Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53163

Sport and Health Sciences

481
96657
The Use of Global Positioning Systems to Evaluate the Effect of Protein and Carbohydrate Supplementation on Collegiate Soccer Performance
Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the effect of concurrent nutritional supplementation on soccer performance as players ingested either carbohydrate CHO (52 g of Cytocarb Maltodextrin) or a combined carbohydrate and protein PRO (Muscle Milk Pro Series 17g CHO + 50 g PRO liquid) supplement. Twelve male, junior college soccer players (age: 18 ± 6 years, wt. 73.3 ± 8.6 kg) completed three trials wearing global positioning systems (GPS) to measure total running distance and sprinting distance during soccer simulation games. The first match simulation was a baseline match with no supplementation. One hour prior to the second match, simulation players were randomly assigned to one of two supplemental groups CHO or CHO + PRO. A repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction revealed a statistically significant increase in the total distance run for the CHO supplementation group in comparison to the CHO + PRO group (10.19 ± .200 km vs. 9.77± .194km, p = .035). Although the total running distance was meaningfully influenced by the supplementation, the pattern of response for total sprinting distance was not influenced by supplementation. There was a decline in sprinting distance and total running distance from first half to second half, both for the control (M = -0.01 km, SD = 0.17) and CHO supplementation group (-0.04 km, SD = .19), although these differences were not statistically meaningful. There was a positive correlation between sprinting distance and total distance, which was statistically significant (r = -.514, n = 36, p = .01) In conclusion, supplementation influenced the pattern of activity and demonstrated between-trial differences.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
480
92841
Football Chants in Israel: Persistent Values and Changing Trends
Authors:
Abstract:
Fans’ chants in sports stadium have, over the years, become an integral part of the spectator experience. While chants add color, atmosphere, and a demonstration of fans’ support for their team, chants also play a significant role in defining fans’ perceptions of their team’s identity and its differentiation from other teams. An analysis of football chants may therefore shed light on fans’ deep-seated worldviews of their own role, their team, the sport in general, and even life itself. This study, based on an analysis of Israeli football chants over years, identifies key changing and stable perceptions of football fans. Overall 94 chants collected, over a period of five decades. After a pilot study, the chants organized in two groups (one covering 1970-1999 and the other 2000-2016). The chants analyzed through qualitative content analysis in order to understand fans values as a reflection of the society. Findings point to several values that have remained stable over years, including fans’ attitudes toward their team and its rivals, and their attitude toward God. On the other hand, recently emerging phenomena such as radicalization of hatred toward the commercialization of sport reflect social and cultural changes, both in and outside the world of sport.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
479
92334
Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Improving Performances of Blind Judo
Abstract:
Identifying, structuring, and racking the most important factors related to improving athletes’ performances could pave the way for improving training system. The purpose of this study was to identify the relative importance factors to improve performance of the of judo athletes with visual impairments, including blindness by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). After reviewing the literature, the relative importance of factors affecting performance of the blind judo was selected. A group of expert reviewed the first draft of the questionnaires, and then finally selected performance factors were classified into the major categories of techniques, physical fitness, and psychological categories. Later, a pre-selected experts group was asked to review the final version of questionnaire and confirm the priories of performance factors. The order of priority was determined by performing pairwise comparisons using Expert Choice 2000. Judo techniques factors affecting performance include 'grappling' (.303), and 'throwing' (.234) were the most important factors. In addition, the most important physical factors affecting performance were 'muscular strength and endurance' (.238). Further, among other psychological factors 'competitive anxiety' (.393) was important factor that affects performance. It is important to offer psychological skills training to reduce anxiety of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness, so, they can compete in their optimal states. These findings offer insights into what should be considered when determining factors to improve performance of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
478
92263
Physical Activity and Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Investigation into the Relationship of Specific Physical Activity Domains and Mental Well-Being
Abstract:
Background: Research indicates that physical activity (PA) protects us from developing mental disorders. The knowledge regarding optimal domain, intensity, type, context, and amount of PA promotion for the prevention of mental disorders is sparse and incoherent. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between PA domains and mental well-being, and whether associations vary by domain, amount, context, intensity, and type of PA. Methods: 310 individuals (age: 25 yrs., SD 7; 73% female) completed a questionnaire on personal patterns of their PA behaviour (IPQA) and their mental health (Centre of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, the subjective physical well-being (FEW-16)). Linear and multiple regression were used for analysis. Findings: Individuals who met the PA recommendation (N=269) reported higher scores on subjective physical well-being than those who did not meet the PA recommendations (N=41). Whilst vigorous intensity PA predicts subjective well-being (β = .122, p = .028), it also correlates with depression. The more vigorously physically active a person is, the higher the depression score (β = .127, p = .026). The strongest impact of PA on mental well-being can be seen in the transport domain. A positive linear correlation on subjective physical well-being (β =.175, p = .002), and a negative linear correlation for anxiety (β =-.142, p = .011) and depression (β = -.164, p = .004) was found. Multiple regression analysis indicates similar results: Time spent in active transport on the bicycle significantly lowers anxiety and depression scores and enhances subjective physical well-being. The more time a participant spends using the bicycle for transport, the lower the depression (β = -.143, p = .013) and anxiety scores (β = -.111,p = .050). Conclusions: Meeting the PA recommendations enhances subjective physical well-being. Active transport has a substantial impact on mental well-being. Findings have implications for policymakers, employers, public health experts and civil society. A stronger focus on the promotion and protection of health through active transport is recommended. Inter-sectoral exchange, outside the health sector, is required. Health systems must engage other sectors in adopting policies that maximize possible health gains.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
