Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53967

Sport and Health Sciences

499
96657
The Use of Global Positioning Systems to Evaluate the Effect of Protein and Carbohydrate Supplementation on Collegiate Soccer Performance
Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the effect of concurrent nutritional supplementation on soccer performance as players ingested either carbohydrate CHO (52 g of Cytocarb Maltodextrin) or a combined carbohydrate and protein PRO (Muscle Milk Pro Series 17g CHO + 50 g PRO liquid) supplement. Twelve male, junior college soccer players (age: 18 ± 6 years, wt. 73.3 ± 8.6 kg) completed three trials wearing global positioning systems (GPS) to measure total running distance and sprinting distance during soccer simulation games. The first match simulation was a baseline match with no supplementation. One hour prior to the second match, simulation players were randomly assigned to one of two supplemental groups CHO or CHO + PRO. A repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction revealed a statistically significant increase in the total distance run for the CHO supplementation group in comparison to the CHO + PRO group (10.19 ± .200 km vs. 9.77± .194km, p = .035). Although the total running distance was meaningfully influenced by the supplementation, the pattern of response for total sprinting distance was not influenced by supplementation. There was a decline in sprinting distance and total running distance from first half to second half, both for the control (M = -0.01 km, SD = 0.17) and CHO supplementation group (-0.04 km, SD = .19), although these differences were not statistically meaningful. There was a positive correlation between sprinting distance and total distance, which was statistically significant (r = -.514, n = 36, p = .01) In conclusion, supplementation influenced the pattern of activity and demonstrated between-trial differences.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
498
94456
The Effect of 12-Week Pilates Training on Flexibility and Level of Perceived Exertion of Back Muscles among Karate Players
Abstract:
Developing flexibility, by using pilates, would be useful for karate players by reducing the stiffness of muscles and tendons. This study aimed to determine the effects of 12-week pilates training on flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles among karate players. In this experimental study, 29 male karate players (age: 16-18 years) were randomized to pilates (n=15), and control (n=14) groups and the assessments were done in baseline and after 12-week intervention. Both groups completed 12-week of intervention (2 hours of training, 3 times weekly). The experimental group performed 30 minutes pilates within their warm-up and preparation phase, where the control group only attended their usual karate training. Digital backward flexmeter was used to evaluate the trunk extensors flexibility, and digital forward flexmeter was used to measure the trunk flexors flexibility. Borg CR-10 Scale was also used to determine the perceived exertion of back muscles. Independent samples t-test and paired sample t-test were used to analyze the data. There was a significant difference between the mean score of experimental and control groups in the level of backward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05), forward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05) after 12-week intervention. The results of Borg CR-10 scale showed a significant improvement in pilates group (P < 0.05). Karate instructors, coaches, and athletes can integrate pilates exercises with karate training in order to improve the flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
497
93827
Attitude towards Doping of High-Performance Athletes in a Sports Institute of the City of Medellin, Colombia
Abstract:
Introduction: Doping is a prohibited practice in competitive sports with potential adverse effects; therefore, it is crucial to describe the attitudes of athletes towards this behavior and to determine which o these increase the susceptibility to carry out this practice. Objective: To determine the attitude of high-performance athletes towards doping in a sports institute in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study during 2016, with a sample taken to convenience consisting of athletes over 18 years old enrolled in a sports institute of the city of Medellin (Colombia). The athletes filled by themselves the Petroczi and Aidman questionnaire: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) adapted to the Spanish language by Morente-Sánchez et al. This scale has 17 items with likert answer options, with a score ranging from 1 to 6, with a higher score indicating a stronger tendency towards doping practices. Results: 112 athletes were included with an average age of 21.6 years old, a 60% of them were male and the most frequent sports were karate 17%, judo 12.5% and athletics 9.8%. The average score of the questionnaire was 35.5 points of a 102 possible points. The lowest score was obtained in the following items: Is Doping necessary 1,4 and Doping isn’t cheating, everyone does it 1,5. Conclusion: In our population, there is a low tendency towards doping practices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
496
93679
Predictor Factors in Predictive Model of Soccer Talent Identification among Male Players Aged 14 to 17 Years
Abstract:
The longitudinal study is conducted to identify predictive factors of soccer talent among male players aged 14 to 17 years. Convenience sampling involving elite respondents (n=20) and sub-elite respondents (n=20) male soccer players. Descriptive statistics were reported as frequencies and percentages. The inferential statistical analysis is used to report the status of reliability, independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and multiple regression analysis. Generally, there are differences in mean of height, muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, task orientation, cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, juggling skills, short pass skills, long pass skills, dribbling skills, and shooting skills for 20 elite players and sub-elite players. Accordingly, there was a significant difference between pre and post-test for thirteen variables of height, weight, fat percentage, muscle strength, muscle endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, BMI, task orientation, juggling skills, short pass skills, a long pass skills, and dribbling skills. Based on the first predictive factors (physical), second predictive factors (fitness), third predictive factors (psychological), and fourth predictive factors (skills in playing football) pledged to the soccer talent; four multiple regression models were produced. The first predictive factor (physical) contributed 53.5 percent, supported by height and percentage of fat in soccer talents. The second predictive factor (fitness) contributed 63.2 percent and the third predictive factors (psychology) contributed 66.4 percent of soccer talent. The fourth predictive factors (skills) contributed 59.0 percent of soccer talent. The four multiple regression models could be used as a guide for talent scouting for soccer players of the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
