Inventory at each assessment. TSO modeling revealed that 70~78% of the variance in personality (five constructs) was stable over follow-up period; however, 57~61% of the variance in depression was stable. For personality construct, there were 7.6% to 8.4% of the total variance from the autoregressive occasion factors; for depression construct there were 15.2% to 18.1% of the total variance from the autoregressive occasion factors. Additionally, results showed that when controlling initial symptom severity, the time-invariant components of all five dimensions of personality were predictive of change in depression (Extraversion: B= .32, Openness: B = -.21, Agreeableness: B = -.27, Conscientious: B = -.36, Neuroticism: B = .39). Because five dimensions of personality shared some variance, the models in which all five dimensions of personality were simultaneous to predict change in depression were investigated. The time-invariant components of five dimensions were still significant predictors for change in depression (Extraversion: B = .30, Openness: B = -.24, Agreeableness: B = -.28, Conscientious: B = -.35, Neuroticism: B = .42). In sum, the majority of the variability of personality was stable over 2 years. Individuals with the greater tendency of Extraversion and Neuroticism have higher degrees of depression; individuals with the greater tendency of Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientious have lower degrees of depression.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1032
94141
Modeling Acceptability of a Personalized and Contextualized Radio Embedded in Vehicles
Abstract:
Driver distraction is known to be a major contributing factor of car accidents. Since many years, constructors have been designing embedded technologies to face this problem and reduce distraction. Being able to predict user acceptance would further be helpful in the development process to build appropriate systems. The present research aims at modelling the acceptability of a specific system, an innovative personalized and contextualized embedded radio, through an online survey of 202 people in France that assessed the psychological variables determining intentions to use the system. The questionnaire instantiated the dimensions of the extended version of the UTAUT acceptability model. Because of the specific features of the system assessed, we added 4 dimensions: perceived security, anxiety, trust and privacy concerns. Results showed that hedonic motivation, i.e., the fun or pleasure derived from using a technology, and performance expectancy, i.e., the degree to which individuals believe that the characteristics of the system meet their needs, are the most important dimensions in determining behavioral intentions about the innovative radio. To a lesser extent, social influence, i.e., the degree to which individuals think they can use the system while respecting their social group’s norms and while giving a positive image of themselves, had an effect on behavioral intentions. Moreover, trust, that is, the positive belief about the perceived reliability of, dependability of, and confidence in a person, object or process, had a significant effect, mediated by performance expectancy. In an applicative way, the present research reveals that, to be accepted, in-car embedded new technology has to address individual needs, for instance by facilitating the driving activity or by providing useful information. If it shows hedonic qualities by being entertaining, pretty or comfortable, this may improve the intentions to use it. Therefore, it is clearly important to include reflection about user experience in the design process. Finally, the users have to be reassured on the system’s reliability. For example, improving the transparency of the system by providing information about the system functioning, could improve trust. These results bring some highlights on determinant of acceptance of an in-vehicle technology and are useful for constructors to design acceptable systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1031
94047
Psychological Aspects of Quality of Life in Patients with Primary and Metastatic Bone Tumors
Abstract:
Introduction: Last decades scientific research of quality of life (QoL) is developing fast worldwide. QoL concept pays attention to emotional experience of disease in patients, particularly to personal sense of possibility to satisfy actual needs and possibility of full social functioning in spite of disease limitations. QoL in oncological patients is studied intensively. Nevertheless, the issue of QoL in patients with bone tumors focused on psychological factors of QoL and relation to disease impact on QoL is not discussed. The aim of the study was to reveal the basic aspects and personality factors of QoL in patients with bone tumor. Results: Study participants were 139 patients with bone tumors. The diagnoses were osteosarcoma (n=42), giant cell tumor (n=32), chondrosarcoma (n=32), Ewing sarcoma (n=10) and bone metastases (n=23). The study revealed that patients with bone metastases assess their health significantly worse than other patients. Besides patients with osteosarcoma evaluate their general health higher than patients with giant cell tumors. Social functioning in patients with chondrosarcoma is higher than in patients with bone metastases and patients with giant cell tumor. Patients with chondrosarcoma have higher physical functioning and less restricted in daily activities than patients with