Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 55215

Sport and Health Sciences

519
98786
Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning Relationship in Children
Abstract:
This study investigated the relation between processing information and fitness level of active (fit) and sedentary (unfit) children drawn from rural and urban areas in Botswana. It was hypothesized that fit children would display faster simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (SMT). 60, third grade children (7.0 – 9.0 years) were initially selected and based upon fitness testing, 45 participated in the study (15 each of fit urban, unfit urban, fit rural). All children completed anthropometric measures, skinfold testing and submaximal cycle ergometer testing. The cognitive testing included SRT, CRT, SMT and Choice Movement Time (CMT) and memory sequence length. Results indicated that the rural fit group exhibited faster SMT than the urban fit and unfit groups. For CRT, both fit groups were faster than the unfit group. Collectively, the study shows that the relationship that exists between physical fitness and cognitive function amongst the elderly can tentatively be extended to the pediatric population. Physical fitness could be a factor in the speed at which we process information, including decision making, even in children.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
518
97949
Antioxidant Effects of Regular Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Abstract:
Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with increased free radicals and oxidative stress. The evidence indicates that physical inactivity is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for a wide range of chronic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of eight-week aerobic exercise on some antioxidant enzyme activities in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: sixteen sedentary postmenopausal women with T2DM were randomly assigned to the control (n=8; CG) and exercise group (n=8; EG). The exercise consisted of progressive aerobic training at a moderate intensity (50-70% of the maximum heart rate), for 25-60 min/day, and 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Age, sex, and body mass index were similar in the two groups. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Also levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and glucose in the plasma were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Following the 8 weeks of exercise training, the plasma MDA and glucose levels were significantly reduced in EG compared to CG (P=0.001 and P=0.011 respectively). However, SOD (P=0.017) and CAT (P=0.011) activities were increased in EG compared to CG. Conclusion: The present study suggests regular aerobic exercise appears can exert protective effects against oxidative stress due to its ability to increase antioxidant defense and glucose control in postmenopausal women with T2DM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
517
97005
Comparisons of Drop Jump and Countermovement Jump Performance for Male Basketball Players with and without Low-Dye Taping Application
Abstract:
Excessive foot pronation is a well-known risk factor of knee and foot injuries such as patellofemoral pain, patellar and Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis. Low-Dye taping (LDT) application is not uncommon for basketball players to control excessive foot pronation for pain control and injury prevention. The primary potential benefits of using LDT include providing additional supports to medial longitudinal arch and restricting the excessive midfoot and subtalar motion in weight-bearing activities such as running and landing. Meanwhile, restrictions provided by the rigid tape may also potentially limit functional joint movements and sports performance. Coaches and athletes need to weigh the potential benefits and harmful effects before making a decision if applying LDT technique is worthwhile or not. However, the influence of using LDT on basketball-related performance such as explosive and reactive strength is not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the change of drop jump (DJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance before and after LDT application for collegiate male basketball players. In this within-subject crossover study, 12 healthy male basketball players (age: 21.7 ± 2.5 years) with at least 3-year regular basketball training experience were recruited. Navicular drop (ND) test was adopted as the screening and only those with excessive pronation (ND ≥ 10mm) were included. Participants with recent lower limb injury history were excluded. Recruited subjects were required to perform both ND, DJ (on a platform of 40cm height) and CMJ (without arms swing) tests in series during taped and non-taped conditions in the counterbalanced order. Reactive strength index (RSI) was calculated by using the flight time divided by the ground contact time measured. For DJ and CMJ tests, the best of three trials was used for analysis. The difference between taped and non-taped conditions for each test was further calculated through standardized effect ± 90% confidence intervals (CI) with clinical magnitude-based inference (MBI). Paired samples T-test showed significant decrease in ND (-4.68 ± 1.44mm; 95% CI: -3.77, -5.60; p < 0.05) while MBI demonstrated most likely beneficial and large effect (standardize effect: -1.59 ± 0.27) in LDT condition. For DJ test, significant increase in both flight time (25.25 ± 29.96ms; 95% CI: 6.22, 44.28; p < 0.05) and RSI (0.22 ± 0.22; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.36; p < 0.05) were observed. In taped condition, MBI showed very likely beneficial and moderate effect (standardized effect: 0.77 ± 0.49) in flight time, possibly beneficial and small effect (standardized effect: -0.26 ± 0.29) in ground contact time and very likely beneficial and moderate effect (standardized effect: 0.77 ± 0.42) in RSI. No significant difference in CMJ was observed (95% CI: -2.73, 2.08; p > 0.05). For basketball players with pes planus, applying LDT could substantially support the foot by elevating the navicular height and potentially provide acute beneficial effects in reactive strength performance. Meanwhile, no significant harmful effect on CMJ was observed. Basketball players may consider applying LDT before the game or training to enhance the reactive strength performance. However since the observed effects in this study could not generalize to other players without excessive foot pronation, further studies on players with normal foot arch or navicular height are recommended.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
516
96855
Effects of Applying Low-Dye Taping in Performing Double-Leg Squat on Electromyographic Activity of Lower Extremity Muscles for Collegiate Basketball Players with Excessive Foot Pronation
Abstract:
Low-dye taping (LDT) is commonly used for treating foot problems, such as plantar fasciitis, and supporting foot arch for runners and non-athletes patients with pes planus. The potential negative impact of pronated feet leading to tibial and femoral internal rotation via the entire kinetic chain reaction was postulated and identified. The changed lower limb biomechanics potentially leading to poor activation of hip and knee stabilizers, such as gluteus maximus and medius, may associate with higher risk of knee injuries including patellofemoral pain syndrome and ligamentous sprain in many team sports players. It is therefore speculated that foot arch correction with LDT might enhance the use of gluteal muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of applying LDT on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of superior gluteus maximus (SGMax), inferior gluteus maximus (IGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and tibialis anterior (TA) during double-leg squat. 12 male collegiate basketball players (age: 21.72.5 years; body fat: 12.43.6%; navicular drop: 13.72.7mm) with at least three years regular basketball training experience participated in this study. Participants were excluded if they had recent history of lower limb injuries, over 16.6% body fat and lesser than 10mm drop in navicular drop (ND) test. Recruited subjects visited the laboratory once for the within-subject crossover study. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) tests on all selected muscles were performed in randomized order followed by sEMG test on double-leg squat during LDT and non-LDT conditions in counterbalanced order. SGMax, IGMax, GMed and TA activities during the entire 2-second concentric and 2-second eccentric phases were normalized and interpreted as %MVIC. The magnitude of the difference between taped and non-taped conditions of each muscle was further assessed via standardized effect90% confidence intervals (CI) with non-clinical magnitude-based inference. Paired samples T-test showed a significant decrease (4.71.4mm) in ND (95% CI: 3.8, 5.6; p < 0.05) while no significant difference was observed between taped and non-taped conditions in sEMG tests for all muscles and contractions (p > 0.05). On top of traditional significant testing, magnitude-based inference showed possibly increase in IGMax activity (small standardized effect: 0.270.44), likely increase in GMed activity (small standardized effect: 0.340.34) and possibly increase in TA activity (small standardized effect: 0.220.29) during eccentric phase. It is speculated that the decrease of navicular drop supported by LDT application could potentially enhance the use of inferior gluteus maximus and gluteus medius especially during eccentric phase in this study. As the eccentric phase of double-leg squat is an important component of landing activities in basketball, further studies on the onset and amount of gluteal activation during jumping and landing activities with LDT are recommended. Since both hip and knee kinematics were not measured in this study, the underlying cause of the observed increase in gluteal activation during squat after LDT is inconclusive. In this regard, the investigation of relationships between LDT application, ND, hip and knee kinematics, and gluteal muscle activity during sports specific jumping and landing tasks should be focused in the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
515
96657
The Use of Global Positioning Systems to Evaluate the Effect of Protein and Carbohydrate Supplementation on Collegiate Soccer Performance
Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the effect of concurrent nutritional supplementation on soccer performance as players ingested either carbohydrate CHO (52 g of Cytocarb Maltodextrin) or a combined carbohydrate and protein PRO (Muscle Milk Pro Series 17g CHO + 50 g PRO liquid) supplement. Twelve male, junior college soccer players (age: 18 ± 6 years, wt. 73.3 ± 8.6 kg) completed three trials wearing global positioning systems (GPS) to measure total running distance and sprinting distance during soccer simulation games. The first match simulation was a baseline match with no supplementation. One hour prior to the second match, simulation players were randomly assigned to one of two supplemental groups CHO or CHO + PRO. A repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction revealed a statistically significant increase in the total distance run for the CHO supplementation group in comparison to the CHO + PRO group (10.19 ± .200 km vs. 9.77± .194km, p = .035). Although the total running distance was meaningfully influenced by the supplementation, the pattern of response for total sprinting distance was not influenced by supplementation. There was a decline in sprinting distance and total running distance from first half to second half, both for the control (M = -0.01 km, SD = 0.17) and CHO supplementation group (-0.04 km, SD = .19), although these differences were not statistically meaningful. There was a positive correlation between sprinting distance and total distance, which was statistically significant (r = -.514, n = 36, p = .01) In conclusion, supplementation influenced the pattern of activity and demonstrated between-trial differences.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
514
95704
The Effect of Modified Posterior Shoulder Stretching Exercises on Posterior Shoulder Tightness, Shoulder Pain, and Dysfunction in Patients with Subacromial Impingement
Abstract:
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the Wilk’s modified two different stretching exercises on posterior shoulder tightness, pain, and dysfunction in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). Method: This study was carried out on 67 patients who have more than 15° difference in shoulder internal rotation range of motion between two sides and had been diagnosed as SIS. Before treatment, all patients were randomly assigned into three groups. Standard physiotherapy programme was applied to the Group 3 (n=23), standard physiotherapy program with Wilk’s modified cross-body stretching exercises were applied to Group 1 (n=22), and standard physiotherapy program with Wilk’s modified sleeper stretching exercises were applied to Group 2 (n= 23). All the patients received 20 sessions of physiotherapy during 4 weeks, 5 days in a week by a physiotherapist. The patients continued their exercises at home at the weekends. Pain severity, shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder tightness, upper extremity functionality with Constant and Murley Score (CMS) and disability level with The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (QuickDASH) were evaluated before and after physiotherapy programme. Results: Before treatment, demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in groups and there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05). It was determined that pain severity decreased, shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder tightness, upper extremity functionality, and disability were improved after physiotherapy in both groups (p < 0.05). Group 1 and 2 had better results in terms of reduction of pain severity during activity, increase in shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder mobility and upper extremity functionality and improvement in upper extremity disability, compared to Group 3 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Modified posterior shoulder stretching exercises in addition to standard physiotherapy programme is more effective for reduction of pain during activity, to improve shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder mobility, and upper extremity functionality in patients with SIS compared to standard physiotherapy programme alone.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
513
95515
Design and Biomechanical Analysis of a Transtibial Prosthesis for Cyclists of the Colombian Team Paralympic
Abstract:
The training of cilsitas with some type of disability finds in the technological development an indispensable ally, generating every day advances to contribute to the quality of life allowing to maximize the capacities of the athletes. The performance of a cyclist depends on physiological and biomechanical factors, such as aerodynamic profile, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, pedaling systems, type of competition, among others. This study particularly focuses on the description of the dynamic model of a transtibial prosthesis for Paralympic cyclists. To make the model, two points are chosen: in the radius centers of rotation of the plate and pinion of the track bicycle. The parametric scheme of the track bike represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom due to the displacement in X - Y of each of the reference points of the angles of the curve profile β, cant of the velodrome α and the angle of rotation of the connecting rod φ. The force exerted on the crank of the bicycle varies according to the angles of the curve profile β, the velodrome cant of α and the angle of rotation of the crank φ. The behavior is analyzed through the Matlab R2015a software. The average strength that a cyclist exerts on the cranks of a bicycle is 1,607.1 N, the Paralympic cyclist must perform a force on each crank about 803.6 N. Once the maximum force associated with the movement has been determined, it is continued to the dynamic modeling of the transtibial prosthesis that represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom with displacement in X - Y in relation to the angles of rotation of the hip π, knee γ and ankle λ. Subsequently, an analysis of the kinematic behavior of the prosthesis was carried out by means of SolidWorks 2017 and Matlab R2015a, which was used to model and analyze the variation of the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the λ prosthesis. The reaction forces generated in the prosthesis were performed on the ankle of the prosthesis, performing the summation of forces on the X and Y axes. The same analysis was then applied to the tibia of the prosthesis and the socket. The reaction force of the parts of the prosthesis varies according to the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the prosthesis λ. Therefore, it can be deduced that the maximum forces experienced by the ankle of the prosthesis is 933.6 N on the X axis and 2.160.5 N on the Y axis. Finally, it is calculated that the maximum forces experienced by the tibia and the socket of the transtibial prosthesis in high performance competitions is 3.266 N on the X axis and 1.357 N on the Y axis. In conclusion, it can be said that the performance of the cyclist depends on several physiological factors, linked to biomechanics of training. The influence of biomechanical factors such as aerodynamics, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, or non-circular pedaling systems on the cyclist performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