495
93133
Effect of Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion among Various Games at Different Level of Participation
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: In this cutting-edge period of rivalry the mental planning of a group is as much essential as educating the diverse abilities of amusement on the logical lines. The groups are readied to play the recreations, as well as to win the diversions. What's more, to win the amusement, it isn't just the capability in the aptitudes which bring triumph yet more essential is the soul of the players with which they play and play out their best in the opposition. Inside a short traverse of time, sports brain research has taken monster strides. Not it claims to be an undeniable teach as in no preparation of sportsman is viewed as total without satisfactory accentuation on "mental molding" which plays a critical part in focused games. Aggressive games reflect social yearnings of a people and they have now turned into an inextricable past all things considered. Amusement sports are principally worried about man's prosperity whereas focused games plan to gauge and upgrade human 'possibility and execution.' Procedure and Methodology: Subjects for data collection were drawn from the different universities. The sample was consisting of 100 Male. Subjects were randomly selected from two different levels of performance from selected sports disciplines. Further the sample was divided into three different games category i.e. Racket Games and Combat Games, from each category a sample of 50 were taken to collect the data from different level of participation. Selection Of Variables: Locus of control, Self efficacy and Group Cohesion. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been used and follow up test conducted to evaluate pairwise difference among the adjusted means for different groups. Results: The results indicates that a significant difference was found in Locus of Control, Self Efficacy and Group Cohesion among Various games at different level of Participation for Badminton as the P-value is .000, which is less than 0.05, so the null hypothesis of no difference among the means of three groups was rejected at 5% level and indicates that a significant difference was found in Locus of Control, Self Efficacy and Group Cohesion among Various games at different level of Participation for Wrestling as the P-value is .000, which is less than 0.05, so the null hypothesis of no difference among the means of three groups was rejected at 5% level. Therefore, to know which of the specific groups differed among three Parameters (i.e., found in Locus of Control, Self Efficacy, and Group Cohesion).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
494
92841
Football Chants in Israel: Persistent Values and Changing Trends
Authors:
Abstract:
Fans’ chants in sports stadium have, over the years, become an integral part of the spectator experience. While chants add color, atmosphere, and a demonstration of fans’ support for their team, chants also play a significant role in defining fans’ perceptions of their team’s identity and its differentiation from other teams. An analysis of football chants may therefore shed light on fans’ deep-seated worldviews of their own role, their team, the sport in general, and even life itself. This study, based on an analysis of Israeli football chants over years, identifies key changing and stable perceptions of football fans. Overall 94 chants collected, over a period of five decades. After a pilot study, the chants organized in two groups (one covering 1970-1999 and the other 2000-2016). The chants analyzed through qualitative content analysis in order to understand fans values as a reflection of the society. Findings point to several values that have remained stable over years, including fans’ attitudes toward their team and its rivals, and their attitude toward God. On the other hand, recently emerging phenomena such as radicalization of hatred toward the commercialization of sport reflect social and cultural changes, both in and outside the world of sport.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
493
92334
Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Improving Performances of Blind Judo
Abstract:
Identifying, structuring, and racking the most important factors related to improving athletes’ performances could pave the way for improving training system. The purpose of this study was to identify the relative importance factors to improve performance of the of judo athletes with visual impairments, including blindness by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). After reviewing the literature, the relative importance of factors affecting performance of the blind judo was selected. A group of expert reviewed the first draft of the questionnaires, and then finally selected performance factors were classified into the major categories of techniques, physical fitness, and psychological categories. Later, a pre-selected experts group was asked to review the final version of questionnaire and confirm the priories of performance factors. The order of priority was determined by performing pairwise comparisons using Expert Choice 2000. Judo techniques factors affecting performance include 'grappling' (.303), and 'throwing' (.234) were the most important factors. In addition, the most important physical factors affecting performance were 'muscular strength and endurance' (.238). Further, among other psychological factors 'competitive anxiety' (.393) was important factor that affects performance. It is important to offer psychological skills training to reduce anxiety of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness, so, they can compete in their optimal states. These findings offer insights into what should be considered when determining factors to improve performance of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
