Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 44166

Sport and Exercise Sciences

477
77112
Educational Sport and Quality of Life for Children and Teenagers from Brazilian Northeast
Abstract:
The use of sport as an integration mean is a very important tool regarding the social involvement of children and teenagers in a vulnerability situation. This study aims to report the experiences of a multidisciplinary program that intends to improve the quality of life of children and teenagers in Fortaleza, in the Northeast of Brazil. More than 400 children and teenagers aging 11 and 16 years participated in this study. Poor communities experience many particular difficulties in the urban centers such as violence, poor housing conditions, unemployment, lack in health care and deficient physical education in school. Physical education, physiotherapy, odontology, medicine and pharmacy students are responsible for the activities in the project supervised by a general coordinator and a counselor teacher of each academic unit. There are classes about team sports like basketball and soccer. Lectures about sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases are ministered beside the ones about oral health education, basic life support education, first aids, use and care with pharmaceuticals and orientations about healthy nutrition. In order to get the children’s family closer, monthly informative lectures are ministered. There is also the concern about reflecting the actions and producing academic paperwork such as graduation final projects and books. The number of participants has oscillated lately, and one of the causes is the lack of practicing physical activities and sports regularly. However, 250 teenagers have participated regularly for at least two years. These teenagers have shown a healthier lifestyle and a better physical fitness profile. The resources for maintaining the project come from the Pro-Reitoria of Extension, Federal University of Ceara, as well as from the PROEXT/MEC, Federal Government. Actions of this nature need to be done thinking for long periods so the effects results can become effective. Public and private investments are needed due to low socioeconomic families who are most vulnerable and have fewer opportunities to enhance to health prevention services.
476
77098
Viscoelastic Behavior of Human Bone Tissue under Nanoindentation Tests
Abstract:
Cancellous bone is a porous composite of a hierarchical structure and anisotropic properties. The biological tissue is considered to be a viscoelastic material, but many studies based on a nanoindentation method have focused on their elasticity and microhardness. However, the response of many organic materials depends not only on the load magnitude, but also on its duration and time course. Depth Sensing Indentation (DSI) technique has been used for examination of creep in polymers, metals and composites. In the indentation tests on biological samples, the mechanical properties are most frequently determined for animal tissues (of an ox, a monkey, a pig, a rat, a mouse, a bovine). However, there are rare reports of studies of the bone viscoelastic properties on microstructural level. Various rheological models were used to describe the viscoelastic behaviours of bone, identified in the indentation process (e. g Burgers model, linear model, two-dashpot Kelvin model, Maxwell-Voigt model). The goal of the study was to determine the influence of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone in indentation tests. The aim of this research was also the assessment of the material properties of bone structures, having in mind the energy aspects of the curve (penetrator loading-depth) obtained in the loading/unloading cycle. There was considered how the different holding times affected the results within trabecular bone.As a result, indentation creep (CIT), hardness (HM, HIT, HV) and elasticity are obtained. Human trabecular bone samples (n=21; mean age 63±15yrs) from the femoral heads replaced during hip alloplasty were removed and drained from alcohol of 1h before the experiment. The indentation process was conducted using CSM Microhardness Tester equipped with Vickers indenter. Each sample was indented 35 times (7 times for 5 different hold times: t1=0.1s, t2=1s, t3=10s, t4=100s and t5=1000s). The indenter was advanced at a rate of 10mN/s to 500mN. There was used Oliver-Pharr method in calculation process. The increase of hold time is associated with the decrease of hardness parameters (HIT(t1)=418±34 MPa, HIT(t2)=390±50 MPa, HIT(t3)= 313±54 MPa, HIT(t4)=305±54 MPa, HIT(t5)=276±90 MPa) and elasticity (EIT(t1)=7.7±1.2 GPa, EIT(t2)=8.0±1.5 GPa, EIT(t3)=7.0±0.9 GPa, EIT(t4)=7.2±0.9 GPa, EIT(t5)=6.2±1.8 GPa) as well as with the increase of the elastic (Welastic(t1)=4.11∙10-7±4.2∙10-8Nm, Welastic(t2)= 4.12∙10-7±6.4∙10-8 Nm, Welastic(t3)=4.71∙10-7±6.0∙10-9 Nm, Welastic(t4)= 4.33∙10-7±5.5∙10-9Nm, Welastic(t5)=5.11∙10-7±7.4∙10-8Nm) and inelastic (Winelastic(t1)=1.05∙10-6±1.2∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t2) =1.07∙10-6±7.6∙10-8 Nm, Winelastic(t3)=1.26∙10-6±1.9∙10-7Nm, Winelastic(t4)=1.56∙10-6± 1.9∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t5)=1.67∙10-6±2.6∙10-7)) reaction of materials. The indentation creep increased logarithmically (R2=0.901) with increasing hold time: CIT(t1) = 0.08±0.01%, CIT(t2) = 0.7±0.1%, CIT(t3) = 3.7±0.3%, CIT(t4) = 12.2±1.5%, CIT(t5) = 13.5±3.8%. The pronounced impact of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone was observed in experimental studies. While the description elastic-inelastic, and thus the Oliver-Pharr method for data analysis, may apply in few limited cases, most biological tissues do not exhibit elastic-inelastic indentation responses. Viscoelastic properties of tissues may play a significant role in remodelling. The aspect is still under an analysis and numerical simulations. Acknowledgements: The presented results are part of the research project founded by National Science Centre (NCN), Poland, no.2014/15/B/ST7/03244.
475
76983
A Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Program to Optimally Pace and Fuel Ultramarathons
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to determine the pacing and nutrition strategies which minimize completion time and carbohydrate intake for athletes competing in ultramarathon races. The model formulation consists of a two-phase optimization. The first-phase mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP) determines the minimum completion time subject to the altitude, terrain, and distance of the race, as well as the mass and cardiovascular fitness of the athlete. The second-phase MINLP determines the minimum total carbohydrate intake required for the athlete to achieve the completion time prescribed by the first phase, subject to the flow of carbohydrates through the stomach, liver, and muscles. Consequently, the second phase model provides the optimal pacing and nutrition strategies for a particular athlete for each kilometer of a particular race. Validation of the model results over a wide range of athlete parameters against completion times for real competitive events suggests strong agreement. Additionally, the kilometer-by-kilometer pacing and nutrition strategies, the model prescribes for a particular athlete suggest unconventional approaches could result in lower completion times. Thus, the MINLP provides prescriptive guidance that athletes can leverage when developing pacing and nutrition strategies prior to competing in ultramarathon races. Given the highly-variable topographical characteristics common to many ultramarathon courses and the potential inexperience of many athletes with such courses, the model provides valuable insight to competitors who might otherwise fail to complete the event due to exhaustion or carbohydrate depletion.