bone metastases. Patients with bone metastases characterize their pain as more widespread than patients with primary bone tumors and have more functional restrictions due to bone incision. Moreover, the study revealed personality significant influence on QoL related to bone tumors. Such characteristics in structure of personality as high degree of self-consciousness, personal resources, cooperation and disposition to positive reappraisal in difficult situation correspond to higher QoL. Otherwise low personal resources and slight problem solving behaviour, low degree of self-consciousness and high social dependence correspond to decrease of QoL in patients with bone tumors. Conclusion: Patients with bone metastasis have lower QoL compared to patients with primary bone tumors. Patients with giant cell tumor have the worth quality of life among patients with primary bone tumors. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in QoL parameters associated with personality characteristics in patients with bone tumors. Such psychological factors as future goals, interest in life and emotional saturation, besides high degree of personal resources and cooperation influence on increasing QoL in patients with bone tumors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1030
94027
Cognition in Context: Investigating the Impact of Persuasive Outcomes across Face-to-Face, Social Media and Virtual Reality Environments
Abstract:
Gathering information from others is a fundamental goal for those concerned with investigating crime, and protecting national and international security. Persuading an individual to move from an opposing to converging viewpoint, and an understanding on the cognitive style behind this change can serve to increase understanding of traditional face-to-face interactions, as well as synthetic environments (SEs) often used for communication across varying geographical locations. SEs are growing in usage, and with this increase comes an increase in crime being undertaken online. Communication technologies can allow people to mask their real identities, supporting anonymous communication which can raise significant challenges for investigators when monitoring and managing these conversations inside SEs. To date, the psychological literature concerning how to maximise information-gain in SEs for real-world interviewing purposes is sparse, and as such this aspect of social cognition is not well understood. Here, we introduce an overview of a novel programme of PhD research which seeks to enhance understanding of cross-cultural and cross-gender communication in SEs for maximising information gain. Utilising a dyadic jury paradigm, participants interacted with a confederate who attempted to persuade them to the opposing verdict across three distinct environments: face-to-face, instant messaging, and a novel virtual reality environment utilising avatars. Participants discussed a criminal scenario, acting as a two-person (male; female) jury. Persuasion was manipulated by the confederate claiming an opposing viewpoint (guilty v. not guilty) to the naïve participants from the outset. Pre and post discussion data, and observational digital recordings (voice and video) of participant’ discussion performance was collected. Information regarding cognitive style was also collected to ascertain participants need for cognitive closure and biases towards jumping to conclusions. Findings revealed that individuals communicating via an avatar in a virtual reality environment reacted in a similar way, and thus equally persuasive, when compared to individuals communicating face-to-face. Anonymous instant messaging however created a resistance to persuasion in participants, with males showing a significant decline in persuasive outcomes compared to face to face. The findings reveal new insights particularly regarding the interplay of persuasion on gender and modality, with anonymous instant messaging enhancing resistance to persuasion attempts. This study illuminates how varying SE can support new theoretical and applied understandings of how judgments are formed and modified in response to advocacy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1029
93969
Work Engagement, Sense of Humor and Workplace Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital
Abstract:
Positive psychological capital is the key contributor to the competitive advantage of the organizations. Moreover, work engagement and sense of humor are also positive notions and are able to facilitate positive workplace behaviour but the mechanism behind these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work engagement, sense of humor and outcome variables (organizational citizenship behaviour and ethical performance) as well as investigating how psychological capital (PsyCap) mediates the relationships between work engagement, sense of humor and the outcome variables among healthcare professionals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on healthcare professionals (n= 240). Data were collected using questionnaires which includes Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Multi-dimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire, and Ethical Performance Scale (EPS). The results of the regression analyses showed that work engagement and sense of humor both positively predicted the outcome variables. Mediation analysis reveals that psychological capital mediates the relationship between predictor and outcome variables. The study recommends that the framework presented in this study can be an important tool for managers to enhance their employees’ psychological capital by increasing their levels of work engagement and sense of humor. In turn, psychological capital could be a positive resource for employees to dealing more ethically and enhancing more positive workplace behaviour.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1028
