6 DOF Cable-Driven Haptic Robot for Rendering High Axial Force with Low Off-Axis Impedance
This paper presents the design and mechanical model of a hybrid impedance/admittance haptic device optimized for applications, like bone drilling, spinal awl probe use, and other surgical techniques were high force is required in the tool-axial direction, and low impedance is needed in all other directions. The performance levels required cannot be satisfied by existing, off-the-shelf haptic devices. This design may allow critical improvements in simulator fidelity for surgery training. The device consists primarily of two low-mass (carbon fiber) plates with a rod passing through them. Collectively, the device provides 6 DOF. The rod slides through a bushing in the top plate and it is connected to the bottom plate with a universal joint, constrained to move in only 2 DOF, allowing axial torque display the user’s hand. The two parallel plates are actuated and located by means of four cables pulled by motors. The forward kinematic equations are derived to ensure that the plates orientation remains constant. The corresponding equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson method. The static force/torque equations are also presented. Finally, we present the predicted distribution of location error, cables velocity, cable tension, force and torque for the device. These results and preliminary hardware fabrication indicate that this design may provide a revolutionary approach for haptic display of many surgical procedures by means of an architecture that allows arbitrary workspace scaling. Scaling of the height and width can be scaled arbitrarily.
Finite Element Analysis and Multibody Dynamics of 6-DOF Industrial Robot
This paper implements the design structure of industrial robot along with the different transmission components like gear assembly and analysis of complete industrial robot. In this paper, it gives the overview on the most efficient types of modeling and different analysis results that can be obtained for an industrial robot. The investigation is executed in regards to two classifications i.e. the deformation and the stress tests. SolidWorks is utilized to design and review the 3D drawing plan while ANSYS Workbench is utilized to execute the FEA on an industrial robot and the designed component. The CAD evaluation was conducted on a disentangled model of an industrial robot. The study includes design and drafting its transmission system. In CAE study static, modal and dynamic analysis are presented. Every one of the outcomes is divided in regard with the impact of the static and dynamic analysis on the situating exactness of the robot. It gives critical data with respect to parts of the industrial robot that are inclined to harm under higher high force applications. Therefore, the mechanical structure under different operating conditions can help in optimizing the manipulator geometry and in selecting the right material for the same. The FEA analysis is conducted for four different materials on the same industrial robot and gear assembly.
The Effect of Yb3+ Concentration on Spectroscopic properties of Strontium Cerate Doped with Tm3+ and Yb3+
ecently, the UC phosphors have attracted much attention owing to their wide applicability in areas such as biological fluorescence labeling, three-dimensional color displays, temperature sensor, solar cells, white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), fiber optic communication, anti-counterfeiting and other areas. The UC efficiency is mainly dependent on the host lattice and the interaction between the host lattice and doped ions. Up to date, various host matrices, such as oxides, fluorides, vanadates and phosphates, have been investigated as efficient UC luminescent hosts. Recently, oxide materials with low phonon energy have been investigated as the host matrices of UC materials due to their high chemical durability and physical stability. A series of Sr2CeO4: Tm3+/Yb3+ phosphors with different concentrations of Yb3+ ions have been successfully prepared using the high-energy ball milling method. In this study, we reported the UC luminescent properties of Tm3+/Yb3+ ions co-doped Sr2CeO4 phosphors under an excitation wavelength of 975 nm. Furthermore, the structural and morphological characteristics, as well as the UC luminescence mechanism were investigated in detail. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed their orthorhombic structure. Under 975 nm excitation, the emission peaks were observed at 478 nm (blue) and 652 nm (red), corresponding to the 1G4 → 3H6 and 1G4 → 3F4 transitions of Tm3+, respectively. The optimized doping concentration of Yb3+ ion was 10 mol%.
