The Relationship among Perceived Risk, Product Knowledge, Brand Image and the Insurance Purchase Intention of Taiwanese Working Holiday Youths
In 2004, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Taiwan launched ‘An Arrangement on Working Holiday Scheme’ with 15 countries including New Zealand, Japan, Canada, Germany, South Korea, Britain, Australia and others. The aim of the scheme is to allow young people to work and study English or other foreign languages. Each year, there are 30,000 Taiwanese youths applied for participating in the working holiday schemes. However, frequent accidents could cause huge medical expenses and post-delivery fee, which are usually unaffordable for most families. Therefore, this study explored the relationship among perceived risk toward working holiday, insurance product knowledge, brand image and insurance purchase intention for Taiwanese youths who plan to apply for working holiday. A survey questionnaire was distributed for data collection. A total of 316 questionnaires were collected for data analyzed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent samples T-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, regression analysis and hierarchical regression methods of analysis and hypothesis testing. The results of this research indicate that perceived risk has a negative influence on insurance purchase intention. On the opposite, product knowledge has brand image has a positive influence on the insurance purchase intention. According to the mentioned results, practical implications were further addressed for insurance companies when developing a future marketing plan.
The Effect of Hemsball Shooting Techniques on Fine Motor Skill Level of Chidren with Hearing Disabilities
This study aims to explore the effects of Hemsball shooting techniques on the fine motor skill level of children with hearing disabilities. A total number of 26 children with hearing disabilities, ages ranging between 7 and 11 and which were equally divided into experimental group and control group, participated in the study. In this context, an exercise training program dedicated to Hemsball shooting techniques was introduced to the experimental group 3 days a week in one-hour sessions for a period of 10 weeks. BOT-2 fine motor skills test which includes three dimensions (fine motor accuracy, fine motor task completion, and dexterity) was selected as the data collection method. Descriptive statistics along with two-factor ANOVA which was focused on repetitive measurements of the differences between pretest and posttest scores of both groups were used in the analysis of the data collected. The results of this study showed that Hemsball shooting techniques have a statistically significant effect on the fine motor skill level.
Examining College Students’ Attitudes toward Diversity Environments in a Physical Activity Course
In recent year, cultural diversity has acquired increasing attentions in our society due to the cultural pluralism and globalization. With the emphasis of diversity in our society, higher education has played a significant role in preparing people to be successful in a diverse world. A number of colleges and universities provide various diversity-related courses that enhance students to recognize the importance of diversity and multiculturalism. However, little research has been conducted with diversity environments in physical activity and sports-related courses to appreciate students’ attitudes toward multiculturalism. Physical activity courses can be regarded as an essential and complementary part of general education. As well, playing and watching certain sports plays a critical role to foster mutual understanding between different races and to help social integration for minority communities. Therefore, it is expected that the appropriate diverse environments in physical activity courses may have a positive impact to the understandings of different cultures and races. The primary purpose of this study is to examine attitudes toward cultural diversity in a physical activity course among undergraduate students. In building on the scholarly foundation in this area, this study applies the established survey scale (e.g., Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment [PADAA]) developed by Stanley (1996) and previous literature related to cultural diversity. The PADAA includes 19 questions. The following two research hypotheses were proposed. H1: Students who take a diversity-related physical course (i.e., Taekwondo) will provide positive attitude changes toward their cultural diversity. H2: Students who take a general physical activity course (i.e., Weight Training) will provide no significant attitude changes toward their cultural diversity. To test the research hypotheses, subjects will be selected from the both Taekwondo and Weight Training class at University of West Georgia. In the Taekwondo class, students will learn the history, meaning, basic terminology, and physical skills, which is a Korean martial art and the national sport of Korea. In the Weight Training class, students will not be exposed to any cultural diversity topics. Regarding data analysis, Doubly Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (Doubly MANCOVA), 2 (time period: pre and after) X 2 (diversity-related content exposure: Taekwondo and Weight Training), will be conducted on attitudes toward the cultural diversity with control variables such as gender and age. The findings of this study will add to the body of literature in cultural diversity because this will be the first known attempt to explain the college students’ attitudes toward cultural diversity in a physical activity courses. The expected results will state that the physical activity course focusing on diversity issues will have a positive impact on college students’ attitude toward cultural diversity. This finding will indicate that Universities need to create diverse programs (e.g., study abroad, exchange program, second language courses) and environments so that students can have positive interactions with other groups of races and different cultures. It is also expected that the positive perceptions and attitudes toward cultural diversity will break down cultural barriers and make students be ready for meeting several challenges in a multicultural and global society.