93785
Consumer Behaviour Model for Apparel E-Tailers Using Structural Equation Modelling
Abstract:
The paper attempts to analyze the factors that influence the Consumer Behavior to purchase apparel through the internet. The intentions to buy apparels online were based on in terms of user style, orientation, size and reputation of the merchant, social influence, perceived information utility, perceived ease of use, perceived pleasure and attractiveness and perceived trust and risk. The basic framework used was Technology acceptance model to explain apparels acceptance. A survey was conducted to gather the data from 200 people. The measures and hypotheses were analyzed using Correlation testing and would be further validated by the Structural Equation Modelling. The implications of the findings for theory and practice could be used by marketers of online apparel websites. Based on the values obtained, we can conclude that the factors such as social influence, Perceived information utility, attractiveness and trust influence the decision for a user to buy apparels online. The major factors which are found to influence an online apparel buying decision are ease of use, attractiveness that a website can offer and the trust factor which a user shares with the website.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1027
93737
Unbreakable Obedience of Safety Regulation: The Study of Authoritarian Leadership and Safety Performance
Authors:
Abstract:
Leadership is a key factor of improving workplace safety, and there have been abundant of studies which support the positive effects of appropriate leadership on employee safety performance in the western academic. However, little safety research focus on the Chinese leadership style like paternalistic leadership. To fill this gap, the resent study aims to examine the relationship between authoritarian leadership (one of the ternary mode in paternalistic leadership) and safety outcomes. This study makes hypothesis on different levels. First, on the group level, as an authoritarian leader regards safety value as the most important tasks, there would be positive effect on group safety outcomes through strengthening safety group norms by the emphasis on etiquette. Second, on the cross level, when a leader with authoritarian style has high priority on safety, employees may more obey the safety rules because of fear due to emphasis on absolute authority over the leader. Therefore, employees may show more safety performance and then increase individual safety outcomes. Survey data would be collected from 50 manufacturing groups (each group with more than 5 members and a leader) and a hierarchical linear modeling analysis would be conducted to analyze the hypothesis. Above the predictive result, the study expects to be a cornerstone of safety leadership research in the Chinese academic and practice.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1026
93684
Group Boundaries against and Due to Identity Threat
Abstract:
Social identity emerging from group membership defines the representational processes of our social reality. Based on our theoretical assumption the subjective perception of identity threat leads to an instable identity structure. The need to re-establish the positive identity will lead us to strengthen group boundaries. Prejudice in our perspective offer psychological security those who thinking in exclusive barriers, and we suggest that those who identify highly with their ingroup/national identity and less with superordinate identities take distance from others and this is related to their perception of threat. In our study we used a newly developed questionnaire, the Multiple Threat and Prejudice Questionnaire (MTPQ) which measure identity threat at different dimensions of identification (national, existential, gender, religious) and the distancing of different outgroups, over and above we worked with Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Identification with All Humanity Scale (IWAH). We conduct one data collection (N=1482) in a Hungarian sample to examine the connection between national threat and distance-taking, and this survey includes the investigation (N=218) of identification with different group categories. Our findings confirmed that those who feel themselves threatened in their national identity aspects are less likely to identify themselves with superordinate groups and this correlation is much stronger when they think about the nation as a bio-cultural unit, while if nation defined as a social-economy entity this connection is less powerful and has just the opposite direction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1025
93636
The Effect of Group Logotherapy on Depression and Life Quality in Cancer Patients
Abstract:
Cancer is one of the common diseases that may cause death due to malignancy. The physical problems of cancer patients can have an impact on the psychological and social aspects of their lives. Depression is one of these problems that threaten the lives of these patients and can also reduce their quality of life. Helping patients with cancer to find meaning in life can increase their level of health and improve their quality of life. This study thus examines the effectiveness of group logotherapy on the depression and quality of life of women with cancer. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and quality of life was measured using Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQL) with acceptable and reliable indicators in the pre-test and post-test stages. The experimental group received group therapy in eight, sixty-minute sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. After collecting the questionnaires, the mean and standard deviations were used to describe the data and the statistical method of multivariate analysis of covariance was used at the significant level (P≤0.05). The results were analyzed using SPSS(22). The results showed that there was a significant difference between post-test depression scores in the experimental group and the control group. Also, there was a significant difference between the post-test scores of quality of life and its components (psychological, physical, social and environmental health) in the experimental group and control group. The findings of this study showed the effectiveness of group logotherapy in decreasing depression and improving the quality of life of cancer patients. By focusing the minds of the people on the present and changing the attitude of the human being towards themselves, life and environment can help the depressed people, and by influencing the individual's view of himself, accepting responsibility, accepting life with purpose, paying attention to life uniformly, it allows a person to maintain his quality of life even with cancer. Therefore, it is recommended that this approach be used as a group intervention in hospitals and care units for cancer patients and even in people with certain diseases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1024
93572
Israel versus Palestine: Politological and Depth-Psychological Aspects
Abstract:
Many of the contemporary major conflicts on this earth could not be solved so far, they either are perpetuated, or they are reflated again and again. Efforts of purely political conflict management or -resolution aim merely at the symptoms of conflict, not its roots. These roots are, in almost every case, also psychological ones. Thus, this contribution aims to shed light on the roots of one of the best known and longest-lasting conflicts: the Palestinian-Israeli one. Methodologies used were the compilation of existing scientific resources, field research in Palestine and Israel, as well as tests conducted with the Adult Attachment Projective in Palestine and Israel. Findings show that the majority of Palestinian, as well as Israeli test participants, show a disorganised attachment pattern which, in connection with the assumption of collective traumatization, seem to be a major obstacle to a lasting and peaceful conflict-resolution between these two peoples. There appears to be no short-term solution for this conflict, especially not within the range of usual Western legislative periods. Both sides ought to be provided with a kind of 'safe haven' over a long period of time, accompanied by a framework of various arrangements of coping with trauma, building lasting and secure relationships, as well as raising and educating present and future generations of Palestinians and Israelis for peace and co-operation with each other.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1023
93312
Improving Creative Problem Solving for Teams through a Web-Based Peer Review System
Abstract:
Brainstorming and discussion are widely used around the world as formal techniques of collaborative creative problem solving. This study investigated whether a web-based peer review system would improve collaborative creative problem solving. In order to assess the efficiency of using web-based peer review system before brainstorming and discussion, we conducted a between-group design study for two conditions (a web-based peer review system vs. face-to-face brainstorming only) using two different scenarios. One hundred and twenty participants were divided into teams of four and randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. The participants were given problems for them to solve. The participants in the experimental group first generated ideas independently for 20 minutes and wrote down their ideas. Afterwards, they reviewed the list of ideas of their peers and gave and received feedback for 10 minutes. These activities were performed on-line. The last activity was face-to-face brain-storming and discussion for 30 minutes. In contrast, the control group participated in brainstorming and discussion for 60 minutes. The quantity and the quality of ideas were measured as dependent variables of creative problem solving. Two evaluators rated the quantity and quality of the proposed ideas. Inter-rater agreement rate was good or strong. The results showed that both the average number of unique ideas and the average quality of ideas generated for the experimental condition were significantly higher than those for the control condition in both scenarios. The results of this study support the hypothesis that collaborative creative problem solving is enhanced when individuals write their thoughts individually and review ideas written by peers before face-to-face brainstorming and discussion. The present study provides preliminary evidence that a web-based peer review system can be instrumental in improving creative problem solving for teams. This system also offers an effective means to quantify the contribution of each member in collaborative team activity. We are planning to replicate these results in real-life situations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1022