Influence of Sintering Temperatures in Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ Tri-Doped Y₂O₃ Nanophosphors
The Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ tri-doped Y₂O₃ nanophosphors were synthesized by solvothermal method and its temperature dependence of the white upconversion emission has been studied by using 975 nm laser diode. The upconversion emission spectra in 1 mol% Er³⁺/5 mol% Yb³⁺/xTm³ tri-doped Y₂O₃ nanophosphors sintered at 1000 °C with x from 0 to 0.5 mol%. The blue emission intensity increase with Tm³⁺ concentration from 0 to 0.5 mol%, it is due to the 2F7/2→2F5/2 transition of Yb³⁺ around 10,000 cm-1 could easily reach the Tm³⁺ sates. The white light is composed with the blue (1G4→3H6 of Tm³⁺), green (2H11/2, 4S3/2→4I15/2 of Er³⁺), and red (4F9/2→4I15/2 of Er³⁺) upconversion radiations. The Y₂O₃: Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ nanophosphors show from white to green upconversion emission at power of 600 mW/cm² as sintering temperature increased. The calculated Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates can be located in the white area with various sintering temperatures, in sintered at 1000 °C, and their color coordinates are very close to the standard white-light emission (0.33, 0.33). Their upconversion processes were explained by measuring the upconversion luminescence spectra and pump power dependence and energy level diagram.
Analysis and Design of Exo-Skeleton System Based on Multibody Dynamics
With the aging process, many people start suffering from the problem of weak limbs resulting in mobility disorders and loss of sensory and motor function of limbs. Wearable robotic devices are viable solutions to help people suffering from these issues by augmenting their strength. These robotic devices, popularly known as exoskeletons aides user by providing external power and controlling the dynamics so as to achieve desired motion. Present work studies a simplified dynamic model of the human gait. A four link open chain kinematic model is developed to describe the dynamics of Single Support Phase (SSP) of the human gait cycle. The dynamic model is developed integrating mathematical models of the motion of inverted and triple pendulums. Stance leg is modeled as inverted pendulum having single degree of freedom and swing leg as triple pendulum having three degrees of freedom viz. thigh, knee, and ankle joints. The kinematic model is formulated using forward kinematics approach. Lagrangian approach is used to formulate governing dynamic equation of the model. For a system of nonlinear differential equations, numerical method is employed to obtain system response. Reference trajectory is generated using human body simulator, LifeMOD. For optimal mechanical design and controller design of exoskeleton system, it is imperative to study parameter sensitivity of the system. Six different parameters viz. thigh, shank, and foot masses and lengths are varied from 85% to 115% of the original value for the present work. It is observed that hip joint of swing leg is the most sensitive and ankle joint of swing leg is the least sensitive one. Changing link lengths causes more deviation in system response than link masses. Also, shank length and thigh mass are most sensitive parameters. Finally, the present study gives an insight on different factors that should be considered while designing a lower extremity exoskeleton.
BEATRICE: A Low-Cost Manipulator Arm for an Educational Planetary Rover
The BEar Articulated TeleRobotic Inspection and Clasping Extremity is a lightweight, 5 DoF robotic manipulator for the Berlin Educational Assistant Rover (BEAR). BEAR is one of the educational planetary rovers developed under the Space Rover projects at the Chair of Space Technology of the Technische Universität Berlin. The projects serve to conduct research and train engineers by developing rovers for competitions like the European Rover Challenge and the DLR SpaceBot Cup. BEATRICE is the result of a cost-driven design process to deliver a simple but capable platform for a variety of competition tasks: object grasping and manipulation, inspection, instrument wielding and more. The manipulator’s simple mechatronic design, based on a combination of servomotors and stepper motors with planetary gearboxes, also makes it a practical tool for developing embedded control systems. The platform’s initial implementation relies on tele-operated control but is fully instrumented for future autonomous functionality. This paper describes BEATRICE’s development from its preliminary link model to its structural and mechatronic design, embedded control and AI and T. In parallel, it examines the influence of budget constraints and high personnel turnover commonly associated with student teams on the manipulator’s design. Finally, it comments on the utility of robot design projects for educating future engineers.
Evaluation of Fusion Sonar and Stereo Camera System for 3D Reconstruction of Underwater Archaeological Object
The objective of this paper is to develop the 3D underwater reconstruction of archaeology object, which is based on the fusion between a sonar system and stereo camera system. The underwater images are obtained from a calibrated camera system. The multiples image pairs are input, and we first solve the problem of image processing by applying the well-known filter, therefore to improve the quality of underwater images. The features of interest between image pairs are selected by well-known methods: a FAST detector and FLANN descriptor. Subsequently, the RANSAC method is applied to reject outlier points. The putative inliers are matched by triangulation to produce the local sparse point clouds in 3D space, using a pinhole camera model and Euclidean distance estimation. The SFM technique is used to carry out the global sparse point clouds. Finally, the ICP method is used to fusion the sonar information with the stereo model. The final 3D models have a précised by measurement comparing with the real object.
