Economic Important of Manta Ray Watching Tourism in Dampier Strait, Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia
Manta ray is an icon for tourism in Raja Ampat. The tourist volume has been increased for the past ten years which up to approximately 23,000 tourists in 2017. Since 2013, Conservation International Indonesia deployed satellite and acoustic tags on manta ray in Dampier strait to track the species and identify the aggregation areas. These findings encourage the government and the local community to boost conservation through the management of marine protected areas for tourism purposes. Community in Dampier strait including the village of Arborek, Kurkapa, Kapisawar, and Sawingray involved in variety of small scale tourism business including homestay, dive shop, tour operator, and crafts. Working groups of related local businesses were established to support the local community and to ensure the sustainability of the economic viability and environmental sustainability. In order to analyze the economic benefits of manta ray tourism, this study was conducted to identify the number of local business in Dampier Strait and the economic impacts in terms of local finance security, social, humanity, individual, and physical assets. The results of this study identify 30 homestays, 2 dive shops, 10 tour operators, 30 women involved in crafts, and about 50 villagers worked for dive resorts. In addition to community assets, we confirmed the welfare of community has been improved in terms of food security, households, education for children, savings, and health insurance.
Community Participation in Planning Whale Shark Tourism in Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara-Indonesia
Whale shark tourism offer potential benefits to support economic alternative livelihood. Since 2017, Conservation International Indonesia worked in Sumbawa to monitor whale shark distribution and identified species aggregation in Teluk Saleh. We conducted a survey on May 23th-27th, 2018 and involved 86 local community from five hamlets in Labuan Jambu village. Furthermore, forum group discussion (FGD) held with 20 village representative on July 30th, 2018. The result of frequency distribution demonstrated 95% of respondents show positive perceptions towards sustainable development of whale shark tourism with 40% willing to participate in boat rental services. The community also proposes to participate in providing other tourism services including the local guide (12%), food and beverage or F&B (8%), local transport (8%), and homestay (6%). 34% of respondents agreed to establish a new institution (under village officials) to coordinate tourism services provided by the local community. We also conducted participatory mapping with 15 key informants where the result confirmed 13 areas of whale shark aggregation with all-year-round sightings. The FGD results in 20 participants ready to start the pilot project of community-based whale shark tourism in August 2018, including 4 boat rental (3 speedboats and 1 floating cage boat), 6 homestays, 4 car rentals, 1 F&B, 1 gear rental, 2 guides, and 2 local products. In addition, we facilitate village official in establishing policy and regulations for whale shark conservation and sustainable community-based tourism through village regulation, code of conduct, best practices, and capacity building program.
Shopping Tourism for Emerging Markets: Examining Shopping Tourism in the UK as an Attraction Tool for Wealthy Tourists
This study explores shopping tourism in the UK and examines it as an attraction tool for wealthy tourists to the UK’s capital city London. The study aims to identify the scope of shopping tourism used by countries such as the UK as a tool for attracting wealthy tourists. This study adopts the quantitative research approach through surveys in attaining the results required. Results demonstrate how the UK tourism market is an experience-based market and has recently become an attraction for luxurious brand shoppers. The term Trexit is introduced as a new form of tourism generated by the Brexit. If addressed appropriately the Trexit can assist in any negative economic retaliations of the Brexit. The study concludes that shopping tourism is yet to further incline in years to come, however, government support and cooperative planning with the retail industry is required as a means of further strengthening this developing sector.
City Image of Rio De Janeiro as the Host City of 2016 Olympic Games
Developing countries, such as BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are hosting sports mega-events to promote socio-economic development and image enhancement. Thus, this paper aims to verify the image of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, as the host city of 2016 Olympic Games, considering the main cognitive and affective image dimensions. The research design uses exploratory factorial analysis to find the most important factors highlighted in the city image dimensions. The data were collected by structured questionnaires with an international respondents sample (n=274) with high international travel experience. The results show that Rio’s image as a sport mega-event host city has two main factors in each dimension: Cognitive ('General Infrastructure'; 'Services and Attractions') and Affective ('Positive Feelings'; 'Negative Feelings'). The most important factor related to cognitive dimension was 'Services and Attractions' which is more related to tourism activities. In the affective dimension 'Positive Feelings' was the most important factor, which means a good result considering that is a city in an emerging country with many unmet social demands.
Importance-Performance Analysis of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia: Host and Guest Case Study
With a general objective of evaluating the importance and Performance attributes of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia and also specifically intending to rank out the importance to evaluate the competitive performance of Ethiopia to host volunteer tourists, laying them in a four quadrant grid and conduct the IPA Iso-Priority Line comparison of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia. From hosts and guests point of view, a deeper research discourse was conducted with a randomly selected 384 guests and 165 hosts in Ethiopia. Findings of the discourse through an exploratory research design on both the hosts and the guests confirm that attributes of volunteer tourism generally and marginally fall in the South East quadrant of the matrix where their importance is relatively higher than their performance counterpart, also referred as ‘Concentrate Here’ quadrant. The fact that there are more items in this particular place in both the host and guest study, where they are highly important, but their relative performance is low, strikes a message that the country has more to do. Another focus point of this study is mapping the scores of attributes regarding the guest and host importance and performance against the Iso-Priority Line. Results of Iso-Priority Line Analysis of the IPA of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia from the Host’s Perspective showed that there are no attributes where their importance is exactly the same as their performance. With this being found, the fact that this research design inhabits many characters of exploratory nature, it is not confirmed research output. This paper reserves from prescribing anything to the applied world before further confirmatory research is conducted on the issue and rather calls the scientific community to augment this study through comprehensive, exhaustive, extensive and extended works of inquiry in order to get a refined set of recommended items to the applied world.