93111
A Survey of Mental and Personality Profiles of Malingerer Clients of an Iranian Forensic Medicine Center Based on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Questionnaires
Abstract:
Introduction: Malingering is one of the most challenging issues in the forensic psychology and imposes a heavy financial burden on health care and legal systems. It seems that some mental and personality abnormalities might have a crucial role in developing this condition. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess 100 malingering clients of Gilan province general office of forensic medicine, all filled the related questionnaires. The data about some psychometric characteristics were collected through the 71-items version- short form- of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire and the personality traits were assessed by NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) - including 240 items- as a reliable and accurate measure of the five domains of personality. Results: The 100 malingering clients (55 males and 45 females) ranged from 23 to 45 (32+/- 5.6) years old. Regarding marital status, 36% were single, 57% were married and 7% were divorced. Almost two-thirds of the participants (64%) were unemployed, 21% were self-employed and the rest of them were employed. The data of MMPI clinical scales revealed that the mean (SD) T score of Hypochondrias (Hs) was 67(9.2), Depression (D) was 87(7.9), Hysteria (Hy) was 74(5.8), Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) was 62(8.5), Masculinity-Feminity (MF) was 76(8.4), Paranoia (Pa) was 62(4.5), Psychasthenia (Pt) was 80(7.9), Schizophrenia (Sc) was 69(6.8), Hypomania (Ma) was 64(5.9)and Social Introversion (Si) was 58(4.3). NEO PI-R test showed five domains of personality. The mean (SD) T score of Neuroticism was 65(9.2), Extraversion was 51(7.9), Openness was 43(5.8), Agreeableness was 35(3.4) and Conscientiousness was 42(4.9). Conclusion: According to MMPI test in our malingering clients, Hypochondriasis (Hs), depression (D), Hysteria (Hy), Muscularity-Feminity (MF), Psychasthenia (Pt) and Schizophrenia (Sc) had high scores (T >= 65) which means pathological range and psychological significance. Based on NEO PI-R test Neuroticism was in high range, on the other hand, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were in low range. Extroversion was in average range. So it seems that malingerers require basic evaluations of different psychological fields. Additional research in this area is needed to provide stronger evidence of the possible positive effects of the mentioned factors on malingering.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1021
92777
The Effect of Mood and Normative Conformity on Prosocial Behavior
Abstract:
This study aimed to test if induced mood and normative conformity have any effect specifically on prosocial behavior, which was operationalized as the willingness to donate to a non-government organization. The effect of current attitude towards the object of the prosocial behavior was also considered with a covariate test. Undergraduates taking an introductory course on psychology (N = 132) from the University of the Philippines Diliman were asked how much money they were willing to donate after being presented a video about coral reef destruction and a website that advocates towards saving the coral reefs. A 3 (Induced mood: Positive vs Fear and Sadness vs Anger, Contempt, and Disgust) x 2 (Normative conformity: Presence vs Absence) between-subjects analysis of covariance was used for experimentation. Prosocial behavior was measured by presenting a circumstance wherein participants were given money and asked if they were willing to donate an amount to the non-government organization. An analysis of covariance revealed that the mood induced has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(2,125) = 0.654, p > 0.05. The analysis also showed how normative conformity has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(1,125) = 0.238, p > 0.05, as well as their interaction F(2, 125) = 1.580, p > 0.05. However, the covariate, current attitude towards corals was revealed to be significant, F(1,125) = 8.778, p < 0.05. From this, we speculate that inherent attitudes of people have a greater effect on prosocial behavior than temporary factors such as mood and conformity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1020
92756
Erectile Function and Heart Rate Variability in Men under 40 Years Old
Abstract:
There is lack of studies examining the relation of different heart rate variability (HRV) parameters with the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) in younger men. Thus, the present study aimed at examining, in a nonclinical sample of men aged 19-39 years old (mean age = 23.98 years, SD = 4.90), the relations of risk of ED with the standard deviation of the heart rate (SD of HR), high and low frequency power of HRV, and low-to-high frequency HRV ratio. Eighty-three heterosexual Portuguese men completed the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and HRV parameters were calculated from a 5-minute resting period. Risk of ED was determined by IIEF-5 scores of 21 or less. Fifteen men (18.1%) reported symptoms of ED (14 with mild and one with mild to moderate symptoms). Univariate analyses of variance revealed that risk of ED was related to lesser SD of HR and lesser low-frequency power, the two HRV parameters that express a coupling of higher vagal and sympathetic tone. Risk of ED was unrelated to high-frequency power and low-to-high frequency HRV ratio. Further, in a logistic regression, the risk of ED was independently predicted by older age and lower SD of HR, but not by low-frequency power, having a regular sexual partner, and cohabiting. The results provide preliminary evidence that, in younger men, a coupling of higher vagal and sympathetic tone, as indexed by the SD of HR, is important for erections. Greater resting SD of HR might reflect better vascular and interpersonal function via vagal tone coupled with greater motor mobilization to pursue sexual intercourse via sympathetic tone. Many interventions can elevate HRV; future research is warranted on how they can be tailored to treat ED in younger men.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1019
92704
Hospital Workers’ Psychological Resilience after 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak
Abstract:
During a pandemic, hospital workers should protect not only their vulnerable patients but also themselves from the consequences of rapidly spreading infection. However, the evidence on the psychological impact of an outbreak on hospital workers is limited. In this study, we aim to assess hospital workers’ psychological well-being and function at the workplace after an outbreak, by focusing on ‘psychological resilience’. Specifically, the effects of risk appraisal, emotional experience, and coping ability on resilience indicated by the likelihood of post-traumatic syndrome disorder and willingness to work were investigated. Such role and position of each factor were analyzed using a path model, and the result was compared between the healthcare worker and non-healthcare worker groups. In the investigation, 280 hospital workers who experienced the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in South Korea have participated. The result presented, in both groups, the role of the appraisal of risk and coping ability appeared consistent with a previous research, that was, the former interrupted resilience while the latter facilitated it. In addition, the role of emotional experience was highlighted as, in both groups, emotional disruption not only directly associated with low resilience but mediated the effect of perceived risk on resilience. The differences between the groups were also identified, which were, the role of emotional experience and coping ability was more prominent in the non-HCW group in explaining resilience. From the results, implications on how to support hospital personnel during an outbreak in a way to facilitate their resilience after the outbreak were drawn.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1018
92703
Effects of Crisis-Induced Emotions on in-Crisis Protective Behavior and Post-Crisis Perception: An Analysis of Survey Data for the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in South Korea
Abstract:
Background: In the current study, we investigated the effects of emotions induced by an infectious disease outbreak on the various protective behaviors taken during the crisis and on the perception after the crisis. The investigation was based on two psychological theories of appraisal tendency and action tendency. Methods: A total of 900 participants in South Korea who experienced the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak were sampled by a professional survey agency. To assess the influence of the emotions fear and anger, a regression approach was used. The effect of emotions on various protective behaviors and perceptions was observed using a hierarchical regression method. Results: Fear and anger induced by the infectious disease outbreak were both associated with increased protective behaviors during the crisis. However, the differences between the emotions were observed. While protective behaviors with avoidance tendency (adherence to recommendations, self-mitigation), were raised by both fear and anger, protective behaviors with approach tendency (information-seeking) were increased by anger, but not fear. Regarding the effect of emotion on the risk perception after the crisis, only fear was associated with a higher level of risk perception. Conclusions: This study confirmed the role of emotions in crisis protective behaviors and post-crisis perceptions regarding an infectious disease outbreak. These findings could enhance understanding of the public’s protective behaviors during infectious disease outbreaks and afterward risk perception corresponding to emotions. The results also suggested strategies for communicating with the public that takes into account emotions that are prominently induced by crises associated with disease outbreaks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1017
92669
Promoting Self-Esteem and Social Integration in Secondary German Schools: An Evaluation Study
Abstract:
Introduction: Over the last decades growing rates of mental health concerns among children and adolescents have been observed. At the same time, physical well-being of children and adolescents becomes increasingly impaired as well. Schools play an important role in preventing mental and physical disorders and in promoting well-being. Self-esteem, as well as social integration, are vital influence factors for mental and physical well-being. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the program 'VorteilJena' for secondary schools in Germany focusing on self-esteem and social integration to improve mental and physical well-being. Method: The school-based health promotion program was designed for students in 5th grade and higher. It consists of several short pedagogical exercises instructed by a teacher and were integrated into the regular class over the course of ten weeks. The exercises focused on fostering social integration using either tasks improving team spirit or exercises that increase tolerance and sense of belonging. Other exercises focused on strengthening the self-esteem of the students. Additionally, the program included a poster exhibition titled 'Belonging' which was put up in the school buildings. The exhibition comprised ten posters which addressed relevant risk factors and resources related to social integration and self-esteem. The study was a randomized controlled sequential study with a pre and post measurement conducted in ten German schools. A total of 1642 students (44% male) were recruited. Their age ranged from 9 to 21 years (M=12.93 years; SD= 2.11). The program was conducted in classes ranging from 5th to 12th grade. Results: The program improved wellbeing, self-esteem and social integration of the involved students compared to the control group. Differential effects depending on implementation rates or age of the students will be analyzed. Moreover, implications for future school-based health promotion programs targeting self-esteem and social integration will be discussed. Conclusion: Social integration considerably influences self-esteem and well-being of students and can be targeted by school-based programs including short and modest exercises. Since a sufficient implementation of health promotion programs is essential, the present program due to its practicability represents a good opportunity to install health promotion focusing on social integration in schools.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1016
92552
The Effects of Cultural Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support on Acculturative Stress of International Postgraduate Students in the United Kingdom
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of perceived social support and cultural self-efficacy on the acculturative stress of international postgraduate students in the United Kingdom. The study adopted Berry, Kim, Minde & Mok’s (1987) acculturative framework on acculturative stress and examined the relationship between the variables. The study hypothesized that perceived social support and cultural self-efficacy would predict lower levels of acculturative stress among students. Postgraduate students in the United Kingdom (N = 76) completed three surveys measuring the variables; Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Cultural Self-efficacy for Adolescents. To evaluate the role of the perceived social support and cultural self-efficacy in determining the acculturative stress level of international students, multiple linear regression was employed. Both independent variables exhibited a significant, negative relationship with acculturative stress (p < 0.001; p < 0.01). Results described that cultural self-efficacy and perceived social support significantly predicted acculturative stress (p < 0.01). Together, the variables accounted for 22% of the variance in acculturative stress scores (adjusted R² = 0.22), with cultural self-efficacy playing a larger role in predicting the dependent variable. Limitations and implications of the study are noted. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to enhancing international students’ acculturative experience when relocating to a new environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1015
92535
The Study on How Social Cues in a Scene Modulate Basic Object Recognition Proces
Authors:
Abstract:
Stereotypes exist in almost every society, affecting how people interact with each other. However, to our knowledge, the influence of stereotypes was rarely explored in the context of basic perceptual processes. This study aims to explore how the gender stereotype affects object recognition. Participants were presented with a series of scene pictures, followed by a target display with a man or a woman, holding a weapon or a non-weapon object. The task was to identify whether the object in the target display was a weapon or not. Although the gender of the object holder could not predict whether he or she held a weapon, and was irrelevant to the task goal, the participant nevertheless tended to identify the object as a weapon when the object holder was a man than a woman. The analysis based on the signal detection theory showed that the stereotype effect on object recognition mainly resulted from the participant’s bias to make a 'weapon' response when a man was in the scene instead of a woman in the scene. In addition, there was a trend that the participant’s sensitivity to differentiate a weapon from a non-threating object was higher when a woman was in the scene than a man was in the scene. The results of this study suggest that the irrelevant social cues implied in the visual scene can be very powerful that they can modulate the basic object recognition process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):