A Radiofrequency Based Navigation Method for Cooperative Robotic Communities in Surface Exploration Missions
When considering small robots working in a cooperative community for Moon surface exploration, navigation and inter-nodes communication aspects become a critical issue for the mission success. For this approach to succeed, it is necessary however to deploy the required infrastructure for the robotic community to achieve efficient self-localization as well as relative positioning and communications between nodes. In this paper, an exploration mission concept in which two cooperative robotic systems co-exist is presented. This paradigm hinges on a community of reference agents that provide support in terms of communication and navigation to a second agent community tasked with exploration goals. The work focuses on the role of the agent community in charge of the overall support and, more specifically, will focus on the positioning and navigation methods implemented in RF microwave bands, which are combined with the communication services. An analysis of the different methods for range and position calculation are presented, as well as the main limiting factors for precision and resolution, such as phase and frequency noise in RF reference carriers and drift mechanisms such as thermal drift and random walk. The effects of carrier frequency instability due to phase noise are categorized in different contributing bands, and the impact of these spectrum regions are considered both in terms of the absolute position and the relative speed. A mission scenario is finally proposed, and key metrics in terms of mass and power consumption for the required payload hardware are also assessed. For this purpose, an application case involving an RF communication network in UHF Band is described, in coexistence with a communications network used for the single agents to communicate within the both the exploring agents as well as the community and with the mission support agents. The proposed approach implements a substantial improvement in planetary navigation since it provides self-localization capabilities for robotic agents characterized by very low mass, volume and power budgets, thus enabling precise navigation capabilities to agents of reduced dimensions. Furthermore, a common and shared localization radiofrequency infrastructure enables new interaction mechanisms such as spatial arrangement of agents over the area of interest for distributed sensing.
Comparison of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine Classifications for Electromyography Signals Acquired at Five Positions of Elbow Joint
Bio Mechatronics has extended applications in the field of rehabilitation. It has been contributing since World War II in improving the applicability of prosthesis and assistive devices in real life scenarios. In this paper, classification accuracies have been compared for two classifiers against five positions of elbow. Electromyography (EMG) signals analysis have been acquired directly from skeletal muscles of human forearm for each of the three defined positions and at modified extreme positions of elbow flexion and extension using 8 electrode Myo armband sensor. Features were extracted from filtered EMG signals for each position. Performance of two classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been compared by analyzing the classification accuracies. SVM illustrated classification accuracies between 90-96%, in contrast to 84-87% depicted by LDA for five defined positions of elbow keeping the number of samples and selected feature the same for both SVM and LDA.
Efficient Control of Some Dynamic States of Wheeled Robots
In some types of wheeled robots it is important to secure starting acceleration and deceleration maxima while at the same time maintaining transversal stability. In this paper torque distribution between the front and rear wheels as well as the timing of torque application have been calculated. Both secure an optimum traction coefficient. This paper also identifies required input signals to a control unit, which controls the torque values and timing. Using a three dimensional, two mass model of a robot developed by the author a computer simulation was performed confirming the calculations presented in this paper. These calculations were also implemented and confirmed during military robot testing.
Resistance Spot Welding of Boron Steel 22MnB5 with Complex Welding Programs
The study involved the optimization of process parameters during resistance spot welding of Al-coated martensitic boron steel 22MnB5, applied in hot stamping, performed using a programme with a multiple current impulse mode and a programme with variable pressure force. The aim of this research work was to determine the possibilities of a growth in welded joint strength and to identify the expansion of a welding lobe. The process parameters were adjusted on the basis of welding process simulation and confronted with experimental data. 22MnB5 steel is known for its tendency to obtain high hardness values in weld nuggets, often leading to interfacial failures (observed in the study-related tests). In addition, during resistance spot welding, many production-related factors can affect process stability, e.g. welding lobe narrowing, and lead to the deterioration of quality. Resistance spot welding performed using the above-named welding programme featuring 3 levels of force made it possible to achieve 82% of welding lobe extension. Joints made using the multiple current impulse program, where the total welding time was below 1.4s, revealed a change in a peeling mode (to full plug) and an increase in weld tensile shear strength of 10%.