477
91649
Effect of Pregnenolone Supplement on Biological Variables after Plyometric Training for Volleyball Players
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of 100 mg/d Pregnenolone on biological variables after plyometric training for volleyball players. Methods: 15 male volleyball players participated in this study. Serum levels of testosterone, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate, and glucose were measured before and post-exercise. Results: Testosterone was not altered, while creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate, and glucose levels significantly decreased. It is recommended to use Pregnenolone administration to decreased muscle damage and delayed fatigue for volleyball players after plyometric training. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that oral Pregnenolone administration of 100 mg/d might decrease muscle damage and delayed fatigue which may affect positively the volleyball players after a plyometric training bout.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
476
91648
Effect of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, IGF₁, and Physical Performance of Volleyball Players
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to assess the effect of resistance training on muscle strength and physical performance of volleyball players of Physical Education College, Helwan University. The researcher used the experimental method of pre-post measurements of one group of 10 volleyball players. The execution of the program was through the period of 12/8/2018 to 12/10/2018; included 24 training units, 3 training units weekly for 8 weeks. The training program revealed an improvement in post measurement of muscle strength, IGF₁ (insulin-like growth factor 1), and physical performance of players. It may be concluded that the resistance training may include changes in hormones and muscle fibers leading to hypertrophy of the muscle and physical performance. It is recommended to use the results of the study in rationing the loads and training programs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
475
91097
Evaluating the Factors Influencing the Efficiency and Usage of Public Sports Services in a Chinese Province
Abstract:
The efficiency of public sports service of prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang from 2008 to 2012 was evaluated by applying the DEA method, then its influencing factors were also analyzed through Tobit model. Upon analysis, the results revealed the following; (i) the change in average efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang present a smooth uptrend and at a relatively high level from 2008 to 2012 (ii) generally, the productivity of public sports service in Zhejiang improved from 2008 to 2012, the productivity efficiency varied greatly in different years, and the regional difference of production efficiency increased. (iii) The correlations for urbanization rate, aging rate, per capita GDP and the population density were significantly positive with the public sports service efficiency in Zhejiang, of which the most significant was the aging rate. However, the population density and per capita GDP had less impact on the efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang. In addition, whether the efficiency of public sports services in different areas in Zhejiang reciprocates to overall benefits in public wellbeing in both rural and urban settings is still arguable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
474
90721
Elevated Systemic Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress and Cerebrovascular Function in Professional Rugby Union Players: The Link to Impaired Cognition
Abstract:
Introduction and aims: Sports-related concussion (SRC) represents a significant and growing public health concern in rugby union, yet remains one of the least understood injuries facing the health community today. Alongside increasing SRC incidence rates, there is concern that prior recurrent concussion may contribute to long-term neurologic sequelae in later-life. This may be due to an accelerated decline in cerebral perfusion, a major risk factor for neurocognitive decline and neurodegeneration, though the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. The present study hypothesised that recurrent concussion in current professional rugby union players would result in elevated systemic oxidative-nitrosative stress, reflected by a free radical-mediated reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and impaired cerebrovascular and cognitive function. Methodology: A longitudinal study design was adopted across the 2017-2018 rugby union season. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of South Wales Ethics Committee. Data collection is ongoing, and therefore the current report documents result from the pre-season and first half of the in-season data collection. Participants were initially divided into two subgroups; 23 professional rugby union players (aged 26 ± 5 years) and 22 non-concussed controls (27 ± 8 years). Pre-season measurements were performed for cerebrovascular function (Doppler ultrasound of middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) in response to hypocapnia/normocapnia/hypercapnia), cephalic venous concentrations of the ascorbate radical (A•-, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), NO (ozone-based chemiluminescence) and cognition (neuropsychometric tests). Notational analysis was performed to assess contact in the rugby group throughout each competitive game. Results: 1001 tackles and 62 injuries, including three concussions were observed across the first half of the season. However, no associations were apparent between number of tackles and any injury type (P > 0.05). The rugby group expressed greater oxidative stress as indicated by increased A•- (P < 0.05 vs. control) and a subsequent decrease in NO bioavailability (P < 0.05 vs. control). The rugby group performed worse in the Ray Auditory Verbal Learning Test B (RAVLT-B, learning, and memory) and the Grooved Pegboard test using both the dominant and non-dominant hands (visuomotor coordination, P < 0.05 vs. control). There were no between-group differences in cerebral perfusion at baseline (MCAv: 54 ± 13 vs. 59 ± 12, P > 0.05). Likewise, no between-group differences in CVRCO2Hypo (2.58 ± 1.01 vs. 2.58 ± 0.75, P > 0.05) or CVRCO2Hyper (2.69 ± 1.07 vs. 3.35 ± 1.28, P > 0.05) were observed. Conclusion: The present study identified that the rugby union players are characterized by impaired cognitive function subsequent to elevated systemic-oxidative-nitrosative stress. However, this appears to be independent of any functional impairment in cerebrovascular function. Given the potential long-term trajectory towards accelerated cognitive decline in populations exposed to SRC, prophylaxis to increase NO bioavailability warrants consideration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
473
90717
The Effect of Hypertrophy Strength Training Using Traditional Set vs. Cluster Set on Maximum Strength and Sprinting Speed