Jessica A. Hellings, Piyushkumar Jani
The article shows the pressing conditions of marginalization prevailing in the Sierra Gorda, in the northern state of Queretaro, so it is essential to identify business options that generate a complementary source of income in a sustainable manner, in accordance with the fact that the area is a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. In this sense, the study identifies the enormous scenic richness of the area, the growing demand for leisure activities of the urban centers and the multifunctionality that adds, in a complementary way, the traditional activities that up to now have achieved the quality of life levels. From the application of the 43 interviews and 183 surveys, confirms the fact that the post-visit perception exceeds the expectations of the visitors emerges and affirms that the image that has been projected is attractive and timely. In order to understand how the current model of tourism promoted in the region is working, there is a need to evaluate it in a theoretical-methodological framework considering sustainable development assumptions. In order to determine the degree of contribution to business development, strengthening of social capital, and enjoyment and appreciation of cultural and natural heritage in the region.
A Study on Development Strategies of Marine Leisure Tourism Using AHP
Marine leisure tourism contributes greatly to the national economy in which the sea is located nearby and many countries are using marine tourism to create value added. The interest and investment of government and local governments on marine leisure tourism growing as a major trend of marine tourism is steadily increasing. But indiscriminate investment in marine leisure tourism such as duplicated business wastes limited resources. In other words, government and local governments need to select and concentrate on the goal they pursue by drawing priority on maritime leisure tourism policies. The purpose of this study is to analyze development strategies on supplier for marine leisure tourism and thus provide a comprehensive and rational framework for developing marine leisure tourism. In order to achieve the purpose, this study is to analyze priorities for each evaluation criterion of marine leisure tourism development policies using Analytic Hierarchy Process. In this study, a questionnaire was used as the survey tool and was developed based on the previous studies, government report, regional report, related thesis and literature for marine leisure tourism. The questionnaire was constructed by verifying the validity of contents from the expert group related to marine leisure tourism after conducting the first and second preliminary surveys. The AHP survey was conducted to experts (university professors, researchers, field specialists and related public officials) from April 6, 2018 to April 30, 2018 by visiting in person or e-mail. This study distributed 123 questionnaires and 68 valid questionnaires were used for data analysis. As a result, 4 factors with 12 detail strategies were analyzed using Excel. Extracted factors of development strategies of marine leisure tourism are consist of 4 factors such as infrastructure, popularization, law & system improvement and advancement. In conclusion, the results of the pairwise comparison of the four major factor on the first class were infrastructure, popularization, law & system improvement and advancement in order. Second, marine water front space maintenance had higher priority than marina facilities expansion and the establishment of marine leisure education center. Third, marine leisure safety·culture improvement had higher priority than strengthening experience·education program and the upkeep and open promotion event. Fourth, specialization·cluster of marine leisure tourism had higher priority than business support system of marine leisure tourism. Fifth, the revision of water-related leisure activities safety act had higher priority than an enactment of marine tourism promotion act and the foster of marina service industry. Finally, marine water front space maintenance was the most important development plan to boost marine leisure tourism.
Discrimination against Women in Workplace: A Case Study on Hotel Dress Code
The development of discrimination case which is now extended to the issue of female workers dress code in the hotel industry seen as a challenging topic and a solution is needed. Discrimination generally gives a negative impact on the victim and has a direct impact on female workers if it involves the issue of this dress code. Hence it is not appropriate if these genders are subjected to discrimination that prohibits them from wearing a hijab and required to wear a short skirt during working hours. On this basis, this study discusses the major problems pertaining to dress code faced by female workers in the Malaysian hotel industry. An interview with qualified parties from human resource department in each selected hotels has been conducted in which later generated the findings and supported by materials that obtained from libraries, archives and other databases. Through the research findings, several recommendations were introduced to reduce and eliminate the discrimination issue in Malaysian working sector particularly in the hotel industry in order to achieve the equality among men and women in the workplace.
Cultural Consciousness in an Art Museum: A Case Study of Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art in Nusantara in Indonesia
MACAN (Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art in Nusantara) is a new private art museum in Jakarta, Indonesia. Facing challenges of rapidly changing social, cultural environments, MACAN is responding by devoting themselves to not only presenting famous international artists but also constructing the context of artists from Indonesia by interdisciplinary education and cultural exchange. This paper discusses the exhibitions, collections and the activities of MACAN. The purpose of this museum is to make people aware of the dialogue between local and international artist, and also Indonesia’s own art history. Yet how they build up the cultural consciousness for their audience inside and outside Indonesia? What strategy or method do they adapt to enhance general understanding of their own history and the relation between Indonesia and the world through their exhibition? MACAN has tried to convey their mission by every action they took since its opening (2017). The discussion begins with the premise that the initiative of MACAN offers us a new vision to better understand how a modern and contemporary art museum can make an effort to connect art with cultural identity and stimulate the awareness of recognition in Indonesia. This paper will adopt a case study, curator interview, and document analysis. Last but not least, the paper seeks to contribute towards the narrative of its first exhibition Art Turns, World Turns, Exploring the collection of the MACAN, as well as the possibility of raising audience’s cultural consciousness by a variety of public programs.