512
95285
Consumption of Animal and Vegetable Protein on Muscle Power in Road Cyclists from 18 to 20 Years in Bogota, Colombia
Abstract:
Athletes who usually use protein supplements, are those who practice strength and power sports, whose goal is to achieve a large muscle mass. However, it has also been explored in sports or endurance activities such as cycling, and where despite requiring high power, prominent muscle development can impede good competitive performance due to the determinant of body mass for good performance of the athlete body. This research shows, the effect with protein supplements establishes a protein - muscle mass ratio, although in a lesser proportion the relationship between protein types and muscle power. Thus, we intend to explore as a first approximation, the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the intake of two protein supplements from different sources. The aim of the study was to describe the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the consumption of animal protein (AP) and vegetable protein (VP) in four route cyclists from 18 to 20 years of the Bogota cycling league. The methodological design of this study is quantitative, with a non-probabilistic sampling, based on a pre-experimental model. The jumping power was evaluated before and after the intervention by means of the squat jump test (SJ), Counter movement jump (CMJ) and Abalacov (AB). Cyclists consumed a drink with whey protein and a soy isolate after training four times a week for three months. The amount of protein in each cyclist, was calculated according to body weight (0.5 g / kg of muscle mass). The results show that subjects who consumed PV improved muscle strength and landing strength. In contrast, the power and landing force decreased for subjects who consumed PA. For the group that consumed PV, the increase was positive at 164.26 watts, 135.70 watts and 33.96 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. While for PA, the differences of the medians were negative at -32.29 watts, -82.79 watts and -143.86 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. The differences of the medians in the AB jump were positive for both the PV (121.61 Newton) and PA (454.34 Newton) cases, however, the difference was greater for PA. For the SJ jump, the difference for the PA cases was 371.52 Newton, while for the PV cases the difference was negative -448.56 Newton, so the difference was greater in the SJ jump for PA. In jump CMJ, the differences of the medians were negative for the cases of PA and PV, being -7.05 for PA and - 958.2 for PV. So the difference was greater for PA. The conclusion of this study shows that serum protein supplementation showed no improvement in muscle power in the lower limbs of the cyclists studied, which could suggest that whey protein does not have a beneficial effect on performance in terms of power, either, showed an impact on body composition. In contrast, supplementation with soy isolate showed positive effects on muscle power, body.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
511
95284
Comparison of Effects over the Autonomic Nervous System When Using Force Training and Interval Training in Indoor Cycling with University Students
Abstract:
In the last decade interval training (IT) has gained importance when is compare with strength training (ST). However, there are few studies analyzing the impact of these training over the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This work has aimed to compare the activity of the autonomic nervous system, when is expose to an IT or ST indoor cycling mode. After approval by the ethics committee, a cross-over clinical trial with 22 healthy participants (age 21 ± 3 years) was implemented. The selection of participants for the groups with sequence force-interval (F-I) and interval-force (I-F) was made randomly with assignation of 11 participants for each group. The temporal series of heart rate was obtained before and after each training using the POLAR TEAM® heart monitor. The evaluation of the ANS was performed with spectral analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) using the fast Fourier transform (Kubios software). A training of 8 weeks in each sequence (4 weeks with each training) with an intermediate period of two weeks of washout was implemented for each group. The power parameter of the HRV in the low frequency band (LF = 0.04-0.15Hz related to the sympathetic nervous system), high frequency (HF = 0.15-0.4Hz, related to the parasympathetic) and LF/HF (with reference to a modulation of parasympathetic over the sympathetic), were calculated. Afterward, the difference between the parameters before and after was realized. Then, to evaluate statistical differences between each training was implemented the method of Wellek (Wellek and Blettner, 2012, Medicine, 109 (15), 276-81). To determine the difference of effect over parasympathetic when FT and IT are used, the T test is implemented obtaining a T value of 0.73 with p-value ≤ 0.1. For the sympathetic was obtained a T of 0.33 with p ≤ 0.1 and for LF/HF the T was 1.44 with a p ≥ 0.1. Then, the carry over effect was evaluated and was not present. Significant changes over autonomic activity with strength or interval training were not observed. However, a modulation of the parasympathetic over the sympathetic can be observed. Probably, these findings should be explained because the sample is little and/or the time of training was insufficient to generate changes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
510
94456
The Effect of 12-Week Pilates Training on Flexibility and Level of Perceived Exertion of Back Muscles among Karate Players
Abstract:
Developing flexibility, by using pilates, would be useful for karate players by reducing the stiffness of muscles and tendons. This study aimed to determine the effects of 12-week pilates training on flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles among karate players. In this experimental study, 29 male karate players (age: 16-18 years) were randomized to pilates (n=15), and control (n=14) groups and the assessments were done in baseline and after 12-week intervention. Both groups completed 12-week of intervention (2 hours of training, 3 times weekly). The experimental group performed 30 minutes pilates within their warm-up and preparation phase, where the control group only attended their usual karate training. Digital backward flexmeter was used to evaluate the trunk extensors flexibility, and digital forward flexmeter was used to measure the trunk flexors flexibility. Borg CR-10 Scale was also used to determine the perceived exertion of back muscles. Independent samples t-test and paired sample t-test were used to analyze the data. There was a significant difference between the mean score of experimental and control groups in the level of backward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05), forward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05) after 12-week intervention. The results of Borg CR-10 scale showed a significant improvement in pilates group (P < 0.05). Karate instructors, coaches, and athletes can integrate pilates exercises with karate training in order to improve the flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
