Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50735

Social and Tourism Sciences

207
85962
A Study of Thai Tourists' Image towards Local Food in Phetchaburi, Thailand in Order to Promote Food Tourism
Abstract:
The study of Phetchaburi Local Food Image in order to Support Tourism aimed 1) to overview Phetchaburi tourism images; and 2) to clarify Phetchaburi local food image. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis were used in this study. Questionnaires were delivered to sample group of 1,489 tourists from 8 districts of Phetchaburi. Results were found that Phetchaburi local food image could be as tool for tourism promotion. Strong place images were within Phetchaburi center city (35%) and in the markets (34.50%). As for satisfaction of local food comparing in descending order of excellent level mean score were its eminence, identity, quality, taste, creativity, and sanitation. Results of prominent images of well-known local food of Phetchaburi were Thai custard dessert, other desserts, palm and sugar palm drink and rice in ice water. The results can be applied as promotional tools for future food tourism in Phetchaburi.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
206
85927
Simplified Mobile AR Platform Design for Augmented Tourism
Abstract:
This study outlines iterations of designing mobile augmented reality (MAR) applications for tourism specific contexts. Using a design based research model, several cycles of development to implementation were analyzed and refined upon with the goal of building a MAR platform that would facilitate the creation of augmented tours and environments by non-technical users. The project took on several stages, and through the process, a simple framework was begun to be established that can inform the design and use of MAR applications for tourism contexts. As a result of these iterations of development, a platform was developed that can allow novice computer users to create augmented tourism environments. This system was able to connect existing tools in widespread use such as Google Forms and connect them to computer vision algorithms needed for more advanced augmented tourism environments. The study concludes with a discussion of this MAR platform and reveals design elements that have implications for tourism contexts. The study also points to future case uses and design approaches for augmented tourism.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
205
84766
The Influence of Chinese Philosophic-Religious Traditions on Chinese Consumption Behaviour: Findings from the Taoist Case Study
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to explore how the Chinese philosophic-religious tradition of Taoism impacts on the consumption behaviour of contemporary Chinese consumers. Although much cultural research has been conducted on Chinese consumption behaviours, most studies have approached the subject from Western perspectives. Examination of the limited literature indicates a gap in the knowledge of the relationship of traditional Chinese Taoism philosophy and Chinese consumption behaviour. To bridge this gap, this study examines Chinese consumption behaviour at a Taoist-related Chinese religious festival - the DuanWu festival - in order to seek some understanding of how the Taoism philosophic-religious tradition influences Chinese consumption behaviour from the point of view of the individuals involved. It focuses attention on their expression of Taoism cultural values, purchasing experience and subsequent consumption behaviours. This study undertook multiple methods for Taoist case study data collection: accompanied shopping with Taoists before DuanWu Festival; participant observations during DuanWu Festival; and in-depth interviews in order to explore Taoists consumption behaviours at the end of the Festival. Specifically, the finding from the Taoist case study corroborates and details the influence of the Taoism doctrine: man–nature orientation, Fenshui, ecological effect, and ecological knowledge, on their attitudes toward green purchasing behaviour. Findings from this Taoist case study - one of a series of three Chinese philosophic religious tradition case studies - contribute to the deeper understanding of contemporary Chinese consumers from a non-Western viewpoint and offer initial insights for global marketers to differentiate consumer needs and develop effective marketing strategies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
204
84530
Empowered Women Entrepreneurs and Sustainable Rural Tourism: A Study into the Voices and Experiences of Local Women in the Sundarbans Area of Bangladesh
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to examine the role of women entrepreneurs in bringing about sustainable rural tourism (SRT) development in Sundarbans area of Bangladesh. Theoretically, it draws upon empowerment and entrepreneurial marketing concepts. Women entrepreneurship development and lack of empowered women as role models is an important issue for developing economies in South Asia. Despite the substantial role women play in rural economy of Sundarbans, their contribution remains overlooked as enterprises led by them are run on an informal basis and their business acumen is not taken seriously both by their families and society at large. Studies on SRT fail to engage in sufficient depth with the term applied in this paper as ‘invisible women on the margins’ who run their enterprises with no formal training or societal/familial support. Moreover, the link between their (non) tourism enterprise and their empowerment remains under-theorized. Thus empirically, this research seeks to fill a significant gap by focusing on a considerably under-researched Sundarbans region. Methodologically, this study follows a qualitative research design using visual ethnographic approach. Participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and documentation are the primary data collection instruments in three coastal communities – Munshigonj, Burigoalini and Gabura – in the Sundarbans area. By focusing on the narratives of these under-investigated women, this work aims to provide in-depth and nuanced insights into salient issues on marginal communities experience from rural women’s perspectives. Initial findings illustrate that the Sundarbans women have low income due to no or little education. In addition, socio-cultural and religious factors also restrict the scope of their extensive contribution to workplace. In addition, physical and social violence which is a common occurrence for these women inhibits their agency and contributes to their disempowerment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
203
83691
Augmented Tourism: Definitions and Design Principles