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training Cluster set-method compared to traditional set-method 30 m sprinting time and maximum strength in squats and bench-press. Thirteen Physical Education students, 7 males and 6 females between the age of 19-28 years old were recruited. The students were random divided in three groups. Traditional set group (TSG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (±SD) (22.3 ± 1.5 years), body mass (79.2 ± 15.4 kg) and height (177.5 ± 11.3 cm). Cluster set group (CSG) consist of 3 males and 2 females aged (22.4 ± 3.29 years), body mass (81.0 ± 24.0 kg) and height (179.2 ± 11.8 cm) and a control group (CG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (21.5 ± 2.4 years), body mass (82.1 ± 17.4 kg) and height (175.5 ± 6.7 cm). The intervention consisted of performing squat and bench press at 70% of 1RM (twice a week) for 8 weeks using 10 repetition and 4 sets. Two types of strength-training methods were used , cluster set (CS) where the participants (CSG) performed 2 reps 5 times with a 10 s recovery in between reps and 50 s recovery between sets, and traditional set (TS) where the participants (TSG) performed 10 reps each set with 90 s recovery in between sets. The pre-tests and post-tests conducted were 1 RM in both squats and bench press, and 10 and 30 m sprint time. The 1RM test were performed with Eleiko XF barbell (20 kg), Eleiko weight plates, rack and bench from Hammerstrength. The speed test was measured with the Brower speed trap II testing system (Brower Timing Systems, Utah, USA). The participants received an individualized training program based on the pre-test of the 1RM. In addition, a mid-term test of 1RM was carried out to adjust training intensity. Each training session were supervised by the researchers. Beast sensors (Milano, Italy) were also used to monitor and quantify the training load for the participants. All groups had a statistical significant improvement in bench press 1RM (TSG 1RM from 56.3 ± 28.9 to 66 ± 28.5 kg; CSG 1RM from 69.8 ± 33.5 to 77.2 ± 34.1 kg and CG 1RM from 67.8 ± 26.6 to 72.2 ± 29.1 kg), whereas only the TSG (1RM from 84.3 ± 26.8 to 114.3 ± 26.5 kg) and CSG (1RM from 100.4 ± 33.9 to 129 ± 35.1 kg) had a statistical significant improvement in Squats 1RM (P < 0.05). However, a between groups examination reveals that there were no marked differences in 1RM squat performance between TSG and CSG (P > 0.05) and both groups had a marked improvements compared to the CG (P < 0.05). On the other hand, no differences between groups were observed in Bench press 1RM. The within groups results indicate that none of the groups had any marked improvement in the distances from 0-10 m and 10-30 m except the CSG which had a notable improvement in the distance from 10-30 m (-0.07 s; P < 0.05). Furthermore, no differences in sprinting abilities were observed between groups. The results from this investigation indicate that traditional set strength training at 70% of 1RM gave close results compared to Cluster set strength training at the same intensity. However, the results indicate that the cluster set had an effect on flying time (10-30 m) indicating that the velocity at which those repetitions were performed could be the explanation factor of this this improvement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
472
90681
The Effect of Different Strength Training Methods on Muscle Strength, Body Composition and Factors Affecting Endurance Performance
Abstract:
The main purpose of this study was to measure the effect of two different strength training methods on muscle strength, muscle mass, fat mass and endurance factors. Fourteen physical education students accepted to participate in this study. The participants were then randomly divided into three groups, traditional training group (TTG), cluster training group (CTG) and control group (CG). TTG consisted of 4 participants aged ( ± SD) (22.3 ± 1.5 years), body mass (79.2 ± 15.4 kg) and height (178.3 ± 11.9 cm). CTG consisted of 5 participants aged (22.2 ± 3.5 years), body mass (81.0 ± 24.0 kg) and height (180.2 ± 12.3 cm). CG consisted of 5 participants aged (22 ± 2.8 years), body mass (77 ± 19 kg) and height (174 ± 6.7 cm). The participants underwent a hypertrophy strength training program twice a week consisting of 4 sets of 10 reps at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), using barbell squat and barbell bench press for 8 weeks. The CTG performed 2 x 5 reps using 10 s recovery in between repetitions and 50 s recovery between sets, while TTG performed 4 sets of 10 reps with 90 s recovery in between sets. Pre- and post-tests were administrated to assess body composition (weight, muscle mass, and fat mass), 1RM (bench press and barbell squat) and a laboratory endurance test (Bruce Protocol). Instruments used to collect the data were Tanita BC-601 scale (Tanita, Illinois, USA), Woodway treadmill (Woodway, Wisconsin, USA) and Vyntus CPX breath-to-breath system (Jaeger, Hoechberg, Germany). Analysis was conducted at all measured variables including time to peak VO2, peak VO2, heart rate (HR) at peak VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at peak VO2, and number of breaths per minute. The results indicate an increase in 1RM performance after 8 weeks of training. The change in 1RM squat was for the TTG = 30 ± 3.8 kg, CTG = 28.6 ± 8.3 kg and CG = 10.3 ± 13.8 kg. Similarly, the change in 1RM bench press was for the TTG = 9.8 ± 2.8 kg, CTG = 7.4 ± 3.4 kg and CG = 4.4 ± 3.4 kg. The within-group analysis from the oxygen consumption measured during the incremental exercise indicated that the TTG had only a statistical significant increase in their RER from 1.16 ± 0.04 to 1.23 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The CTG had a statistical significant improvement in their HR at peak VO2 from 186 ± 24 to 191 ± 12 Beats Per Minute (P < 0.05) and their RER at peak VO2 from 1.11 ± 0.06 to 1.18 ±0.05 (P < 0.05). Finally, the CG had only a statistical significant increase in their RER at peak VO2 from 1.11 ± 0.07 to 1.21 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The between-group analysis showed no statistical differences between all groups in all the measured variables from the oxygen consumption test during the incremental exercise including changes in muscle mass, fat mass, and weight (kg). The results indicate a similar effect of hypertrophy strength training irrespective of the methods of the training used on untrained subjects. Because there were no notable changes in body-composition measures, the results suggest that the improvements in performance observed in all groups is most probably due to neuro-muscular adaptation to training.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
471
90417
Aerobic Training Combined with Nutritional Guidance as an Effective Strategy for Improving Aerobic Fitness and Reducing BMI in Inactive Adults
Abstract:
Overweight and obesity can lead to numerous health problems, and inactive people are more often overweight and obese compared to physically active people. Even a moderate weight loss can improve cardiovascular and endocrine disease risk factors. The aim of the study was to examine to what extent overweight and obese adults starting up with two weekly intensive running sessions had an increase in aerobic capacity, reduction in BMI and waist circumference and changes in body composition after 33 weeks of training. An additional aim was to see if there were differences between participants who, in addition to training, also received lifestyle modification education, including practical cooking (nutritional guidance and training group (NTG =32)) compared to those who were not given any nutritional guidance (training group (TG=40)). 72 participants (49 women), mean age of 46.1 ( ± 10.4) were included. Inclusion Criteria: Previous untrained and inactive adults in all age groups, BMI ≥ 25, desire to become fitter and reduce their BMI. The two weekly supervised training sessions consisted of 10 min warm up followed by 20 to 21 min effective interval running where the participants’ heart rate were between 82 and 92% of hearth rate maximum. The sessions were completed with ten minutes whole body strength training. Measures of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and 3000m running time were performed at the start of the project (T1), after 15 weeks (T2) and at the end of the project (T3). Measurements of fat percentage, muscle mass, and visceral fat were performed at T1 and T3. Twelve participants (9 women) from both groups, who all scored around average on the 3000 m pre-test, were chosen to do a VO₂max test at T1 and T3. The NTG were given ten theoretical sessions (80 minutes each) and eight practical cooking sessions (140 minutes each). There was a significant reduction in bout groups for WC and BMI from T1 to T2. There was not found any further reduction from T2 to T3. Although not significant, NTG reduced their WC more than TG. For both groups, the percentage reduction in WC was similar to the reduction in BMI. There was a decrease in fat percentage in both groups from pre-test to post-test, whereas, for muscle mass, a small, but insignificant increase was observed for both groups. There was a decrease in 3000m running time for both groups from T1 to T2 as well as from T2 to T3. The difference between T2 and T3 was not statistically significant. The 12 participants who tested VO₂max had an increase of 2.86 ( ± 3.84) mlkg⁻¹ min⁻¹ in VO₂max and 3:02 min (± 2:01 min) reduction in running time over 3000 m from T1 until T3. There was a strong, negative correlation between the two variables. The study shows that two intensive running session in 33 weeks can increase aerobic fitness and reduce BMI, WC and fat percent in inactive adults. Cost guidance in addition to training will give additional effect.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
470
90330
Comparison of Donor Motivations in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I vs Division II
Abstract:
Continuous economic downturn and ongoing budget cuts poses higher education with profound challenges which has a direct impact on the collegiate athletic programs. In response to the ever-changing landscape of the fiscal environment, universities seek to boost revenues, resorting to alternative sources of funding. In particular, athletic programs have become increasingly dependent on financial support from their alumni and boosters, which is how athletic departments attempt to offset budget shortfalls and make capital improvements. Although there currently exists three major divisions within National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the majority of the sport management studies on college sport tend to focus on Division I level. Particularly within the donor motivation literature, a plethora of donor motivation studies exist, but mainly on NCAA Division I athletic programs. Since each athletic department functions differently in a number of different dimensions, while institutional difference can also have a huge impact on athletic donor motivations, the current study attempts to fill this gap that exists in the literature. As such, the purpose of this study was to (I) reexamine the factor structure of the Athletic Donor motivation scale; and (II) identify the prominent athletic donor motives in a NCAA Division II athletic program. For the purpose of this study, a total of 232 actual donors were used for analysis. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to test construct validity, and the reliability of the scale was assessed using Composite Reliability. To identify the prominent motivational factors, the means and standard deviations were examined. Results of this study indicated that Vicarious Achievement, Philanthropy, and Commitment are the three primary motivational factors, while Tangible Benefits, was consistently found as an important motive in prior studies was found low. Such findings highlight the key difference and suggest different salient motivations exist that are specific to the context.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
469
89509
Effects of Modified Low-Dye Taping on First Ray Mobility Test and Sprint Time
Abstract:
A pronated foot is frequently associated with a hypermobile first ray, then developing further severe foot problems. Low-Dye taping with athletic tape has been widely used to restrict excessive first ray motion and re-build height of the medial longitudinal arch in general population with pronated foot. It is not the case, however, for sprinters since they feel too much restriction of foot motions. Currently, the kinesio tape, more elastic than the athletic tape, has been widely used to re-adjust joint positions. It was interesting whether modified low-Dye taping using kinesio tape was beneficial for altering first ray mobility and still giving enough arch support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of modified low-Dye taping on first ray mobility test and 60-m sprint time for sprinters with pronated foot. The significance of this study provides new insight into a treatment alternative of modified low-Dye taping for sprinter with pronated foot. Ten young male sprinters, aged 20.8±1.6 years, with pronated foot were recruited for this study. The pronated foot was defined as the foot that the navicular drop test was greater than 1.0 cm. Three optic shutters were placed at the start, 30-m, and 60-m sites to record sprint time. All participants were asked to complete 3 trials of the 60-m dash with both taping and non-taping conditions in a random order. The low-Dye taping was applied using the method postulated by Ralph Dye in 1939 except the kinesio tape was used instead. All outcome variables were recorded for taping and non-taping conditions. Paired t-tests were used to analyze all outcome variables between 2 conditions. Although there were no statistically significant differences in dorsal and plantar mobility between taping and non-taping conditions, a statistical significance was found in a total range of motion (dorsiflexion plus plantarflexion angle) of the first ray when a modified low-Dye taping was applied (p < 0.05). Time to complete 60-m sprint was significantly increased with low-Dye taping (p < 0.05) while no significance was found for time to 30-m. it indicated that modified low-Dye taping changed maximum sprint speed of 60-m dash. Conclusively, modified low-Dye taping was capable of increasing first ray mobility and further altered maximum sprint speed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
468
89111
Effects of Preparation Caused by Ischemic-Reperfusion along with Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Submaximal Dynamic Force Production
Abstract:
Background and Aims: Sodium bicarbonate is a supplementation that used to reduce fatigue and increase power output in short-term training. On the other hand, the Ischemic Reperfusion Preconditioning (IRPC) is an appropriate stimulus to increase the submaximal contractile response. Materials and methods: 9 female student-athletes in double-blind randomized crossover design were three mode, sodium bicarbonate + IRPC, sodium bicarbonate and placebo+ IRPC. Participants moved forward single arm dumbbell hand with a weight of 2 kg can be carried out most frequently. Results: The results showed that plasma lactate concentration and records of sodium bicarbonate + IRPC and sodium bicarbonate conditions were significantly different compared to placebo + IRPC (Respectively p=0.001, p=0/02). Conclusion: According to the research findings, bicarbonate supplementation in IRPC training condition increased force and delay fatigue in submaximal dynamic contraction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
467
88909
Using Motives of Sports Consumption to Explain Team Identity: A Comparison between Football Fans across the Pond
Abstract:
Spectators follow their favorite sports teams for different reasons. While some attend a sporting event simply for its entertainment value, others do so because of the personal sense of achievement and accomplishment their connection with a sports team creates. Moreover, the level of identity spectators feel toward their favorite sports team falls in a broad continuum. Some are mere spectators. For those spectators, their association to a sports team has little impact on their self-image. Others are die-hard fans who are proud of their association with their team and whose connection with that team is an important reflection of who they are. Several motives for sports consumption can be used to explain the level of spectator support in a variety of sports. Those motives can also be used to explain the variance in the identification, attachment, and loyalty spectators feel toward their favorite sports team. Motives for sports consumption can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. In this study, motives for sports consumption was used to discriminate the level of identity spectators feel toward their sports team. It was hypothesized that spectators with a strong level of team identity would report higher rates of interest in player, interest in sports, and interest in team than spectators with a low level of team identity. And spectators with a low level of team identity would report higher rates for entertainment value, bonding with friends or family, and wholesome environment. Football spectators in the United States and England were surveyed about their motives for football consumption and their level of identification with their favorite football team. To assess if the motives of sports fans differed by level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) under the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure found in SPSS was performed. The independent variables were level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, and the dependent variables were the sport fan motives. A tripartite split (low, moderate, high) was used on a composite measure for team identity. Preliminary results show that effect of team identity is statistically significant (p < .001) for at least nine of the 17 motives for sports consumption assessed in this investigation. These results indicate that the motives of spectators with a strong level of team identity differ significantly from spectators with a low level of team identity. Those differences can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. Sports marketers can use these methods and results to develop identity profiles of spectators and create marketing strategies specifically designed to attract those spectators based on their unique motives for consumption and their level of team identification.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
466
88748
Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain
Abstract:
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
465
88747
Evaluation the Influence of Trunk Bracing in Joint Contact Forces in Subjects with Scoliosis
Abstract:
Background: Scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the spine which may influence the abilities of the subjects during standing and walking. Most of the scoliotic subjects use orthosis to reduce the curve and to decrease the risk of curve progression. There was lack of information regarding the effects of orthosis on kinematic and joint contact force. Therefore, this research was done to highlight the effects of orthosis on the aforementioned parameters. Method: 5 scoliotic subjects were recruited in this study, with single curve less than 40 (females with age 13.2 ± 1.7). They were asked to walk with and without orthosis. The kinematic of the joints, force applied on the legs, moments transmitted through the joints and joint contact forces were evaluated in this study. Moreover, the lengths of muscles were determined by use of computer muscle control approach in OpenSim. Results: There was a significant difference between the second peak of vertical ground reaction force while walking with and without orthosis (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between spatiotemporal gait parameters while walking with and without orthosis (P-value > 0.05). The mean values of joint contact forces (vertical component) increased by the use of orthosis, but the difference was not significant (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Although the kinematic of most of the body joints was not influenced by the use of orthosis, the joint contact force may be increased by orthosis. The increase in joint contact force may be due to the performance of orthosis which restricts the motions of pelvic and increases compensatory mechanism used by the subjects to decrease the side effects of the orthosis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
464
88198
Comparison between Mental Toughness and Level of Physical Activity between Staff and Students in University of Tabriz
Abstract:
The aim of this paper was to compare physical activity and mental toughness in the staff and students of the University of Tabriz. 615 people participated in this study and filled demographic questionnaire, mental thoughness48 (MTQ48) questionnaire and habitual physical activity questionnaire (Baecke physical activity questionnaire). The research sample included 355 students and 260 staff (615 questionnaires). For analyzing hypotheses MANOVA, correlation and independent t-test were used. Based on the result; some subscales of mental toughness and physical activity were significantly related. The result showed the significant correlation between mental toughness and physical activity in student and no significant correlation in staff. Students were significantly physically more active than staff, and mental toughness was higher in staff. There was no difference in mental toughness variable between active participants (active staff and student). The results of this study showed that mental toughness could influence the way a person cope with living conditions. It is expected that mental toughness changes can lead to changing in levels of physical activity. It should be noted that the other variables should not be ignored.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
463
88011
The Effect of Sexual Assault on Sport Participation Trajectories from Adolescence through Young Adulthood