492
92297
The Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Workshop in Increasing Knowledge and Understanding in Grass-Root Youth Coaches
Abstract:
There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention training for youth players but no data are available on the knowledge and understanding of deliverers of such programmes at grass root level. To increase adoption and adherence to such programmes coach knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine grass-root coaches knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. 68 grass root coaches (18 females and 50 males) who were attending a one-day injury prevention workshop completed a modified validated questionnaire exploring knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. Only 59% of coaches agreed that youth players are at a high risk of suffering an injury. There were high levels of agreement that injuries can have negative impacts on team performance (75%) and can cause physical problems in later life (85%), however only around half of coaches felt that injuries affect youth players current quality of life (59%). There was strong agreement that it is possible to prevent injuries in youth players (84%), but coaches were generally unaware of programs to help prevent injuries (84%), and only 9% used some form of injury prevention program. Despite this, nearly all coaches felt that their coaching could benefit from a greater understanding of growth and maturation (91%), injury prevention programmes (91%) and specific exercises (93%) for youth athletes. 17% of coaches rated their knowledge of injury prevention as good/very good at the start of the workshop and this increased to 94% at the end of the workshop. 62% of coaches identified their attitude towards injury prevention as indifferent at the start of the workshop compared with only 1% at the end. Only 14% of coaches at the start of the workshop were confident to deliver an injury prevention session but 83% stated they were confident by the end of the workshop. Finally, 98% of coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the confidence and the knowledge to deliver an injury prevention session and 98% suggested that they would implement injury prevention into their coaching. These data suggest that there is a lack of understanding of grass root coaches that children are a high-risk group for injuries, and that such injuries impact on current quality of life. Despite understanding that injuries can be prevented most grass root coaches do not have the knowledge to implement injury prevention into their coaching and very few do. There is a common consensus amongst these coaches that a greater understanding of such programmes will enhance their coaching. The injury prevention workshop appears to have increased the knowledge and changed the attitude of coaches towards injury prevention. All coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the tools to adopt, implement and deliver injury prevention in their coaching. These data highlight that there is a clear need for education regarding injury risk and prevention to be embedded within the coach education pathway, especially at grass root level.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
491
92263
Physical Activity and Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Investigation into the Relationship of Specific Physical Activity Domains and Mental Well-Being
Abstract:
Background: Research indicates that physical activity (PA) protects us from developing mental disorders. The knowledge regarding optimal domain, intensity, type, context, and amount of PA promotion for the prevention of mental disorders is sparse and incoherent. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between PA domains and mental well-being, and whether associations vary by domain, amount, context, intensity, and type of PA. Methods: 310 individuals (age: 25 yrs., SD 7; 73% female) completed a questionnaire on personal patterns of their PA behaviour (IPQA) and their mental health (Centre of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, the subjective physical well-being (FEW-16)). Linear and multiple regression were used for analysis. Findings: Individuals who met the PA recommendation (N=269) reported higher scores on subjective physical well-being than those who did not meet the PA recommendations (N=41). Whilst vigorous intensity PA predicts subjective well-being (β = .122, p = .028), it also correlates with depression. The more vigorously physically active a person is, the higher the depression score (β = .127, p = .026). The strongest impact of PA on mental well-being can be seen in the transport domain. A positive linear correlation on subjective physical well-being (β =.175, p = .002), and a negative linear correlation for anxiety (β =-.142, p = .011) and depression (β = -.164, p = .004) was found. Multiple regression analysis indicates similar results: Time spent in active transport on the bicycle significantly lowers anxiety and depression scores and enhances subjective physical well-being. The more time a participant spends using the bicycle for transport, the lower the depression (β = -.143, p = .013) and anxiety scores (β = -.111,p = .050). Conclusions: Meeting the PA recommendations enhances subjective physical well-being. Active transport has a substantial impact on mental well-being. Findings have implications for policymakers, employers, public health experts and civil society. A stronger focus on the promotion and protection of health through active transport is recommended. Inter-sectoral exchange, outside the health sector, is required. Health systems must engage other sectors in adopting policies that maximize possible health gains.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
490
91649
Effect of Pregnenolone Supplement on Biological Variables after Plyometric Training for Volleyball Players