The Potential of Southern Malang as Geotourism Site: The Distribution of Geodiversity and Geotrek in Southern Malang, Indonesia
The Tourism Area of Southern Malang is administratively located in the Regency of Malang, East Java Province, Indonesia and geographically is in a position between 112o17' - 112o57' E dan 7o44' - 8o26' S. Southern Malang consists of several sub-districts that directly borders with the Indian Ocean, such as Donomulyo, Bantur, Gedangan, Sumbermanjing, Tirto Yudo, and Ampel Gading. This area has a high geotourism potential because of the existence of geodiversity such as beaches, waterfalls, caves, and karst area. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is still no systematic data that informs the geotourism potentials to the public. The aim of this research is to complete the lack of data and then arrange it systematically so it can be used for both tourism and research purposes. Research methods such as field observation, literature study, and depth interview to local people have been implemented. Aspects reviewed by visiting the field are accommodation, transportation, and the feasibility of a place to be geotourism object. The primary data was taken in Sumbermanjing, Gedangan, Bantur, and Donomulyo sub-district. A literature study is needed to determine the regional geology of Southern Malang and as a comparison to new data obtained in the field. The results of the literature study show that southern Malang consists of three formations: Wonosari Formation, Mandalaka Formation, and River-swamps Sediment Formation with the age range of Oligocene to Quaternary. Depth interviews have been conducted by involving local people with the aim of knowing cultural-history in the research area. From this research, the geotourism object distribution map has been made. The map also includes Geotrek and basic geological information of each object. The results of this research can support the development of geotourism in Southern Malang.
Assessment of Tourist and Community Perception with Regard to Tourism Sustainability Indicators: A Case Study of Sinharaja World Heritage Rainforest, Sri Lanka
The purpose of this study was to determine tourist and community perception-based sustainable tourism indicators as well as Human Pressure Index (HPI) and Tourist Activity Index (TAI). Study was carried out in Sinharaja forest which is considered as one of the major eco-tourism destination in Sri Lanka. Data were gathered using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire as well as records from Forest department. Convenient sampling technique was applied. For the majority of issues, the responses were obtained on multi-point Likert-type scales. Visual portrayal was used for display analyzed data. The study revealed that the host community of the Kudawa gets many benefits from tourism. Also, tourism has caused negative impacts upon the environment and community. The study further revealed the need of proper waste management and involvement of local cultural events for the tourism business in the Kudawa conservation center. The TAI, which accounted to be 1.27 and monthly evolution of HPI revealed that congestion can be occurred in the Sinharaja rainforest during peak season. The results provide useful information to any party involved with tourism planning anywhere, since such attempts would be more effective once the people’s perceptions on these aspects are taken into account.
Outbound Tourism in Developed Countries: Analysis of the Trends, Behavior and the Transformation of the Moroccan Demand for International Travels
Outbound tourism in Morocco, as in the majority of developing countries, reveals some of the aspects of inequality between the north and the south. Considered by some researchers as one of the facets of the development crisis, access to tourism and especially international tourism is a chance for a small minority with financial means, while the vast portions of the population dream rather of immigrating to a developed country for the sake of improving their standard of living. The right to travel is also limited by visa requirements, procedures in host countries, security and technical measures and creates discrimination in the practice of tourism. These conditions do not seem to be favorable to the democratization of the practice of international tourism for the populations of the southern countries. This paper is a contribution to the reading of the trends of outbound tourism in developing countries through the example of Morocco. It highlights the different aspects of Moroccan outbound tourism, destinations and the behavior of tourists through an analysis of the offer of a sample of 50 travel agencies. In the same vein, it offers a reading grid of the possibilities offered for the development of outbound tourism and the various existing obstacles to the democratization of international outbound tourism in the southern countries. This reading reveals the transformation in the behavior of Moroccan international tourists as well as the profound changes in Moroccan society, through a model of statistical analysis.