Abstract:
After designing and implementing several iterations of implementations of augmented reality (AR) in tourism, this paper takes a deep look into design principles and implementation strategies of using AR at destination tourism settings. The study looks to define augmented tourism from past implementations as well as several cases, uses designed and implemented for tourism. The discussion leads to formation of frameworks and best practices for AR as well as virtual reality( VR) to be used in tourism settings. Some main affordances include guest autonomy, customized experiences, visitor data collection and increased electronic word-of-mouth generation for promotion purposes. Some challenges found include the need for high levels of technology infrastructure, low adoption rates or ‘buy-in’ rates, high levels of calibration and customization, and the need for maintenance and support services. Some suggestions are given as to how to leverage the affordances and meet the challenges of implementing AR for tourism.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
202
82545
Flight Safety Hazard: An Investigation into Bird Strike Prevention in the Vicinity of Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand
Abstract:
The purpose of this research paper was aimed to examine the bird strike prevention in the vicinity of Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand. A bird strike event occurs when a bird or a flock of birds collide with an operating airplane and results in flight interruption. This is the reason why International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a part of the United Nations, has an assumption that birds, including other wildlife, are a serious hazard to aircraft and attempts should be accomplished to overcome this hazard. ICAO requires all airports worldwide to set up proactive countermeasures in order to reduce the risk from bird strike and wildlife hazard. In Thailand, the Airports of Thailand Public Company Limited which manages Suvarnabhumi Airport, also known as Bangkok International Airport, responds to the requirements and spends a lot of effort to ensure this hazard is manageable. An intensive study on the countermeasures to prevent aircraft accident from bird strike and other wildlife have been continuously executed since the early construction of the Airport until nowadays.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
201
82276
Ecotourism and Orangutan Conservation in City Landscape: The Case of Semenggoh Wildlife Centre
Abstract:
Semenggoh Wildlife Centre (SWC) begins its journey as an important orangutan rehabilitation centre in Sarawak. Strategically located about 25 km from Kuching, the capital city of Malaysian Sarawak in Borneo Island. This paper sought to access the progression of Semenggoh Wildlife Centre from a rehabilitation into one of the top ecotourism destination in Kuching. The existing semi-wild orangutans (attraction)-ecotourism interaction in city landscape setting is evaluated. With the ever-increasing demand of ecotourism activity in SWC, this study is intended to explore and understand the current status of ecotourism activity in SWC by analysing visitors, and economic statistic, issues and challenges and strategically propose way-forward to enhance the sustainability of ecotourism in SWC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
200
81725
Potentials and Challenges of Adventure Tourism Development: A Case Study of Kashmir Valley, India
Abstract:
Tourism which is considered as the economic bonanza of Jammu and Kashmir plays an important role in the socio-economic development of Jammu and Kashmir. It is considered as a multi-segmented industry which provides different type of jobs like hotel managers, receptionists, guides, tour operators, travel agents, photographers, etc. Kashmir Valley which is one of the three meso regions (Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh) of Jammu and Kashmir State is famous all over the world due to its natural beauty. It attracts tourists from the every corner of the globe that is why it has earned name as ‘Paradise on Earth’ and ‘Switzerland of Asia’. It is full of natural treasure and gratifies the several types of tourists. The tourists are experiences fun, thrilling events and safe experience in Kashmir valley, but on the other hand, the adventure tourists are experiencing the physical risks, dangers and losses (injuries, death etc) too. Kashmir valley has greater potential to become one of the best adventure tourism destinations in the world. It offers immense opportunities to the adventurists to explore the wonderful exotic Himalayan ranges and landscapes, in addition, to facing the challenges of fast flowing rivers. Adventure tourism is at the initial stage of development in Kashmir valley and virgin areas needs to be explored and develop which in result will increase not only tourist arrivals but also enhance the business opportunities and economy of local people in Kashmir. Thus the exploitation of virginity of adventure tourism potentials in Kashmir valley is need of the hour. Therefore the present study highlights the potentials of adventure tourism in Kashmir valley and also focuses on the problems in the development of adventure tourism. Furthermore, the study extends to give various recommendations and suggestions in order to develop adventure tourism and broaden the base of tourist arrivals on one hand and sustained the growth on the other hand.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
199
81694
Using Contingency Valuation Approaches to Assess Community Benefits through the Use of Great Zimbabwe World Heritage Site as a Tourism Attraction
Abstract:
Heritage as an asset can be used to achieve cultural and socio-economic development through its careful use as a tourist attraction. Cultural heritage sites, especially those listed as World Heritage sites generate a lot of revenue through their use as tourist attractions. According to article 5(a) of the World Heritage Convention, World Heritage Sites (WHS) must serve a function in the life of the communities. This is further stressed by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) charter on cultural heritage tourism which recognizes the positive effects of tourism on cultural heritage and underlines that domestic and international tourism is among the foremost vehicles for cultural exchange, conservation should thus provide for responsible and well-managed opportunities for local communities. The inclusion of communities in the world heritage agenda identifies them as the owners of the heritage and partners in the management planning process. This reiterates the need to empower communities and enable them to participate in