The Effect of 8 Week Aerobic Training on Some Indices of Cardio-Respiratory and Exercise Tolerance in Overweight Women's with Chronic Asthma
Asthma, obesity or overweight is one of the factors changes of heart - respiratory airways affected. Asthma with signs that occur during exercise. Epidemiological studies of the incidence of asthma symptoms with lifestyle factors such as sedentary, metabolic diseases and cardio - vascular aim of this study suggest the effect of eight weeks of aerobic activity on some indicators of cardiorespiratory and resistance in women with Asthma chronic mild overweight. This quasi-experimental and applied research using experimental and control groups before and after the test and doing the experimental group (7 patients) and control group (n = 7) were graded. According to Borg dyspnea and fatigue Perception Index training intensity was determined. People for two months submaximal aerobic activity schedule (45 to 80 percent of maximum heart rate) paid to aerobic exercise. The control group (n = 7) stayed away from aerobic exercise. Indicators measured in basic conditions were measured using standard. Data evaluation and analysis of covariance comparing the pre-test and post-test each paired t-test with significance level was performed (P ≤ 0/05). The results of the experimental group after eight weeks of exercise a significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, minute ventilation and a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake and tolerance was observed activity ((P ≤ 0/05). In the control group, there was no significant difference in these parameters. ((P ≤ 0/05).The results showed that the aerobic activity strengthens the respiratory muscles and other physiological factors can cause breathing and heart recovery. Aerobic activity also resulted in favorable changes in cardiovascular parameters and exercise tolerance of women is overweight with chronic asthma.
A Study on the Conspicuous Consumption, Recreational Involvement and Physical and Mental Health of Dog Walkers
This study is to explore the relationship between the conspicuous consumption, leisure involvement and physical and mental health, and to understand the prediction of conspicuous consumption and leisure involvement to physical and mental health. The data was collected and analysed by purposive sampling, and the research objects were the dog walkers in Taiwan area. A total of 300 questionnaires were issued and after shaving the invalid questionnaire, a total of 246 valid samples were collected, and the effective rate was 82%.. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between conspicuous consumption and leisure involvement, and the conspicuous consumption and leisure involvement of dog walkers have a significant impact on physical and mental health, especially in self-expression, attractiveness and centrality of leisure involvement have a significant impact on physical and mental health.
Video Processing of a Football Game to Efficiently Detect Players in Moving Frame
We have applied a range of filters and processing in order to extract out the various features of the football game, like the field lines of a football field. Another important aspect was the detection of the players in the field and tagging them according to their teams distinguished by their jersey colours. This extracted information combined about the players and field helped us to create a virtual field that consists of the playing field and the players mapped to their locations in it.
Exploring the Factors That Influence the Choices of Senior on Sporting Goods and Brands: A Case Study of Wufeng District, Taichung City
In recent years, sports culture dominated in Taiwan, which spurred the rapid development of the sports industry. More innovative and high-tech sporting goods were developed to provide choices for consumers. Nowadays, Taiwan has gradually entered the aging society where people pay more attention to health promotion, delay of aging and other related issues among senior. However, it is an undeniable fact that moderate exercise is a great help to delay aging. Therefore, how senior select the appropriate sporting goods, including sports shoes, sportswear, sports equipment, and even the sports brands when engaged in various kinds of sports, are explored in this research.
Therefore, this study sets the reference indicators by exploring the brands of sporting goods, that senior aged 50-70 choose in a fog peak district, the Taichung City, as the subjects of study by answering a questionnaire. Also, this study offers recommendations in terms of the design, marketing or selling of sporting goods for the senior, and how owners of sports brands or related sports industries should target them.
Implementation of Active Recovery at Immediate, 12 and 24 Hours Post-Training in Young Soccer Players
In the pursuit of athletic performance, the role of physical training which is determined by a number of charges or taxes on physiological stress and musculoskeletal systems of the human body generated by the intensity and duration is fundamental. Given the physical demands of these activities both training and competitive must take into account the optimal relationship with a straining process recovery post favoring the process of overcompensation which aims to facilitate the return and rising energy potential and protein synthesis also of different tissues. Allowing muscle function returns to baseline or pre-exercise states. If this recovery process is not performed or is not allowed in a proper way, will result in an increased state of fatigue. Active recovery, is one of the strategies implemented in the sport for a return to pre-exercise physiological states. However, there are some adverse assumptions regarding the negative effects, as is the possibility of increasing the degradation of muscle glycogen and thus delaying the synthesis thereof. For them, it is necessary to investigate what would be the effects generated application made at different times after the effort. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of active recovery post effort made at three different times: immediately, at 12 and 24 hours on biochemical markers creatine kinase in youth soccer player’s categories. A randomized controlled trial with allocation to three groups was performed: A. active recovery immediately after the effort; B. active recovery performed at 12 hours after the effort; C. active recovery made at 24 hours after the effort. This study included 27 subjects belonging to a Colombian soccer team of the second division. Vital signs, weight, height, BMI, the percentage of muscle mass, fat mass percentage, personal medical history, and family were valued. The velocity, explosive force and Creatin Kinase (CK) in blood were tested before and after interventions. SAFT 90 protocol (Soccer Field specific Aerobic Test) was applied to participants for generating fatigue. CK samples were taken one hour before the application of the fatigue test, one hour after the fatigue protocol and 48 of the initial CK sample. Mean age was 18.5 ± 1.1 years old. Improvements in jumping and speed recovery the 3 groups (p < 0.05), but no statistically significant differences between groups was observed after recuperation. In all participants, there was a significant increment of CK when applied SAFT 90 in all the groups (median 103.1-111.1). The CK measurement after 48 hours reflects a recovery in all groups, however the group C, a decline below baseline levels of -55.5 (-96.3 /-20.4) which is a significant find. Other research has shown that CK does not return quickly to their baseline, but our study shows that active recovery favors the clearance of CK and also to perform recovery 24 hours after the effort generates higher clearance of this biomarker.