Teacher's Gender and Primary School Pupils Achievement in Social Studies and Its Educational Implications on Pupils
This study is borne out of the dire need to improve the academic achievement of pupils in social studies. The paper attempted to reconcile the lacuna in teacher’s gender and primary school pupils’ achievement. With specific reference to Social Studies classroom, the aim of this study was to detail how pupils’ achievement is a function of the teacher’s gender as well as to establish the link (if any) between teacher’s gender and pupils’ educational achievement. The significance of this was to create gender-template standard for teachers, school owners, administrators and policy makers to follow in the course of engendering pupils’ achievement in Social Studies. By adopting a quasi-experimental research design, a sample of two hundred pupils was selected across five primary schools in Education District I, Lagos State and assigned to experimental and control groups. A 40-item Gender and Social Studies Achievement Test (GSSAT) was used to obtain data from the pupils. Having analyzed the data collected using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), a reliability of 0.78 was obtained. Result revealed that teacher’s gender (male/female) had no significant effect on pupils’ achievement in Social Studies and that there was significant interaction effect of teacher’s commitment devoid of gender on the general education output of pupils in Social Studies. Taken together, the results revealed that there is a high degree correlation between teacher’s commitment and pupils academic achievement in social studies, and not gender-based. The study recommended that social studies teachers should re-assess their classroom instructional strategies and use more innovative instructional methods and techniques that will give the pupils equal opportunities to excel in social studies, rather than their gender differences.
Obstacles to Accessible Tourism for People with Mental, Physical and Mobility Disability: A Case Study of North Cyprus
Attending tourism in the current century is one of the key factors in the success of the tourism industry and, consequently, the prosperity of the economies of the countries. In this regard, accessible tourism can play a major role in the development of tourism, taking into account the attractions, facilities and capabilities of the development of tourism in Northern Cyprus, and given that the satisfaction of tourists from the product and destination of tourism has an undeniable role in attracting tourists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental barriers and accessibility of the tourism industry in Northern Cyprus. Another goal of this study is to introduce this consumer group to the tourism community. In order to achieve the objectives of this paper, a questionnaire was designed and provided to three tourism professionals to assess the reliability, and then, among the 200 people with physical and mental disabilities who travelled to Cyprus, The data analysis was used as a confirmatory factor analysis method. The environmental barrier for tourists with disabilities is classified in three sections of transport, attractions and accommodation, each section being separately identified separately. In general, observance of the principles and standards of proper fitting in the main sectors of the tourism industry of Northern Cyprus in the situation The facilities and transportation were identified as the first problem and obstacle for the development of tourism for people with physical and mental disabilities and, finally, suggestions and solutions for the development of tourism for people with physical and physical disabilities were presented.
Enhancing the Pricing Expertise of an Online Distribution Channel
Dynamic pricing is a revenue management strategy in which hotel suppliers define, over time, flexible and different prices for their services for different potential customers, considering the profile of e-consumers and the demand and market supply. This means that the fundamentals of dynamic pricing are based on economic theory (price elasticity of demand) and market segmentation. This study aims to define a dynamic pricing strategy and a contextualized offer to the e-consumers profile in order to improve the number of reservations of an online distribution channel. Segmentation methods (hierarchical and non-hierarchical) were used to identify and validate an optimal number of market segments. A profile of the market segments was studied, considering the characteristics of the e-consumers and the probability of reservation a room. In addition, the price elasticity of demand was estimated for each segment using econometric models. Finally, predictive models were used to define rules for classifying new e-consumers into pre-defined segments. The empirical study illustrates how it is possible to improve the intelligence of an online distribution channel system through an optimal dynamic pricing strategy and a contextualized offer to the profile of each new e-consumer. A database of 11 million e-consumers of an online distribution channel was used in this study. The results suggest that an appropriate policy of market segmentation in using of online reservation systems is benefit for the service suppliers because it brings high probability of reservation and generates more profit than fixed pricing.
The Potential of Kepulauan Seribu as Marine-Based Eco-Geotourism Site: The Study of Carbonate Platform as Geotourism Object in Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta
Kepulauan Seribu National Parks is a marine preservation region in Indonesia. It is located in 5°23' - 5°40' LS, 106°25' - 106°37' BT North of Jakarta City. Covered with area 107,489 ha, Kepulauan Seribu has a lot of tourism spots such as cluster islands, fringing reef and many more. Kepulauan Seribu is also nominated as Strategic Tourism Region In Indonesia (KSPN). So, these islands have a lot of potential sides more than preservation function as a national park, hence the development of sustainable geotourism. The aim of this study is for enhancing the development of eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu. This study concern for three main aspect of eco-geotourism such as tourism, form and process. Study for the tourism aspect includes attractions, accommodations, tours, activities, interpretation, and planning & management in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the form aspect focused on the carbonate platform situated between two islands. Primarily in carbonate reef such as head coral, branchy coral, platy coral that created the carbonate sequence in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the process aspect primarily discussed the process of forming of carbonate from carbonate factory later becomes Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the regional geology of Kepulauan Seribu has been conducted and suggested that Kepulauan Seribu lithologies are mainly quarternary limestone. In this study, primary data was taken from an observation of quarternary carbonate platform between two islands from Hati Island, Macan Island, Bulat Island, Ubi Island and Kelapa Island. From this observation, the best routes for tourist have been made from Island to Island. Qualitative methods such as depth interview to the local people in purposive sampling also have been made. Finally, this study also giving education about geological site – carbonate sequence - in Kepulauan Seribu for the local wisdom so that this study can support the development of sustainable eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu.