the decisions which relate to the use of their heritage divorcing from the ideals of viewing communities as beneficiaries from the heritage resource. It recognizes community ownership rights to cultural heritage an element enshrined in Zimbabwe’ national constitution. Through the use of contingency valuation approaches, by assessing the Willingness to pay for visitors at the site the research determined the tourism use value of Great Zimbabwe (WHS). It assessed the extent to which the communities at Great Zimbabwe (WHS) have been developed through the tourism use of the WHS. Findings show that the current management mechanism in place regards communities as stakeholders in the management of the WHS, their ownership and property rights are not fully recognized. They receive indirect benefits from the tourism use of the WHS. This paper calls for a shift in management approach where community ownership rights are fully recognized and more inclusive approaches are adopted to ensure that the goal of sustainable development is achieved. Pro-poor benefits of tourism are key to enhancing the livelihoods of communities and can only be achieved if their rights are recognized and respected.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
198
81685
Traditional Management Systems and the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage: Multiple Case Studies in Zimbabwe
Abstract:
Traditional management systems (TMS) are a vital source of knowledge for conserving cultural and natural heritage. TMS’s are renowned for their ability to preserve both tangible and intangible manifestations of heritage. They are a construct of the intricate relationship that exists between heritage and host communities, where communities are recognized as owners of heritage and so, set up management mechanisms to ensure its adequate conservation. Multiple heritage condition surveys were conducted to assess the effectiveness of using TMS in the conservation of both natural and cultural heritage. Surveys were done at Nharira Hills, Mahwemasimike, Dzimbahwe, Manjowe Rock art sites and Norumedzo forest which are heritage places in Zimbabwe. It assessed the state of conservation of the five case studies and assessed the role that host communities play in the management of these heritage places. It was revealed that TMS’s are effective in the conservation of natural heritage, however in relation to heritage forms with cultural manifestations, there are major disparities. These range from differences in appreciation and perception of value within communities leading to vandalism, over emphasis in the conservation of the intangible element as opposed to the tangible. This leaves the tangible element at risk. Despite these issues, TMS are a reliable knowledge base which enables more holistic conservation approaches for cultural and natural heritage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
197
81210
Factor Affecting Decision Making for Tourism in Thailand by ASEAN Tourists
Abstract:
The purposes of this research were to investigate and to compare the factors affecting the decision for Tourism in Thailand by ASEAN Tourists and among ASEAN community tourists. Samples in this research were 400 ASEAN Community Tourists who travel in Thailand at Suvarnabhumi Airport during November 2016 - February 2016. The researchers determined the sample size by using the formula Taro Yamane at 95% confidence level tolerances 0.05. The English questionnaire, research instrument, was distributed by convenience sampling, for gathering data. Descriptive statistics was applied to analyze percentages, mean and standard deviation and used for hypothesis testing. The statistical analysis by multiple regression analysis (Multiple Regression) was employed to prove the relationship hypotheses at the significant level of 0.01. The results showed that majority of the respondents indicated the factors affecting the decision for Tourism in Thailand by ASEAN Tourists, in general there were a moderate effects and the mean of each side is moderate. Transportation was the most influential factor for tourism in Thailand. Therefore, the mode of transport, information, infrastructure and personnel are very important to factor affecting decision making for tourism in Thailand by ASEAN tourists. From the hypothesis testing, it can be predicted that the decision for choosing Tourism in Thailand is at R2 = 0.449. The predictive equation is decision for choosing Tourism in Thailand = 1.195 (constant value) + 0.425 (tourist attraction) +0.217 (information received) and transportation factors, tourist attraction, information, human resource and infrastructure at the significant level of 0.01.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
196
80597
Accessible Tourism: A Novel Idea for Promoting Tourism in Nepal
Abstract:
Inclusive Tourism is a relatively new topic in Nepal. Though the effort of creating accessible and inclusive tourism has already begun, it is still in its infancy. A major concern for Destination Nepal is the lack of awareness and absence of mandatory law in place to encourage Tourism operating sectors for coming up with accessible Tourism products. Given the number economic and social benefits to may be derived from inclusive tourism, it is a critical time for the tourism industry to understand and develop measures towards inclusivity in the gateway to Himalaya. Nepal was struck with a devastating earthquake on April 25th, 2015 which concurrently left more than 4,000 Nepalese with physical disabilities. Nepal has had to rebuild and is continuing to rebuild a lot of infrastructure and the process of rebuilding should be barrier free and use universal design measures. With universal design in place, this would allow access for minority groups such as people with disabilities and the elderly to the historic monuments in Kathmandu valley. Four Seasons Travel ( 4ST) has been a key player in not only creating accessible tourism experiences in Nepal, but also promoting accessible tourism to other tourism operators. Dr. Scott Rains had worked closely with 4ST on accessible tourism. Additionally, it organised an accessible trek which was field tested with a traveler with vision impairment in August 2015. Another accessible trekking experience, in partnership with Washington DC based International Development Institute, was coined as ‘Wounded Heroes Trek to Nepal’, where a group of Veterans that are amputees went trekking in the Annapurna Region. The event made it to the list of UNWTO World Tourism Day celebrations. Such initiatives led by private sector in partnership with various organizations have worked to create a ‘Destination Nepal for all’. However, there is still a lot of work that needs to be done to make Nepal a truly inclusive destination. Partnerships between the private sector and DPOs ( Disabled People’s Organizations) as well as the government are also a sound opportunity for employment creation for people with disabilities. Further, partnerships between the state, tourism service providers and DPOs need to be fostered to create job opportunities for people with disabilities. This can be exemplified through the social Entrepreneurship model with the help of accessible Tourism.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