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Abstract:
Objectives: Certain life change events were shown to have strong effects on physical activity-related behavior, but more research is needed to investigate the longer-term effects of different life change events on physical activity-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of experiencing physically or non-physically forced sexual activity on sports participation from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: This study used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data. Group-based trajectory modeling was utilized to examine the effect of experiencing sexual assault on trajectories of sports participation from adolescence to young adulthood. Results: Male participants were divided into three trajectory groups (i.e., Low-stable, High-decreasing, and High-stable) and female participants were divided into two trajectory groups (i.e., Low-stable and High-decreasing). The main finding of this study is that women who experienced non-physically forced sexual activity significantly decreases sports participation throughout the trajectory in ‘High-decreasing group.’ The effect of non-physically forced sexual activity on women’s sports participation was considerably weakened and became insignificant after including psychological depression in the model as a potential mediator. Discussion: Special attention should be paid to sport participation among women victims of non-physically forced sexual activity. Further studies are needed to examine other potential mediators in addition to psychological depression when examining the effect of non-physically forced sexual activity on sport participation in women.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
462
87979
The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Performance among University Students
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Abstract:
The study was conducted to determine the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance among university students. A far-famed saying ‘Sound mind in a sound body’ referring to the potential quality of increased physical fitness in the intellectual development of individuals seems to be endorsed. There is a growing body of literature the impact of physical fitness on academic achievement, especially in elementary and middle-school aged children. Even though there are numerous positive effects related to being physically active and physical fitness, their effect on academic achievement is not very much clear for university students. The subjects for this study included 25 students (20 female and 5 male) enrolled in Yeditepe University, Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Department of Health Science Faculty. All participants filled in a questionnaire about their socio-demographic status, general health status, and physical activity status. Health-related physical fitness testing, included several core components: 1) body composition evaluation (body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio), 2) cardiovascular endurance evaluation (queen’s college step test), 3) muscle strength and endurance evaluation (sit-up test, push-up test), 4) flexibility evaluation (sit and reach test). Academic performance evaluation was based on student’s Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA). The prevalence of the subjects participating physical activity was found to be 40% (n = 10). CGPA scores were significantly higher among students having regular physical activity when we compared the students having regular physical activities or not (respectively 2,71 ± 0.46, 3.02 ± 0.28 scores, p = 0.076). The result of the study also revealed that there is positive correlation relationship between sit-up, push up and academic performance points (CGPA) (r = 0.43, p ≤ 0.05 ) and negative correlation relationship between cardiovascular endurance parameter (Queen's College Step Test) and academic performance points (CGPA) (r = -0.47, p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the findings confirmed that physical fitness level was generally associated with academic performance in the study group. Cardiovascular endurance and muscle strength and endurance were associated with student’s CGPA, whereas body composition and flexibility were unrelated to CGPA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
461
87731
Effect of Oral Immonoglobulin (IgY) Ingestion on Post Exercise Muscle Soreness and Muscle Damage Markers in Females
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Intense resistance-type activity generally elicits delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in individuals unaccustomed to such action. DOMS is a combination of contractile tissue microtrauma, osmotic pressure changes, alteration calcium regulation, and inflammation. Elevated muscle-specific enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is a marker of striated muscle damage. Avian immunoglobulin (IgY) mediates inflammation and may thereby reduce post-exercise DOMS. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral IgY and placebo (Pl) on CK, serum relevels, and perceived pain following induced DOMS. Methods: Healthy college-aged females (N=16) were randomly divided into an experimental group (IgY) and a control group (PL). CK serum levels were recorded followed by 14 days of supplementation of either IgY or Pl at the following doses: days 1-2 =4.5 g, days 3-5 =9.0 g, and days 6-14 =13.5 g. Following the 14 d, lower limb DOMS was induced using two methods of resistance training. After 48 hours, subjects reported for a second blood draw. Results: One-way ANOVA resulted in the IgY group posting significantly less (p < 0.05) serum CK than the PL group. Furthermore, the IgY group experienced significantly less post-test perceived soreness than the Pl group. Conclusion: IgY supplementation lessens muscle CK levels and perceived muscle soreness following exercise, possibly due to an anti-inflammatory effect. It was suggested that IgY may serve as a buffer for DOMS thereby allowing the participant to continue vigorous exercise without discomfort.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
460
87429
The Role of Social Networks in Promoting Ethics in Iranian Sports
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In this research, the role of social networks in promoting ethics in Iranian sports was investigated. The research adopted a descriptive-analytic method, and the survey’s population consisted of all the athletes invited to the national football, volleyball, wrestling and taekwondo teams. Considering the limited population, the size of the society was considered as the sample size. After the distribution of the questionnaires, 167 respondents answered the questionnaires correctly. The data collection tool was chosen according to Hamid Ghasemi`s, standard questionnaire for social networking and mass media, which has 28 questions. Reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient (94%). The content validity of the questionnaire was also approved by the professors. In this study, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data using statistical software. The benchmark tests used in this research included the following: Binomial test, Friedman test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Vermont Creamers, Good fit test and comparative prototypes. The results showed that athletes believed that social network has a significant role in promoting sport ethics in the community. Telegram has been known to play a big role than other social networks. Moreover, the respondents' view on the role of social networks in promoting sport ethics was significantly different in both men and women groups. In fact, women had a more positive attitude towards the role of social networks in promoting sport ethics than men. The respondents' view of the role of social networks in promoting the ethics of sports in the study groups also had a significant difference. Additionally, there was a significant and reverse relationship between the sports experience and the attitude of national athletes regarding the role of social networks in promoting ethics in sports.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