Winery Owners’ Perceptions of Social Media in Promoting Wine Tourism: Case Study of Langhe, Italy
Over the past decade Langhe has developed as a wine tourism destination and has become increasingly popular on an international basis. Wine tourism has been recognized as an important business driver for wineries in Langhe and wine owners have taken advantage of this opportunity through developing a variety of tourism-related activities at their wineries, notably winery visits, wine tastings, cellar-door sales, B&Bs and/or restaurants. In order to promote these tourism-related activities and attract an increasing number of wine tourists, wineries have started to engage in social media. While tourism scholars are now well aware of the benefits social media provides to both travellers and service providers, the existing literature on social media from supplier’s perspective remains limited. Accordingly, this paper aims to fill this gap through providing new insights into how service providers, that is winery owners, exploit social media to promote tourism online. The paper explores the importance and the role of social media as part of wineries’ marketing strategies to promote wine tourism online. The focus lies on understanding, which motives drive winery owners to activate and implement social media activities in promoting wine tourism. A case study approach is adopted, using the North Italian wine region of Langhe in Piedmont. Empirical evidence is provided by a sample of 28 winery owners. An interpretivist approach to research is adopted in order to extend current understandings of social media within the context of wine tourism. In line with the interpretivist perspective, this paper uses discourse analysis (DA) as a methodological approach for analyzing and interpreting winery owners’ accounts. Three key findings emerge from this research. First, there is a general understanding among winery owners what social media represents an opportunity in promoting wine tourism – if not even a must have. Second, the majority of interviewed winery owners are currently applying to some extent social media to promote wine tourism online as well as to interact and engage with tourists directly. Lastly, a varying degree of usage of social media amongst wineries is identified, with some wineries not recognizing social media as a crucial tool in marketing communication strategies. On the other extent, some commonalities in strategies and platforms chosen can be detected by these wineries that actively participate in social media. In conclusion, the main contribution of this paper is that it extends current understandings of social media in the wine tourism context by offering valuable insights into how service providers perceive and engage in social media.
An Assessment of Experiential Learning Outcomes of Study Abroad Programs in Hospitality: A Learning Style Perspective
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of experiential learning on learning outcomes in hospitality education. This paper presents the results of an online survey of students from the U.S. studying abroad and their self-reported change in learning outcomes as assessed using the Core Competencies Model for the Hospitality Industry developed by Employment and Training Development Office of the U.S. Department of Labor. The impact of student learning styles on learning outcomes is also evaluated in this study. Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory Model was used to assess students’ learning style. The results show that students reported significant improvements in their learning outcomes because of engaging in study abroad experiential learning programs. The learning styles of the students had significant effect on one of core learning outcomes- personal effectiveness.
Examining the Effects of National Disaster on the Performance of Hospitality Industry in Korea
The outbreak of national disasters stimulates the decrease of the both internal and domestic tourism demands, causing bad effects on the hospitality industry. The effective and efficient risk management regarding national disasters are being increasingly required from the hospitality industry practitioners and the tourism policymakers. To establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy on national disasters, the most essential prerequisite condition is the correct estimation of national disasters’ effects in terms of the size and duration of the damages occurred from national disaster on hospitality industry. More specifically, the national disasters are twofold: natural disaster and social disaster. In addition, the hospitality industry has consisted of several types of business, such as hotel, restaurant, travel agency, etc. As reasons of the above, it is important to consider how each type of national disasters differently influences on the performance of each type of hospitality industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is examining the effects of national disaster on hospitality industry in Korea based on the types of national disasters as well as the types of hospitality business. The monthly data was collected from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2016. The indexes of industrial production for each hospitality industry in Korea were used with the proxy variable for the performance of each hospitality industry. Two national disaster variables (natural disaster and social disaster) were treated as dummy variables. In addition, the exchange rate, industrial production index, and consumer price index were used as control variables in the research model. The impulse response analysis was used to examine the size and duration of the damages occurred from each type of national disaster on each type of hospitality industries. The results of this study show that the natural disaster and the social disaster differently influenced on each type of hospitality industry. More specifically, the performance of airline industry is negatively influenced by the natural disaster at the time of 3 months later from the incidence. However, the negative impacts of social disaster on airline industry occurred not significantly over the time periods. For the hotel industry, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of hotel industry at the time of 5 months and 6 months later, respectively. Also, the negative impact of natural disaster on the performance of restaurant industry occurred at the time of 5 months later, as well as for both 3 months and 6 months later for the social disaster. Finally, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of travel agency at the time of 3 months and 4 months later, respectively. In conclusion, the types of national disasters differently influence the performance of each type of hospitality industry in Korea. These results would provide an important information to establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy for the national disasters.
