Effects of Acacia Honey Drink Ingestion during Rehydration after Exercise Compared to Sports Drink on Physiological Parameters and Subsequent Running Performance in the Heat
Introduction: Prolonged exercise in a hot and humid environment can result in glycogen depletion and associated with loss of body fluid. Carbohydrate contained in sports beverages is beneficial for improving sports performance and preventing dehydration. Carbohydrate contained in honey is believed can be served as an alternative form of carbohydrate for enhancing sports performance. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of honey drink compared to sports drink as a recovery aid for running performance and physiological parameters in the heat. Method: Ten male recreational athletes (age: 22.2 ± 2.0 years, VO2max: 51.5 ± 3.7 ml.kg-1.min-1) participated in this randomized cross-over study. On each trial, participants were required to run for 1 hour in the glycogen depletion phase (Run-1), followed by a rehydration phase for 2 hours and subsequently a 20 minutes time trial performance (Run-2). During Run-1, subjects were required to run on the treadmill in the heat (31°C) with 70% relative humidity at 70 % of their VO2max. During rehydration phase, participants drank either honey drink or sports drink, or plain water with amount equivalent to 150% of body weight loss in dispersed interval (60 %, 50 % and 40 %) at 0 min, 30 min and 60 min respectively. Subsequently, time trial was performed by the participants in 20 minutes and the longest distance covered was recorded. Physiological parameters were analysed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure and time trial performance was analysed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Result showed that Acacia honey elicited a better time trial performance with significantly longer distance compared to water trial (P< 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between Acacia honey and sport drink trials (P > 0.05). Acacia honey and sports drink trials elicited 249 m (8.24 %) and 211 m (6.79 %) longer in distance compared to the water trial respectively. For physiological parameters, plasma glucose, plasma insulin and plasma free fatty acids in Acacia honey and sports drink trials were significantly higher compared to the water trial respectively during rehydration phase and time trial running performance phase. There were no significant differences in body weight changes, oxygen uptake, hematocrit, plasma volume changes and plasma cortisol in all the trials. Conclusion: Acacia honey elicited greatest beneficial effects on sports performance among the drinks, thus it has potential to be used for rehydration in athletes who train and compete in hot environment.
Physical Education and Bodily Practices as an Alternative for Body Design and Acceptance in LGBTI Students
In the last decades, there have been changes in the organization of society. It is not by chance that in our schools we have witnessed a growing interest in actions to address violence, prejudice, and discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, transvestites, and transsexuals. Considering that gender is a category that is present in the broad scope of relations that physical education covers, it seems that the theme has not aroused due attention. The body is not just a body. It is also their environment. Society forms not only personality and behavior, but also, how the body appears. In order to problematize gender in the field of physical education, it makes sense to put the body in focus because it is of bodily practices, that body's movement, which is spoken. The sports are part of the cultural manifestations of the most different social groups. Through workshops and interviews, we will investigate the role of Sports in the process of conception and acceptance of the body in LGBTTI students. From this work we intend to work towards a greater inclusion of these students in physical education classes, as well as a better understanding of their body and their sexuality. We hope that our work will enable greater acceptance and better body design of LGBTTI students.
Work, Pension and Physical Activity: Findings from an Interview Study
Objective: To examine the interrelation of physical activity with work-related variables in older individuals to determine pathways to promote the maintenance of an aging workforce’s ability and motivation to work.
Design/methodology/approach: An interview-study was conducted with N=5,002 community-dwelling people aged 55 to 70 years (for T1). N=2,501 (50%) were interviewed 3 years later again (T2). Correlation-, Chi²-, MANOVA and moderated mediation analyses were performed.
Findings: The less people worked, the more physically active they were. Working was only related to calendar age but not to subjective age. Men and women only differed in working hours and an interaction of gender and pension regarding working hours and subjective health revealed: Controlled for calendar age, the amount of worked hours while receiving pension was about the same in men and women, however, men worked significantly more hours if they did not receive pension. The relationship between physical activity and worked hours was mediated by life investment and subjective health in women, and by subjective health in men.
Practical implications: Developing good health through performing physical activity should be done as part of work-place health promotion or by work organization and HR management to enable, and motivate older individuals to work even when receiving pension. Thus, such initiates should not only offered for younger and middle aged employees. Physical activity and company-facilitated sports activities can be an integral part in this.
Originality/value: This is the first study testing these mechanisms in this age group, indicating the importance of not only understanding physical activity as a time challenge to work but also the potential to protect workability and to work aside from receiving pension.
Gender Differences in Walking Capacity and Cardiovascular Regulation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease
Women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) present lower walking capacity in comparison with men. However, whether cardiovascular regulation is also different between genders is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare walking capacity and cardiovascular regulation between men and women with PAD. A total of 23 women (66±7 yrs) and 31 men (64±9 yrs) were recruited. Patients performed a 6-minute test and the onset claudication distance and total walking distance were measured. Additionally, cardiovascular regulation was assessed by arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and heart rate variability (frequency domain). Independent T test or Mann-Whitney U test were performed. In comparison with men, women present lower onset claudication distance (108±66m vs. 143±50m; P=0.032) and total walking distance (286±83m vs. 361±91 m, P=0.007). Regarding cardiovascular regulation, there were no differences in heart rate variability SDNN (72±160ms vs. 32±22ms, P=0.587); RMSSD (75±209 vs. 25±22ms, P=0.726); pNN50 (11±17ms vs. 8±14ms, P=0.836) in women and men, respectively. Moreover, there were no difference in augmentation index (39±10% vs. 34±11%, P=0.103); pulse pressure (59±17mmHg vs. 56±19mmHg, P=0.593) and pulse wave velocity (8.6±2.6m\s vs. 9.0±2.7m/s, P=0.580). In conclusion, women have impaired walking capacity compared to men. However, sex differences were not observed on cardiovascular regulation in patients with PAD.