509
93967
Effect of Post Circuit Resistance Exercise Glucose Feeding on Energy and Hormonal Indexes in Plasma and Lymphocyte in Free-Style Wrestlers
Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of glucose feeding on energy and hormonal indexes in plasma and lymphocyte immediately after wrestling – base techniques circuit exercise (WBTCE) in young male freestyle wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers (weight = 75/45 ± 12/92 kg, age = 22/29 ± 0/90 years, BMI = 26/23 ± 2/64 kg/m²) were randomly divided into two groups: control (water), glucose (2 gr per kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately, and 90 minutes of the post-exercise recovery period. Glucose (2 g/kg of body weight, 1W/5V) and water (equal volumes) solutions were given immediately after the second blood sampling. Data were analyzed by using an ANOVA (a repeated measure) and a suitable post hoc test (LSD). A significant decrease was observed in lymphocytes glycogen immediately after exercise (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, increase Lymphocyte glycogen concentration (P < 0.028) than in the control group in 90 min post-exercise. Plasma glucose concentrations increased in all groups immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin concentrations in both groups decreased immediately after exercise, but at 90 min after exercise, its level was significantly increased only in glucose group (P < 0.001). Our results suggested that WBTCE protocol could be affected cellular energy sources and hormonal response. Furthermore, Glucose consumption can increase the lymphocyte glycogen and better energy within the cell.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
508
93966
The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p &le; 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT&ndash;proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
507
93962
The Effects of Menstrual Phase on Upper and Lower Body Anaerobic Performance in College-Aged Women
Abstract:
Introduction: With the rate of female collegiate and professional athletes on the rise in recent decades, fluctuations in physical performance in relation to the menstrual cycle is an important area of study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to compare differences in upper and lower body maximal anaerobic capacities across a single menstrual cycle. Methode: Participants (n=11) met a total of four times; once for familiarization and again on day 1 of menses (follicular phase), day 14 (ovulation), and day 21 (luteal phase) respectively. Upper body power was assessed using a bench press weight of ~50% of the participant’s predetermined 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on a ballistic measurement system and variables included peak force (N), mean force (N), peak power (W), mean power (W), and peak velocity (m/s). Lower body power output was collected using a standard Wingate test. The variables of interest were anaerobic capacity (w/kg), peak power (W), mean power (W), fatigue index (W/s), and total work (J). Result: Statistical significance was not observed (p > 0.05) in any of the aforementioned variables after completing multiple one ways of analyses of variances (ANOVAs) with repeated measures on time. Conclusion: Within the parameters of this research, neither female upper nor lower body power output differed across the menstrual cycle when analyzed using 50% of one repetition (1RM) maximal bench press and the 30-second maximal effort cycle ergometer Wingate test. Therefore, researchers should not alter their subject populations due to the incorrect assumption that power output may be influenced by the menstrual cycle.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
506
93827
Attitude towards Doping of High-Performance Athletes in a Sports Institute of the City of Medellin, Colombia
Abstract:
Introduction: Doping is a prohibited practice in competitive sports with potential adverse effects; therefore, it is crucial to describe the attitudes of athletes towards this behavior and to determine which o these increase the susceptibility to carry out this practice. Objective: To determine the attitude of high-performance athletes towards doping in a sports institute in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study during 2016, with a sample taken to convenience consisting of athletes over 18 years old enrolled in a sports institute of the city of Medellin (Colombia). The athletes filled by themselves the Petroczi and Aidman questionnaire: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) adapted to the Spanish language by Morente-Sánchez et al. This scale has 17 items with likert answer options, with a score ranging from 1 to 6, with a higher score indicating a stronger tendency towards doping practices. Results: 112 athletes were included with an average age of 21.6 years old, a 60% of them were male and the most frequent sports were karate 17%, judo 12.5% and athletics 9.8%. The average score of the questionnaire was 35.5 points of a 102 possible points. The lowest score was obtained in the following items: Is Doping necessary 1,4 and Doping isn’t cheating, everyone does it 1,5. Conclusion: In our population, there is a low tendency towards doping practices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
505
93679
Predictor Factors in Predictive Model of Soccer Talent Identification among Male Players Aged 14 to 17 Years
Abstract:
The longitudinal study is conducted to identify predictive factors of soccer talent among male players aged 14 to 17 years. Convenience sampling involving elite respondents (n=20) and sub-elite respondents (n=20) male soccer players. Descriptive statistics were reported as frequencies and percentages. The inferential statistical analysis is used to report the status of reliability, independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and multiple regression analysis. Generally, there are differences in mean of height, muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, task orientation, cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, juggling skills, short pass skills, long pass skills, dribbling skills, and shooting skills for 20 elite players and sub-elite players. Accordingly, there was a significant difference between pre and post-test for thirteen variables of height, weight, fat percentage, muscle strength, muscle endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, BMI, task orientation, juggling skills, short pass skills, a long pass skills, and dribbling skills. Based on the first predictive factors (physical), second predictive factors (fitness), third predictive factors (psychological), and fourth predictive factors (skills in playing football) pledged to the soccer talent; four multiple regression models were produced. The first predictive factor (physical) contributed 53.5 percent, supported by height and percentage of fat in soccer talents. The second predictive factor (fitness) contributed 63.2 percent and the third predictive factors (psychology) contributed 66.4 percent of soccer talent. The fourth predictive factors (skills) contributed 59.0 percent of soccer talent. The four multiple regression models could be used as a guide for talent scouting for soccer players of the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
504
93133
Effect of Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion among Various Games at Different Level of Participation