Robot Navigation and Localization Based on the Rat’s Brain Signals
The mobile robot ability to navigate autonomously in its environment is very important. Even though the advances in technology, robot self-localization and goal directed navigation in complex environments are still challenging tasks. In this article, we propose a novel method for robot navigation based on rat’s brain signals (Local Field Potentials). It has been well known that rats accurately and rapidly navigate in a complex space by localizing themselves in reference to the surrounding environmental cues. As the first step to incorporate the rat’s navigation strategy into the robot control, we analyzed the rats’ strategies while it navigates in a multiple Y-maze, and recorded Local Field Potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from three brain regions. Next, we processed the LFPs, and the extracted features were used as an input in the artificial neural network to predict the rat’s next location, especially in the decision-making moment, in Y-junctions. We developed an algorithm by which the robot learned to imitate the rat’s decision-making by mapping the rat’s brain signals into its own actions. Finally, the robot learned to integrate the internal states as well as external sensors in order to localize and navigate in the complex environment.
Genetic Algorithm Based Deep Learning Parameters Tuning for Robot Object Recognition and Grasping
This paper concerns with the problem of deep learning parameters tuning using a genetic algorithm (GA) in order to improve the performance of deep learning (DL) method. We present a GA based DL method for robot object recognition and grasping. GA is used to optimize the DL parameters in learning procedure in term of the fitness function that is good enough. After finishing the evolution process, we receive the optimal number of DL parameters. To evaluate the performance of our method, we consider the object recognition and robot grasping tasks. Experimental results show that our method is efficient for robot object recognition and grasping.
Study on Robot Trajectory Planning by Robot End-Effector Using Dual Curvature Theory of the Ruled Surface
This paper presents the method of trajectory planning by the robot end-effector which accounts for more accurate and smooth differential geometry of the ruled surface generated by tool line fixed with end-effector based on the methods of curvature theory of ruled surface and the dual curvature theory, and focuses on the underlying relation to unite them for enhancing the efficiency for trajectory planning. Robot motion can be represented as motion properties of the ruled surface generated by trajectory of the Tool Center Point (TCP). The linear and angular properties of the six degree-of-freedom motion of end-effector are computed using the explicit formulas and functions from curvature theory and dual curvature theory. This paper explains the complete dualization of ruled surface and shows that the linear and angular motion applied using the method of dual curvature theory is more accurate and less complex.
Technological Development and Implementation of a Robotic Arm Motioned by Programmable Logic Controller
The robot manipulator is an equipment that stands out for two reasons: Firstly because of its characteristics of movement and reprogramming, resembling the arm; secondly, by adding several areas of knowledge of science and engineering. The present work shows the development of the prototype of a robotic manipulator driven by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), having two degrees of freedom, which allows the movement and displacement of mechanical parts, tools, and objects in general of small size, through an electronic system. The aim is to study direct and inverse kinematics of the robotic manipulator to describe the translation and rotation between two adjacent links of the robot through the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters. Currently, due to the many resources that microcomputer systems offer us, robotics is going through a period of continuous growth that will allow, in a short time, the development of intelligent robots with the capacity to perform operations that require flexibility, speed and precision.
Transmission Loss Analysis for Panels Laminated with Felt and Film
To reduce the interior noise of cars in high-frequency region, sound proof materials are laminated with the body panels and the interior trims. Therefore, sound proof properties of the laminates play an important role for the efficient acoustical design. A program code which predicts both sound absorption properties and sound insulation properties of the laminates are developed. This program code is used for transfer matrix method by Biot theory. This report described the outline of this program code, and the calculation results almost agreed with the experimental results.