Comparison of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses Following In-Water and On-Land Jump in Postmenopausal Women
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate following continued high-intensity interval exercise in water and on land. The results of studies can be an exercise program design reference for health care and fitness professionals. Method: A total of 20 volunteer postmenopausal women was included in this study. The inclusion criteria were: duration of menopause > 1 year; and sedentary lifestyle, defined as engaging in moderate-intensity exercise less than three times per week, or less than 20 minutes per day. Participants need to visit experimental place three times. The first time visiting, body composition was performed and participant filled out the questionnaire. Participants were assigned randomly to the exercise environment (water or land) in second and third time visiting. Water exercise testing was under water of trochanter level. In continuing jump testing, each movement consisted 10-second maximum volunteer jump for two sets. 50% heart rate reserve dynamic resting (walking or running) for one minute was within each set. SBP, DBP, HR, RPE of whole body/thigh (RPEW/RPET) and lactate were performed at pre and post testing. HR, RPEW, and RPET were monitored after 1, 2, and 10 min of exercise testing. SBP and DBP were performed after 10 and 30 min of exercise testing. Results: The responses of SBP and DBP after exercise testing in water were higher than those on land. Lactate levels after exercise testing in water were lower than those on land. The responses of RPET were lower than those on land post exercise 1 and 2 minutes. The heart rate recovery in water was faster than those on land at post exercise 5 minutes. Conclusion: This study showed water interval jump exercise induces higher cardiovascular responses with lower RPE responses and lactate levels than on-land jumps exercise in postmenopausal women. Fatigue is one of the major reasons to obstruct exercise behavior. Jump exercise could enhance cardiorespiratory fitness, the lower-extremity power, strength, and bone mass. There are several health benefits to the middle to older adults. This study showed that water interval jumping could be more relaxed and not tried to reach the same land-based cardiorespiratory exercise intensity.
The Relationship among Exercise Participation, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction: A Study on Food Service Employees in Taiwan
As an increasing number of restaurants are growing, the demand for man force in the food service industry is dramatically increasing as well. However, food service workers often complete the heavy workload, infrequent breaks, long hours and shifts. With the overwhelming workload, many workers have experienced high injury rates. As a result, the restaurant industry reports a higher employee turnover rate compare to other service industries in Taiwan. Restaurant managers are seeing ways to retain good employees in order to provide good quality service for daily operation. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among exercise participation, job stress and job satisfaction on the food service employees. In addition, to examine how the job stress affected their job satisfaction. A survey using a self-reported questionnaire was conducted to collect data, and 269 questionnaires were collected for data analysis. The obtained materials were analyzed using descriptive statistic, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, linear regression analysis. The results show that 1. Job stress had a significantly negative influence on employees’ job satisfaction. 2. Exercise participation had significantly positive influence on employees’ job satisfaction. 3. Job stress and job satisfaction varied among the groups of respondent with different level of exercise involvement. Furthermore, the practical implications were proposed for the food service company management when developing daily operational strategies.
The Effect of Physical Biorhythm Cycle on Health-Related Fitness Factors
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical biorhythm cycle on health-related fitness factors. For this purpose, 120 athlete and non-athlete male and female students were selected randomly and based on the level of physical activity divided into athletic and non-athletic groups. The exact date of birth and also when the subjects were in the positive, negative and critical physical biorhythm cycle was determined by calculation software biorhythm. The physical fitness factors tests, including Queens College Step Test, AAHPERD sit-ups; Wells stretch test and hand dynamometer. Students in three stages in positive, negative and critical physical cycle were tested. Data processing using SPSS software and statistical tests ANOVA with repeated measures and student t test was used for dependent. The results of this study showed that changes in physical fitness and physical biorhythm were not affected by changes in the 23-day physical cycle.