The Effect of Acute Muscular Exercise and Training Status on Haematological Indices in Adult Males
Introduction: Long term physical training affect the performance of athletes especially the females. Soccer which is a team sport, played in an outdoor field, require adequate oxygen transport system for the maximal aerobic power during exercise in order to complete 90 minutes of competitive play. Suboptimal haematological status has often been recorded in athletes with intensive physical activity. It may be due to the iron depletion caused by hemolysis or haemodilution results from plasma volume expansion. There is lack of data regarding the dynamics of red blood cell variables, in male football players. We hypothesized that, a long competitive season involving frequent matches and intense training could influence red blood cell variables, as a consequence of applying repeated physical loads when compared with sedentary. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried on 40 adult males (20 athletes and 20 non athletes) between 18-25 years of age. The 20 apparently healthy male non athletes were taken as sedentary and 20 male footballers comprise the study group. The university institutional review board (ABUTH/HREC/TRG/36) gave approval for all procedures in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Red blood cell (RBC) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma volume were measured in fasting state and immediately after exercise. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS/ win.20.0 for comparison within and between the groups, using student’s paired and unpaired “t” test respectively. Results: The finding from our study shows that, immediately after termination of exercise, the mean RBC counts and PCV significantly (p< 0.005) decreased with significant increased (p< 0.005) in plasma volume when compared with pre-exercised values in both group. In addition the post exercise RBC was significantly higher in untrained (261.10±8.5) when compared with trained (255.20±4.5). However, there was no significant differences in the post exercise hematocrit and plasma volume parameters between the sedentary and the footballers. Moreover, beside changes in pre-exercise values among the sedentary and the football players, the resting red blood cell counts and Plasma volume (PV %) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the sedentary group (306.30±10.05 x 104 /mm3; 58.40±0.54%) when compared with football players (293.70±4.65 x 104 /mm3; 55.60±1.18%). On the other hand, the sedentary group exhibited significant (p < 0.05) decrease in PCV (41.60±0.54%) when compared with the football players (44.40±1.18%). Conclusions: It is therefore proposed that the acute football exercise induced reduction in RBC and PCV is entirely due to plasma volume expansion, and not of red blood cell hemolysis. In addition, the training status also influenced haematological indices of male football players differently from the sedentary at rest due to adaptive response. This is novel.
Effects of Handgrip Isometric Training in Blood Pressure of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease
Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of hypertension, which contributes to a high risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk of these patients are needed. Meta-analysis studies have shown that isometric handgrip training promotes reductions in clinical blood pressure in normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of this exercise training on other cardiovascular function indicators in PAD patients remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure in patients with PAD. In this clinical trial, 28 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: isometric handgrip training (HG) and control (CG). The HG conducted the unilateral handgrip training three days per week (four sets of two minutes, with 30% of maximum voluntary contraction with an interval of four minutes between sets). CG was encouraged to increase their physical activity levels. At baseline and after eight weeks blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures with the group (GH and GC) and time (pre- and post-intervention) as factors was performed. After 8 weeks of training there were no significant changes in systolic blood pressure (HG pre 141 ± 24.0 mmHg vs. HG post 142 ± 22.0 mmHg; CG pre 140 ± 22.1 mmHg vs. CG post 146 ± 16.2 mmHg; P=0.18), diastolic blood pressure (HG pre 74 ± 10.4 mmHg vs. HG post 74 ± 11.9 mmHg; CG pre 72 ± 6.9 mmHg vs. CG post 74 ± 8.0 mmHg; P=0.22) and heart rate (HG pre 61 ± 10.5 bpm vs. HG post 62 ± 8.0 bpm; CG pre 64 ± 11.8 bpm vs. CG post 65 ± 13.6 bpm; P=0.81). In conclusion, our preliminary data indicate that isometric handgrip training did not modify blood pressure and heart rate in patients with PAD.
The Effect of Aerobics Course on Fitness Ability of the University Students
The purpose of the study was to examine abnormal BMI students of Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, implement teaching aerobics course through elementary and advanced curriculum design, dietary education and three-day dietary record, analyze participant fitness improvement, an 10-week course as well as pre-test and post-test were carried out to evaluate the effect of the aerobics course on the fitness ability. The actual participate elementary and advanced courses each of 40 people, with low participation deduction course unfinished fitness testing, access to elementary curriculum valid samples 35 (87.5%) people, advanced courses valid samples 38(95%) people, 16 students participated in two consecutive courses. The fitness activities included sit-bending, one-minute sit-ups, standing long jump, and three minutes to board the stage. Analysis and comparison to the average three-day dietary record difference, an independent samples t-test was conducted to analyze the differences in the four activities between pre-test and post-test. The results showed that the elementary course had significant effects on females’ sit-bending and one minute sit-ups, the females also had high fat intake in three-day dietary record. The advanced course had significant effects on males’ sit-bending and on females’ BMI, sit-bending and standing long jump, males and females in three-day dietary record carbohydrate intake slightly low, slightly higher protein and fat intake. In conclusion, aerobics course teaching, dietary education and three-day, dietary record implementation can significantly enhance the physical fitness indicators, and continued to participate in advanced courses better. In the practice of sport should be the future course planning elementary and advanced courses, while introducing dietary education, achieve concrete results in improving physical fitness.