Dynamic Analysis of Offshore 2-HUS/U Parallel Platform
For the stability and control demand of offshore small floating platform, a 2-HUS/U parallel mechanism was presented as offshore platform. Inverse kinematics was obtained by institutional constraint equation, and the dynamic model of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform was derived based on rigid body’s Lagrangian method. The equivalent moment of inertia, damping and driving force/torque variation of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform were analyzed. A numerical example shows that, for parallel platform of given motion, system’s equivalent inertia changes 1.25 times maximally. During the movement of platform, they change dramatically with the system configuration and have coupling characteristics. The maximum equivalent drive torque is 800 N. At the same time, the curve of platform’s driving force/torque is smooth and has good sine features. The control system needs to be adjusted according to kinetic equation during stability and control and it provides a basis for the optimization of control system.
Optimization of the Control Scheme for Human Extremity Exoskeleton
In order to design a suitable control scheme for human extremity exoskeleton, the interaction force control scheme with traditional PI controller was presented, and the simulation study of the electromechanical system of the human extremity exoskeleton was carried out by using a MATLAB/Simulink module. By analyzing the simulation calculation results, it was shown that the traditional PI controller is not very suitable for every movement speed of human body. So, at last the fuzzy self-adaptive PI controller was presented to solve this problem. Eventually, the superiority and feasibility of the fuzzy self-adaptive PI controller was proved by the simulation results and experimental results.
Energy Efficient Autonomous Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Human Motion Enhancement
The paper describes conceptual design, control strategies, and partial simulation for a new fully autonomous lower limb wearable exoskeleton system for human motion enhancement that can support its weight and increase strength and endurance. Various problems still remain to be solved where the most important is the creation of a power and cost efficient system that will allow an exoskeleton to operate for extended period without batteries being frequently recharged. The designed exoskeleton is enabling to decouple the weight/mass carrying function of the system from the forward motion function which reduces the power and size of propulsion motors and thus the overall weight, cost of the system. The decoupling takes place by blocking the motion at knee joint by placing passive air cylinder across the joint. The cylinder is actuated when the knee angle has reached the minimum allowed value to bend. The value of the minimum bending angle depends on usual walk style of the subject. The mechanism of the exoskeleton features a seat to rest the subject’s body weight at the moment of blocking the knee joint motion. The mechanical structure of each leg has six degrees of freedom: four at the hip, one at the knee, and one at the ankle. Exoskeleton legs are attached to subject legs by using flexible cuffs. The operation of all actuators depends on the amount of pressure felt by the feet pressure sensors and knee angle sensor. The sensor readings depend on actual posture of the subject and can be classified in three distinct cases: subject stands on one leg, subject stands still on both legs and subject stands on both legs but transit its weight from one leg to other. This exoskeleton is power efficient because electrical motors are smaller in size and did not participate in supporting the weight like in all other existing exoskeleton designs.
Relating Interface Properties with Crack Propagation in Composite Laminates
The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have been shown to be a key factor contributing to their high performance. This work analyzes crack propagation in a 2-ply laminate subjected to uniaxial tensile mode-I crack propagation loading that has laminate properties derived based on biological material constituents (marine exoskeleton- chitin and calcite). Interfaces in such laminates are explicitly modeled based on earlier molecular simulations performed by authors. Extended finite element method and cohesive zone modeling based simulations coupled with theoretical analysis are used to analyze crack propagation. Analyses explicitly quantify the effect that interface mechanical property variation has on the delamination as well as the transverse crack propagation in examined 2-ply laminates.
Development of Intake System for Improvement of Performance of Compressed Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine
The improvement of flow strategy was implemented in the intake system of the engine to produce better Compressed Natural Gas engine performance. Three components were studied, designed, simulated, developed,tested and validated in this research. The components are: the mixer, swirl device and fuel cooler device. The three components were installed to produce pressurised turbulent flow with higher fuel volume in the intake system, which is ideal condition for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fuelled engine. A combination of experimental work with simulation technique were carried out. The work included design and fabrication of the engine test rig; the CNG fuel cooling system; fitting of instrumentation and measurement system for the performance testing of both gasoline and CNG modes. The simulation work was utilised to design appropriate mixer and swirl device. The flow test rig, known as the steady state flow rig (SSFR) was constructed to validate the simulation results. Then the investigation of the effect of these components on the CNG engine performance was carried out. A venturi-inlet holes mixer with three variables: number of inlet hole (8, 12, and 16); the inlet angles (300, 400, 500, and 600) and the outlet angles (200, 300, 400, and 500) were studied. The swirl-device with number of revolution and the plane angle variables were also studied. The CNG fuel cooling system with the ability to control water flow rate and the coolant temperature was installed. In this study it was found that the mixer and swirl-device improved the swirl ratio and pressure condition inside the intake manifold. The installation of the mixer, swirl device and CNG fuel cooling system had successfully increased 5.5%, 5%, and 3% of CNG engine performance respectively compared to that of existing operating condition. The overall results proved that there is a high potential of this mixer and swirl device method in increasing the CNG engine performance. The overall improvement on engine performance of power and torque was about 11% and 13% compared to the original mixer.