Analyzing the Impacts of Sustainable Tourism Development on Residents’ Well-Being Based on Stakeholder Perception: Evidence from a Coastal-Hinterland Region
Over-development for tourism and its consequences on residents’ well-being turn into a critical issue in tourism destinations. Learning about undesirable impacts of tourism has led many people to seek more sustainable and responsible tourism. The main objective of this research is to understand how and to what extent sustainable tourism development enhances locals’ well-being regarding stakeholder perception. The research was conducted in a coastal-hinterland tourism region through two sequential phases. At the first phase, a unique set of 19 sustainable tourism indicators resulted from a triplex model was used to examine the sustainability effects on the main factors of residents’ well-being including equity and living condition, life satisfaction, health condition, and education quality. The triplex model including i) systematic literature search, ii) convergent interviewing, and iii) DEMATEL aimed to develop sustainability indicators, specify them for a particular destination, and identify the dominant sustainability issues acting as key predictors in sustainable development. At the second phase, a hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between sustainable development and local residents’ well-being. A number of 167 participants from five different groups of stakeholders perceived the importance level of each sustainability indicators regarding well-being factors on 5-point Likert scale. Results from the first phase indicated that sustainability training, government support, tourism sociocultural effects, tourism revenue, and climate change are the top dominant sustainability issues in the regional sustainable development. Results from the second phase showed that sustainable development considerably improves the overall residents’ well-being and has positive relationships with all well-being factors except life satisfaction. It explains that it was difficult for stakeholders to recognize a link between sustainable development and their overall life satisfaction and happiness. Among well-being’s factors, health condition was influenced the most by sustainability indicators that indicate stakeholders believed sustainability development can promote public health, health sector performance, quality of drinking water, and sanitation. For the future research, it is highly recommended to analysis the effects of sustainable tourism development on the other features of a tourism destination’s well-being including residents sociocultural empowerment, local economic growth, and attractiveness of the destination.
Status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Technology Program of Eastern Visayas State University
This study investigated the status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the BSHRT Program of Eastern Visayas State University, Tacloban City Campus. Descriptive-correlation method was used which Variables include profile age, gender, acquired NC II, competencies in HRT and the status of the laboratory facilities, tools, and equipment of the BSHRT program. The study also identified significant correlation between the profile of the respondents and the implementation of the BSHRT Program in terms of laboratory tools and equipment. A self-structured survey questionnaire was used to gather relevant data among eighty-seven (87) BSHRT-OJT students. To test the correlations of variables, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient Correlation or Pearson r was used. As a result, the study revealed very interesting results and various significant correlations among the paired variables and as to the implementation of the BSHRT Program. Hence, this study was done to update the status of laboratory tools and equipment of the program.
Comparison of Tourist Shopping Patterns in Korea, 2009-2015: A Case of China and Japan
Japan has been positioned as a major inbound market to Korea, accounting for about 31% of total inbound visitors until 2012. The percentage has sharply dropped each year since and remained in second place, reaching 13.33% in 2016. Meanwhile, China has been boosted as a major inbound market, reaching 46.79% in 2016. Chinese tourists mainly visit Korea with the major purpose of shopping. They consume Korean cosmetic/beauty products and clothes while Japanese tourists prefer to purchase healthy food such as ginseng and seaweed. This study aims to investigate and compare tourist shopping patterns across two major inbound markets, China and Japan. A quantitative approach using survey was applied from 2009 to 2016. Findings suggest Chinese visit Korea due to quality of product, value for money, and accessibility, and trust. Meanwhile, Japanese choose Korea as a shopping destination mainly due to convenience, affordability, and tourist attractions. Also, there were significant differences in shopping venues. For example, Japanese tourists prefer shopping at department stores while Chinese tourists prefer retail outlets and local markets. This study contributes to deeper understanding on two major inbound markets to Korea and suggests future marketing strategies.
The Political Economy of Conservation at Bhitarkanika Wild Life Sanctuary, India: Conflicts, Sustainability, and Development
This paper posits the attempt of conservation and the idea of protected areas from the Marxian primitive accumulation to the politics of sustainability. Using field survey data and secondary literature, this paper analyses an Indian wildlife sanctuary, the Bhitarkanika, Odisha and finds how the hegemony of power among different management regimes attempted for conservation and the present protected area management regime attempted to imbibe the policy of ecotourism for achieving sustainability. The paper contends that the current policy of ecotourism in protected areas acts as a veil for the local deprived people, to avoid many legal conflicts like property rights, livelihood, and man-wildlife issues. Moreover, opening the scope to accumulate on the part of tour operators, the policy of ecotourism establishes a nexus between the profit holders/tour operators (the capitalists) and the power hegemony on the part of management authorities. The sustainability attempt of ecotourism may lead to private benefits maximising the profit accumulation and can expand and continue, showing the bulk of employment generation of local people at petty odd jobs, grabbing a lion share! Positing ecotourism as a capitalist project as against the general assumption of one of the drivers of sustainable development, the paper shows that ecotourism in practice may end up ruining the very social-environmental set up, leading to unsustainability related to waste management, equality, culture, relationship and above all polarised private accumulators in absence of sound mechanism. The paper ends with the caveat that while shopping for neoliberal conservation, the conservators found ecotourism as a product without finalising the hallmark of mechanism/ institutions with appropriate modus operandii to check/guard the quality assurance/standard of ecotourism for sustainability. The paper proposes sound structural and institutional mechanism of ecotourism to be developed to harness sustainability in the local economy as well as in conservation.