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: In this cutting-edge period of rivalry the mental planning of a group is as much essential as educating the diverse abilities of amusement on the logical lines. The groups are readied to play the recreations, as well as to win the diversions. What's more, to win the amusement, it isn't just the capability in the aptitudes which bring triumph yet more essential is the soul of the players with which they play and play out their best in the opposition. Inside a short traverse of time, sports brain research has taken monster strides. Not it claims to be an undeniable teach as in no preparation of sportsman is viewed as total without satisfactory accentuation on "mental molding" which plays a critical part in focused games. Aggressive games reflect social yearnings of a people and they have now turned into an inextricable past all things considered. Amusement sports are principally worried about man's prosperity whereas focused games plan to gauge and upgrade human 'possibility and execution.' Procedure and Methodology: Subjects for data collection were drawn from the different universities. The sample was consisting of 100 Male. Subjects were randomly selected from two different levels of performance from selected sports disciplines. Further the sample was divided into three different games category i.e. Racket Games and Combat Games, from each category a sample of 50 were taken to collect the data from different level of participation. Selection Of Variables: Locus of control, Self efficacy and Group Cohesion. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been used and follow up test conducted to evaluate pairwise difference among the adjusted means for different groups. Results: The results indicates that a significant difference was found in Locus of Control, Self Efficacy and Group Cohesion among Various games at different level of Participation for Badminton as the P-value is .000, which is less than 0.05, so the null hypothesis of no difference among the means of three groups was rejected at 5% level and indicates that a significant difference was found in Locus of Control, Self Efficacy and Group Cohesion among Various games at different level of Participation for Wrestling as the P-value is .000, which is less than 0.05, so the null hypothesis of no difference among the means of three groups was rejected at 5% level. Therefore, to know which of the specific groups differed among three Parameters (i.e., found in Locus of Control, Self Efficacy, and Group Cohesion).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
503
92841
Football Chants in Israel: Persistent Values and Changing Trends
Authors:
Abstract:
Fans’ chants in sports stadium have, over the years, become an integral part of the spectator experience. While chants add color, atmosphere, and a demonstration of fans’ support for their team, chants also play a significant role in defining fans’ perceptions of their team’s identity and its differentiation from other teams. An analysis of football chants may therefore shed light on fans’ deep-seated worldviews of their own role, their team, the sport in general, and even life itself. This study, based on an analysis of Israeli football chants over years, identifies key changing and stable perceptions of football fans. Overall 94 chants collected, over a period of five decades. After a pilot study, the chants organized in two groups (one covering 1970-1999 and the other 2000-2016). The chants analyzed through qualitative content analysis in order to understand fans values as a reflection of the society. Findings point to several values that have remained stable over years, including fans’ attitudes toward their team and its rivals, and their attitude toward God. On the other hand, recently emerging phenomena such as radicalization of hatred toward the commercialization of sport reflect social and cultural changes, both in and outside the world of sport.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
502
92710
3D Biomechanical Analysis in Shot Put Techniques of International Throwers
Abstract:
Aim: The research aims at doing a 3 Dimension biomechanical analysis in the shot put techniques of International throwers to evaluate the performance. Research Method: The researcher adopted the descriptive method and the data was subjected to calculate by using Pearson’s product moment correlation for the correlation of the biomechanical parameters with the performance of shot put throw. In all the analyses, the 5% critical level (p ≤ 0.05) was considered to indicate statistical significance. Research Sample: Eight (N=08) international shot putters using rotational/glide technique in male category was selected as subjects for the study. The researcher used the following methods and tools to obtain reliable measurements the instrument which was used for the purpose of present study namely the tesscorn slow-motion camera, specialized motion analyzer software, 7.260 kg Shot Put (for a male shot-putter) and steel tape. All measurement pertaining to the biomechanical variables was taken by the principal investigator so that data collected for the present study was considered reliable. Results: The finding of the study showed that negative significant relationship between the angular velocity right shoulder, acceleration distance at pre flight (-0.70), (-0.72) respectively were obtained, the angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at flight (0.81), (0.75) and (0.71) respectively were obtained, the angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at transition phase (0.77), (0.79) respectively were obtained and angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder, release velocity shot, angle of release, height of release, projected distance and measured distance as the values (0.76), (0.77), (-0.83), (-0.79), (-0.77), (0.99) and (1.00) were found higher than the tabulated value at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, there exists an insignificant relationship between the performance of shot put and acceleration distance [m], angular displacement shot, C.G at release and horizontal release distance on the technique of shot put.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
501
92495
The Value of Dynamic Priorities in Motor Learning between Some Basic Skills in Beginner's Basketball, U14 Years
Abstract:
The goals of this study are to find ways to determine the value of dynamic priorities in motor learning between some basic skills in beginner’s basketball (U14), based on skills of shooting and defense against the shooter. Our role is to expose the statistical results in compare & correlation between samples of study in tests skills for the shooting and defense against the shooter. In order to achieve this objective, we have chosen 40 boys in middle school represented in four groups, two controls group’s (CS1, CS2) ,and two experimental groups (ES1: training on skill of shooting, skill of defense against the shooter, ES2: experimental group training on skill of defense against the shooter, skill of shooting). For the statistical analysis, we have chosen (F & T) tests for the statistical differences, and test (R) for the correlation analysis. Based on the analyses statistics, we confirm the importance of classifying priorities of basketball basic skills during the motor learning process. Admit that the benefits of experimental group training are to economics in the time needed for acquiring new motor kinetic skills in basketball. In the priority of ES2 as successful dynamic motor learning method to enhance the basic skills among beginner’s basketball.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
500
92334
Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Improving Performances of Blind Judo
Abstract:
Identifying, structuring, and racking the most important factors related to improving athletes&rsquo; performances could pave the way for improve training system. The purpose of this study was to identify the relative importance factors to improve performance of the of judo athletes with visual impairments, including blindness by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). After reviewing the literature, the relative importance of factors affecting performance of the blind judo was selected. A group of expert reviewed the first draft of the questionnaires, and then finally selected performance factors were classified into the major categories of techniques, physical fitness, and psychological categories. Later, a pre-selected experts group was asked to review the final version of questionnaire and confirm the priories of performance factors. The order of priority was determined by performing pairwise comparisons using Expert Choice 2000. Results indicated that "grappling" (.303) and "throwing" (.234) were the most important lower hierarchy factors for blind judo skills. In addition, the most important physical factors affecting performance were "muscular strength and endurance" (.238). Further, among other psychological factors "competitive anxiety" (.393) was important factor that affects performance. It is important to offer psychological skills training to reduce anxiety of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness, so they can compete in their optimal states. These findings offer insights into what should be considered when determining factors to improve performance of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