474
76964
A Twelve-Week Intervention Programme to Improve the Gross Motor Skills of Selected Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract:
Neuro-typical children develop the motor skills necessary to play, do schoolwork and interact with others. However, this is not observed in children who have learning or behavioural problems. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often referred to as clumsy because their body parts do not work well together in a sequence. Physical Activity (PA) has shown to be beneficial to the general population, therefore, providing children with ASD opportunities to take part in PA programmes, could prove to be beneficial in many ways and should be investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a specialised group intervention programme, to attempt to improve gross motor skills of selected children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of eight and 13 years. A government school for ASD learners was recruited to take part in this study, and a sample of convenience (N=7) was selected. Children in the experimental group (n=4) participated in a 12-week group intervention programme twice per week, while the control group continued with their normal daily routine. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2), was administered pre- and post-test to determine the children’s gross motor proficiency and to determine if the group intervention programme had an effect on the gross motor skills of the experimental group. Statistically significant improvements were observed in total motor skill proficiency (p < 0.05), of the experimental group. These results demonstrate the importance of gross motor skills interventions for children diagnosed with ASD. Future research should include more participants to ensure that the results can be generalised.
473
76962
Influence of Facilities, Equipment and Nutrition on Athletes Performance at the West African Universities Games Competitions
Abstract:
The research was undertaken to examine the influence of sports facilities, equipment, and nutrition on athletes' performance in West-Africa Universities Games (WAUG) with the objectives of finding the areas of success and failure. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Availability of facilities, equipment and nutrition questionnaire (AFENQ) was administered on hundred (n-100) participants - athletes from five Nigerian Universities from South-West, Nigeria which included Federal University of Technology, Akure, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Lagos State University, Oyo, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Awoye and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. Nigeria. The tests re-test reliability value obtained from the instrument using Pearson Product Moment Correlation co-efficient of 0.86 was used to analyze the result. While the questionnaire collected was subjected to influential descriptive statistics of multiple regression to analyse the data. The results of the data showed that facilities, equipment, and nutrition variables when taken together effectively predict the performance of the athletes during WAUG competitions. The implication is that sports organizers should provide sports resources for the improved performance of the athletes, and that, university managers should employ nutritionist to plan and prepare food for the university athletes before and after major competitions.
472
76950
Training Volume and Myoelectric Responses of Lower Body Muscles with Differing Foam Rolling Periods
Abstract:
Foam rolling is a practice that has increased in popularity before and after strength training. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of different foam rolling periods for the lower body muscles on subsequent performance (total repetitions and training volume), myoelectric activity and rating of perceived exertion in trained men. Fourteen trained men (26.2 ± 3.2 years, 178 ± 0.04 cm height, 82.2 ± 10 kg weight and body mass index 25.9 ± 3.3kg/m2) volunteered for this study. Four repetition maximum (4-RM) loads were determined for hexagonal bar deadlift and 45º angled leg press during test and retest sessions over two nonconsecutive days. Five experimental protocols were applied in a randomized design, which included: a traditional protocol (control)—a resistance training session without prior foam rolling; or resistance training sessions performed following one (P1), two (P2), three (P3), or four (P4) sets of 30 sec. foam rolling for the lower extremity musculature. Subjects were asked to roll over the medial and lateral aspects of each muscle group with as much pressure as possible. All foam rolling was completed at a cadence of 50 bpm. These procedures were performed on both sides unilaterally as described below. Quadriceps: between the apex of the patella and the ASIS; Hamstring: between the gluteal fold and popliteal fossa; Triceps surae: between popliteal fossa and calcaneus tendon. The resistance training consisted of five sets with 4-RM loads and two-minute rest intervals between sets, and a four-minute rest interval between the hexagonal bar deadlift and the 45º angled leg press. The number of repetitions completed, the myoelectric activity of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), semitendinosus (SM) and medial gastrocnemius (GM) were recorded, as well as the rating of perceived exertion for each protocol. There were no differences between the protocols in the total repetitions for the hexagonal bar deadlift (Control - 16.2 ± 5.9; P1 - 16.9 ± 5.5; P2 - 19.2 ± 5.7; P3 - 19.4 ± 5.2; P4 - 17.2 ± 8.2) (p > 0.05) and 45º angled leg press (Control - 23.3 ± 9.7; P1 - 25.9 ± 9.5; P2 - 29.1 ± 13.8; P3 - 28.0 ± 11.7; P4 - 30.2 ± 11.2) exercises. Similar results between protocols were also noted for myoelectric activity (p > 0.05) and rating of perceived exertion (p > 0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study indicated no deleterious effects on performance, myoelectric activity and rating of perceived exertion responses during lower body resistance training.
471
76697
Percentage Contribution of Lower Limb Moments to Vertical Ground Reaction Force in Normal Walking
Abstract:
Patients suffering from gait disturbances are referred by having muscle group dysfunctions. There is a need for more studies investigating the contribution of muscle moments of the lower limb to the vertical ground reaction force using 3D gait analysis system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the hip, knee and ankle moments in the sagittal plane contribute to the vertical ground reaction force in healthy subjects during normal speed of walking. Forty healthy male individuals volunteered to participate in this study. They were filmed using six high speed (120 Hz) Pro-Reflex Infrared cameras (Qualisys) while walking on an AMTI force platform. The data collected were the percentage contribution of the moments of the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the instant of occurrence of the first peak, second peak, and the trough of the vertical ground reaction force. The results revealed that at the first peak of the ground reaction force (loading response), the highest contribution was generated from the knee extension moment, followed by the hip extension moment. Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion moments produced high contribution to the trough of the ground reaction force (midstance) with approximately equal values. The second peak of the ground reaction force was mainly produced by the ankle plantar flexion moment. Conclusion: Hip and knee flexion and extension moments and ankle plantar flexion moment play important roles in the supporting phase of normal walking.