Developing an Online Application for Mental Skills Training and Development
In alignment with the growth in the sporting industry, a number of people playing and competing in sports are growing exponentially across the globe. However, the number of sports psychology experts are not growing at a similar rate, especially in the Asian and more so, Indian context. Hence, the access to actionable mental training solutions specific to individual athletes is limited. Also, the time constraint an athlete faces due to their intense training schedule makes one-on-one sessions difficult. One of the means to bridge that gap is through technology. Technology makes individualization possible. It allows for easy access to specific-qualitative content/information and provides a medium to place individualized assessments, analysis, solutions directly into an athlete's hands. This enables mental training awareness, education, and real-time actionable solutions possible for athletes in-spite of the limitation of available sports psychology experts in their region. Furthermore, many athletes are hesitant to seek support due to the stigma of appearing weak. Such individuals would prefer a more discreet way. Athletes who have strong mental performance tend to produce better results. The mobile application helps to equip athletes with assessing and developing their mental strategies directed towards improving performance on an ongoing basis. When an athlete understands their strengths and limitations in their mental application, they can focus specifically on applying the strategies that work and improve on zones of limitation. With reports, coaches get to understand the unique inner workings of an athlete and can utilize the data & analysis to coach them with better precision and use coaching styles & communication that suits better. Systematically capturing data and supporting athletes(with individual-specific solutions) or teams with assessment, planning, instructional content, actionable tools & strategies, reviewing mental performance and the achievement of objectives & goals facilitate for a consistent mental skills development at all levels of sporting stages of an athlete's career. The mobile application will help athletes recognize and align with their stable attributes such as their personalities, learning & execution modalities, challenges & requirements of their sport, etc and help develop dynamic attributes like states, beliefs, motivation levels, focus etc. with practice and training. It will provide measurable analysis on a regular basis and help them stay aligned to their objectives & goals. The solutions are based on researched areas of influence on sporting performance individually or in teams.
Assessing Gender Mainstreaming Practices in the Philippine Basic Education System
Female drop-outs due to teenage pregnancy and gender-based violence in schools are two of the most contentious and current gender-related issues faced by the Department of Education (DepEd) in the Philippines. The country adopted gender mainstreaming as the main strategy to eliminate gender inequalities in all aspects of the society including education since 1990. This research examines the extent and magnitude by which gender mainstreaming is implemented in the basic education from the national to the school level. It seeks to discover the challenges faced by the central and field offices, particularly by the principals who served as decision-makers in the schools where teaching and learning take place and where opportunities that may aggravate, conform and transform gender inequalities and hierarchies exist. The author conducted surveys and interviews among 120 elementary and secondary principals in the Division of Zambales as well as selected gender division and regional focal persons within Region III- Central Luzon. The study argues that DepEd needs to review, strengthen and revitalize its gender mainstreaming because the efforts do not penetrate the schools and are not enough to lessen or eliminate gender inequalities within the schools. The study found out some of the major challenges in the implementation of gender mainstreaming as follows: absence of a national gender-responsive education policy framework, lack of gender responsive assessment and monitoring tools, poor quality of gender and development related training programs and poor data collection and analysis mechanism. Furthermore, other constraints include poor coordination mechanism among implementing agencies, lack of clear implementation strategy, ineffective or poor utilization of GAD budget and lack of teacher and learner centered GAD activities. The paper recommends the review of the department’s gender mainstreaming efforts to align with the mandate of the agency and provide gender responsive teaching and learning environment. It suggests that the focus must be on formulation of gender responsive policies and programs, improvement of the existing mechanism and conduct of trainings focused on gender analysis, budgeting and impact assessment not only for principals and GAD focal point system but also to parents and other school stakeholders.
Empirical Study of Health Behaviors of Employees in Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behaviors of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) employees in relation to diet, exercise, sleep, stress, and social habits. This was a qualitative research study, using in-depth,semi-structured interviews. Descriptive data were collected from a two-stage purposive sample of 28 IT-BPO employees from two IT companies and one BPOs in Pune. The majority of interviewees reported having an unhealthy diet and/or sedentary lifestyle. Lack of time due to demanding work schedules was the largest barrier to diet and exercise. Given the qualitative study design and limited sampling frame, results may not be generalizable. However, the qualitative data suggests that Pune’s young IT-BPO employees may be at greater risk of lifestyle-related diseases than the general population. The data also suggests that interventions incorporating social influence may be a promising solution, particularly at international call centers. The results from this study provide qualitative insight on the motives for health behaviors of IT-BPO employees, as well as the barriers and facilitators for leading a healthy lifestyle in this industry. The findings provide the framework for future workplace wellness interventions.