499
92297
The Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Workshop in Increasing Knowledge and Understanding in Grass-Root Youth Coaches
Abstract:
There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention training for youth players but no data are available on the knowledge and understanding of deliverers of such programmes at grass root level. To increase adoption and adherence to such programmes coach knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine grass-root coaches knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. 68 grass root coaches (18 females and 50 males) who were attending a one-day injury prevention workshop completed a modified validated questionnaire exploring knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. Only 59% of coaches agreed that youth players are at a high risk of suffering an injury. There were high levels of agreement that injuries can have negative impacts on team performance (75%) and can cause physical problems in later life (85%), however only around half of coaches felt that injuries affect youth players current quality of life (59%). There was strong agreement that it is possible to prevent injuries in youth players (84%), but coaches were generally unaware of programs to help prevent injuries (84%), and only 9% used some form of injury prevention program. Despite this, nearly all coaches felt that their coaching could benefit from a greater understanding of growth and maturation (91%), injury prevention programmes (91%) and specific exercises (93%) for youth athletes. 17% of coaches rated their knowledge of injury prevention as good/very good at the start of the workshop and this increased to 94% at the end of the workshop. 62% of coaches identified their attitude towards injury prevention as indifferent at the start of the workshop compared with only 1% at the end. Only 14% of coaches at the start of the workshop were confident to deliver an injury prevention session but 83% stated they were confident by the end of the workshop. Finally, 98% of coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the confidence and the knowledge to deliver an injury prevention session and 98% suggested that they would implement injury prevention into their coaching. These data suggest that there is a lack of understanding of grass root coaches that children are a high-risk group for injuries, and that such injuries impact on current quality of life. Despite understanding that injuries can be prevented most grass root coaches do not have the knowledge to implement injury prevention into their coaching and very few do. There is a common consensus amongst these coaches that a greater understanding of such programmes will enhance their coaching. The injury prevention workshop appears to have increased the knowledge and changed the attitude of coaches towards injury prevention. All coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the tools to adopt, implement and deliver injury prevention in their coaching. These data highlight that there is a clear need for education regarding injury risk and prevention to be embedded within the coach education pathway, especially at grass root level.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
498
92263
Physical Activity and Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Investigation into the Relationship of Specific Physical Activity Domains and Mental Well-Being
Abstract:
Background: Research indicates that physical activity (PA) protects us from developing mental disorders. The knowledge regarding optimal domain, intensity, type, context, and amount of PA promotion for the prevention of mental disorders is sparse and incoherent. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between PA domains and mental well-being, and whether associations vary by domain, amount, context, intensity, and type of PA. Methods: 310 individuals (age: 25 yrs., SD 7; 73% female) completed a questionnaire on personal patterns of their PA behaviour (IPQA) and their mental health (Centre of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, the subjective physical well-being (FEW-16)). Linear and multiple regression were used for analysis. Findings: Individuals who met the PA recommendation (N=269) reported higher scores on subjective physical well-being than those who did not meet the PA recommendations (N=41). Whilst vigorous intensity PA predicts subjective well-being (β = .122, p = .028), it also correlates with depression. The more vigorously physically active a person is, the higher the depression score (β = .127, p = .026). The strongest impact of PA on mental well-being can be seen in the transport domain. A positive linear correlation on subjective physical well-being (β =.175, p = .002), and a negative linear correlation for anxiety (β =-.142, p = .011) and depression (β = -.164, p = .004) was found. Multiple regression analysis indicates similar results: Time spent in active transport on the bicycle significantly lowers anxiety and depression scores and enhances subjective physical well-being. The more time a participant spends using the bicycle for transport, the lower the depression (β = -.143, p = .013) and anxiety scores (β = -.111,p = .050). Conclusions: Meeting the PA recommendations enhances subjective physical well-being. Active transport has a substantial impact on mental well-being. Findings have implications for policymakers, employers, public health experts and civil society. A stronger focus on the promotion and protection of health through active transport is recommended. Inter-sectoral exchange, outside the health sector, is required. Health systems must engage other sectors in adopting policies that maximize possible health gains.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
497
91649
Effect of Pregnenolone Supplement on Biological Variables after Plyometric Training for Volleyball Players
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of 100 mg/d Pregnenolone on biological variables after plyometric training for volleyball players. Methods: 15 male volleyball players participated in this study. Serum levels of testosterone, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate, and glucose were measured before and post-exercise. Results: Testosterone was not altered, while creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate, and glucose levels significantly decreased. It is recommended to use Pregnenolone administration to decreased muscle damage and delayed fatigue for volleyball players after plyometric training. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that oral Pregnenolone administration of 100 mg/d might decrease muscle damage and delayed fatigue which may affect positively the volleyball players after a plyometric training bout.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
496
91648
Effect of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, IGF₁, and Physical Performance of Volleyball Players
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to assess the effect of resistance training on muscle strength and physical performance of volleyball players of Physical Education College, Helwan University. The researcher used the experimental method of pre-post measurements of one group of 10 volleyball players. The execution of the program was through the period of 12/8/2018 to 12/10/2018; included 24 training units, 3 training units weekly for 8 weeks. The training program revealed an improvement in post measurement of muscle strength, IGF₁ (insulin-like growth factor 1), and physical performance of players. It may be concluded that the resistance training may include changes in hormones and muscle fibers leading to hypertrophy of the muscle and physical performance. It is recommended to use the results of the study in rationing the loads and training programs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
495
91287