470
76590
Reliability of Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 Age Band 3 Using Multiple Testers
Abstract:
Introduction: Reliability within and between testers is vital to ensure the accuracy of any motor assessment instrument. However, reliability checks of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) age band 3 using multiple testers assigned to different MABC-2 tasks for the same group of participants are uncommon. Multiple testers were not stated as a choice in the MABC-2 manual. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-tester reliability for using multiple testers to administer the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Methods: Thirty volunteered adolescents (n = 30; 15 males, 15 females; age range: 13 – 16 years) performed the eight tasks in a randomised sequence at three different test stations for the MABC-2 task components (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, Balance). Ethics approval and parental consent were obtained. The participants were videotaped while performing the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Five testers were involved in the data collection process. They were Sports Science graduating students doing their final year project and were supervised by experienced motor assessor. Inter- and intra-tester reliability checks using intra-class coefficient (ICC) were carried out using the videotaped data. Results: The inter-tester reliability between the five testers for the eight tasks ranged from rᵢcc = 0.705 to rᵢcc = 0.995. This suggests that the average agreement between them was considered good to excellent. With the exception of one tester who had rᵢcc = 0.687 for one of the eight tasks (i.e. zip-zap hopping), the intra-tester reliability within each tester ranged from rᵢcc = 0.728 to rᵢcc = 1.000, and this also suggested good to excellent consistency within testers. Discussion: The use of multiple testers with good intra-tester reliability for different test stations is feasible. This method allows several participants to be assessed concurrently at different test stations and saves overall data collection time. Therefore, it is recommended that the administering of MABC-2 with multiple testers should be extended to other age bands ensuring the feasibility of such method for other age bands.
469
76543
A Qualitative Exploration of How Brazilian Immigrant Mothers Living in the United States Obtain Information about Physical Activity and Screen-Time for Their Young Children
Abstract:
Background: Racial/ethnic minority children of low-income immigrant families remain at increased risk of obesity. Consistent with high rates of childhood obesity among racial/ethnic minority children are high rates of physical inactivity and increased levels of sedentary behaviors (e.g., TV and other screen viewing). Brazilians comprise a fast-growing immigrant population group in the US, yet little research has focused on the health issues affecting Brazilian immigrant children. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how Brazilian-born immigrant mothers living in the United States obtain information about physical activity and screen-time for their young children. Methods: Qualitative research including focus groups with Brazilian immigrant mothers of preschool-age children living in the U.S. Results: Results revealed that Brazilian immigrant mothers obtain information on young children’s physical activity and screen-time from a variety of sources including interpersonal communication, television and magazines, government health care programs (WIC program) and professionals (e.g., nurses and pediatricians). A noteworthy finding is the significant role of foreign information sources (Brazilian TV shows and magazines) on mothers’ access to information about these early behaviors. Future research is needed to quantify and better understanding Brazilian parents’ access to accurate and sound information related to young children’s physical activity and screen-viewing behaviors. Conclusions: To our knowledge, no existing research has examined how Brazilian immigrant mothers living in the United States obtain information about these behaviors. This information is crucial for the design of culturally appropriate early childhood obesity prevention interventions tailored to the specific needs of this ethnic group.
468
76525
The Effect of Compound Exercises Emphasizing Local and Global Stability on the Dynamic Balance in Elite Taekwondo Athletes
Abstract:
Few studies have been conducted about the effects of compound exercises emphasizing local stability and global stabilization subsystems on the performance of athletes. The present research aimed to study the effect of 6 weeks of compound exercises emphasizing local and global stability on the dynamic balance of elite male Taekwondo athletes. Twenty-seven elite male Taekwondo athletes (with a mean age, mass, and height of 24.4 ± 4.9 years, 75.7 ± 15.1kg, and 181.4 ± 7.8 cm, respectively) were assigned to two groups of control (n=12) and exercise (n=15). 6 weeks of compound exercises in 2 local and global phases. The first phase included activation exercises which were done separately and locally for 3 weeks. Then, integrative exercises specific to the global stabilization subsystems (longitudinal-depth, posterior oblique and anterior, and lateral) was carried out for next 3 weeks. The dynamic balance of subjects was measured in the pre-test and post-test using the Y Balance Test (YBT). After 6 weeks of compound exercises, scores of the YBT in the exercise group showed a significant improvement in all three anterior (p=0.035), posterolateral (p=0.017) and medial (p=0.001) directions in the post-test compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.05 for all comparisons). The findings of the present study suggested that compound exercises focusing on muscle as separate units and then as interdependent chains (muscular subsystems) can significantly increase YBT on elite male Taekwondo athletes in all three directions.
467
76272
Effects of Static Stretching Exercises on Flexibility and Sprint Performance in Inactive Healthy Girls
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of static stretching exercises on the flexibility and sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls. A total of 27 girls were randomly divided into control group (n=15) and stretching group (n=12) who performed static stretching. Sit and reach flexibility and 30-meter sprint pre-tests were performed for both groups. Static stretching exercises were performed three times, 30 sec. practice and 15 sec. rest for each leg only on five muscle by stretching group. The post-tests were performed in five minutes after static stretching exercise. Paired t-test was used to analyze differentiations among the group parameters. According to research results, there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test flexibility (p < 0.05) and sprint test results (p < 0.01). As a conclusion of the study, static stretching exercises improve flexibility but decrease sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls.
466
76262
Examination of 12-14 Years Old Volleyball Players' Body Image Levels
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to examine the body image levels of 12-14 years old girls who are playing volleyball. The research group consists of 113 girls who are playing volleyball in Sakarya during the fall season of 2015-2016. Data was collected by means of the 'Body Image Questionnaire' which was originally developed by Secord and Jourard. The consequence of repeated analysis of the reliability of the scale was determined to as '.96'. This study employed statistical calculations as mean, standard deviation and t-test. According to results of this study, it was determined that the mean point of the volleyball players is 158.5 ± 25.1 (minimum=40; maximum=200) and it can be said that the volleyball players’ body image levels are high. There is a significant difference between the underweight (167.4 ± 20.7) and normal weight (151.4 ± 26.2) groups according to their Body Mass Index. Body image levels of underweight group were determined higher than normal weight group.