195
80523
Achieving Sustainable Tourism in a Country in Transition: The Case of Myanmar
Abstract:
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted in 2015 to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all. Sustainable tourism is firmly positioned in these Goals, since tourism has significant potential to contribute to inclusive and sustainable economic growth, as well as to promote sustainable use of natural capital. Recognizing this, the new quasi-democratic government of Myanmar has embraced Sustainable Tourism as a core component of its economic reforms and opening up of the country. However, it is also highly likely that the Democrats within the government also support Sustainable Tourism as a potential contributor to the democratization of the country. This paper outlines how the government of Myanmar has understood the concept of Sustainable Tourism, and how it intends to implement and facilitate Sustainable Tourism. This paper, therefore, focuses primarily on the institutional frameworks that have been put in place, a specific one being the Inlay Lake Destination Management Plan, which is one of the four priority destinations identified by the government. The plan aims to improve local infrastructure, manage the local environment and develop local human resources. Importantly, the Plan also includes the establishment of a Destination Management Organization (DMO) to implement and manage Inlay Lake as a Sustainable Tourism destination. This research aims to investigate, for example, the equality in both input to the DMO and benefits accrued to the various stakeholders. How such equality can be ensured and how this can be reliably quantified will be crucial to ultimately evaluating the success of any such plans to implement Sustainable Tourism in Myanmar in the coming years. However, this research paper concludes that while the establishment of the DMO is a positive development, there are considerable institutional, economic and cultural factors that severely limit the ability of the DMO to function as an agent of sustainable tourism implementation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
194
80265
Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Tourism Development in Papua New Guinea
Abstract:
Strategic partnerships are a core requirement in delivering sustainable tourism for development in developing nations like Papua New Guinea. This paper unveils the strategic partnerships for sustainable tourism development in Papua New Guinea. Much emphasis is made among tourism stakeholders, on the importance of strategic partnership and positioning in developing sustainable tourism development. This paper engages stakeholders’ ecotourism differentiation and power relations in the discussion of the paper through interviews and observations with tourism stakeholders in Papua New Guinea. Collaborative approaches in terms of sustaining the tourism industry, having a milestone of achieved plans, are needed for tourism growth and development. This paper adds a new insight to the body of knowledge on stakeholders’ identification, formation, power relations and an integrated approach to successful tourism development. In order to achieve responsible tourism planning and management outcomes, partnerships must be holistic in perspective and based on sustainable development principles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
193
80075
Correlates of Tourism and Power Alleviation: A Case Study of Osun Osogbo
Abstract:
This research work focuses on tourism and poverty alleviation in Osun State, it delves in the tourism resources of the state and strategic framework that has been put in place to manage the cultural base tourism that is most prominent in the state. The major instrument used for data collection was questionnaire which was designed for the area and data collected were analyzed using statistical table and chi-square analysis. The result revealed that tourism is under development in Osun State and the tourism potential of the state is yet to be exploited, this is due to lack of appropriate policy to master the development and management of tourism resources, poor publicity, awareness, and lack of adequate basic infrastructure. The research work, therefore, recommended, that, there should be proper and appropriate policy, and that the government should take a leading step to develop tourism in Osun State by creating a workable environment to the private sector and given a substantial budgetary allocation to the tourism in the state.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
192
79018
The Development of Cultural Routes: The Case of Greece
Abstract:
Introduction: In this research, we will propose the methodology, which is required for the planning of the cultural route in order to prepare substantiated proposals for the development and planning of cultural routes in Greece in the near future. Our research has started at 2016. Methodology in our research: Α combination of primary and secondary research will be used as project methodology. Furthermore, this study aims to follow a multidisciplinary approach, using dimensions of qualitative and quantitative data analysis models. Regarding the documentation of the theoretical part of the project, the method of secondary research will be mainly used, yet in combination with bibliographic sources. However, the data collection regarding the research topic will be conducted exclusively through primary research (questionnaires and interviews). Cultural Routes: The cultural route is defined as a brand name touristic product, that is a product of cultural tourism, which is shaped according to a specific connecting element. Given its potential, the cultural route is an important ‘tool’ for the management and development of cultural heritage. Currently, a constant development concerning the cultural routes is observed in an international level during the last decades, as it is widely accepted that cultural tourism has an important role in the world touristic industry. Cultural Routes in Greece: Especially for Greece, we believe, actions have not been taken to the systematic development of the cultural routes yet. The cultural routes that