Recovery of Polymers from Electronic Waste - An
From the last two-three decades, all countries are continuously generating huge quantities of electronic waste in the form of obsolete computers, gadgets and other discarded electronic instruments mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this area. This is the primary reason why waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. Thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, which are the major constituents in every electronic waste, may create a new business opportunity if these are recovered and recycled properly. This may reduce our directly dependency on petroleum and petro-products for polymer materials and also create a potential market for recycled polymers to improve economy. The main theme of this paper is to evolve the potential of recovery and recycling of polymers from the waste being generated globally in the form of discarded electronic products.
Future Trends of Mechatronics Engineering in Pakistan
The paper presents a survey based approach in order to observe the level of awareness regarding Mechatronics in society of Pakistan and the factors affecting the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan. With the help of these surveys a new direction for making a Mathematical model for the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan is also suggested.
Identification of EEG Attention Level Using Empirical Mode Decompositions for BCI Applications
This paper proposes a method to discriminate electroencephalogram (EEG) signals between different concentration states using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Brain-computer interface (BCI), also called brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device without the inherent pathway such as the peripheral nervous system or skeletal muscles. Attention level is a common index as a control signal of BCI systems. The EEG signals acquired from people paying attention or in relaxation, respectively, are decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) by EMD. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is then applied to each IMF to obtain the frequency spectrums. By observing power spectrums of IMFs, the proposed method has the better identification of EEG attention level than the original EEG signals between different concentration states. The band power of IMF3 is the most obvious especially in β wave, which corresponds to fully awake and generally alert. The signal processing method and results of this experiment paves a new way for BCI robotic system using the attention-level control strategy. The integrated signal processing method reveals appropriate information for discrimination of the attention and relaxation, contributing to a more enhanced BCI performance.
Computer Simulations of Stress Corrosion Studies of Quartz Particulate Reinforced ZA-27 Metal Matrix Composites
The stress corrosion resistance of ZA-27 / TiO2 metal matrix composites (MMC’s) in high temperature acidic media has been evaluated using an autoclave. The liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method was used to fabricate MMC’s. TiO2 particulates of 50-80 µm in size are added to the matrix. ZA-27 containing 2,4,6 weight percentage of TiO2 are prepared. Stress corrosion tests were conducted by weight loss method for different exposure time, normality and temperature of the acidic medium. The corrosion rates of composites were lower to that of matrix ZA-27 alloy under all conditions.
Study of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in Overhead Storage Tank of LNG
During the period storage of liquefied natural gas, stability is necessarily affected by natural convection along the walls of the tank with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the numerical simulation of heat transfert by natural convection double diffusion,in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.
Design of a 4-DOF Robot Manipulator with Optimized Algorithm for Inverse Kinematics
This paper shows in detail the mathematical model of direct and inverse kinematics for a robot manipulator (welding type) with four degrees of freedom. Using the D-H parameters, screw theory, numerical, geometric and interpolation methods, the theoretical and practical values of the position of robot were determined using an optimized algorithm for inverse kinematics obtaining the values of the particular joints in order to determine the virtual paths in a relatively short time.
Comparison Between PID and PD Controllers for 4 Cable-Based Robots
This article presents a comparative response specification performance between two controllers of three and four cable based robots for various applications. The main objective of this work is: the first is to use the direct and inverse geometric model to study and simulate the end effector position of the robot with three and four cables. A graphical user interface has been implemented in order to visualizing the position of the robot. Secondly, we present the determination of static and dynamic tensions and lengths of cables required to flow different trajectories. At the end, we study the response of our systems in closed loop with a Proportional-IntegratedDerivative (PID) and Proportional-Integrated (PD) controllers then this last are compared the results of the same examples using MATLAB/Simulink; we found that the PID method gives the better performance, such as rapidly speed response, settling time, compared to PD controller.