Sentiment Analysis of Creative Tourism Experiences: The Case of Girona, Spain
Creative tourism involves the participation of tourists in the co-creation of their own experiences in a tourism destination. Consequently, creative tourists move from a passive behavior to an active behavior, and tourism destinations address this type of tourism by changing the scenario and making tourists learn and participate while they travel instead of merely offering tourism products and services to them. In creative tourism experiences, tourists are in close contact with locals and their culture. In destinations where culture (i.e. food, heritage, etc.) is the basis of their offer, such as Girona, Spain, tourism stakeholders must especially consider, analyze, and further foster the co-creation of authentic tourism experiences. They should focus on discovering more about these experiences, their main attributes, visitors’ opinions, etc. Creative tourists do not only participate while they travel around the world, but they also have and active post-travel behavior. They feel free to write about tourism experiences in different channels. User-generated content becomes crucial for any tourism destination when analyzing the market, making decisions, planning strategies, and when addressing issues, such as their reputation and performance. Sentiment analysis is a methodology used to automatically analyze semantic relationships and meanings in texts, so it is a way to extract tourists’ emotions and feelings. Tourists normally express their views and opinions regarding tourism products and services. They may express positive, neutral or negative feelings towards these products or services. For example, they may express anger, love, hate, sadness or joy towards tourism services and products. They may also express feelings through verbs, nouns, adverbs, adjectives, among others. Sentiment analysis may help tourism professionals in a range of areas, from marketing to customer service. For example, sentiment analysis allows tourism stakeholders to forecast tourism expenditure and tourist arrivals, or to analyze tourists’ profile. While there is an increasing presence of creativity in tourists’ experiences, there is also an increasing need to explore tourists’ expressions about these experiences. There is a need to know how they feel about participating in specific tourism activities. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze the meanings, emotions and feelings that tourists express about their creative experiences in Girona, Spain. To do so, sentiment analysis methodology is used. Results show the diversity of tourists who actively participate in tourism in Girona. Their opinions refer both to tangible aspects (e.g. food, museums, etc.) and to intangible aspects (e.g. friendliness, nightlife, etc.) of tourism experiences. Tourists express love, likeliness and other sentiments towards tourism products and services in Girona. This study can help tourism stakeholders in understanding tourists’ experiences and feelings. Consequently, they can offer more customized products and services and they can efficiently make them participate in the co-creation of their own tourism experiences.
Exploring the Effects of Cuisine Experience, Emotions, Place Attachment on Heritage Tourists’ Revisit Behavioral Intentions: The Case Study of Lu-Kang
Food tourism is one of the growing industries in the tourism industry today. The Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) are aware of the importance of gastronomy to stimulate local and regional economic development. From the heritage and cultural aspects, gastronomy is becoming a more important part of the cultural heritage of the region. Heritage destinations provide culinary heritage, which fits the current interest in traditional food, and cuisine is a part of a general desire for authentic experience. However, few studies have empirically examined antecedents of food tourists’ behavioral intentions. This study examined the effects of cuisine experience; emotions, place attachment and tourists’ revisit behavioral intentions. A total of 408 individuals responded to the on-site survey in the historic town of Lu-Kang in Taiwan. The results indicated that tourists’ cuisine experience include place flavor, media recommendation, local learning, life transfer and interpersonal share. In addition, cuisine experience had significant impacts on emotions and place attachment, emotions had significant effects on place attachment, furthermore, which in turn place attachment had significant effects on tourists’ revisit behavioral intentions. The findings suggested that the cuisine experience is a multi-dimensions construct. On the other hands, the good quality of cuisine experience could evoke tourists’ positive emotions and it could play a significant role in promoting tourist revisit intentions or word of mouth. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Investigating the Use of Social Media Channels When Capitalising on Ireland’s Appearance in US TV and Movies: A Digital Marketing Campaign
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that US TV and movies have had on Irish tourism. This study examines how a destination marketing organisation (DMO) can use social media channels to capitalise upon the opportunities created by film tourism as it pertains to North American TV and movie productions. The findings are based on a combination of two qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with 20 industry professionals and a Netnographic analysis of social media activity between Tourism Ireland and the North American audience on Facebook and Twitter. The qualitative data were analysed in order to provide insights into the effectiveness of using North American pop culture as part of a digital marketing strategy when creating awareness of Ireland as a brand in the US and Canada. This study addresses a gap in the literature in relation to the use of social media when attracting the North American holidaymaker to Ireland. The findings from this investigation will extend an under-researched body of literature pertaining to Ireland as a destination and the successful digital marketing campaigns that have achieved exponential growth in this sector over the past five years. The empirical evidence presented also illustrates how the innovative use of social media has assisted the DMO to engage with the North American holidaymaker as part of an effective digital marketing strategy. This paper will be of value to academics and industry practitioners interested in film-induced tourism and indeed tourism in general, as well as students.