include Greece and have been design in a world scale as well as the cultural routes, which have been design in Greek ground up to this moment are initiations of the Council of Europe, World Tourism Organization UNWTO and ‘Diazoma’ association. Regarding the study of cultural routes in Greece as a multidimensional concept, the following concerns have arisen: Firstly, we are concerned about the general impact of cultural routes at local and national level and specifically in the economic sector. Moreover, we deal with the concerns regarding the natural environment and we delve into the educational aspect of cultural routes in Greece. In addition, the audience we aim at is both specific and broad and we put forward the institutional framework of the study. Finally, we conduct the development and planning of new cultural routes, having in mind the museums as both the starting and ending point of a route. Conclusion: The contribution of our work is twofold and lies firstly on the fact that we attempt to create cultural routes in Greece and secondly on the fact that an interdisciplinary approach is engaged towards realizing our study objective. In particular, our aim is to take advantage of all the ways in which the promotion of a cultural route can have a positive influence on the way of life of society. As a result, we intend to analyze how a cultural route can turn into a well-organized activity that can be used as social intervention to develop tourism, strengthen the economy and improve access to cultural goods in Greece during the economic crisis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
191
78349
The Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Financial Deepening in the Nigerian Banking Sector
Abstract:
Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) have been proposed as a mechanism through which, problems associated with inefficiency or poor performance in financial institution could be addressed. The aim of this study is to examine the proposition that recapitalization of banks, which encouraged Mergers and Acquisitions in Nigeria banking system, would strengthen the domestic banks, improve financial deepening and the confidence of depositors. Hence, this study examines the impact of the 2005 M&A in the Nigerian-banking sector on financial deepening using mixed method (quantitative and qualitative approach). The quantitative process of this study utilised annual time series for financial deepening indicator for the period of 1997 to 2012. While, the qualitative aspect adopted semi-structured interview to collate data from three merged banks and three stand-alone banks to explore, understand and complement the quantitative results. Furthermore, a framework thematic analysis is employed to analyse the themes developed using NVivo 11 software. Using the quantitative approach, findings from the equality of mean test (EMT) used suggests that M&A have significant impact on financial deepening. However, this method is not robust enough given its weak validity as it does not control for other potential factors that may determine financial deepening. Thus, to control for other factors that may affect the level of financial deepening, a Multiple Regression Model (MRM) and Interrupted Times Series Analysis (ITSA) were applied. The coefficient for M&A dummy turned negative and insignificant using MRM. In addition, the estimated linear trend of the post intervention when ITSA was applied suggests that after M&A, the level of financial deepening decreased annually; however, this was statistically insignificant. Similarly, using the qualitative approach, the results from the interview supported the quantitative results from ITSA and MRM. The result suggests that interest rate should fall when capital base is increased to improve financial deepening. Hence, this study contributes to the existing literature the importance of other factors that may affect financial deepening and the economy when policies that will enhance bank performance and the economy are made. In addition, this study will enable the use of valuable policy instruments relevant to monetary authorities when formulating policies that will strengthen the Nigerian banking sector and the economy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
190
77950
Visitor Management in the National Parks: Recreational Carrying Capacity Assessment of Çıralı Coast, Turkey
Abstract:
National parks, which are rich in natural and cultural resources values are protected in the context of the idea to develop sustainability, are among the most important recreated areas demanding with each passing day. Increasing recreational use or unplanned use forms negatively affect the resource values and visitor satisfaction. The intent of national parks management is to protect the natural and cultural resource values and to provide the visitors with a quality of recreational experience, as well. In this context, the current studies to improve the appropriate tourism and recreation planning and visitor management, approach have focused on recreational carrying capacity analysis. The aim of this study is to analyze recreational carrying capacity of Çıralı Coast in the Bey Mountains Coastal National Park to compare the analyze results with the current usage format and to develop alternative management strategies. In the first phase of the study, the annual and daily visitations, geographic, bio-physical, and managerial characteristics of the park and the type of recreational usage and the recreational areas were analyzed. In addition to these, ecological observations were carried out in order to determine recreational-based pressures on the ecosystems. On-site questionnaires were administrated to a sample of 284 respondents in the August 2015 - 2016 to collect data concerning the demographics and visit characteristics. The second phase of the study, the coastal area separated into four different usage zones and the methodology proposed by Cifuentes (1992) was used for capacity analyses. This method supplies the calculation of physical, real and effective carrying capacities by using environmental, ecological, climatic and managerial parameters in a formulation. Expected numbers which estimated three levels of carrying capacities were compared to current numbers of national parks’ visitors. In the study, it was determined that the current recreational uses in the north of the beach were caused by ecological pressures, and the current numbers in the south of beach much more than estimated numbers of visitors. Based on these results management strategies were defined and the appropriate management tools were developed in accordance with these strategies. The authors are grateful for the financial support of this project by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (No: 114O344)