Laboratory Investigation of Specific and Non-Specific (Placebo) Effects of a Magnetic Bracelet on a Short Bout of Aerobic Exercise Performance
Use of ergogenic aids is widespread nowadays. It is likely that non-specific or placebo effects also contribute to the overall effects of these aids. The aim of our study was to examine specific and non-specific effects of a magnetic bracelet on a short bout of aerobic exercise performance. A total of 97 young athletes (regular participants in organized sports) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with a no-treatment group (49.5 % women, age: 22.02 years (SD=1.82)). Their mean BMI was 22.34 (SD = 2.73), and mean VO2 max (as assessed by a graded exercise test on cycle ergometer which was connected to an ergo spirometer device (Fitmate PRO, Cosmed Srl, Rome, Italy)) was 41.05 (SD = 10.65) ml/kg/min. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: magnetic bracelet group (n = 33), placebo bracelet group (n = 32), and a no-bracelet control group (n = 32). Physical performance was assessed using the modified version of the Astrand Cycle submaximal exercise tests. The goal of the test was to pedal at maximal RPM at body weight x 1.65W power during the 6 minutes of exercise. Expectation regarding the efficacy of the magnetic bracelet, perceived change in performance, and perceived fatigue were assessed. Data were analyzed with a mixed model multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (group (3) x time (2) x dependent measures (6): distance, average speed, maximal speed, average heart rate, maximal heart rate, and perceived fatigue). There was a statistically significant multivariate main effect for time (Wilks' Lambda = .666, F(6,80) = 6.69, p < .001, partial η2 = .334), but no group by time interaction. An independent samples t-test showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the magnetic and the placebo group with regard to the expectation about their second exercise performance (bracelet group: 3.40±0.497; placebo group: 3.23±0.496; t(67) = 1.378, p > .05). Also, most (2/3) of the participants did not believe that their performance would be altered by the magnetic bracelet. There were no differences between the three groups with respect to expectancies (one-way ANOVA, F(2,95) = 0.067, p > .05). The results from this double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory study revealed that the wearing of a magnetic bracelet during a short-term aerobic exercise did not have either specific (actual), or non-specific (placebo) effect on objective and perceived exercise performance. However, better performance over time that was independent of treatment has emerged possibly due to experience. The virtual lack of expectancy about the efficacy of magnetic bracelet could explain why placebo effects did not emerge in this laboratory inquiry. The findings show that the examined magnetic bracelet does not affect short aerobic exercise performance, and in low-challenge and low-subjective-importance situations, emerging in artificial research conditions, the placebo effects could not be observed.
Effect of Exercise Training on Body Composition and Metabolic Profile in Older Adults during Cancer Treatment
Introduction: Total lean body mass is reduced during cancer treatment. This loss is called cancer cachexia and is accompanied by a progressive loss of fat mass. In older adults, these body composition changes can have a larger impact on metabolic health, physical autonomy, and cancer survival. Although currently untreatable, exercise training could reduce these effects. Hence, the objective of this pilot study is to investigate if 12 weeks of exercise training during cancer treatment can mitigate the loss of muscle mass and fat mass in older adults.
Methods: A total of 40 older adults (65-80 years) with an ongoing treatment for a curable cancer are currently recruited and randomised in two groups: 1) Combined training (EX, n=20) and 2) Control group (CON, n=20). All variables are measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention: Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index), body composition (total fat mass, visceral adipose tissue, total and appendicular muscle mass; DXA), metabolic profile (HDL-C and LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose and insulin levels).
Results: Preliminary analyses revealed no impact of exercise training on appendicular muscle mass (p=0,31) and fat mass (p=0,31). Furthermore, total body weight, waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels remained unchanged (all p ≥ 0.79) after 12 weeks of training. However, statistical analyses revealed that triglyceride levels slightly increased (p=0.03), irrespective of the group.
Conclusion: Preliminary analyses did not reveal any impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training on body composition in oncogeriatric patients. Furthermore, exercise training seems not efficient to prevent the cancer treatment-related triglyceride levels increase.
Resistance Exercise Combined with a Milk-Based Supplementation: Effect on Lipid Oxidation and Fat Mobilization during Exercise Recovery
Introduction: Resistance training combined with a protein rich post-exercise supplementation, made from cow’s milk, induced a fat mass loss in older men. A greater fat mobilization and lipid oxidation during the exercise recovery period may explain this change. Hence, the main objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of milk-based supplementation consumed after resistance exercise on lipid oxidation and fat mobilization during the exercise recovery period in older men. Methods: Nine older men (60-75 years) participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study with the three following conditions: 1) Resistance exercise + Cow’s milk supplementation (C-Milk; 12g of protein), 2) Resistance exercise + Rice milk supplementation (R-Milk; 0g of protein) and 3) Resistance exercise + Water (Control). During a 3-hour exercise recovery period, energy expenditure and lipid oxidation (3 indirect calorimetry measures: 1) 30-60 min; 2) 90-120 min and 3) 150-180 min) were estimated. Systemic fat mobilization (glycerol and free fatty acids [FFA] plasma levels) and glucose metabolism (glucose and insulin plasma levels) were evaluated before and after the exercise session as well as 60 min, 120 min and 180 min after the end of the exercise session. Results: Lipid oxidation progressively increased during the 3-hour exercise recovery period in C-Milk (p=0.048), while it remained stable, but higher, in Control and increased only between the last hour in R-Milk (p=0.01). FFA plasma levels increased between 60 min and 180 min in C-Milk (p=0.01) while it augmented between 60 min and 120 min in Control (p=0.006) and between 120 min and 180 min in R-Milk (p=0.05). No difference was observed between the three conditions for plasma glycerol levels and glucose metabolism. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a post-resistance exercise supplement rich in animal protein may favor an increased lipid oxidation but does not acutely impact fat mobilization. 1. Conflict of interest: None 2. Funding: Research relating to this abstract was funded by Quebec Network for Research on Aging.