465
76070
Improving Emotional and Social Resilience in Young People: Examining the Effectiveness of a Football Based Mental Health Intervention
Abstract:
Mental health in the young is growing area of concern. Depression, low self-esteem and anxiety are common mental health issues among adolescents. The costs of poor mental health are immense. Suicide is the largest reason for death among males under 25 years. Sport interventions are argued to have the potential to address social issues faced by young people. Mental health and well-being has become a more overt agenda within UK sporting policy recently. This is particularly evidenced through the publication of the 2016-2021 Sport England Strategy: Towards an Active Nation, where specific reference is made to developing a better understanding of the role sport can play in promoting mental well-being. This focus is referred to in the documentation as ‘welcomed’ and ‘ambitious’ and as such, relevant insight is essential to ensure that this outcome is met. The research project collected data for a new sport based mental health intervention called ‘Upfront’ which is being led by a mental health organization and a charity branch of a Premier League football club. The Upfront project used football as a vehicle to promote mental wellbeing and provided a toolkit to help young people (aged 7-13) develop emotional and social resilience and coping mechanisms. The research aimed to assess the impact of the Upfront scheme and offer recommendations about how it could be improved for year 2 delivery.Each block of delivery of the Upfront project was 10 weeks. Validated well-being scales were used to measure thoughts and feelings of the participants in weeks 1, 5 and 10. In addition, qualitative research methods were drawn upon in order to develop an in-depth understanding of the impact of the project, particularly in terms of the relevance of the football brand in engaging young people in a well-being program and the impact the mental health ‘toolkit’ has had on attitudes and behavior both in a school and home environment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with young people, program leaders, teachers and parents in order to examine impact from different perspectives. The results from the well-being scales showed a strong trend of positive well-being, this was consistent between weeks 5 and 10 showing that the impact was made by half way into and sustained.A directed coding approach was used to analyze the interviews. The 5 ways to wellbeing model was drawn upon as a coding framework to establish whether the project had a positive impact and whether young people felt better equipped for future challenges that they might face. Responses were coded into the following themes to reflect the desired outcomes of the project. The themes were as follows: connect; be active; take notice; keep learning and give. ‘Connect’ and ‘take notice’ were particularly strong themes and frequently linked to issues such as forming positive relationships, awareness of their own thoughts and actions, challenging bullying and promoting safe online connections. The results indicated that the scheme had impacted positively on the young people and their social and emotional resilience. The data from year 1 provided feedback on areas for development for year 2.
464
75963
The Effects of Mountain Biking as Psychomotor Instrument in Physical Education: Balance's Evaluation
Abstract:
The school physical education is going through several changes over the years, and diversification of its content from specific interests is one of the reasons for these changes, the formality in education do not have to stay out, but needs to open up the possibilities offered by the world, so the Mountain Bike, an adventure sport, offers several opportunities for intervention. Its application in the school allows diverse interventions in front of the psychomotor development, besides opening possibilities for other contents, respecting the previous experiences of the students in their common environment. The choice of theme was due to affinity with the practice and experience of the Mountain Bike at different levels, both competitive as recreational, professional standard and amateur. The principle focus is the bases of the cycling and the preview of the modality's potential to help the children’s psychomotor development. The goal of this research was to demonstrate like a pilot project the effects of the Mountain Bike as psychomotor instrument in physical education at one of the psychomotor valences, the balance, evaluating Immobility, Static Balance, and Dynamic Balance. The methodology was based on the Psychomotor Battery of Fonseca for the analysis of the psychomotricity during the academic semester in 10 students (n=10), 6 males and 4 females of elementary school. The ages was between 9 and 11 years old in one public school in the rural area of Jequié-Ba. For analysis purposes, the equilibrium variables were dichotomized in Regular (apraxic and dyspraxic) and Good (eupraxic and hyperpraxic). Regarding the variable Immobility, in the initial test, regardless of gender, 70% (n = 7) were considered Regular. After four months of activity, the Good profile, which had only 30% (n = 3) of the sample, evolved to 60% (n = 6). As in Static and Dynamic Balance, there was an increase of 30% (n = 3) and 50% (n = 5) respectively for Good. In the analysis between genders, there was a noticeable female evolution for Good in Immobility, 30% (n = 3), and in Static Equilibrium, 50% (n = 2). Already the male evolution was better observed in the Dynamic Equilibrium, with 66.7% (n = 4) for Good. Under a qualitative analysis of the data with the particularities of psychomotor development, there is evidence of the effects of Mountain Biking as a tool of psychomotricity for balance, necessitating studies with greater sampling.
463
75931
Look A-Head to Personalised Monitoring and Management of Head Impacts in Rugby Union
Abstract:
In addition to concussive injuries, there is a growing body of research linking the unwitnessed, repetitive sub-concussive head impacts sustained in collision sports to devastating cognitive deficits in later life. There is increasing alarm regarding this issue in the sport of rugby union which has now been professional, with an 11-month playing season, for twenty-two years. Professional rugby union players partake in up to 5 contact training sessions per week in addition to weekly competitions. The exposure to head impact events in today’s game is significantly greater than in the amateur era. There is no quantifiable ‘dose-response’ relationship between the level of head impact exposure for an individual in a given time period and neurocognitive outcome measures. It is therefore imperative to develop reliable methodology to record, quantify and analyze the total amount of cumulative head trauma experienced by rugby players over a given season. To assign significance to these data, correlations with comprehensive neurocognitive assessments must be made over appropriate time scales. Given the significant variability in response to head impacts between individuals and within an individual under different circumstances, an analysis of predisposing factors to brain injury is required. The Wales-based Look A-HEAD study began in July 2016 and is planned to run over a five-year period and include player data from all levels of the game. The overarching objective is to develop a real-time, individualized head impact management system. A cloud-based analytics platform has been developed to integrate multiple streams of data and perform ongoing analytics. The system includes bespoke reliable, valid, IRB-compliant head impact sensors to monitor head impact events in training and competition. Data from regular neurocognitive assessments is also being fed into the system, as is background information about each athlete. This includes medical/concussion history, psychosocial characteristics, demographics and sporting history, with future provisions for factors including genetics. Based on these data, pragmatic risk algorithms are being developed to establish a player’s propensity for brain injury, enabling objective monitoring and management of player welfare during training and competition. Algorithms will be refined over time as more data is added to the system. In the first season of the project, an initial pilot study was undertaken involving 50 male professional rugby union players aged between 18 and 37 years. Head impact events were measured in training sessions throughout the season using accelerometer/gyroscope sensors attached to the mastoid process. Following every match, players completed a neurocognitive screening test to assess any changes. These data provided invaluable insights regarding the circumstances where athletes sustained the greatest dose of head impact trauma in training situations where there is more control than in competition. These sensors, however, do not comply with current IRB regulations for use in competition, so an alternative measurement method in the form of an instrumented mouth guard has been employed for the 2017-2018 season. Findings thus far have shown that this system has the potentially to considerably improve player safety without losing the essence of the game of rugby union.