Healthy Lifestyle and Risky Behaviors amongst Students of Physical Education High Schools
The purpose of this study is the relationship between a healthy lifestyle and risky behavior in physical education students of Bojnourd schools. The study sample consisted of teenagers studying in second and third grade of Bojnourd's high schools. According to level sampling, 604 students studying in the second grade, and 600 students studying in third grade were tested from physical education schools in Bojnourd. For sample selection, populations were divided into 4 area including north, East, West and South. Then according to the number of students of each area, sample size of each level was determined. Two questionnaires were used to collect data in this study which were consisted of three parts: The demographic data, Iranian teenagers' risk taking (IARS) and prevention methods with emphasize on the importance of family role were examined. The Central and dispersion indices, such as standard deviation, multiple variance analysis, and multivariate regression analysis were used. Results showed that the observed F is significant (P ≤ 0.01) and 21% of variance related to risky behavior is explained by the lack of awareness. Given the significance of the regression, the coefficients of risky behavior in teenagers in prediction equation showed that each of teenagers' risky behavior can have an impact on healthy lifestyle.
The Behavior Model of Participative Sports Tourists' in Taroko Gorge Marathon
This study proposed to construct a participative behavior model for sports tourists by consideration of sports tourism attraction, sports event image, participative motivation, participative satisfaction, and loyalty. The subject of the study was the marathon runner from 2012 Taroko Gorge Marathon. The researcher used purposive sampling as the sampling method, a total of 446 surveys were issued, 363 valid sample and the effective response rate is 81.3%. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, and structure equation model. The results are illustrated as follow. First, the participative behavior model constructed in this study fitted well in statistics. Second, sports tourism attraction and sports event image have significant influence effect on the participative motivation of sports tourists. Third, participative motivation and participative satisfaction have significant influence effect on the loyalty of sports tourists. In conclusion, the sports tourism attraction and sports event image have a significant influence on the participative motivation of sports tourists and enhanced the willingness to recommend and repeat participation of sports event. Based on the above results, this study provided some practical suggestion for related sports event unit and directions for a researcher in future.
The Relationships among Somatosensory Experience, Experience Satisfaction and Exercise Attitude of Adolescent in Wii Sport
This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between experience satisfaction and exercise attitude of an adolescent in somatosensory experience. The subjects were the adolescent aged between 13 to 15 from Taichung. The researcher used cluster sampling as a sampling method, a total of 445 questionnaires were issued, 415 valid samples and the effective response rate was 93.2%. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, reliability and validity and multiple regressions. The results were illustrated as follows: after experience Wii, adolescent’s somatosensory experiences are good in ‘sense feel’; adolescent had the most impressive on ‘relaxational part’ in experience satisfaction and the affective value of exercise attitude was the highest. Moreover, by experiencing Wii Sports, the study found that ‘think and act’, ‘sense and feel’ and ‘relation’ of somatosensory experiences can predict the experience satisfaction and exercise attitude efficiently. According to the results, this study provided a practical suggestion for educational related units as a reference to achieve the sports educational improvement.
The Study of the Credibility of Badminton Brand Spokesperson on Consumer Purchase Intention: A Case of YONEX Brand
This study was aimed to explore the credibility of YONEX Badminton Brand Spokesperson on Consumer Purchase Intention and to understand the different background variables of spokesperson credibility of subjects. The researcher selects participants of the badminton region tournament of the national collegiate sports competition in 2016 as the research object for convenience sampling in conducting a questionnaire survey. In the 440 copies of survey papers, 420 copies (including 221 male, 199 female) are effective questionnaires, and the effective rate is 93%. The survey papers are obtained by descriptive statistics, independent samples t- test, single factor variance analysis and regression analysis. The results were as followed: the terms ‘attractive’, ‘reliability’ and ‘professional’ of the credibility of badminton brand spokesperson show positive influence on its brand image and brand attitude. Secondly, the brand image which includes the terms ‘functional’, ‘symbolic’ and ‘experiential’ show positive influence on brand attitude. Thirdly, the brand attitude terms ‘cognitive’, ‘emotion’ and ‘behavior’ show a positive effect on purchase intention. Finally, according to the study result, practical strategies and suggestions were purposed.