Effects of a 6-Month Caloric Restriction Induced-Weight Loss Program in Obese Postmenopausal Women with and without the Metabolic Syndrome: A MONET Study
Objective: To compare the effects of a CR on body composition, lipid profile and glucose homeostasis in obese postmenopausal women with and without MetS. Methods: Secondary analyses were performed on seventy-three inactive obese postmenopausal women (age: 57.7 ± 4.8 yrs; body mass index: 32.4 ± 4.6 kg/m2) who participated in the 6-month caloric restriction arm of a study of the Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team. The harmonized MetS definition was used to categorized participants with MetS [n = 20, 27.39%] and without MetS [n = 53, 72.61%]. Variables of interest were: body composition (DXA), body fat distribution (CT scan), glucose homeostasis at the fasting state and during a euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp, fasting lipids and resting blood pressure. Results: By design, the MetS group had a worse cardiometabolic profile; while both groups were comparable for age. Fifty-five patients out of seventy-three displayed no change in MetS status after the intervention. Twelve participants out of twenty (or 60.0%) in the MetS group had no more MetS after weight loss (P= NS); while six participants out of fifty three (or 11.3%) in the other group developed the MetS after the intervention (P= NS). Overall, indices of body composition and body fat distribution improved significantly and similarly in both groups (P between 0.03 and 0.0001). Furthermore, with the exception of triglyceride levels and triglycerides/HDL-C ratio, which decrease significantly more in the MetS group (P ≤ 0.05), no difference was observed between groups for the other variables of the cardiometabolic profile. Conclusion: Despite no overall significant effects on MetS, heterogeneous results were obtained in response to weight loss in the present study; with some improving the MetS while other displaying deteriorations. Further studies are needed in order to identify factors and phenotypes associated with positive and negative cardiometabolic responses to CR intervention.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Cardiometabolic Profile in Inactive Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MONET Study
Background: Inactive obese postmenopausal women, are at greater risk for metabolic complications. On the other hand, high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a lower risk of metabolic complications. Objective: To compare inactive obese postmenopausal women displaying ‘lower’ vs ‘higher’ levels of CRF for body composition, metabolic profile, inflammatory profile and measures of energy expenditure. Methods: 132 women (age: 57.6 ± 4.8 yrs; BMI: 32.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2; Peak VO2: 17.81 ± 3.02 ml O2•kg-1•min-1) were studied. They were first divided into tertiles based on their CRF. Then, women in the first (< 16.51 ml O2•min-1•kg-1) and second tertiles (16.51 to 19.22 ml O2•min-1•kg-1) were combined (N= 88), and compared with those in the third tertile (> 19.22 ml O2•min-1•kg-1) (N= 44). Variables of interest were: Peak VO2 (stationary bike), body composition (DXA), body fat distribution (CT scan), glucose homeostasis (fasting state and euglycemic/ hyperinsulinemic clamp), fasting lipids, resting blood pressure, inflammatory profile and energy expenditure (DLW). Results: Both CRF groups (lower= 16.0 ± 2.0 ml O2•kg-1•min-1 vs higher= 21.2 ± 1.7 ml O2•kg-1•min-1; p < 0.001) were similar for age. Significant differences were observed between groups for body composition; with lower values for body weight, BMI, fat mass and visceral fat in women with higher CRF (p between 0.001 and 0.005). Also, women with higher CRF had lower values for fasting insulin (13.4 ± 4.5 vs 15.6 ± 6.6 μU/ml; p = 0.03) and CRP levels (2.31 ± 1.97 vs 3.83 ± 3.24 mg/liter; p = 0.001); and higher values for glucose disposal (6.71 ± 1.78 vs 5.92 ± 1.67 mg/kg/min; p = 0.01). However, these differences were no longer significant after controlling for visceral adipose tissue accumulations. Finally, no significant difference was observed between groups for the other variables of interest. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, among inactive overweight/obese postmenopausal women, those with higher CRF levels have a better metabolic profile; which is caused by lower visceral fat accumulations.
Unspoken Playground Rules Prompt Adolescents to Avoid Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model
The health benefits of exercise are widely recognised, but numerous interventions have failed to halt a sharp decline in physical activity during early adolescence. Many such projects are underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, yet this model of rational decision-making leaves variance in behavior unexplained. This study investigated whether the Prototype Willingness Model, which proposes a second, reactive decision-making path to account for spontaneous responses to the social environment, has potential to improve understanding of adolescent exercise behaviour in school by exploring constructs in the model with young people. PE teachers in 4 Oxfordshire schools each nominated 6 pupils who were active in school, and 6 who were inactive, to participate in the study. Of these, 45 (22 male) aged 12-13 took part in 8 focus group discussions. These were transcribed and subjected to deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the prototype willingness model. Participants appeared to make rational decisions about commuting to school or attending sports clubs, but spontaneous choices to be inactive during both break and PE. These reactive decisions seemed influenced by a social context described as more ‘judgmental’ than primary school, characterised by anxiety about physical competence, negative peer evaluation and inactive playground norms. Participants described their images of typical active and inactive adolescents: active images included negative social characteristics including ‘show-off’. There was little concern about the long-term risks of inactivity, although participants seemed to recognise that physical activity is healthy. The Prototype Willingness Model might more fully explain young adolescents’ physical activity in school than rational behavioural models, indicating potential for physical activity interventions that target social anxieties in response to the changing playground environment. Images of active types could be more complex than earlier research has suggested, and their negative characteristics might influence willingness to be active.
Implementation and Challenges of Assessment Methods in the Case of Physical Education Class in Some Selected Preparatory Schools of Kirkos Sub-City
The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation and challenges of different assessment methods for physical education class in some selected preparatory schools of kirkos sub city. The participants in this study are teachers, students, department heads and school principals from 4 selected schools. Of the total 8 schools offering in kirkos sub city 4 schools (Dandi Boru, Abiyot Kirse, Assay, and Adey Ababa) are selected by using simple random sampling techniques and from these schools all (100%) of teachers, 100% of department heads and school principals are taken as a sample as their number is manageable. From the total 2520 students, 252 (10%) of students are selected using simple random sampling. Accordingly, 13 teachers, 252 students, 4 department heads and 4 school principals are taken as a sample from the 4 selected schools purposefully. As a method of data gathering tools; questionnaire and interview are employed. To analyze the collected data, both quantitative and qualitative methods are used. The result of the study revealed that assessment in physical education does not implement properly: lack of sufficient materials, inadequate time allotment, large class size, and lack of collaboration and working together of teachers towards assessing the performance of students, absence of guidelines to assess the physical education subject, no different assessment method that is implementing on students with disabilities in line with their special need are found as major challenges in implementing the current assessment method of physical education. To overcome these problems the following recommendations have been forwarded. These are: the necessary facilities and equipment should be available; In order to make reliable, accurate, objective and relevant assessment, teachers of physical education should be familiarized with different assessment techniques; Physical education assessment guidelines should be prepared, and guidelines should include different types of assessment methods; qualified teachers should be employed, and different teaching room must be build.