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
189
77293
Ecotourism Adaptation Practices to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Management in Dana Biosphere Reserve, Jordan
Abstract:
In spite of the influence of climate change on tourism destinations, particularly those rely heavily on natural resources, little attention paid to study the appropriate adaptation efforts to cope with, moderate and benefit from the impacts of climate change. The existing literature indicated that the research of climate change adaptation in the tourism and outdoor recreation field is at least 5-7 years behind other sectors such as water resources and agriculture. In Jordan, there are many observed changes in climate patterns such as higher temperatures, decreased precipitation and increased severity and frequency of drought. Dana Biosphere Reserve (DBR), the largest protected area and the major eco-tourism destination in Jordan, is facing climate change, which gradually degrading environment, shifting tourism seasons and changing livelihood and lifestyle of local communities. This study aims to assess climate change adaptation practices and policies used in DBR to cope with climate change related-risks. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants in DBR to assess climate change adaptation practices. Direct content analysis (or a priori content analysis) was used to determine the components and indicators of climate change adaptation. The results found that DBR has implemented a wide range of adaptation practices, including infrastructure development, diversification of tourism products, environmentally-friendly practices, visitor management, land use management, rainwater collection, environmental monitoring and research, environmental education and collaboration with stakeholders. These diverse practices implicitly and explicitly play an important role in coping with the social, economic and environmental impacts caused by climate change. Finally, this study demonstrated that climate change adaptation is closely related to sustainable management of eco-tourism.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
188
77266
The German Air Passenger Tax: An Empirical Analysis of Tourism Outflows
Abstract:
In Europe, some countries recently abolished air passenger taxes (APT), while others issued or consider issuing an APT. From a fiscal perspective, APT can benefit the environment, while generating a vast amount of tax revenue with relatively low administration costs. However, they may have significant negative effects on the economy. Focusing on the German air passenger tax issued 2011, this work estimates the elasticity of tourism outflows using data on passenger departures from German airports between 2010 and 2016 aggregated by destination country. The results are obtained by estimating a model of the demand for outbound tourism. In line with theory, the regression results indicate a negative relationship between taxes and departures from Germany. Furthermore, on average, an increase of the air passenger tax rate results in a relatively higher decrease of passenger departures. The elasticity of tourism outflows can be used to estimate tax revenue changes and hence evaluate possible policy actions. Neglecting environmental reasons, the results suggest that tax revenue might be maximized by reducing the air passenger tax rate. Besides Germany, this work is also important for countries which have or consider implementing APT.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
187
76575
Opportunities of an Industrial City in the Leisure Tourism
Abstract:
The aim of the research is to investigate the forms of the demands of leisure tourism in a West-Hungarian industrial city, Győr. Today, Győr is still a traditional industrial city, its industry is mainly based on vehicle industry, but the role of tourism is increasing in the life of the city as well. Because of the industrial nature and the strong economy of the city, the ratio of business tourists is high. It can be stated that MICE tourism is dominating in Győr. Developments of the last decade can help the city with new tourism products to increase the leisure tourism. The new types of tourism – besides business tourism – can help the providers to increase the occupancy rates and the demand at the weekends. The research demonstrates the theoretical background of the topic, and it shows the present situation of the tourism in Győr with secondary data. The secondary research contains statistical data from the Hungarian Statistical Office and the city council, and it is based on the providers’ data. The next part of the paper shows the potential types of leisure tourism with the help of primary research. The primary research contains the results of an online questionnaire with a sample of 1000 potential customers. It is completed with 10 in-depth interviews with tourism experts, who explained their opinions about the opportunities of leisure tourism in Győr from the providers’ side. The online questionnaire was filled out in spring 2017 by customers, who have already stayed in Győr or plan to visit the city. At the same time in-depth interviews were made with hotel managers, head of touristic institutions and employees at the council. Based on the research it can be stated that the touristic supply of Győr allows the increase of the leisure tourism ratio in the city. Primarily, the cultural and health tourism show potential development, but the supply side of touristic services can be developed in order to increase the number of guest nights. The tourism marketing needs to be strengthened in the city, and a distinctive marketing activity - from other cities - is needed as well. To conclude, although Győr is an industrial city, it has a transforming industrial part, and tourism is also strongly present in its economy. Besides the leading role of business tourism, different types of leisure tourism have the opportunity to take place in the city.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
186
76402
Assessment Proposal to Establish the First Geo-Park in Egypt at Abu-Roash Area, Cairo
Abstract:
Egypt is known as cradle of civilization due to its ancient history and archeological sites, but Egypt possess also a cradle of Geo-sites, which qualify it to be listed as one of the most important Geo-heritage sites all over the country. Geology and landscape in Abu-Roash area is considered as one of the most important geological places (geo-sites) inside Cairo which help us to know and understand geology and geologic processes, so the area is used mainly for geological education purposes, also the area contain an archeological sites; pyramid complex, tombs, and Coptic monastery which give the area unique importance. Abu-Roash area is located inside Cairo 9 km north of the Giza Pyramids, which make the accessibility to the area easy and safe, the geology of Abu-Roash constitutes a complex Cretaceous sedimentary succession mass with showing outstanding tectonic features (Syrian Arc system event), these features are considered as a Geo-heritage, which will be the main designation of ‘Geo-parks’ establishing. The research is dealing with the numerous geo-sites found in the area, and its geologic and archeological importance, the relation between geo-sites and archeology, also the research proposed a detailed maps for these sites depicting Geo-routes and the hazardous places surrounding Abu-Roash area. The research is proposing a new proposal not applied in Egypt before, establishing a Geo-park, to promote this unique geo-heritage from hazardous factors and anthropogenic effects, also it will offer geo-educational opportunities to the general public and to the scientific community, enhancement of Geo-tourism which will be linked easily with the Ancient Egyptian tourism, it will also provide a significant economic benefit to Abu-Roash residential area. Finally, the research recommends that The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations promote conservation of geological and geo-morphological heritage to list this area for its importance under the umbrella of geo-parks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
185
76386
New Strategies and Process Innovation in Event Tourism
Abstract:
This paper describes the market trends of event tourism and investments that companies make in this direction and the importance of business model and process innovation. Particularly the innovation of a sales process: From simple sales of products to sale an exclusive service for aspirational and shared luxury service in line with market and industry trends. Event tourism is growing strongly during this years in terms of exclusive and corporate events (like team building, etc.). In line with market trends, greater investment by companies in promotional or exclusive events, there is new innovative strategy for event development focused on exclusive and innovative service. An empirical analysis is also introduced to validate some conclusions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
184
76375
The Impact of Locations on the Perception of the Same Product: An Application to Motor Industry
Abstract:
The study aims to demonstrate how different locations, where the same product is unveiled and tested, can provide a different result in terms of perception by the same kind of people. The experiment was done in occasion of the presentation of a new bike. A group of dealers has been invited in Lloret de Mar, two persons from the headquarter were present to run the presentation, together with an outsourced trainer. Half day dedicated to the theoretical presentation and half day to the test of the new bike on the road, including the test of its direct competitors. The same presentation, organized in the same way, has been delivered in Italy, in 4 locations often used to run business meetings with dealers. In the end of all days of the presentation, dealers had to fill a questionnaire regarding the evaluation of the different bikes tested. The result of the questionnaire showed how the group invited in Spain rated much higher the new bike compared with the dealers testing the bike in locations already known and close to their home. So, in terms of business strategy, it is important to take into account how the location and the way of presenting any product or service can have a favourable impact on the people we want to convince. The next step of the experiment will be to cross check the sales of that bike with the dealers and measure if there is a relation between the top sellers and the one that appreciated the bike the most, in Spain. It would mean that they were able to transfer to customers the same good feelings and impressions they had in Spain.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
183
76333
Security as the Key Factor in Contemporary Tourism: Specificities Identified from the Analysis of Responders' Attitudes
Abstract:
The paper represents a product of mentor-graduate student cooperation, developed at the graduate study of Business Economics, major Tourism. The analysis was made through the anonymous questionnaire filled by the respondents from Croatia. Following the latest threatening events and having in mind those yet to come, it can be concluded that no country can benefit from the tourism industry if at the same time does not develop its security system as an integral part of the standard tourist offer. Analyzing the trends in contemporary tourism, the safety and security issues became the decisive factors for the choice of a certain destination. Consequently, countries must not perceive security systems and measures as an unnecessary expense but as an essential element in organizing their tourist services. All hotels and respectable tourist agencies should have a crisis management, with detailed, thoroughly elaborated procedures for emergency situations. Tourists should be timely informed about the potential dangers and risks and the measures taken to prevent them, as well as on procedures for emergency situations. Additionally, it would be good to have mobile applications that would enable tourists to make direct emergency calls with instructions on behavior in crisis situations. It is also essential to implement and put into effect sophisticated security measures such as using surveillance cameras, controlling access to buildings, information exchange with colleagues and neighbors, reporting the suspicious occurrences to the security services, and training staff for crisis management. The security issue is definitely one of the crucial factors in the development of tourism in a certain country.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
182
75636
Activity-Based Costing in the Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in a Hotel
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to provide some empirical evidence about implementing Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the hospitality industry in Iran. For this purpose, we consider the Tabriz International Hotel as our sample hotel and then gather the relevant data from its cost accounting system in 2012. Then, we use ABC as our costing method and compare the cost of each service unit with that cost which had been extracted for the traditional costing method. The results show a different cost per unit for two methods. Also, because of its more precise and detailed provided information, an ABC system facilitates the decision-making process for managers on decisions related to profitability analysis, budgeting, pricing, and so on.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