The Implementation of Teaching and Learning Quality Assurance System at the Chaoyang University of Technology for Academic Year 2013-2015
Nowadays in Taiwan, higher education, which was previously more emphasized on teaching-oriented approaches, has gradually shifted to an approach more focusing on students learning outcomes. With student employment rate as an important indicator for University Program Evaluation periodically held by the Ministry of Education, it becomes extremely critical for a university to build up a teaching and learning quality assurance system to bridge the gap between learning and practice. Teaching and Learning Quality Assurance System has been built and implemented at Chaoyang University of Technology for years and has received substantial results. By employing various forms of evaluation and performance appraisals, the effectiveness of teaching and learning can consistently be tracked as a means of ensuring teaching and learning quality. This study aims to explore the evaluation system of teaching and learning quality assurance system at the Chaoyang University of Technology by means of content analysis. The study contents the evaluation reports on the teaching and learning quality assurance at the Chaoyang University of Technology in the Academic Year 2013-2015. The quantitative results of the assessment were analyzed using the five-point Likert Scale. Quality assurance Committee meetings were further held for examining and discussions on the results. To the end, the annual evaluation report is to be produced as references used to improve approaches in both teaching and learning. The findings indicate that there is a respective relationship between the overall teaching evaluation items and the teaching goals and core competencies. In addition, graduates’ feedbacks were also collected for further analysis to examine if the current educational planning is able to achieve the university’s teaching goal and cultivation of core competencies.
The Relationships among Perceived Stress, Athletic Burnout and Leisure Participation for the Badminton Player
The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the perceived stress, athletic burnout and participation in leisure activities for the badminton player. The research subjects of this study were first national ranking tournament badminton players in 2012, using convenience sampling to conduct the questionnaire survey. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed with 288 valid responses received from 195 male players and 93 female players. All collected data were analyzed by statistical analysis, the results are illustrated as below: 1. Young players of badminton have a high-pressure perception; 2. The higher the players who involved in the higher-level competitions or the longer the number of years in training, the higher the sense of competitive burnout for the badminton player; 3. The higher the perceived pressure, the higher the sense of competitive burnout for a badminton player. Besides that, this study also found that the badminton players participate in leisure activities can effectively adjust the pressure perception on the sense of competitive burnout. Finally, according to the study results, practical strategies and suggestions were proposed.
A Study of the Willingness of Sports Tourism Development in Taiwan
The aim of this study is to construct the model of the sports tourism development willingness, by using the place attachment, the impact of sports tourism, the attitude of the sports tourism development and the willingness of sports tourism developed. This study implementing the questionnaires as a way of gathering the information, then adopting the purposive sampling to distribute the questionnaires and the data were analyzed through the descriptive statistics, the confirmatory factor analysis and the structural equation model. The results show that: The construction of model fitted well; The place attachment was significant positive impact on the sports tourism impact cognition; The sports tourism positive impact cognition and sports tourism development attitude had positive impact on willingness of sports tourism development; The sports tourism negative impact cognition had negative impact on sports tourism development attitude, but no significant impact on willingness of sports tourism development; The study found that, the higher the degree of the habitant’s place attachment, the stronger the recognition of the impact of sports tourism. The positive impact help to enhance the attitude and the willingness of the habitants in the sports tourism development. According to the study result, practical strategies and suggestions were purposed.
Research on Exercise Habits and Aging Anxiety of Insurance Practitioners
Rapid aging of the population is a common trend in the world. Successful and healthy aging is one of the goals pursued by every old man in Taiwan and other countries. It is also one of the main objectives of the government. Because of the progress of human society and modern medical technology, the average life expectancy of human beings has been prolonged, the global population structure has changed dramatically, and the elderly population has risen rapidly. In the face of rapid population aging at the same time, people began to think about the aging of the relevant issues: how the process of life into the aging process, can live a healthy life have dignity. However, how do we do to face the physiological, psychological and social problems associated with aging, this study aims to explore the face of aging this unavoidable physiological degradation problems, insurance practitioners how to actively face aging Anxiety study. Based on the relevant literature theory at home and abroad, using the Aging Anxiety Scale, Insurance practitioners were used as the research object, and 50 questionnaires were sent by questionnaires. The effective questionnaire rate was 87%. The results of the study showed that different working years, educational level and exercise habit had significant effects on aging anxiety, and finally put forward suggestions based on the above conclusions as a reference for future researchers.