462
75795
Prevalence of the Risk Factors for Cardio-Metabolic Disease among Fire-Fighters in the Western Cape Province of South Africa
Abstract:
Cardio-metabolic disease risks factor have reached an epidemic, with many people at risk of premature disability and death. There are insufficient data regarding the prevalence of the risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases among fire fighters in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risks factors among South African fire fighters in the Western Cape Province; determine relationships between the BMI and risks factor for cardio-metabolic diseases as well as determining which of the cardio-metabolic disease risk factors is with the highest prediction power among the fire fighters in the Western Cape Province. Height, weight, and circumference of waist and hip were assessed in line with the practice of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropmetry (ISAK) (2006). Physiological measurements of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and cholesterol were also assessed. Of the total number of the fire-fighters, 42.5% were obese, 17.4% were overweight, 39.7% had normal BMI, while only 0.5% were underweight. The larger percentage (45.7%) of the participants were systolically pre-hypertensive while 14.2% were hypertensive. Furthermore, almost forty percent (39.3%) were pre-diabetic, 18.3 % were diabetic, while only 1.4% were having blood sugar which was below normal level. In terms of the cholesterol levels, 45.7% were normal, 38.8% were already at the borderline high while 15.5% were high. The majority (51.1%) of the participant reported non-participation in physical activity while only 49.9% participates in physical activity. there was a statistically significant relationship between the BMI and WHR (r= 0.296; p > 0.01), SBP (r= 0.346; p > 0.01), and DBP (r= 0.330; p > 0.01) of the participants. Also, BMI significantly positively correlated with glucose (r= 0.247; p > 0.01), and cholesterol (r= 0.156; p < 0.05). The BMI was also found to be significantly positively correlated with the circumference of the waist and hip (r= 0.699; p > 0.01) and SBP (r= 0.711; p > 0.01) respectively. In the backward regression model analysis, the model with bodyweight, WHR, and SBP (model 4) was the best of all possible models since it had the highest value of adjusted R square which represents the amount of variance (35%) in the BMI predicted by the model. Bodyweight, WHR, and SBP were significant predictors of cardio-metabolic disease risks factor among fire fighters in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.
461
75411
Sports and Beauty: Translating the History of Aesthetics into Today’s World of Sports
Abstract:
An inductive aesthetic approach to sports yields critical and meaningful insight into sports philosophy, sports governance, and sports history. Critical reflection will always remain key to the analysis of the past, present and future of sporting institutions, but a philosophically imaginative method of induction allows certain salient connections to be articulated and potentially implemented between various sporting entities who exist as individuals, particularly between practitioner, owner/manager and observer (‘fan’ or interested party.) By honing in on the concept of beauty in sports, the primary reason for viewership, consumption or engagement with sports comes into focus as an aesthetic concept. While always a subjective or shadowy articulation, an aesthetic state often remains unnecessarily unrevealed due to claims about unconscious states, entire rhetorics (or counter-rhetorics) about beauty, and Misalliance among sporting development systems. Since aesthetics require an inductive state of subjectivity in determining various levels of beauty (which the so-called world of sports often thinks of as morality), the audience for aesthetics in sports also needs an inductive explanation of the concept in which one comes to see a process of viewership at work within themselves that is revealed by a simple need parried outward by a complex process of engagement. The potentially redemptive moment of revelation regarding the beauty of sports and the athlete within these systems creates in the viewer a new space of consciousness where the world of sports discovers some of its longed-for transparency, openness, parity and equity upon which its immediate future depends.
460
75222
The Effect of Eight-Week Medium Intensity Interval Training and Curcumin Intake on ICMA-1 and VCAM-1 Levels in Menopausal Fat Rats
Abstract:
Background and Purpose: Obesity is an increasing factor in cardiovascular disease and serum levels of cellular adhesion molecule. It plays an important role in predicting risk for coronary artery disease. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of eight weeks moderate intensity interval training and curcumin intake on ICAM-1 & VCAM-1 levels of menopausal fat rats. Materials and methods: in this study, 28 Wistar Menopausal fat rats aged 6-8 weeks with an average weight of 250-300 (gr) were randomly divided into four groups: control, curcumin supplement, moderate intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training + curcumin supplement. (7 rats each group). The training program was planned as 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 10 one-min sets with 50 percent intensity and the 2-minutes interval between sets in the first week. Subjects started with 14 meters per minute, and 2 (m/min) was added to increase their speed weekly until the speed of 28 (m/min) in the 8th week. Blood samples were taken 48 hours after the last training session, and ICAM-1 A and VCAM-1 levels were measured. SPSS software, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the results. Results: The results showed that eight weeks of training and taking curcumin had significant effects on ICAM-1 levels of the rats (p ≤ 0.05). However, it had no significant effect on VCAM-1 levels in menopausal obese rates (p ≥ 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in eight weeks training and taking curcumin. Conclusion: Implementation of moderate intensity interval training and the use of curcumin decreased ICAM-1 significantly.