The Heroine of Free China: Liang-You Women's National Basketball Team (1952-1960)
Human’s subjectivity could be showed forth on their body which as a field for forming their diverse identities. This paper employed the oral history and historical research methods to explore the body experiences of Liang-You women’s national basketball team in the postwar period under martial law of Taiwan. We found that the 1950s was a precarious era that KMT government of free China executed the policy of ‘strengthen nation and race, sports save the nation, revive the Republic of China’ in Taiwan. In such era, Liang-You women’s national basketball team, organized by the Sporting Federation of Armed Force, stood over the ten years. These sporting women practiced their international diplomacy mission and maintained their vigorous and healthy image of free China by performing their skill masterly and morals well on the court. In the meanwhile, they had experiences of foreign sightseeing, ‘presidential delicacies’ and star-like treatment. To this end, they accepted a severe body and mind training and found pleasure in it. It was because they identified with self-identity.
Relationship between Quality of Life and Perceived Stress among Teachers of Physical Education
The present study was done on 100 (male=50 and female=50) teachers of physical education at tertiary level from Varanasi city. They were chosen according to the stratified sampling method. Data collection tool was Perceived Stress Scale: 14 items (Cohen, Kamarck and mermelstain 1983) and Quality of Life was developed by THE WHOQOL GROUP in 1991. Data was analyzed with the help of correlation. Findings explore that perceived stress and quality of life has been positively correlated in female teachers of higher education from physical education whereas in male teachers the relationship was found insignificant.
An Evaluation of Self-Esteem in Physically Disabled Adults Who Particapated in Sports
Objective: Physical disability includes impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Individuals with physical disabilities have lower self-esteem compared non-disabled people. Self-esteem is widely accepted as a key indicator of emotional stability and adjustment to life demands. There is very limited study to investigate the effect of sports on self-esteem in physically disabled people. The aim of the present study was to evaluate of self-esteem in physically disabled adults who participated in sports. Methods: Fifty physically disabled adults who participated in sports aged between 18 to 35 years participated in the study. Self-esteem of the participants was assessed by Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The scale is a 10-item measure of global self-esteem. The higher score on the scale indicates greater self-esteem. Scores between 15 and 25 are the normal range of and scores below 15 suggest low self-esteem. Results: Average age of participants was 25.18±6.20 years. 58% of the participants were 23 (46.0%) of the participants were wheelchair users, 8 (16.0%) were mobile with a walking aid and 19 (38.0%) were mobile without a walking aid. The length of physically disabled adults had been participating in their sports (basketball: 54%, athleticism: 32%, volleyball: 6%, cycling: 6%) was 4.94±3.86 years. The average Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale score of the participants was 21.88 ±4.34. Conclusions: Our results suggest that physically disabled adults who participated in sports have the healthy level of self-esteem. Participating in sports could have positive effects on self-esteem in that physically, disabled people. There is needed future comparative studies on this topic.
The Impact of Quality of Life on Satisfaction and Intent to Return for Distance Running
Physical activities have a positive impact on individuals’ health and well-being. They also play an important role in promoting quality of life (QoL). The distance running enhances participants’ life satisfaction and provides positive experiences in physical activity. This study aims to measure the perception of QoL and to find the effect on satisfaction and intent to return for distance runners. Exploratory factor analysis is carried out to extract four major factorial dimensions of QoL, including multiple functions, spiritual, physical and cognitive factors. The main factors of QoL will be introduced into the regression function on satisfaction and return intention. The results show that the QoL factors including multiple functions, spiritual, physical and cognitive factors have a positive and significant impact on satisfaction for participants. The multiple functions and physical factors are also significantly positively correlated to the intent of return for runners.
Examining the Impact of Intelligence Quotients on Balance and Coordination in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability
Objective: Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance and coordination performance determined between mild and moderate ID adolescents who regularly play sport. Methods: The study comprised a total of 179 participants, of which 135 were male adolescents with mild and moderate-level ID who regularly play sports (16.52 ± 2.17 years) and 44 age-matched male adolescents with typical development without ID who do not do any sports (16.52 ± 0.99 years). The participants with ID were students of Special Education Schools for the mentally disabled and had been diagnosed with ID at a Ministry of Health Hospital. The adolescents with mild and moderate ID had been playing football in their school teams at least 2 days a week, for at least one year. Balance and coordination of adolescents were assessed by Bilateral coordination and balance subtests of Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF). Results: As a result of the evaluations comparing coordination and balance scores significant differences were determined between all three groups in favor of the peers without ID (p< 0.05). Conclusions: It was observed that balance and coordination levels of adolescents with mild ID were better than those of adolescents with moderate-level ID but lower than those of peers without ID. These results indicate a relationship between IQ level and motor performance. Further comparative studies are needed on individuals with ID who play and do not play sports in order to examine the impact of participation in sports on the motor skills of individuals with ID.