Profiles of Physical Fitness and Enjoyment among Children: Associations with Sport Participation
Abstract:
Background and study aim: Most of the people assume that someone will perform well on something they like. A tool evaluating how much an individual likes an activity can also be guidance for talent detection and to keep youngster doing what they like as a recreational sport. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between physical performances with something that they like. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 558 pupils age between 8 years to 11 years were tested using test battery containing 7 physical performance tests (I Do) compared to a pictorial scale containing 7 pictures (I Like) referring to the physical performance tests. Pearson correlation was computed to investigate the relation between the actual performance and the enjoyment. Results: Moderate significant correlations between each of the respective I Do, and I Like components were found. It appears that the correlation between the endurance items is higher as compared to the other six characteristics. Rerunning the analysis for age and sex groups separately resulted in only one significant correlation across all age group, namely between the evaluations of cardiovascular endurance. Conclusions: Information on enjoyment appears to be a useful and cost-effective addition to current multidimensional test batteries in a sport. By providing a clear picture on activities the young child or athlete likes or dislikes, attrition can be increased if a child starts his ‘career’ in a sport that alludes to skills or tasks he/she likes. This enjoyment will increase the intrinsic motivation, which is beneficial for sustained sports participation as well as for avoiding dropout in promising young athletes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
494
91097
Evaluating the Factors Influencing the Efficiency and Usage of Public Sports Services in a Chinese Province
Abstract:
The efficiency of public sports service of prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang from 2008 to 2012 was evaluated by applying the DEA method, then its influencing factors were also analyzed through Tobit model. Upon analysis, the results revealed the following; (i) the change in average efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang present a smooth uptrend and at a relatively high level from 2008 to 2012 (ii) generally, the productivity of public sports service in Zhejiang improved from 2008 to 2012, the productivity efficiency varied greatly in different years, and the regional difference of production efficiency increased. (iii) The correlations for urbanization rate, aging rate, per capita GDP and the population density were significantly positive with the public sports service efficiency in Zhejiang, of which the most significant was the aging rate. However, the population density and per capita GDP had less impact on the efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang. In addition, whether the efficiency of public sports services in different areas in Zhejiang reciprocates to overall benefits in public wellbeing in both rural and urban settings is still arguable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
493
90721
Elevated Systemic Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress and Cerebrovascular Function in Professional Rugby Union Players: The Link to Impaired Cognition
Abstract:
Introduction and aims: Sports-related concussion (SRC) represents a significant and growing public health concern in rugby union, yet remains one of the least understood injuries facing the health community today. Alongside increasing SRC incidence rates, there is concern that prior recurrent concussion may contribute to long-term neurologic sequelae in later-life. This may be due to an accelerated decline in cerebral perfusion, a major risk factor for neurocognitive decline and neurodegeneration, though the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. The present study hypothesised that recurrent concussion in current professional rugby union players would result in elevated systemic oxidative-nitrosative stress, reflected by a free radical-mediated reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and impaired cerebrovascular and cognitive function. Methodology: A longitudinal study design was adopted across the 2017-2018 rugby union season. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of South Wales Ethics Committee. Data collection is ongoing, and therefore the current report documents result from the pre-season and first half of the in-season data collection. Participants were initially divided into two subgroups; 23 professional rugby union players (aged 26 ± 5 years) and 22 non-concussed controls (27 ± 8 years). Pre-season measurements were performed for cerebrovascular function (Doppler ultrasound of middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) in response to hypocapnia/normocapnia/hypercapnia), cephalic venous concentrations of the ascorbate radical (A•-, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), NO (ozone-based chemiluminescence) and cognition (neuropsychometric tests). Notational analysis was performed to assess contact in the rugby group throughout each competitive game. Results: 1001 tackles and 62 injuries, including three concussions were observed across the first half of the season. However, no associations were apparent between number of tackles and any injury type (P > 0.05). The rugby group expressed greater oxidative stress as indicated by increased A•- (P < 0.05 vs. control) and a subsequent decrease in NO bioavailability (P < 0.05 vs. control). The rugby group performed worse in the Ray Auditory Verbal Learning Test B (RAVLT-B, learning, and memory) and the Grooved Pegboard test using both the dominant and non-dominant hands (visuomotor coordination, P < 0.05 vs. control). There were no between-group differences in cerebral perfusion at baseline (MCAv: 54 ± 13 vs. 59 ± 12, P > 0.05). Likewise, no between-group differences in CVRCO2Hypo (2.58 ± 1.01 vs. 2.58 ± 0.75, P > 0.05) or CVRCO2Hyper (2.69 ± 1.07 vs. 3.35 ± 1.28, P > 0.05) were observed. Conclusion: The present study identified that the rugby union players are characterized by impaired cognitive function subsequent to elevated systemic-oxidative-nitrosative stress. However, this appears to be independent of any functional impairment in cerebrovascular function. Given the potential long-term trajectory towards accelerated cognitive decline in populations exposed to SRC, prophylaxis to increase NO bioavailability warrants consideration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
492
90717
The Effect of Hypertrophy Strength Training Using Traditional Set vs. Cluster Set on Maximum Strength and Sprinting Speed
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training Cluster set-method compared to traditional set-method 30 m sprinting time and maximum strength in squats and bench-press. Thirteen Physical Education students, 7 males and 6 females between the age of 19-28 years old were recruited. The students were random divided in three groups. Traditional set group (TSG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (±SD) (22.3 ± 1.5 years), body mass (79.2 ± 15.4 kg) and height (177.5 ± 11.3 cm). Cluster set group (CSG) consist of 3 males and 2 females aged (22.4 ± 3.29 years), body mass (81.0 ± 24.0 kg) and height (179.2 ± 11.8 cm) and a control group (CG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (21.5 ± 2.4 years), body mass (82.1 ± 17.4 kg) and height (175.5 ± 6.7 cm). The intervention consisted of performing squat and bench press at 70% of 1RM (twice a week) for 8 weeks using 10 repetition and 4 sets. Two types of strength-training methods were used , cluster set (CS) where the participants (CSG) performed 2 reps 5 times with a 10 s recovery in between reps and 50 s recovery between sets, and traditional set (TS) where the participants (TSG) performed 10 reps each set with 90 s recovery in between sets. The pre-tests and post-tests conducted were 1 RM in both squats and bench press, and 10 and 30 m sprint time. The 1RM test were performed with Eleiko XF barbell (20 kg), Eleiko weight plates, rack and bench from Hammerstrength. The speed test was measured with the Brower speed trap II testing system (Brower Timing Systems, Utah, USA). The