459
75181
The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Oxygenation and Pleasure during Exercise
Abstract:
The prefrontal cortex is involved in the reward system and the insular cortex integrates the afferent inputs arriving from the body’ systems and turns into feelings. Therefore, modulating neuronal activity in these regions may change individuals’ perception in a given situation such as exercise. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) change cerebral oxygenation and pleasure during exercise. Fourteen volunteer healthy adult men were assessed into five different sessions. First, subjects underwent to a maximum incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Then, subjects were randomly assigned to a transcranial direct current stimulation (2mA for 15 min) intervention in a cross over design in four different conditions: anode and cathode electrodes on T3 and Fp2 targeting the insular cortex, and Fpz and F4 targeting prefrontal cortex, respectively; and their respective sham. These sessions were followed by 30 min of moderate intensity exercise. Brain oxygenation was measured in prefrontal cortex with a near infrared spectroscopy. Perceived exertion and pleasure were also measured during exercise. The asymmetry in prefrontal cortex oxygenation before the stimulation decreased only when it was applied over this region which did not occur after insular cortex or sham stimulation. Furthermore, pleasure was maintained during exercise only after prefrontal cortex stimulation (P > 0.7), while there was a decrease throughout exercise (P < 0.03) during the other conditions. We conclude that tDCS over the prefrontal cortex changes brain oxygenation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and maintains perceived pleasure during exercise. Therefore, this technique might be used to enhance effective responses related to exercise.
458
75064
Microstructural Mechanical Properties of Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Test
Abstract:
Depth-sensing indentation (DSI) or nanoindentation is becoming a more and more popular method of measuring mechanical properties of various materials and tissues at a micro-scale. This technique allows measurements without complicated sample preparation procedures which makes this method very useful. As a result of measurement force and displacement of the intender are obtained. It is also possible to determine three measures of hardness i.e. Martens hardness (HM), nanohardness (HIT), Vickers hardness (HV) and Young modulus EIT. In this work trabecular bone mechanical properties were investigated. The bone samples were harvested from human femoral heads during hip replacement surgery. Patients were of different age, sexes and stages of tissue degeneration caused by osteoarthritis. The specimens were divided into three groups. Each group contained samples harvested from patients of different range of age. All samples were investigated with the same measurement conditions. The maximum load was Pmax=500 mN and the loading rate was 500 mN/min. The tests were held without hold at the peak force. The tests were conducted with indenter Vickers tip and spherical tip of the diameter 0.2 mm. Each trabecular bone sample was tested 7 times in a close area of the same trabecula. The measured loading P as a function of indentation depth allowed to obtain hysteresis loop and HM, HIT, HV, EIT. Results for arbitrarily chosen sample are HM=289.95 ± 42.31 MPa, HIT=430.75 ± 45.37 MPa, HV=40.66 ± 4.28 Vickers, EIT=7.37 ± 1.84 GPa for Vickers tip and HM=115.19 ± 15.03 MPa, HIT=165.80 ± 19.30 MPa, HV=16.90 ± 1.97 Vickers, EIT=5.30 ± 1.31 GPa for spherical tip. Results of nanoindentation tests show that this method is very useful and is perfect for obtaining mechanical properties of trabecular bone. Estimated values of elastic modulus are similar. The differences between hardness are significant but it is a result of using two different types of tips. However, it has to be emphasised that the differences in the values of elastic modulus and hardness result from different testing protocols, anisotropy and asymmetry of the micro-samples and the hydration of bone.
457
75061
The Impact of Protein Content on Athletes' Body Composition
Abstract:
Several factors contribute to success in sport and diet is a key component. Athletes’ dietary requirements depend on several aspects, including sport, goals and environment. Evidence-based sport nutrition guidelines underline the importance of macro- and micro-nutrients balance and timing. Moreover, they deeply explore the connection among nutrition, exercise and well-being forming a crucial part of any athlete’s competitive and training program. Normally, a high content of proteins is commonly found in athletes’ diet and carbohydrate intake is not enough or not well planned. This occurs above all in resistance training athletes. In this regarding, the aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different protein and carbohydrate diet content on body composition and sport performance adaptation. Participants, male aged between 18 and 50, physically active (resistance training), were selected depending on their interest and their informed consent to be involved in resistance training fitness program with also weighed food plan and no utilization of food supplements. The sample size of the study was 30. Subjects were divided as study group (n=16) and control group (n=14). For a period of 4 months, both group were subjected to resistance training fitness program and study group follow a specific diet. Macronutrients were chosen and fixed based on Mediterranean diet and ISSN guidelines for sports nutrition. In this regard, the protein requirement has been fixed between 1.6-1.7 g/kg/d taking also into account the biological value. Body composition were evaluated trough anthropometric measurement (weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds) and Bioimpedence Analysis. Physical strength and training status of individuals were evaluated through the One Repetition Maximum test (RM1). Protein intake in studied group was of 1.78 ± 0.12 g/kg/day and 2.24 ± 0.28 g/kg/day in control group. Comparing the two groups, there was a statistically significant increase of body weight, free fat mass and body mass cell of studied group respect to the control group. Fat mass remains almost constant in both groups. Statistically significant changes were observed in quadriceps and biceps circumferences, with an increase in studied group. The MR1 test showed improvement in study group’s strength but no changes in control group. Usually, people use to consume hyper-proteic diet to achieve muscle mass development with a carbohydrate intake that is not enough or not well planned. Through this study, it was possible to show that protein intake fixed at 1,7g/kg/d can meet the individual's needs. In parallel, the increased intake of carbohydrates, focusing on quality and timing of assumption, has enabled the obtainment of desired results with a training protocol supporting a hypertrophic strategy. Therefore, the key point seems related to the planning of a structured program both from a nutritional and training point of view. This could preserve, but also improve, individual’s health, taking full advantage from the interaction between nutrition and exercise.
456
75000
The Effects of Self-Efficacy on Challenge and Threat States
Abstract:
The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) states that self-efficacy is an antecedent of challenge and threat. These states result from conscious and unconscious evaluations of situational demands and personal resources and are represented by both cognitive and physiological markers. Challenge is considered a more adaptive stress response as it is associated with a more efficient cardiovascular profile, as well as better performance and attention effects compared with threat. Self-efficacy is proposed to influence challenge/threat because an individual’s belief that they have the skills necessary to execute the courses of action required to succeed contributes to a perception that they can cope with the demands of the situation. This study experimentally examined the effects of self-efficacy on cardiovascular responses (challenge and threat), demand and resource evaluations, performance and attention under pressurised conditions. Forty-five university students were randomly assigned to either a control (n=15), low self-efficacy (n=15) or high self-efficacy (n=15) group and completed baseline and pressurised golf putting tasks. Self-efficacy was manipulated using false feedback adapted from previous studies. Measures of self-efficacy, cardiovascular reactivity, demand and resource evaluations, task performance and attention were recorded. The high self-efficacy group displayed more favourable cardiovascular reactivity, indicative of a challenge state, compared with the low self-efficacy group. The former group also reported high resource evaluations, but no task performance or attention effects were detected. These findings demonstrate that levels of self-efficacy influence cardiovascular reactivity and perceptions of resources under pressurised conditions.