A Study on Relationship of Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status with Obesity in Indian Children
The present study was undertaken with the purpose to understand the relationship of lifestyle and Socio-Economic status with child obesity among 1000 boys aged from 16 to 18 years of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh State in India. The study was conducted in both urban and rural area of the District. Ten schools i.e. five from urban area and five from rural area were selected by using purposive sampling. Healthy boys of class 10th, 11th and 12th were taken as subjects for the study. Prior consent was obtained from school authority. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each subject. Anthropometric measurements were Standing Height, Weight, Biceps skin folds, Triceps skin folds, Sub-scapular skin folds and Supra-iliac skin folds taken by Lange’s skin fold caliper. Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status were obtained by questionnaires. In order to assess the BMI, Body fat %, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status; descriptive analyses were done. To find out the significant association of obesity with lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status Chi-square test was used. To find out significant difference between obesity of Urban and Rural children t-test was applied. Level of significance was set at 0.05 level. The conclusions drawn were: (1) The result showed that in urban area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.6% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 6.2% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 25.4% above average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.8% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 3.6% and 0.4% low and very low level adaptive lifestyle. (2) In rural area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.00% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 9.4% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 24.8% average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.0% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 15.2% below average and 3.0% very low level adaptive lifestyle.(3) In urban area 12.8% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 56.6% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 30.2% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.2% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (4) In rural area 1.4% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 15.2% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 51.6% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.8% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (5) In urban area 21.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (6) In rural area 0.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (7) In overall Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 10.7% children of 16-18 years were obese. (8) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of urban area children of 16-18 years. (9) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of urban area children of 16-18 years (10) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of rural area children of 16-18 years of Varanasi District Uttar Pradesh. (11) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of rural area children of 16-18 years. (12) Results showed significant difference between urban and rural area children of 16-18 years in respect to obesity of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh.
Investigation of Various Variabilities of Social Anxiety Levels of Physical Education and Sports School Students
The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the level of social anxiety to various variables of the students in physical education and sports departments. 229 students who are studying at the departments of physical education and sports teaching, sports management and coaching in Ahi Evran University, College of Physical Education and Sports participate in the research. Personal information tool and social anxiety scale consisting 30 items were used as data collection tool in the research. Distribution, frequency, t-test and ANOVA test were used in the comparison of the related data. As a result of statistical analysis, social anxiety levels do not differ according to gender, income level, sports type and national player status.
Elements of Sector Benchmarking in Physical Education Curriculum: An Indian Perspective
The study was designed towards institutional analysis for a clear understanding of the process involved in functioning and layout of determinants influencing physical education teacher’s education program in India. This further can be recommended for selection of parameters for creating sector benchmarking for physical education teachers training institutions across India. 165 stakeholders involving students, teachers, parents, administrators were surveyed from the identified seven institutions and universities from different states of India. They were surveyed on the basis of seven broad parameters which were associated with the post graduate physical education program in India. A physical education program assessment tool of 52 items was designed to administer it among the stakeholders selected for the survey. An item analysis of the contents was concluded through the review process from selected experts working in higher education with experience in teacher training program in physical education. The data was collected from the stakeholders of the selected institutions through Physical Education Program Assessment Tool (PEPAT). The hypothesis that PE teacher education program is independent of physical education institutions was significant. The study directed a need towards robust admission process emphasizing on identification, selection of potential candidates and quality control of intake with the scientific process developed according to the Indian education policies and academic structure. The results revealed that the universities do not have similar functional and delivery process related to the physical education teacher training program. The study reflects towards the need for physical education universities and institutions to identify the best practices to be followed regarding the functioning of delivery of physical education programs at various institutions through strategic management studies on the identified parameters before establishing strict standards and norms for achieving excellence in physical education in India.
The Relationship between Anxiety and Scuba Diving Performance in Beginners and Licensees
The present study explored the relationship between anxiety and scuba diving performance of licensed divers (N = 12; 20.50 yr., SD = 1.88) and diving-beginners (N = 13; 20.76 yr., SD = 1.30). Beginners were arranged to participate in a 10 weeks scuba diving courses which included 4 times open water dives. The scuba diving performance was tested after the 10 weeks scuba diving lessons and measured in a swimming pool in the shallow water (1.50 m). Participants were asked to perform the standardized scuba diving skills of Mask Clearing, Buddy Breathe, Regulator Recovery, and Buoyancy Control. Diving instructor record the completing time of these skills that were lately correlated with individual trait anxiety score and state anxiety score after open-water diving. The licensed divers expressed significantly shorter completing time than diving-beginners in Buddy Breathe (12.65 ± 4.51 vs. 64.45 ± 30.64, p < 0.01) and Buoyancy Control (25.12 ± 15.74 vs. 14.16 ± 6.19, p = 0.03). The licensed divers also show a significantly lower open-water diving state anxiety score than students, whether in total score, anxiety-absent and -present subscale (all of the p-value < 0.01). After merging two groups, it showed that there were significant relationship between anxiety and scuba diving performance in Mask Clearing (Adjusted R2 = 0.33, p = 0.016) and Regulator Recovery (Adjusted R2 = 0.44, p < 0.01). Furthermore, participants with moderate trait anxiety (score > 39) expressed longer completing time in Regulator Recovery than participants with trait anxiety below 39 (12.64 ± 4.42 vs. 8.59 ± 2.51, p = 0.028). These findings provide the evidence for the scuba diving training programs design for individuals with higher trait anxiety scores.