181
74714
Concept and Implementation of Religious Tourism as a City Icon; Case Study: Golden Dome Mosque in Depok, Indonesia
Authors:
Abstract:
Dian Al Mahri Mosque or more known as Golden Dome Mosque is one of the biggest mosques in Southeast Asia which located in Depok, West Java Province, Indonesia. Instead of a place for praying, this beautiful Mosque is also becoming an icon of Depok for religious tourism destination. The purpose of this study is to understand the concept and objective of religious tourism, also how to be implemented as an icon of the city. As a qualitative method, the data was collected by direct interview with three of the most influential persons: K. H. Amirudin Said S. Q. MA as a Manager of the Mosque, K. H. Dr. Mohammad Idris, MA as a Major of Depok, and Mulyamto as a Head of Tourism Department of Depok. As a result, Golden Dome Mosque involves three integrated aspects (social, economic, and cultural) which can be implemented to evaluate their daily activities and services in order to define themselves as a religious tourism destination.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
180
74710
Community Based Tourism and Development in Third World Countries: The Case of the Bamileke Region of Cameroon
Abstract:
Community based tourism, as a sustainable tourism approach, has been adopted as a tool for development among local communities in third world countries with income generation as the main driver. However, an analysis of community based tourism and development brings to light another driving force which is paramount to development strategies in the difficult conditions of third world countries: this driving force is "place revitalization". This paper seeks to assess the relevance of "place revitalization" to the enhancement of development within the challenging context of developing countries. The research provides a community based tourism model to development in third world countries through a three step process based on awareness, mentoring and empowerment at the local level. It also tries to examine how effectively this model can address the development problems faced by the local communities of third world countries. The case study for this research is the Bamiléké region of Cameroon, the breeding ground of community based tourism initiatives and a region facing the difficulties of third world countries that are great impediments to community based tourism.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
179
74585
A Study on Exploring Employees' Well-Being in Gaming Workplaces Prior to and after the Chinese Government Crackdowns on Corruption
Abstract:
The aim of this article intends to explore the differences of well-being of employees in casino hotels before and after the Chinese government began to fight corruption. This researcher also attempted to find out the relationship between work pressure and well-being of employees in gambling workplaces before and after the Chinese government crackdowns the corruption. The category of well-being including life well-being, workplace well-being, and psychological well-being was included for analyzing well-being of employees in gaming workplaces. In addition, the psychological pressure classification was applied into this study and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) would be adopted on investigating employees’ work pressure in terms of decision latitude, psychological demands, and workplace support. This study is a quantitative approach research and was conducted in March 2017. A purposive sampling was used in this study. A total of valid 339 responses were collected and the participants were casino hotel employees. The findings showed that decision latitude was significantly different prior to and after Chinese government crackdowns on corruption. Moreover, workplace support was strongly significantly related to employees’ well-being before Chinese government crackdowns. Decision latitude was strongly significantly related to employees’ well-being after Chinese government crackdowns. The findings suggest that employees’ work pressure affects their well being. In particular, because of workplace supports, it may alleviate employees’ work pressure and affect their perceptions of well-being but only prior to fighting the crackdowns. Importantly, decision latitude has become an essential factor affecting their well-being after the crackdown. It is finally hoped that the findings of this study provide suggestion to the managerial levels of hospitality industries. It is important to enhance employees’ decision latitude. Offering training courses to equip employees’ skills could be a possible way to reduce work pressure. In addition, establishing career path for the employees to pursuit is essential for their self-development and the improvement of well being. This would be crucial for casino hotels’ sustainable development and strengthening their competitiveness.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
178
74504
Designing for Experience-Based Tourism: A Virtual Tour in Tehran
Abstract:
As one of the most significant phenomena of industrialized societies, tourism plays a key role in encouraging regional developments and enhancing higher standards of living for local communities in particular. Traveling is a formative experience endowed with lessons on various aspects of life. It allows us learning how to enhance the social position as well as the social relationships. However, people forget the need to travel and gain first-hand experiences as they have to cope with the ever-increasing rate of stress created by the disorders and routines of the urban dwelling style. In this paper, various spaces of such experiences were explored through a virtual tour with two underlying aims: 1) encouraging, informing, and educating the community in terms of tourism development, and 2) introducing a temporary release from the routines. This study enjoyed a practical-qualitative research methodology, and the required data were collected through observation and using a multiple-response questionnaire. The participants (19-48 years old) included 41 citizens of both genders (63.4% male and 36.6% female) from two regions in Tehran, selected by cluster-probability sampling. The results led to development of a spatial design for a virtual tour experience in Tehran where different areas are explored to both raise people’s awareness and educate them on their cultural heritage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):