455
74950
Stress-strain Relation for Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Measurements
Abstract:
Nanoindentation or depth-sensing indentation (DSI) technique has proven to be very useful to measure mechanical properties of various tissues at a micro-scale. Bone tissue, both trabecular and cortical one, is one of the most commonly tested tissues by means of DSI. Most often such tests on bone samples are carried out to compare the mechanical properties of lamellar and interlamellar bone, osteonal bone as well as compact and cancellous bone. In the paper, a relation between stress and strain for human trabecular bone is presented. The relation is based on the results of nanoindentation tests. The formulation of a constitutive model for human trabecular bone is based on nanoindentation tests. In the study, the approach proposed by Olivier-Pharr is adapted. The tests were carried out on samples of trabecular tissue extracted from human femoral heads. The heads were harvested during surgeries of artificial hip joint implantation. Before samples preparation, the heads were kept in 95% alcohol in temperature 4 Celsius degrees. The cubic samples cut out of the heads were stored in the same conditions. The dimensions of the specimens were 25 mm x 25 mm x 20 mm. The number of 20 samples have been tested. The age range of donors was between 56 and 83 years old. The tests were conducted with the indenter spherical tip of the diameter 0.200 mm. The maximum load was P = 500 mN and the loading rate 500 mN/min. The data obtained from the DSI tests allows one only to determine bone behoviour in terms of nanoindentation force vs. nanoindentation depth. However, it is more interesting and useful to know the characteristics of trabecular bone in the stress-strain domain. This allows one to simulate trabecular bone behaviour in a more realistic way. The stress-strain curves obtained in the study show relation between the age and the mechanical behaviour of trabecular bone. It was also observed that the bone matrix of trabecular tissue indicates an ability of energy absorption.
454
74937
The Importance of Self-Efficacy and Collective Competence Beliefs in Managerial Competence of Sports Managers'
Abstract:
Managerial competence defines as the skills that managers in managerial positions have in relation to managerial responsibilities and managerial duties. Today's organizations, which are in a competitive environment, have the desire to work with effective managers in order to be more advantageous position than the other organizations they are competing with. In today's organizations, self-efficacy and collective competence belief that determine managerial competencies of managers to assume managerial responsibility are of special importance. In this framework, the aim of this study is to examine the effects of sports managers' perceptions of self-efficacy and collective competence in managerial competence perceptions. In the study, it has also been analyzed if there is a significant difference between self-efficacy, collective competence and managerial competence levels of sports managers in terms of their gender, age, duty status, year of service and level of education. 248 sports managers, who work at the department of sports service’s central and field organization at least as a chief in the manager position, have been chosen with random sampling method and they have voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, the self-efficacy scale which was developed by Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995), collective competence scale developed by Goddard, Hoy and Woolfolk-Hoy (2000) and managerial competence scale developed by Cetinkaya (2009) have been used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire form used as a data collection tool in the study includes a personal information form consisting of 5 questions; questioning gender, age, duty status, years of service and level of education. In the study, Pearson Correlation Analysis has been used for defining the correlation among self-efficacy, collective competence belief, and managerial competence levels in sports managers and regression analysis have been used to define the affect of self-efficacy and collective competence belief on the perception of managerial competence. T-test for binary grouping and ANOVA analysis have been used for more than binary groups in order to determine if there is any significant difference in the level of self-efficacy, collective and managerial competence in terms of the participants’ duty status, year of service and level of education. According to the research results, it has been found that there is a positive correlation between sports managers' self-efficacy, collective competence beliefs, and managerial competence levels. According to the results of the regression analysis, it is understood that the managers’ perception of self-efficacy and collective competence belief significantly defines the perception of managerial competence. Also, the results show that there is no significant difference in self-efficacy, collective competence, and level of managerial competence of sports managers in terms of duty status, year of service and level of education.
453
74936
Examination of the Relationship between Managerial Competence and Job Satisfacti̇on and Career Satisfacti̇on in Sports Managers'
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to analyze sports managers’ managerial competence levels and job satisfaction’s correlation with career satisfaction. In the study, it has also been analyzed if there is any significant difference in sports managers’ managerial competence, job and career satisfaction in terms of gender, age, duty status, year of service and level of education. 256 sports managers, who work at department of sports service’s central and field organization at least as a chief in the manager position, have been chosen with random sampling method and they have voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, the managerial competence scale which was developed by Cetinkaya (2009), job satisfaction scale developed by Weiss at al.(1967) and Career Satisfaction Scale developed by Vatansever (2008) have been used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire form used as a data collection tool in the study includes a personal information form consisting of 5 questions; questioning gender, age, duty status, years of service and level of education. In the study, pearson correlation analysis has been used for defining the correlation of managerial competence levels, job satisfaction, and career satisfaction levels of sports managers. T-test analysis for binary grouping and anova analysis for more than binary groups have been used in the level of self-efficacy, collective and managerial competence in terms of the participants’ duty status, year of service and level of education. According to the research results, it has been found that there is a positive correlation between sports managers’ managerial competence levels, job satisfaction, and career satisfaction levels. Also, the results show that there is a significant difference in managerial competence levels, job satisfaction and career satisfaction of sports managers in terms of duty status, year of service and level of education; however, the results reveal that there is no significant difference in terms of age groups and gender.