Exploring Women's Embodied Experiences of 'the Gaze' in Fitness Cultures
To date, the focus of feminist research surrounding men looking at women, with the analysis of how women make sense of looks between women remains limited and scattered. Drawing upon ethnographic data obtained from an on-going research project, this presentation delves into the embodied experiences of female exercisers within a UK ‘working-class’ gym. By exploring the women’s own accounts of their living, breathing and sensing bodies as they exercise, the researcher attempts to understand how they make sense of the gym space, their embodied selves as well as broader constructions of the gendered body. Utilising a feminist phenomenological approach, this research examines the social-structural position of women in a patriarchal system of gender relations, whilst simultaneously acknowledging and analysing the structural, cultural, and historical forces and location, upon individual lived body experiences and gendered embodiment. The discussion is provided on how the gym can be identified as a sexually objectifying environment, and how women make sense and interpret specific ‘gazes’ encountered within the gym.
The Association between Health-Related Quality of Life and Physical Activity in Different Domains with Other Factors in Croatian Male Police Officers
The purpose of the present study was to determine the associations between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and physical activity (PA) in different domains. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 169 Croatian police officers (mean age 35.14±8.95 yrs, mean height 180.93±7.53 cm, mean weight 88.39±14.05 kg, mean body-mass index 26.90±3.39 kg/m2). The dependent variables were two general domains extracted from the HRQOL questionnaire: (1) physical component scale (PCS) and (2) mental component scale (MCS). The independent variables were job-related, transport, domestic and leisure-time PA, along with other factors: age, body-mass index, smoking status, psychological distress, socioeconomic status and time spent in sedentary behaviour. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis. Significance was set up at p < 0.05. PCS was positively associated with leisure-time PA (β 0.28, p < 0.001) and socioeconomic status (SES) (β 0.16, p=0.005), but inversely associated with job-related PA (β -0.15, p=0.012), domestic-time PA (β -0.14, p=0.014), age (β -0.12, p=0.050), psychological distress (β -0.43, p< 0.001) and sedentary behaviour (β -0.15, p=0.009). MCS was positively associated with leisure-time PA (β 0.19, p=0.013) and SES (β 0.20, p=0.002), while inversely associated with age (β -0.23, p=0.001), psychological distress (β -0.27, p< 0.001) and sedentary behaviour (β -0.22, p=0.001). Our results added new information about the associations between domain-specific PA and both physical and mental component scale in police officers. Future studies should deal with the same associations in other stressful occupations.
Impact of School-Based Gymnastic Program on Skill-Related Fitness in Early Adolescent Students
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gymnastics program in school on skill-related fitness in early adolescent students. The study involved 58 adolescent students (12.82±0.54 years; Height 156.81±8.16 cm; 53.46±12.31 kg) from primary school divided into two groups, following the randomization. The gymnastic group was involved in a 12 week of gymnastics classes, while the control group only participated in usual PE classes which consisted of multi-sport activities. The variables were selected within the several fitness batteries, measuring coordination (polygon backwards), upper and lower body strength standing long jump and medicine ball throw), speed (20 m sprint) and agility (4x10 test). Pre-test to post-test values showed significant improvements in all tested variables (p< 0.05), except for the 4x10m test, where there were no significant improvements in neither of the groups (p>0.05). Significant interactions of time by group were observed for coordination, sprint speed, standing long jump and medicine ball throw (p< 0.05). The results showed significant increase in skill-related fitness of the participants in the gymnastic group compared to the control group. Therefore, participation in gymnastics must be recommended as a positive foundational activity for school-aged children, from early childhood to adulthood. Additionally, the results can provide useful information in optimizing the training loads of pupils involved in gymnastic training throughout PE classes.
Portable, Noninvasive and Wireless Near Infrared Spectroscopy Device to Monitor Skeletal Muscle Metabolism during Exercise
Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is one of the biophotonic techniques which can be used to monitor oxygenation and hemodynamics in a variety of human tissues, including skeletal muscle. In the present work, we are offering tissue oximetry (OxyPrem) to measure hemodynamic parameters of skeletal muscles in rest and exercise. Purpose: - To elaborate the new wireless, portable, noninvasive, wearable NIRS device to measure skeletal muscle oxygenation during exercise. - To test this device on brachioradialis muscle of wrestler volunteers by using combined method of arterial occlusion (AO) and NIRS (AO+NIRS). Methods: Oxyprem NIRS device has been used together with AO test. AO test and Isometric brachioradialis muscle contraction experiments have been performed on one group of wrestler volunteers. ‘Accu- Measure’ caliper (USA) to measure skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used. Results: Elaborated device consists on power supply box, a sensor head and installed ‘Tubis’ software for data acquisition and to compute deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation (StO2) and muscle tissue oxygen consumption (mVO2). Sensor head consists on four light sources with three light emitting diodes with nominal wavelengths of 760 nm, 805 nm, and 870 nm, and two detectors. AO and isometric voluntary forearm muscle contraction (IVFMC) on five healthy male subjects (23,2±0.84 in age, 0.43±0.05cm of SFT ) and four female subjects (22.0±1.0 in age and 0.24±0.04 cm SFT) has been measured. mVO2 for control group has been calculated (-0.65%/sec±0.07) for male and -0.69%/±0.19 for female subjects). Tissue oxygenation index for wrestlers in average about 75% whereas for control group StO2 =63%. Second experiment was connected with quality monitoring muscle activity during IVFMC at 10%,30% and 50% of MVC. It has been shown, that the concentration changes of HbO2 and HHb positively correlated to the contraction intensity. Conclusion: We have presented a portable multi-channel wireless NIRS device for real-time monitoring of muscle activity. The miniaturized NIRS sensor and the usage of wireless communication make the whole device have a compact-size, thus can be used in muscle monitoring.