459
87017
Reliability of an Application for the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities in the Recreovia of Bucaramanga, Colombia
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Introduction: Recreovía as a public health strategy contributes to encourage the practice and adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendations, by temporarily closing the roads to motorized vehicles. The determination of the PA requires the evaluation of the reliability of the measurement instruments, in order to sustain the continuity and relevance of Recreovía as a community intervention. Objective: Establish the inter-rater reliability of the App for the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (iSOPARC®) in the Recreovía of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Five trained observers at two observation points on the 2.3 km of the Recreovía (14th Street and 32nd Street) used the App (iSOPARC®), between 08:00 a.m. and 12:00 m. in periods of 20 minutes during a regular Sunday. Reliability analysis was performed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC 2.1). Results: A total of 2682 users were observed (43.6 % women) in 7 observations. ICC showed a range between 0.96 and 0.99 for the PA level and ICC between 0.95 and 0.99 for age group for the two observation points. Conclusion: The reliability found for the iSOPARC® guarantees the consecutive measurement of the PA level at the Recreovía, which will allow measuring it is effectiveness in the medium and long term, as a community intervention strategy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
458
85393
The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach
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Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
457
85179
The Use of Actoprotectors by Professional Athletes
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Actoprotectors are substances with hight performance enchasing potential and hight antioxidant activity. Most of these drugs have been developed in USSR for military medicine purposes. Based on their chemical composition actoprotectors could be classified into three categories: benzimidazole derivatives (ethomersol, bemitil); adamantane derivatives (bromantane), other chemical classes. First data for intake of actoprotectors from professional athletes is from 1980. The daily intake of actoprotectors demonstrate many benefits for athletes like: positive effect on the efficiency of physical work, antihypoxic effects, antioxidant effects, nootropic effects, rapid recovery. Since 1997, bromantane is considered as doping. This is a result of Summer Olympic Games in Athlanta (1996) when several Russian athletes tested positive for bramantane. Even the drug is safe for athletes health its use is considered as violation of anti- doping rules. More than 37 years bemetil has been used by professional athletes with no risk but currently it is included in WADA monitoring programme for 2018. Current perspectives are that most used actoprotectors would be considered as doping. Many clinical studies have confirmed that intake of bemitil and bromantan demonstrate positive influence on the physical work capacity but data for other actoprotectors like chlodantane, ademol, ethomersol is limited.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
456
85173
Relations among Coping with Stress, Anxiety and the Achievement Motive of Athletes and Non-Athletes
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Abstract:
This research deals with relations among strategies and styles of coping with stress, social interaction anxiety and the achievement motive of young athletes and non-athletes. The research was conducted on the sample of 402 examinees (197 female and 205 male participants) of the average age of 20.76, divided into three groups: athletes, recreationists, and non-athletes. The COPE-S questionnaire, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Achievement Motivation Questionnaire (MOP 2002) were used for conducting this research and they had satisfactory reliability. The results of the research indicate that athletes, recreationists and non-athletes are not different when it comes to strategies and styles of coping with stress. Non- athletes have more noticeable social interaction anxiety when compared to athletes (U=5281.5, p=.000) and also when compared to recreationists (U=7573, p=.000). There was a difference among these three groups in the achievement motive (χ2(2)=23,544, p=.000) and the three components of this motive (Competing with others, χ2(2)=31,718, p=.000, Perseverance, χ2(2)=9,415, p=.009 and Planning orientation, χ2(2)=8,171, p=.017). The research also indicates a significant difference in the relation between social interaction anxiety and the achievement motive of examinee subgroups, where the most significant difference is between athletes and non- athletes (q=-.45). Moreover, women more frequently use emotion-focused coping (U=16718, p=.003), while men more frequently use avoidance (U=14895.5, p=.000). Women have a lead when it comes to expressing social anxiety (U=17750.5, p=.036) and the achievement motive (U=17395.5, p=.020). The discussion of the results includes findings of similar previous research and theoretical concepts of the variables which were examined. Future research should be oriented towards examining the background of the differences which were (not) gained as well as towards the influence of personality dimensions on the variables which were examined in order to apply the results in practice in the best way.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
455
85096
Current Perspectives of Bemitil Use in Sport
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Bemitil (2-ethylthiobenzimidazole hydrobromide) is a synthetic adaptogen and actoprotector, with wide-ranging pharmacological activities such as nootropic, antihypoxic, antioxidant, immunostimulant. The intake of Bemitil increases mental and physical performance and could be applied under either normal or extreme conditions. Until 2017 Bemitil was not considered as doping and was used by professional athletes more than 30 years because of its high efficiency and safety. The drug was included in WADA monitoring programme for 2018, and most likely it would be included in WADA Prohibited List for 2019. Usually, a substance/method is included in WADA Prohibited List if it meets any two of the following three criteria: the potential to enhance or enhances sports performance/ potential health risk to the athlete/ violates the spirit of sport. Bemitil has high performance-enhancing potential, but it is also safe- it is controversial whether it should be considered as doping.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