Exploring the Strategies for Promoting Women Athletes for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games, a Study on Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee
Over the past decades, woman athletes have been played an extremely significant role for winning the Olympics Games medals for Chinese Taipei since its return to the Olympic Game in Los Angeles in 1984. In 1996, Chinese Taipei had the largest team than ever in Atlanta with 74 members, and the women (42) outnumbered the men (32) for the Olympiad. The Taiwanese women athletes have won more medals (16 medals out of 27) than men in the past six Summer Games. The Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee (CTOC) has long been the official authority to dominate and control the training resources and funds in sports. The CTOC mainly undertook international and cross-strait sports events, which offered more opportunities for domestic athletes to learn from other foreign players, get competition experiences in an international arena. This study aims to explore the CTOC strategies for promoting women’s participation in international sport events. To this end, content analysis was employed, with the relevant literature on the CTOC’s sport development strategies were collected for systematically analyzed and discussed. This study discovers that The CTOC has developed several strategies to encourage women to participating in women-related sports and events. Meanwhile, the CTOC actively encourages outstanding women in sport to participate in the election of the IOC Women and Sports Awards. Other strategies, including those that were aimed at improving the proportion of female committee members in sports leagues, have achieved good levels of performance. However, it has been a long time that Taiwanese people see baseball and basketball as mainstream sports. Limited attentions were paid onto non-mainstream sports, especially games with female players in. As additional sports for women are added with regularity, women have more chances to show their talents in sports to the world. Taiwanese women are now dominant in many sports, including taekwondo, golf, badminton and weight lifting; In fact, compare to men athletes, they all have more potential to take gold medals in all of those sports in 2020 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo. As Taiwan has long been isolated internationally due to its political environment, it definitely is a good time to get more women in sports and make them speak for Taiwan. As a result, the CTOC should further improve its execution in developing marketing strategies, in order to drag more attentions from domestic people. Additionally, to meet the international goal of 40% of women in leading positions by 2020, the CTOC should pay particular attention to the structure of gender in sport. It is suggested that, for future reference, the CTOC should fully encourage women’s participation in sport by supporting more funds for sports education on campus, for the younger generation.
The Three-Dimensional Kinematics of the Sprint Start in Young Elite Sprinters
The purpose of this study was to identify the three-dimensional kinematics of the sprint start during the start phase of the sprint. The purpose of this study was to identify the three-dimensional kinematics of the sprint start during the start phase of the sprint. Moreover, the effect of anthropometrical factors such as skeletal muscle mass, thigh girth, and calf girth also were considered on the kinematics of the sprint start. Among all young sprinters involved in the national Belgium league, sixty sprinters (boys: 14.7 ± 1.8 years and girls: 14.8±1.5 years) were randomly selected. The kinematics data of the sprint start were collected with a Vicon® 620 motion analysis system equipped with 12 infrared cameras running at 250 Hz and running the Vicon Data Station software. For statistical analysis, T-tests and ANOVA׳s with Scheffé post hoc test were used and the significant level was set as p≤0.05. The results showed that the angular positions of the lower joints of the young sprinters in the set position were comparable with adult figures from literature, however, with a greater range of joint extension. The most significant difference between boys and girls was found in the set position, where the boys presented a more dorsiflexed ankle. No further gender effect was observed during the leaving the blocks and contact phase. The sprinters with a higher age, skeletal muscle mass, thigh girth, and calf girth displayed a better angular position of the lower joints (e.g. ankle, knee, hip) in the set position, a more optimal angular position for the foot and knee for absorbing impact forces at foot contact and finally a higher range of flexion/extension motion to produce force and power when leaving the blocks.
A Quantitative and Exploratory Study of the Changing Ideals and Challenges Involving the Modern Olympic Movement
Since inception of the modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece, it has undergone a paradigm shift over a period of more than a century. It originated with the purpose of inculcating physical and moral qualities, sense of aesthetics, ethical and spiritual value and educating young people, through the spread of the philosophy of amateurism, which is free from the vices of racial discrimination, any country’s domination, corruption, doping menace and political interference. Now, it has metamorphosed into the arena where only professionalism matters and has been reduced to the show of strength for countries analogous to the cold war. Rather than spirit of sports, the economics of sports is the more relevant underpinning. Changes in medal tally over a period of time and its correlation with the changing geo-political structure have been evaluated quantitatively using regression analyses, which have yielded statistically significant relationship among variables. The present study also tries to explore this shift in Olympic spirit through historical approach, using books, thesis, dissertations, articles, related documents. The present study will help evaluate the Olympic ideals with modern perspective and the need to replace or reinstall the same in order to nurture and rejuvenate the modern Olympic movement.
The Impact of One Session of Kumite Training, Speed Kata and Strength Kata on the Rate of Viscosity, Fibrinogen and Plasma Lipid Profile in Young Karate Player Women
The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of one session of Karate training (Kumite, speed Kata and strength Kata) on viscosity, fibrinogen and plasma lipid profile in young Karate player women. To this end, 40 individuals with required condition were selected and randomly placed in four groups. 10 mL forearm venous blood was taken before and immediately after a session of training for measuring variables. Data were analyzed using statistical methods (covariance, by consideration of group factor) and Bonfferoni post hoc test and the significant difference was determined in P ≤ 0.05. The variation of plasma fibrinogen concentration was not meaningful. The variation of plasma viscosity concentration was not meaningful in groups and between groups. The variation of cortisol concentration was meaningful before and after and between control and experimental groups; however, no difference was observed between three experimental groups. The variation of complete cholesterol, neither tri-glyceride nor intense lipoprotein, was meaningful and significant difference was just seen between control and Kumite groups. The results show that despite meaningful changes in fibrinogen levels, plasma viscosity has not been much affected that might be due to lack of variation in other effective variables such as TG, HDL and hematocrit. Based on the results of present study, it seems that the use of speed Kata seems to be more appropriate to increase the performance of Karate player than strength Karate.