participants received an individualized training program based on the pre-test of the 1RM. In addition, a mid-term test of 1RM was carried out to adjust training intensity. Each training session were supervised by the researchers. Beast sensors (Milano, Italy) were also used to monitor and quantify the training load for the participants. All groups had a statistical significant improvement in bench press 1RM (TSG 1RM from 56.3 ± 28.9 to 66 ± 28.5 kg; CSG 1RM from 69.8 ± 33.5 to 77.2 ± 34.1 kg and CG 1RM from 67.8 ± 26.6 to 72.2 ± 29.1 kg), whereas only the TSG (1RM from 84.3 ± 26.8 to 114.3 ± 26.5 kg) and CSG (1RM from 100.4 ± 33.9 to 129 ± 35.1 kg) had a statistical significant improvement in Squats 1RM (P < 0.05). However, a between groups examination reveals that there were no marked differences in 1RM squat performance between TSG and CSG (P > 0.05) and both groups had a marked improvements compared to the CG (P < 0.05). On the other hand, no differences between groups were observed in Bench press 1RM. The within groups results indicate that none of the groups had any marked improvement in the distances from 0-10 m and 10-30 m except the CSG which had a notable improvement in the distance from 10-30 m (-0.07 s; P < 0.05). Furthermore, no differences in sprinting abilities were observed between groups. The results from this investigation indicate that traditional set strength training at 70% of 1RM gave close results compared to Cluster set strength training at the same intensity. However, the results indicate that the cluster set had an effect on flying time (10-30 m) indicating that the velocity at which those repetitions were performed could be the explanation factor of this this improvement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
491
90681
The Effect of Different Strength Training Methods on Muscle Strength, Body Composition and Factors Affecting Endurance Performance
Abstract:
The main purpose of this study was to measure the effect of two different strength training methods on muscle strength, muscle mass, fat mass and endurance factors. Fourteen physical education students accepted to participate in this study. The participants were then randomly divided into three groups, traditional training group (TTG), cluster training group (CTG) and control group (CG). TTG consisted of 4 participants aged ( ± SD) (22.3 ± 1.5 years), body mass (79.2 ± 15.4 kg) and height (178.3 ± 11.9 cm). CTG consisted of 5 participants aged (22.2 ± 3.5 years), body mass (81.0 ± 24.0 kg) and height (180.2 ± 12.3 cm). CG consisted of 5 participants aged (22 ± 2.8 years), body mass (77 ± 19 kg) and height (174 ± 6.7 cm). The participants underwent a hypertrophy strength training program twice a week consisting of 4 sets of 10 reps at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), using barbell squat and barbell bench press for 8 weeks. The CTG performed 2 x 5 reps using 10 s recovery in between repetitions and 50 s recovery between sets, while TTG performed 4 sets of 10 reps with 90 s recovery in between sets. Pre- and post-tests were administrated to assess body composition (weight, muscle mass, and fat mass), 1RM (bench press and barbell squat) and a laboratory endurance test (Bruce Protocol). Instruments used to collect the data were Tanita BC-601 scale (Tanita, Illinois, USA), Woodway treadmill (Woodway, Wisconsin, USA) and Vyntus CPX breath-to-breath system (Jaeger, Hoechberg, Germany). Analysis was conducted at all measured variables including time to peak VO2, peak VO2, heart rate (HR) at peak VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at peak VO2, and number of breaths per minute. The results indicate an increase in 1RM performance after 8 weeks of training. The change in 1RM squat was for the TTG = 30 ± 3.8 kg, CTG = 28.6 ± 8.3 kg and CG = 10.3 ± 13.8 kg. Similarly, the change in 1RM bench press was for the TTG = 9.8 ± 2.8 kg, CTG = 7.4 ± 3.4 kg and CG = 4.4 ± 3.4 kg. The within-group analysis from the oxygen consumption measured during the incremental exercise indicated that the TTG had only a statistical significant increase in their RER from 1.16 ± 0.04 to 1.23 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The CTG had a statistical significant improvement in their HR at peak VO2 from 186 ± 24 to 191 ± 12 Beats Per Minute (P < 0.05) and their RER at peak VO2 from 1.11 ± 0.06 to 1.18 ±0.05 (P < 0.05). Finally, the CG had only a statistical significant increase in their RER at peak VO2 from 1.11 ± 0.07 to 1.21 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The between-group analysis showed no statistical differences between all groups in all the measured variables from the oxygen consumption test during the incremental exercise including changes in muscle mass, fat mass, and weight (kg). The results indicate a similar effect of hypertrophy strength training irrespective of the methods of the training used on untrained subjects. Because there were no notable changes in body-composition measures, the results suggest that the improvements in performance observed in all groups is most probably due to neuro-muscular adaptation to training.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
490
90417
Aerobic Training Combined with Nutritional Guidance as an Effective Strategy for Improving Aerobic Fitness and Reducing BMI in Inactive Adults
Abstract:
Overweight and obesity can lead to numerous health problems, and inactive people are more often overweight and obese compared to physically active people. Even a moderate weight loss can improve cardiovascular and endocrine disease risk factors. The aim of the study was to examine to what extent overweight and obese adults starting up with two weekly intensive running sessions had an increase in aerobic capacity, reduction in BMI and waist circumference and changes in body composition after 33 weeks of training. An additional aim was to see if there were differences between participants who, in addition to training, also received lifestyle modification education, including practical cooking (nutritional guidance and training group (NTG =32)) compared to those who were not given any nutritional guidance (training group (TG=40)). 72 participants (49 women), mean age of 46.1 ( ± 10.4) were included. Inclusion Criteria: Previous untrained and inactive adults in all age groups, BMI ≥ 25, desire to become fitter and reduce their BMI. The two weekly supervised training sessions consisted of 10 min warm up followed by 20 to 21 min effective interval running where the participants’ heart rate were between 82 and 92% of hearth rate maximum. The sessions were completed with ten minutes whole body strength training. Measures of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and 3000m running time were performed at the start of the project (T1), after 15 weeks (T2) and at the end of the project (T3). Measurements of fat percentage, muscle mass, and visceral fat were performed at T1 and T3. Twelve participants (9 women) from both groups, who all scored around average on the 3000 m pre-test, were chosen to do a VO₂max test at T1 and T3. The NTG were given ten theoretical sessions (80 minutes each) and eight practical cooking sessions (140 minutes each). There was a significant reduction in bout groups for WC and BMI from T1 to T2. There was not found any further reduction from T2 to T3. Although not significant, NTG reduced their WC more than TG. For both groups, the percentage reduction in WC was similar to the reduction in BMI. There was a decrease in fat percentage in both groups from pre-test to post-test, whereas, for muscle mass, a small, but insignificant increase was observed for both groups. There was a decrease in 3000m running time for both groups from T1 to T2 as well as from T2 to T3. The difference between T2 and T3 was not statistically significant. The 12 participants who tested VO₂max had an increase of 2.86 ( ± 3.84) mlkg⁻¹ min⁻¹ in VO₂max and 3:02 min (± 2:01 min) reduction in running time over 3000 m from T1 until T3. There was a strong, negative correlation between the two variables. The study shows that two intensive running session in 33 weeks can increase aerobic fitness and reduce BMI, WC and fat percent in inactive adults. Cost guidance in addition to training will give additional effect.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):