454
84616
A Peg Board with Photo-Reflectors to Detect Peg Insertion and Pull-Out Moments
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Various kinds of pegboards have been developed and used widely in research and clinics of rehabilitation for evaluation and training of patient’s hand function. A common measure in these peg boards is a total time of performance execution assessed by a tester’s stopwatch. Introduction of electrical and automatic measurement technology to the apparatus, on the other hand, has been delayed. The present work introduces the development of a pegboard with an electric sensor to detect moments of individual peg’s insertion and removal. The work also gives fundamental data obtained from a group of healthy young individuals who performed peg transfer tasks using the pegboard developed. Through trails and errors in pilot tests, two 10-hole peg-board boxes installed with a small photo-reflector and a DC amplifier at the bottom of each hole were designed and built by the present authors. The amplified electric analogue signals from the 20 reflectors were automatically digitized at 500 Hz per channel, and stored in a PC. The boxes were set on a test table at different distances (25, 50, 75, and 125 mm) in parallel to examine the effect of hole-to-hole distance. Fifty healthy young volunteers (25 in each gender) as subjects of the study performed successive fast 80 time peg transfers at each distance using their dominant and non-dominant hands. The data gathered showed a clear-cut light interruption/continuation moment by the pegs, allowing accurately (no tester’s error involved) and precisely (an order of milliseconds) to determine the pull out and insertion times of each peg. This further permitted computation of individual peg movement duration (PMD: from peg-lift-off to insertion) apart from hand reaching duration (HRD: from peg insertion to lift-off). An accidental drop of a peg led to an exceptionally long ( < mean + 3 SD) PMD, which was readily detected from an examination of data distribution. The PMD data were commonly right-skewed, suggesting that the median can be a better estimate of individual PMD than the mean. Repeated measures ANOVA using the median values revealed significant hole-to-hole distance, and hand dominance effects, suggesting that these need to be fixed in the accurate evaluation of PMD. The gender effect was non-significant. Performance consistency was also evaluated by the use of quartile variation coefficient values, which revealed no gender, hole-to-hole, and hand dominance effects. The measurement reliability was further examined using interclass correlation obtained from 14 subjects who performed the 25 and 125 mm hole distance tasks at two 7-10 days separate test sessions. Inter-class correlation values between the two tests showed fair reliability for PMD (0.65-0.75), and for HRD (0.77-0.94). We concluded that a sensor peg board developed in the present study could provide accurate (excluding tester’s errors), and precise (at a millisecond rate) time information of peg movement separated from that used for hand movement. It could also easily detect and automatically exclude erroneous execution data from his/her standard data. These would lead to a better evaluation of hand dexterity function compared to the widely used conventional used peg boards.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
453
84114
Assesment of Quality of Life among Iranian Male Amateur Athletes via WHOQOL-Brief
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The aims of the present study are to assess and compare the health habits and quality of life (QoL) of Iranian amateur athletes in different sports. A total of 120 male amateur athletes between 17 and 31 years, engaged in 16 kinds of sports which include team (n=44), individual (n=40) and combat sports (n=36) from sports clubs in the west cities of Iran; and also those not involved in any competition in the past. Additionally, this is a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study, which the subjects completed the WHOQOL-brief questionnaire to evaluate QoL. The questionnaire is composed of 26 questions in four domains (physical health, psychological, social and environmental domains), that was applied in the Persian language. Information on the frequency and duration of training sessions were also collected. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to verify normal distribution, followed by the chi-squared test for proportions and simple analysis of variance for comparisons between groups of sports. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationships between the variables analyzed. According to the findings, those from individual sports obtained highest points in the all domains of QoL; physical domains (87.1 ± 8.1 point), psychological domains (87.6 ± 9.6 point), social domains (89.7 ± 9.2 point), environmental domains (75.5± 10.7 point) and overall QoL score (84.9 ± 9.4 point). Generally, social domains were the highest QoL index (84.3 ± 7.2 points), and environmental domains were the lowest QoL index (68.1 ± 10.8 points), in all of the sports. No correlations were found between QoL domains and time engaged in the sport (r = 0.01; p = 0.93), number of weekly training sessions (r = 0.09; p = 0.37) and session duration (r = -0.06; p= 0.58). Comparison of QoL results with those of the general population revealed higher levels in the physical and psychological components of amateur athletes. In the present study, engaging in sports was associated with higher QoL levels in amateur athletes, particularly in the physical and psychological domains. Moreover, correlations were found between the overall score and domains of QoL.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
452
83978
Exploring Non-Governmental Organizations’ Performance Management: Bahrain Athletics Association as a Case Study
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In the ever-growing field of non-governmental organizations, the enhancement of performance management and measurement systems has been increasingly acknowledged by political, economic, social, legal, technological and environmental factors. Within Bahrain Athletics Association, such enhancement results from the key factors leading performance management including collaboration, feedback, human resource management, leadership and participative management. The exploratory, qualitative research conducted reviewed performance management theory. As reviewed, the key factors leading performance management were identified. Drawing on a non-governmental organization case study, the key factors leading Bahrain Athletics Association’s performance management were explored. By exploring the key factors leading Bahrain Athletics Association’s performance management, the research study proposed a theoretical framework of the key factors leading performance management in non-governmental organizations in general. The research study recommended further investigation of the role of the two key factors of command and control and leadership, combining military and civilian approaches to enhancing non-governmental organizations’ performance management.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):