Return to Work Rates of Participants in Medical Rehabilitation: The Role of Fitness and Health
Objective: This study examined possible determinants of return to work (RTW) in individuals who participated in a medical rehabilitation program longitudinally over a time period of six months. Design/methodology/approach: N=1,044 rehabilitants were included in the baseline measurement in terms of completing a questionnaire during their medical rehabilitation. About 30% (n=350) have remained in the study in terms of participating in computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) six months later. Frequency analyses and Regression analyses were run. Findings: About 70% of the rehabilitants returned to work six months after rehabilitation. Regression analyses revealed that the RTW rates were significantly predicted by gender (OR=0.12, men were more likely to return), perceived social support (OR=3.01) and current physical functioning (OR=1.25). Furthermore RTW motives, like expected monetary rewards (OR=25.2) and feelings of being needed (OR=0.18) same as motives for not returning to work (nRTW), like the wish to stop working in order to spend time with the spouse (OR=0.13) or a lack of enjoyment of work (OR=3.81), significantly predicted return to work rates. Life satisfaction, self-efficacy beliefs, mental health, current income, educational background or age did not significantly increase explained variance (all ps > .05). Practical implications: Taking theses predictors into account provides options to increase the effectiveness of interventions aiming at increasing RTW: Medical rehabilitations should not only aim at improving the physical functioning but also to enhance beneficial motives and social support as well as support women specifically in order to improve the effectiveness of medical rehabilitation and public health interventions. Originality/value: Illness-caused work absences are related to high financial costs and individual burden. Despite of the public health and societal implications, this is one of the very few studies investigating systematically fitness and health for the return to work.
Physical Activity and Sport Research with People with Impairments: Oppression–Empowerment Continuum
Research in the area of physical activity and sport, while becoming multidisciplinary, is still dominated by post-positivist approaches that have the tendency to position the researcher as an expert and the participant as subordinate thereby perpetuating an unequal balance of power. Despite physical activity’s and sport’s universal appeal, their historic practices have excluded particular groups of people who assumed lesser forms of human capital. Adapted physical activity (APA) is a field that has responded to those segregations with specific application and relevance to people with impairments. Nevertheless, to date, similar to physical activity and sport, research in APA is still dominated by post-positivist epistemology. Stemming from this, there is gradually growing criticism within the field related to the abundance of research ‘on’ people with impairments and lack of research ‘with’ and ‘by’ people with impairments. Furthermore, research questions in the field are most often pursued from a single axis of analysis and constructed by non-disabled researchers. Concurrently, while calls for interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disability are growing in popularity, there is also a clear need to take an intersectionality-informed research methodology to understanding physical activity and sport and power (im)balances therein. In other words, impairment needs to be considered in conjunction with other socially and politically constructed and historically embedded differences such as gender, race, class, etc. when analyzing physical activity and sport experiences for people with impairments. Moreover, it is reasonable to argue that non-disabled researchers must recognize and theorize ableism in its complicated intersectional manifestation to show the structural constraints that disabled scholars face in the field. Consequently, this presentation will offer an alternative approach that acknowledges and prioritizes the perspectives and experiences of people with impairments to expand the field of APA. As such, the importance of broadening epistemologies in APA and prioritizing an appreciation for multiple bits of knowledge of people with impairments through intersections of social locations (e.g., gender, race, class) will be considered.
The Effect of Relaxing Exercises in Water on Endorphin Hormone for the Beginner in Swimming
Introduction: Athletic Training has its essentials, rules, and methods that help individual in reaching the maximum possible athletic level during the exercised physical activity, therefore; it is important for those working in athletic field to recognize and understand what is going on inside our bodies. This will show the close relationship between physiology and athletic training as the science that explains the various changes that happen to respond to the practice of physical activities. Swimming is one of the water sports that play a major role in influencing the full compatibility of body parts and its systems during the practice of different swimming methods, which uses aqueous to move. It is the initial nucleus in swimming learning and through which the beginner gain a sense of security, safety and the ability to move in aqueous by learning basic skills. Research Methodology: The researcher used the experimental methodology by using pre and post measurement on two equal groups (experimental – control) because it is appropriate for the research. Conclusions: Through the results and information found by the researcher, and in light of the related studies, theoretical readings and the statistical treatments of data; the researcher reached the following conclusions: 1. Muscle relaxation exercises have a positive effect on performance level in crawl swimming and on endorphin hormone as it helps in increasing its normal rater in body, the improvement percentage for experimental group in the relaxation ability, level of endorphin hormone exceeds those of control group. 2. The validity of muscle relaxation exercises proposed for the application, which achieved its objectives, namely increasing the level of endorphin hormone in the body; where research results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of endorphin hormone in favor of the experimental sample.