Attracting the North Holidaymaker to Ireland Using Social Media Channels: An Irish Marketing Strategy
In tourism, engagement has been found to boost awareness of a destination and subsequently increase visits. Customer engagement in this industry is now facilitated by social media. This phenomenon is not very well researched in relation to Ireland and the North American tourism market. The objective of this paper is to present research findings on two related topics; the first is an investigation into the effectiveness of social media channels as components of a digital marketing campaign when promoting Ireland as a brand in North America. Secondly, this study reveals how Irish marketers have embraced social media platforms and channels with an innovative strategy that has successfully attracted growing numbers of US and Canadian holidaymakers to Ireland. A range of methodological approaches was applied in order to achieve the study’s objective. The methods used were both quantitative and qualitative, and the data was obtained from both Irish marketers and North American holidaymakers. Surveys of these holidaymakers in the pre, during and post-trip phases revealed their attitudes towards social media and Ireland as a destination. Semi-structured interviews with those responsible for implementing relationship marketing strategies for this segment provide insight into the effectiveness of social media when used to capitalise on the cultural link between Ireland and North America. Further analysis involved using Nvivo 11+ software to investigate the activities of the Irish destination marketer (DMO) and the engagement of the US and Canadian audiences through a detailed study of social media platform content. The findings from this investigation will extend an under-researched body of literature pertaining to Ireland as a destination and the successful digital marketing campaigns that have achieved exponential growth in this sector over the past five years. The empirical evidence presented also illustrates how the innovative use of social media has assisted the DMO to engage with the North American holidaymaker as part of an effective digital marketing strategy.
A Suggestive Framework for Measuring the Effectiveness of Social Media: An Irish Tourism Study
Over the past five years, visitations of American holidaymakers to Ireland have grown exponentially owing to the online strategies of Tourism Ireland, a Destination Marketer (DMO) with a meagre budget which is extended by their understanding of best practices to maximise their monetary allowance. This suggested framework incorporates a range of Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) such as financial, marketing, and operational that offer a scale of measurement from which the Irish DMO can monitor the success of each promotional campaign when targeting the US and Canada. These are presented not as final solutions but rather as suggestions based on empirical evidence obtained from both primary and secondary sources. This research combines the wisdom extracted through qualitative methodologies with the objective of understanding the processes that drive both emergent and agile strategies. The Study extends the work relative to performance and examines the role of social media in the context of promoting Ireland to North America. There are two main themes that are identified and analysed in this investigation, these are the approach of the DMO when advocating Ireland as a brand and the benefits of digital platforms set against a proposed scale of KPIs, such as destination marketing, brand positioning, and identity development. The key narrative of this analysis is to focus on the power of social media when capitalising upon marketing opportunities, operating on a relatively small budget. This will always be a relevant theme of discussion due to the responsibility of an organisation like Tourism Ireland operating under the restraints imposed by government funding. The overall conclusions of this research may help inform those concerned with the implementing of social media strategies develop clearer models of measurement when promoting a destination to North America. The suggestions of this study will benefit small and medium enterprises particularly.
A Destination Marketing Study on Capitalising on the Cultural Link between Ireland and North America Using Social Media
This study examines how a destination marketing organisation can use social media channels to engage the interests of the US and Canadian markets in a way that maximises the number of visits (and revisits) to Ireland. The research reveals how the cultural link between Ireland and North America is exploited through the use of social media strategies. The findings are based on quantitative and qualitative empirical data obtained through a survey of North American holidaymakers in the pre, during and post trip phases coupled with in-depth interviews of 20 industry experts who are responsible for the implementation of relationship marketing strategies for this segment. The qualitative data was analysed using Netnography in order to provide insights into the effectiveness of various social media channels in developing cultural links between Ireland and North American tourists. The findings of this investigation will extend an under-researched body of literature pertaining to Ireland and North America. The empirical evidence of this study will be of value to both academics and industry practitioners.
Netnography Research in Leisure, Tourism, and Hospitality: Lessons from Research and Education
The internet is affecting the way the industry operates and communicates. It is also becoming a customary means for leisure, tourism, and hospitality consumers to seek and exchange information and views on hotels, destinations events and attractions, or to develop social ties with other users. On the one hand, the internet is a rich field to conduct leisure, tourism, and hospitality research; on the other hand, however, there are few researchers formally embracing online methods of research, such as netnography. Within social sciences, netnography falls under the interpretative/ethnographic research methods umbrella. It is an adaptation of anthropological techniques such as participant and non-participant observation, used to study online interactions happening on social media platforms, such as Facebook. It is, therefore, a research method applied to the study of online communities, being the term itself a contraction of the words network (as on internet), and ethnography. It was developed in the context of marketing research in the nineties, and in the last twenty years, it has spread to other contexts such as education, psychology, or urban studies. Since netnography is not universally known, it may discourage researchers and educators from using it. This work offers guidelines for researchers wanting to apply this method in the field of leisure, tourism, and hospitality or for educators wanting to teach about it. This is done by means of a double approach: a content analysis of the literature side-by-side with educational data, on the use of netnography. The content analysis is of the incidental research using netnography in leisure, tourism, and hospitality in the last twenty years. The educational data is the author and her colleagues’ experience in coaching students throughout the process of writing a paper using primary netnographic data - from identifying the phenomenon to be studied, selecting an online community, collecting and analyzing data to writing their findings. In the end, this work puts forward, on the one hand, a research agenda, and on the other hand, an educational roadmap for those wanting to apply netnography in the field or the classroom. The educator’s roadmap will summarise what can be expected from mini-netnographies conducted by students and how to set it up. The research agenda will highlight for which issues and research questions the method is most suitable; what are the most common bottlenecks and drawbacks of the method and of its application, but also where most knowledge opportunities lay.