Auto Surgical-Emissive Hand
The world is full of master slave Telemanipulator where the doctor’s masters the console and the surgical arm perform the operations, i.e. these robots are passive robots, what the world needs to focus is that in use of these passive robots we are acquiring doctors for operating these console hence the utilization of the concept of robotics is still not fully utilized ,hence the focus should be on active robots, Auto Surgical-Emissive Hand use the similar concept of active robotics where this anthropomorphic hand focuses on the autonomous surgical, emissive and scanning operation, enabled with the vision of 3 way emission of Laser Beam/-5°C < ICY Steam < 5°C/ TIC embedded in palm of the anthropomorphic hand and structured in a form of 3 way disc. Fingers of AS-EH (Auto Surgical-Emissive Hand) as called, will have tactile, force, pressure sensor rooted to it so that the mechanical mechanism of force, pressure and physical presence on the external subject can be maintained, conversely our main focus is on the concept of “emission” the question arises how all the 3 non related methods will work together that to merged in a single programmed hand, all the 3 methods will be utilized according to the need of the external subject, the laser if considered will be emitted via a pin sized outlet, this radiation is channelized via a thin channel which further connect to the palm of the surgical hand internally leading to the pin sized outlet, here the laser is used to emit radiation enough to cut open the skin for removal of metal scrap or any other foreign material while the patient is in under anesthesia, keeping the complexity of the operation very low, at the same time the TIC fitted with accurate temperature compensator will be providing us the real time feed of the surgery in the form of heat image, this gives us the chance to analyze the level, also ATC will help us to determine the elevated body temperature while the operation is being proceeded, the thermal imaging camera in rooted internally in the AS-EH while also being connected to the real time software externally to provide us live feedback. The ICY steam will provide the cooling effect before and after the operation, however for more utilization of this concept we can understand the working of simple procedure in which If a finger remain in icy water for a long time it freezes the blood flow stops and the portion become numb and isolated hence even if you try to pinch it will not provide any sensation as the nerve impulse did not coordinated with the brain hence sensory receptor did not got active which means no sense of touch was observed utilizing the same concept we can use the icy stem to be emitted via a pin sized hole on the area of concern ,temperature below 273K which will frost the area after which operation can be done, this steam can also be use to desensitized the pain while the operation in under process. The mathematical calculation, algorithm, programming of working and movement of this hand will be installed in the system prior to the procedure, since this AS-EH is a programmable hand it comes with the limitation hence this AS-EH robot will perform surgical process of low complexity only.
Greenhouse Controlled with Graphical Plotting in Matlab
This project aims to building a controlled greenhouse, or for better understanding, a structure where one can maintain a given range of temperature values (°C) coming from radiation emitted by an incandescent light, as previously defined, characterizing as a kind of on-off control and a differential, which is the plotting of temperature versus time graphs assisted by MATLAB software via serial communication. That way it is possible to connect the stove with a computer and monitor parameters. In the control, it was performed using a PIC 16F877A microprocessor which enabled convert analog signals to digital, perform serial communication with the IC MAX232 and enable signal transistors. The language used in the PIC's management is Basic. There are also a cooling system realized by two coolers 12V distributed in lateral structure, being used for venting and the other for exhaust air. To find out existing temperature inside is used LM35DZ sensor. Other mechanism used in the greenhouse construction was comprised of a reed switch and a magnet; their function is in recognition of the door position where a signal is sent to a buzzer when the door is open. Beyond it exist LEDs that help to identify the operation which the stove is located. To facilitate human-machine communication is employed an LCD display that tells real-time temperature and other information. The average range of design operating without any major problems, taking into account the limitations of the construction material and structure of electrical current conduction, is approximately 65 to 70 ° C. The project is efficient in these conditions, that is, when you wish to get information from a given material to be tested at temperatures not as high. With the implementation of the greenhouse automation, facilitating the temperature control and the development of a structure that encourages correct environment for the most diverse applications.