The Effect of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Arginine, and Citrulline on Repeated Swimming Performance
Introduction: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) could reduce cerebral uptake of tryptophan, leading to decreased synthesis of serotonin in the brain. Arginine and citrulline could reduce exercise-induced hyperammonemia by increasing nitric oxide synthesis and the urea cycle. The combination of these supplements could reduce exercise-induced central fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline supplementation on repeated swimming performance in teenage athletes. Methods: Eight male and eight female high school swimmers ingested 0.085 g/kg BCAA, 0.05 g/kg arginine and 0.05 g/kg citrulline (AA trial) or placebo (PL trial) in a randomized cross-over design. One hour after the ingestion, the subjects performed a 50 m sprint with their best style every 2 min for 8 times in an indoor 25 m pool. The subjects were asked to swim with their maximal effort each time. The time, stroke frequency and stroke length in each sprint were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected before and after the exercise. The time for each sprint was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measurement. Results: When all subjects were pooled together, total time for the AA trial was significantly faster than the PL trial (AA: 244.02 ± 22.94 s; PL: 247.55 ± 24.17 s, p < .001). Individual sprint time showed significant trial (p= .001) and trial x time (p= .004) effects. The post-hoc analysis revealed that the AA trial was significantly faster than the PL trial in the 2nd, 5th, and 6th sprint. In female subjects, there is a significant trial effect (p= .004) with the AA trial being faster in the 1st, 2nd, and 5th sprint. On the other hand, the trial effect was not significant (p= .072) in male subjects. Conclusions: The combined supplementation could improve 8 x 50 m performance in high school swimmers. The blood parameters including BCAA, tryptophan, NH₃, nitric oxide, and urea, as well as the stroke frequency and length in each sprint, are being analyzed. The results will be presented in the conference.
Effect of Concurrent Training and Detraining on Insulin Resistance in Obese Children
The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks (3 days/week) concurrent training followed by 4 weeks detraining on insulin resistance in obese boys without dietary intervention. Methods: 24 obese children boys (body mass index> 28, age= 11- 13year old) voluntarily participated in the study. Biochemical factors, body composition, and functional physical fitness were assessed in three stages [baseline, after 12 week’s combined endurance and resistance training and 4 week’s detraining in the experimental group (n=12); baseline and after 12 weeks in control group (n=12)]. Results: Indepented - Sample T test revealed that in experimental group after 12weeks trainings the insulin resistance, and body fat mass were significantly declined, whereas endurance and strength of abdominal muscles significantly increased compared to control group (p< 0/05). One-way ANOVA for three different periods showed that insulin resistance, body fat mass, strength of abdominal muscles after 12week training was significantly improved in the experimental group compared with the baseline. Following 4weeks detraining insulin resistance again significantly increased (p< 0/05). After detraining disturbances of physiological adaptation in obese children have more rapid course in comparison with those anthropological and functional indices. Conclusion: Results showed that participation in the regular concurrent trainings provides a decrease of insulin resistance in obese children. It may serve as a strategy in treatment of obesity and management on insulin resistance, as well as to increase endurance and strength muscles in obese children. Adaptations resulting from regular exercises following detraining are reversible.
The Effect of Isokinetic Fatigue of Ankle, Knee, and Hip Muscles on the Dynamic Postural Stability Index
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Isokinetic fatigue of muscles around the ankle, knee, and hip on the indicators of dynamic postural stability. Therefore, 15 female university students (age 19.7± 0.6 years old, weight 54.6± 9.4 kg, and height 163.9± 5.6 cm) participated in within-subjects design for 5 different days. In the first session, the postural stability indices (time to stabilization after jump-landing) without fatigue were assessed by force plate and in each next sessions, one of muscle groups of the lower limb including the muscles around ankles, knees, and hip was randomly exhausted by Biodex Isokinetic dynamometer and the indices were assessed immediately after the fatigue of each muscle group. The method involved landing on a force plate from a dynamic state, and transitioning balance into a static state. Results of ANOVA with repeated measures indicated that there was no significant difference between the time to stabilization (TTS) before and after Isokinetic fatigue of the muscles around the ankle, knee and hip in medial – lateral direction (p > 0.05), but in the anterior – posterior (AP) direction, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc test results also showed that there was significant difference between TTS in knee and hip muscles before and after isokinetic fatigue in AP direction. In the other hand knee and hip muscles group were affected by isokinetic fatigue only in AP surface (p < 0.05).
The Effect of Four Weeks Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on Nt-ProBNP and Plasma Troponin I
The aim of this study is to investigate 4 weeks resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400cc low fat milk. Control- water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood samples of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. the mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.