452
74934
The Impact of Sports Employees' of Perceptions of Organizational Climate and Organizational Trust on Work Motivation
Abstract:
Work motivation is one of the fundamental elements that determine the attitudes and performance of employees towards work. In this sense, work motivation depends not only on individual and occupational factors but also on employees' perception of organizational climate and organizational trust. Organizations that are aware of this have begun to do more research on work motivation in recent years to ensure that employees have the highest possible performance. In this framework of the purpose of this study is to examine the effect of sports employees' perceptions of organizational climate and organizational trust on work motivation. In the study, it has also been analyzed if there is any significant difference in the department of sports services’ employees’ organizational climate and organizational trust perception, and work motivation levels in terms of gender, age, duty status, year of service and level of education. 278 sports managers, who work in the department of sports service’s central and field organization at least as a chief in the manager position, have been chosen with random sampling method and they have voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, the organizational climate scale which was developed by Bilir (2005), organizational trusts scale developed by koksal (2012) and work motivation scale developed by Mottaz J. Clifford (1985) have been used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire form used as a data collection tool in the study includes a personal information form consisting of 5 questions; questioning gender, age, duty status, years of service and level of education. In the study, Pearson Correlation Analysis has been used for defining the correlation among organizational climate, organizational trust perceptions and work motivation levels in sports managers and regression analysis has been used to identify the effect of organizational climate and organizational trust on work motivation. T-test for binary grouping and ANOVA analysis have been used for more than binary groups in order to determine if there is any significant difference in the level of organizational climate, organizational trust perceptions and work motivations in terms of the participants’ duty status, year of service and level of education. According to the research results, it has been found that there is a positive correlation between the department of sports services’ employees’ organizational climate, organizational trust perceptions and work motivation levels. According to the results of the regression analysis; it is understood that the sports employees’ perception of organizational climate and organizational trust are two main factors which affects the perception of work motivation. Also, the results show that there is a significant difference in the level of organizational climate and organizational trust perceptions and work motivations of the department of sports services’ employees in terms of duty status, year of service, and level of education; however, the results reveal that there is no significant difference in terms of age groups and gender.
451
74927
Diagnostic Comparison of Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and International Obesity Task Force Criteria for Obesity Classification in Nigerian and South African Children
Abstract:
Globally, childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially leading to high prevalence rates of noncommunicable diseases. Obesity does not only persist in high-income countries, but is also prevalent in the middle to lower income nations. This study compared the diagnostic criteria of Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) for obesity classification in Nigerian and South African children. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standardized protocol and used to estimate body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). BMI for age and country was used to classify the children according to weight categories, whilst WHR assessed fat distribution among the children and percentage of body fat (% BF) indicated adiposity. BMI, %BF, WHR and sum of skinfolds (SSK) were examined for boys and girls according to age category. The results showed that 1.1% (IOTF cut-off point) and 9.9% (CDC criteria) of Nigerian children were overweight. Corresponding data for South African children were 1.8% (IOTF) and 10.0% (CDC). Obesity estimates for Nigerian and South African children slightly varied for IOTF classification (1.1; 0.7%), but were similar when CDC classification was used (5.1%). The IOTF results showed that South African children were more underweight (74.6%) compared to Nigerian children (70.6%). In contrast, the CDC standard, indicated strikingly lower incidence of underweight among the South African (4.9%) and Nigerian (4.8%) children is the lack of consistency in body weight classification using CDC and IOTF reference standards raises the question as the right standard to use to evaluate weight abnormalities in children and adolescents. The choice of cut-off point in assessing overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence should be based on sound judgement as this could undermine the integrity of epidemiological research data.
450
74867
Developing Norms for Sit and Reach Test in the Local Environment of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Abstract:
This study is envisaged as vital contribution as it intends to develop norms for the Sit and Reach Test in the Local Environment of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, for the age group between 12-14 years which will be used to measure the flexibility level of early adolescents (12-14 years). Sit and Reach test was applied on 2000 volunteers, 400 subjects from each selected district (Five (5) Districts, Peshawar, Nowshera, Karak, Dera Ismail Khan and Swat (20% percent of the total 25 districts) using convenient sampling technique. The population for this study is comprised of all the early adolescents aging 12-14 years (Age Mean 13 + 0.63, Height 154 + 046, Weight 46 + 7.17, BMI 19 + 1.45) representing various public and private sectors educational institutions of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. As for as the norms developed for Sit and Reach test, the score below 6.8 inches comes in the category of poor, 6.9 to 9.6 inches (below Average), 9.7 to 10.8 inches (Average), 10.9 to 13 inches (Above average) and above 13 inches score is considered as Excellent.
449
74719
Reliability and Validity of Determining Ventilatory Threshold and Respiratory Compensation Point by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Purpose: This research intends to investigate the reliability and validity of ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) determined by skeletal muscle hemodynamic status. Methods: One hundred healthy male (age: 22±3 yrs; height: 173.1±6.0 cm; weight: 67.1±10.5 kg) performed graded cycling exercise test which ventilatory and skeletal muscle hemodynamic data were collected simultaneously. VT and RCP were determined by combined V-slope (VE vs. VCO2) and ventilatory efficiency (VE/VO2 vs. VE/VCO2) methods. Pearson correlation, paired t-test, and Bland-Altman plots were used to analyze reliability, validity, and similarities. Statistical significance was set at α =. 05. Results: There are high test-retest correlations of VT and RCP in ventilatory or near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods (VT vs. VTNIRS: 0.95 vs. 0.94; RCP vs. RCPNIRS: 0.93 vs. 0.93, p
448
74138
The Relationship among Perceived Risk, Product Knowledge, Brand Image and the Insurance Purchase Intention of Taiwanese Working Holiday Youths
Abstract:
In 2004, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Taiwan launched ‘An Arrangement on Working Holiday Scheme’ with 15 countries including New Zealand, Japan, Canada, Germany, South Korea, Britain, Australia and others. The aim of the scheme is to allow young people to work and study English or other foreign languages. Each year, there are 30,000 Taiwanese youths applied for participating in the working holiday schemes. However, frequent accidents could cause huge medical expenses and post-delivery fee, which are usually unaffordable for most families. Therefore, this study explored the relationship among perceived risk toward working holiday, insurance product knowledge, brand image and insurance purchase intention for Taiwanese youths who plan to apply for working holiday. A survey questionnaire was distributed for data collection. A total of 316 questionnaires were collected for data analyzed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent samples T-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, regression analysis and hierarchical regression methods of analysis and hypothesis testing. The results of this research indicate that perceived risk has a negative influence on insurance purchase intention. On the opposite, product knowledge has brand image has a positive influence on the insurance purchase intention. According to the mentioned results, practical implications were further addressed for insurance companies when developing a future marketing plan.