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of 100 mg/d Pregnenolone on biological variables after plyometric training for volleyball players. Methods: 15 male volleyball players participated in this study. Serum levels of testosterone, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate, and glucose were measured before and post-exercise. Results: Testosterone was not altered, while creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate, and glucose levels significantly decreased. It is recommended to use Pregnenolone administration to decreased muscle damage and delayed fatigue for volleyball players after plyometric training. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that oral Pregnenolone administration of 100 mg/d might decrease muscle damage and delayed fatigue which may affect positively the volleyball players after a plyometric training bout.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
489
91648
Effect of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, IGF₁, and Physical Performance of Volleyball Players
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to assess the effect of resistance training on muscle strength and physical performance of volleyball players of Physical Education College, Helwan University. The researcher used the experimental method of pre-post measurements of one group of 10 volleyball players. The execution of the program was through the period of 12/8/2018 to 12/10/2018; included 24 training units, 3 training units weekly for 8 weeks. The training program revealed an improvement in post measurement of muscle strength, IGF₁ (insulin-like growth factor 1), and physical performance of players. It may be concluded that the resistance training may include changes in hormones and muscle fibers leading to hypertrophy of the muscle and physical performance. It is recommended to use the results of the study in rationing the loads and training programs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
488
91287
Profiles of Physical Fitness and Enjoyment among Children: Associations with Sport Participation
Abstract:
Background and study aim: Most of the people assume that someone will perform well on something they like. A tool evaluating how much an individual likes an activity can also be guidance for talent detection and to keep youngster doing what they like as a recreational sport. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between physical performances with something that they like. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 558 pupils age between 8 years to 11 years were tested using test battery containing 7 physical performance tests (I Do) compared to a pictorial scale containing 7 pictures (I Like) referring to the physical performance tests. Pearson correlation was computed to investigate the relation between the actual performance and the enjoyment. Results: Moderate significant correlations between each of the respective I Do, and I Like components were found. It appears that the correlation between the endurance items is higher as compared to the other six characteristics. Rerunning the analysis for age and sex groups separately resulted in only one significant correlation across all age group, namely between the evaluations of cardiovascular endurance. Conclusions: Information on enjoyment appears to be a useful and cost-effective addition to current multidimensional test batteries in a sport. By providing a clear picture on activities the young child or athlete likes or dislikes, attrition can be increased if a child starts his ‘career’ in a sport that alludes to skills or tasks he/she likes. This enjoyment will increase the intrinsic motivation, which is beneficial for sustained sports participation as well as for avoiding dropout in promising young athletes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
487
91097
Evaluating the Factors Influencing the Efficiency and Usage of Public Sports Services in a Chinese Province
Abstract:
The efficiency of public sports service of prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang from 2008 to 2012 was evaluated by applying the DEA method, then its influencing factors were also analyzed through Tobit model. Upon analysis, the results revealed the following; (i) the change in average efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang present a smooth uptrend and at a relatively high level from 2008 to 2012 (ii) generally, the productivity of public sports service in Zhejiang improved from 2008 to 2012, the productivity efficiency varied greatly in different years, and the regional difference of production efficiency increased. (iii) The correlations for urbanization rate, aging rate, per capita GDP and the population density were significantly positive with the public sports service efficiency in Zhejiang, of which the most significant was the aging rate. However, the population density and per capita GDP had less impact on the efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang. In addition, whether the efficiency of public sports services in different areas in Zhejiang reciprocates to overall benefits in public wellbeing in both rural and urban settings is still arguable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
486
90721
Elevated Systemic Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress and Cerebrovascular Function in Professional Rugby Union Players: The Link to Impaired Cognition
Abstract:
Introduction and aims: Sports-related concussion (SRC) represents a significant and growing public health concern in rugby union, yet remains one of the least understood injuries facing the health community today. Alongside increasing SRC incidence rates, there is concern that prior recurrent concussion may contribute to long-term neurologic sequelae in later-life. This may be due to an accelerated decline in cerebral perfusion, a major risk factor for neurocognitive decline and neurodegeneration, though the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. The present study hypothesised that recurrent concussion in current professional rugby union players would result in elevated systemic oxidative-nitrosative stress, reflected by a free radical-mediated reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and impaired cerebrovascular and cognitive function. Methodology: A longitudinal study design was adopted across the 2017-2018 rugby union season. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of South Wales Ethics Committee. Data collection is ongoing, and therefore the current report documents result from the pre-season and first half of the in-season data collection. Participants were initially divided into two subgroups; 23 professional rugby union players (aged 26 ± 5 years) and 22 non-concussed controls (27 ± 8 years). Pre-season measurements were performed for cerebrovascular function (Doppler ultrasound of middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) in response to hypocapnia/normocapnia/hypercapnia), cephalic venous concentrations of the ascorbate radical (A•-, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), NO (ozone-based chemiluminescence) and cognition (neuropsychometric tests). Notational analysis was performed to assess contact in the rugby group throughout each competitive game. Results: 1001 tackles and 62 injuries, including three concussions were observed across the first half of the season. However, no associations were apparent between number of tackles and any injury type (P > 0.05). The rugby group expressed greater oxidative stress as indicated by increased A•- (P < 0.05 vs. control) and a subsequent decrease in NO bioavailability (P < 0.05 vs. control). The rugby group performed worse in the Ray Auditory Verbal Learning Test B (RAVLT-B, learning, and memory) and the Grooved Pegboard test using both the dominant and non-dominant hands (visuomotor coordination, P < 0.05 vs. control). There were no between-group differences in cerebral perfusion at baseline (MCAv: 54 ± 13 vs. 59 ± 12, P > 0.05). Likewise, no between-group differences in CVRCO2Hypo (2.58 ± 1.01 vs. 2.58 ± 0.75, P > 0.05) or CVRCO2Hyper (2.69 ± 1.07 vs. 3.35 ± 1.28, P > 0.05) were observed. Conclusion: The present study identified that the rugby union players are characterized by impaired cognitive function subsequent to elevated systemic-oxidative-nitrosative stress. However, this appears to be independent of any functional impairment in cerebrovascular function. Given the potential long-term trajectory towards accelerated cognitive decline in populations exposed to SRC, prophylaxis to increase NO bioavailability warrants consideration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
485
90717
The Effect of Hypertrophy Strength Training Using Traditional Set vs. Cluster Set on Maximum Strength and Sprinting Speed
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training Cluster set-method compared to traditional set-method 30 m sprinting time and maximum strength in squats and bench-press. Thirteen Physical Education students, 7 males and 6 females between the age of 19-28 years old were recruited. The students were random divided in three groups. Traditional set group (TSG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (±SD) (22.3 ± 1.5 years), body mass (79.2 ± 15.4 kg) and height (177.5 ± 11.3 cm). Cluster set group (CSG) consist of 3 males and 2 females aged (22.4 ± 3.29 years), body mass (81.0 ± 24.0 kg) and height (179.2 ± 11.8 cm) and a control group (CG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (21.5 ± 2.4 years), body mass (82.1 ± 17.4 kg) and height (175.5 ± 6.7 cm). The intervention consisted of performing squat and bench press at 70% of 1RM (twice a week) for 8 weeks using 10 repetition and 4 sets. Two types of strength-training methods were used , cluster set (CS) where the participants (CSG) performed 2 reps 5 times with a 10 s recovery in between reps and 50 s recovery between sets, and traditional set (TS) where the participants (TSG) performed 10 reps each set with 90 s recovery in between sets. The pre-tests and post-tests conducted were 1 RM in both squats and bench press, and 10 and 30 m sprint time. The 1RM test were performed with Eleiko XF barbell (20 kg), Eleiko weight plates, rack and bench from Hammerstrength. The speed test was measured with the Brower speed trap II testing system (Brower Timing Systems, Utah, USA). The participants received an individualized training program based on the pre-test of the 1RM. In addition, a mid-term test of 1RM was carried out to adjust training intensity. Each training session were supervised by the researchers. Beast sensors (Milano, Italy) were also used to monitor and quantify the training load for the participants. All groups had a statistical significant improvement in bench press 1RM (TSG 1RM from 56.3 ± 28.9 to 66 ± 28.5 kg; CSG 1RM from 69.8 ± 33.5 to 77.2 ± 34.1 kg and CG 1RM from 67.8 ± 26.6 to 72.2 ± 29.1 kg), whereas only the TSG (1RM from 84.3 ± 26.8 to 114.3 ± 26.5 kg) and CSG (1RM from 100.4 ± 33.9 to 129 ± 35.1 kg) had a statistical significant improvement in Squats 1RM (P < 0.05). However, a between groups examination reveals that there were no marked differences in 1RM squat performance between TSG and CSG (P > 0.05) and both groups had a marked improvements compared to the CG (P < 0.05). On the other hand, no differences between groups were observed in Bench press 1RM. The within groups results indicate that none of the groups had any marked improvement in the distances from 0-10 m and 10-30 m except the CSG which had a notable improvement in the distance from 10-30 m (-0.07 s; P < 0.05). Furthermore, no differences in sprinting abilities were observed between groups. The results from this investigation indicate that traditional set strength training at 70% of 1RM gave close results compared to Cluster set strength training at the same intensity. However, the results indicate that the cluster set had an effect on flying time (10-30 m) indicating that the velocity at which those repetitions were performed could be the explanation factor of this this improvement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
484
90681
The Effect of Different Strength Training Methods on Muscle Strength, Body Composition and Factors Affecting Endurance Performance
Abstract:
The main purpose of this study was to measure the effect of two different strength training methods on muscle strength, muscle mass, fat mass and endurance factors. Fourteen physical education students accepted to participate in this study. The participants were then randomly divided into three groups, traditional training group (TTG), cluster training group (CTG) and control group (CG). TTG consisted of 4 participants aged ( ± SD) (22.3 ± 1.5 years), body mass (79.2 ± 15.4 kg) and height (178.3 ± 11.9 cm). CTG consisted of 5 participants aged (22.2 ± 3.5 years), body mass (81.0 ± 24.0 kg) and height (180.2 ± 12.3 cm). CG consisted of 5 participants aged (22 ± 2.8 years), body mass (77 ± 19 kg) and height (174 ± 6.7 cm). The participants underwent a hypertrophy strength training program twice a week consisting of 4 sets of 10 reps at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), using barbell squat and barbell bench press for 8 weeks. The CTG performed 2 x 5 reps using 10 s recovery in between repetitions and 50 s recovery between sets, while TTG performed 4 sets of 10 reps with 90 s recovery in between sets. Pre- and post-tests were administrated to assess body composition (weight, muscle mass, and fat mass), 1RM (bench press and barbell squat) and a laboratory endurance test (Bruce Protocol). Instruments used to collect the data were Tanita BC-601 scale (Tanita, Illinois, USA), Woodway treadmill (Woodway, Wisconsin, USA) and Vyntus CPX breath-to-breath system (Jaeger, Hoechberg, Germany). Analysis was conducted at all measured variables including time to peak VO2, peak VO2, heart rate (HR) at peak VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at peak VO2, and number of breaths per minute. The results indicate an increase in 1RM performance after 8 weeks of training. The change in 1RM squat was for the TTG = 30 ± 3.8 kg, CTG = 28.6 ± 8.3 kg and CG = 10.3 ± 13.8 kg. Similarly, the change in 1RM bench press was for the TTG = 9.8 ± 2.8 kg, CTG = 7.4 ± 3.4 kg and CG = 4.4 ± 3.4 kg. The within-group analysis from the oxygen consumption measured during the incremental exercise indicated that the TTG had only a statistical significant increase in their RER from 1.16 ± 0.04 to 1.23 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The CTG had a statistical significant improvement in their HR at peak VO2 from 186 ± 24 to 191 ± 12 Beats Per Minute (P < 0.05) and their RER at peak VO2 from 1.11 ± 0.06 to 1.18 ±0.05 (P < 0.05). Finally, the CG had only a statistical significant increase in their RER at peak VO2 from 1.11 ± 0.07 to 1.21 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The between-group analysis showed no statistical differences between all groups in all the measured variables from the oxygen consumption test during the incremental exercise including changes in muscle mass, fat mass, and weight (kg). The results indicate a similar effect of hypertrophy strength training irrespective of the methods of the training used on untrained subjects. Because there were no notable changes in body-composition measures, the results suggest that the improvements in performance observed in all groups is most probably due to neuro-muscular adaptation to training.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
483
90417
Aerobic Training Combined with Nutritional Guidance as an Effective Strategy for Improving Aerobic Fitness and Reducing BMI in Inactive Adults
Abstract:
Overweight and obesity can lead to numerous health problems, and inactive people are more often overweight and obese compared to physically active people. Even a moderate weight loss can improve cardiovascular and endocrine disease risk factors. The aim of the study was to examine to what extent overweight and obese adults starting up with two weekly intensive running sessions had an increase in aerobic capacity, reduction in BMI and waist circumference and changes in body composition after 33 weeks of training. An additional aim was to see if there were differences between participants who, in addition to training, also received lifestyle modification education, including practical cooking (nutritional guidance and training group (NTG =32)) compared to those who were not given any nutritional guidance (training group (TG=40)). 72 participants (49 women), mean age of 46.1 ( ± 10.4) were included. Inclusion Criteria: Previous untrained and inactive adults in all age groups, BMI ≥ 25, desire to become fitter and reduce their BMI. The two weekly supervised training sessions consisted of 10 min warm up followed by 20 to 21 min effective interval running where the participants’ heart rate were between 82 and 92% of hearth rate maximum. The sessions were completed with ten minutes whole body strength training. Measures of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and 3000m running time were performed at the start of the project (T1), after 15 weeks (T2) and at the end of the project (T3). Measurements of fat percentage, muscle mass, and visceral fat were performed at T1 and T3. Twelve participants (9 women) from both groups, who all scored around average on the 3000 m pre-test, were chosen to do a VO₂max test at T1 and T3. The NTG were given ten theoretical sessions (80 minutes each) and eight practical cooking sessions (140 minutes each). There was a significant reduction in bout groups for WC and BMI from T1 to T2. There was not found any further reduction from T2 to T3. Although not significant, NTG reduced their WC more than TG. For both groups, the percentage reduction in WC was similar to the reduction in BMI. There was a decrease in fat percentage in both groups from pre-test to post-test, whereas, for muscle mass, a small, but insignificant increase was observed for both groups. There was a decrease in 3000m running time for both groups from T1 to T2 as well as from T2 to T3. The difference between T2 and T3 was not statistically significant. The 12 participants who tested VO₂max had an increase of 2.86 ( ± 3.84) mlkg⁻¹ min⁻¹ in VO₂max and 3:02 min (± 2:01 min) reduction in running time over 3000 m from T1 until T3. There was a strong, negative correlation between the two variables. The study shows that two intensive running session in 33 weeks can increase aerobic fitness and reduce BMI, WC and fat percent in inactive adults. Cost guidance in addition to training will give additional effect.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
482
90330
Comparison of Donor Motivations in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I vs Division II
Abstract:
Continuous economic downturn and ongoing budget cuts poses higher education with profound challenges which has a direct impact on the collegiate athletic programs. In response to the ever-changing landscape of the fiscal environment, universities seek to boost revenues, resorting to alternative sources of funding. In particular, athletic programs have become increasingly dependent on financial support from their alumni and boosters, which is how athletic departments attempt to offset budget shortfalls and make capital improvements. Although there currently exists three major divisions within National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the majority of the sport management studies on college sport tend to focus on Division I level. Particularly within the donor motivation literature, a plethora of donor motivation studies exist, but mainly on NCAA Division I athletic programs. Since each athletic department functions differently in a number of different dimensions, while institutional difference can also have a huge impact on athletic donor motivations, the current study attempts to fill this gap that exists in the literature. As such, the purpose of this study was to (I) reexamine the factor structure of the Athletic Donor motivation scale; and (II) identify the prominent athletic donor motives in a NCAA Division II athletic program. For the purpose of this study, a total of 232 actual donors were used for analysis. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to test construct validity, and the reliability of the scale was assessed using Composite Reliability. To identify the prominent motivational factors, the means and standard deviations were examined. Results of this study indicated that Vicarious Achievement, Philanthropy, and Commitment are the three primary motivational factors, while Tangible Benefits, was consistently found as an important motive in prior studies was found low. Such findings highlight the key difference and suggest different salient motivations exist that are specific to the context.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
481
89509
Effects of Modified Low-Dye Taping on First Ray Mobility Test and Sprint Time
Abstract:
A pronated foot is frequently associated with a hypermobile first ray, then developing further severe foot problems. Low-Dye taping with athletic tape has been widely used to restrict excessive first ray motion and re-build height of the medial longitudinal arch in general population with pronated foot. It is not the case, however, for sprinters since they feel too much restriction of foot motions. Currently, the kinesio tape, more elastic than the athletic tape, has been widely used to re-adjust joint positions. It was interesting whether modified low-Dye taping using kinesio tape was beneficial for altering first ray mobility and still giving enough arch support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of modified low-Dye taping on first ray mobility test and 60-m sprint time for sprinters with pronated foot. The significance of this study provides new insight into a treatment alternative of modified low-Dye taping for sprinter with pronated foot. Ten young male sprinters, aged 20.8±1.6 years, with pronated foot were recruited for this study. The pronated foot was defined as the foot that the navicular drop test was greater than 1.0 cm. Three optic shutters were placed at the start, 30-m, and 60-m sites to record sprint time. All participants were asked to complete 3 trials of the 60-m dash with both taping and non-taping conditions in a random order. The low-Dye taping was applied using the method postulated by Ralph Dye in 1939 except the kinesio tape was used instead. All outcome variables were recorded for taping and non-taping conditions. Paired t-tests were used to analyze all outcome variables between 2 conditions. Although there were no statistically significant differences in dorsal and plantar mobility between taping and non-taping conditions, a statistical significance was found in a total range of motion (dorsiflexion plus plantarflexion angle) of the first ray when a modified low-Dye taping was applied (p < 0.05). Time to complete 60-m sprint was significantly increased with low-Dye taping (p < 0.05) while no significance was found for time to 30-m. it indicated that modified low-Dye taping changed maximum sprint speed of 60-m dash. Conclusively, modified low-Dye taping was capable of increasing first ray mobility and further altered maximum sprint speed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
480
89454
The Influence of Physical Activity and Sporting Regular on the School Performances of Pupils Ages 6-10 Years Old
Abstract:
The goal of our study is to know if there is an influence of the regular sporting physical-activity on the school performances of Algerian children. An experimental group composed of 55 sporting pupils and a reference group of 55 non-sporting pupils between 6 to10 years old (boys and girls) of the primary schools in Oran (Algeria) were followed during 15 months (Five terms). The socio-demographic data was collected from a survey given to pupils of the two groups and the school results from the administration at the end of each term. The sporting pupils have a general school average significantly higher than those of the non- sporting pupils (p < 0.05). The practice of physical activity and regular sporting by the children would deserve to be largely encouraged based on the beneficial effects not only on health but also on the academic performance. The parents, teachers and health professionals should be strongly aware.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
479
88909
Using Motives of Sports Consumption to Explain Team Identity: A Comparison between Football Fans across the Pond
Abstract:
Spectators follow their favorite sports teams for different reasons. While some attend a sporting event simply for its entertainment value, others do so because of the personal sense of achievement and accomplishment their connection with a sports team creates. Moreover, the level of identity spectators feel toward their favorite sports team falls in a broad continuum. Some are mere spectators. For those spectators, their association to a sports team has little impact on their self-image. Others are die-hard fans who are proud of their association with their team and whose connection with that team is an important reflection of who they are. Several motives for sports consumption can be used to explain the level of spectator support in a variety of sports. Those motives can also be used to explain the variance in the identification, attachment, and loyalty spectators feel toward their favorite sports team. Motives for sports consumption can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. In this study, motives for sports consumption was used to discriminate the level of identity spectators feel toward their sports team. It was hypothesized that spectators with a strong level of team identity would report higher rates of interest in player, interest in sports, and interest in team than spectators with a low level of team identity. And spectators with a low level of team identity would report higher rates for entertainment value, bonding with friends or family, and wholesome environment. Football spectators in the United States and England were surveyed about their motives for football consumption and their level of identification with their favorite football team. To assess if the motives of sports fans differed by level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) under the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure found in SPSS was performed. The independent variables were level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, and the dependent variables were the sport fan motives. A tripartite split (low, moderate, high) was used on a composite measure for team identity. Preliminary results show that effect of team identity is statistically significant (p < .001) for at least nine of the 17 motives for sports consumption assessed in this investigation. These results indicate that the motives of spectators with a strong level of team identity differ significantly from spectators with a low level of team identity. Those differences can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. Sports marketers can use these methods and results to develop identity profiles of spectators and create marketing strategies specifically designed to attract those spectators based on their unique motives for consumption and their level of team identification.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
478
88795
The Effect of Dopamine D2 Receptor Taq A1 Allele on Sprinter and Endurance Athlete
Abstract:
Genetic structures are very important to understand the brain dopamine system which is related to athletic performance. Hopefully, there will be enough studies about athletics performance in the terms of addiction-related genetic markers in the future. In the present study, we intended to investigate the link between Dopamine Receptor-2 Gene (DRD2) rs1800497 polymorphism, which is known as a influences on brain dopaminergic system. 10 sprinter and 10 endurance athletes were enrolled in the study. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method was used for consequences of genotyping . The results numbers and percentages of A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 genotypes in athletes were 0 (%0), 3 (%15) and 17 (%85). A1A1 genotype was not found, and A2 allele was counted as the dominating allele in our cohort. These findings show that dopaminergic mechanism effects on sport genetic may be explained by the polygenic and multifactorial view.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
477
88748
Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain
Abstract:
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
476
88747
Evaluation the Influence of Trunk Bracing in Joint Contact Forces in Subjects with Scoliosis
Abstract:
Background: Scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the spine which may influence the abilities of the subjects during standing and walking. Most of the scoliotic subjects use orthosis to reduce the curve and to decrease the risk of curve progression. There was lack of information regarding the effects of orthosis on kinematic and joint contact force. Therefore, this research was done to highlight the effects of orthosis on the aforementioned parameters. Method: 5 scoliotic subjects were recruited in this study, with single curve less than 40 (females with age 13.2 ± 1.7). They were asked to walk with and without orthosis. The kinematic of the joints, force applied on the legs, moments transmitted through the joints and joint contact forces were evaluated in this study. Moreover, the lengths of muscles were determined by use of computer muscle control approach in OpenSim. Results: There was a significant difference between the second peak of vertical ground reaction force while walking with and without orthosis (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between spatiotemporal gait parameters while walking with and without orthosis (P-value > 0.05). The mean values of joint contact forces (vertical component) increased by the use of orthosis, but the difference was not significant (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Although the kinematic of most of the body joints was not influenced by the use of orthosis, the joint contact force may be increased by orthosis. The increase in joint contact force may be due to the performance of orthosis which restricts the motions of pelvic and increases compensatory mechanism used by the subjects to decrease the side effects of the orthosis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
475
88246
Analyzing Doctors’ Knowledge of the United Kingdom Chief Medical Officer's Guidelines for Physical Activity: Survey of Secondary Care Doctors in a District General Hospital
Abstract:
The benefits of exercise for the prevention and management of chronic disease are well established and the importance of primary care practitioners in promoting exercise is becoming increasingly recognized. However, those with severe manifestations of the chronic disease are managed in a secondary care setting. Secondary care practitioners, therefore, have a role to play in promoting physical activity. Methods: In order to assess secondary care doctors’ knowledge of the Chief Medical Officer’s guidelines for physical activity, a 12-question survey was administered to staff working in a district general hospital in South England during team and unit meetings. Questions related to knowledge of the current guidelines for both 19 - 64 year olds and older adults (65 years and above), barriers to exercise discussion or prescription and doctors’ own exercise habits. Responses were collected anonymously and analyzed using SPSS Version 24.0. Results: 96 responses were collected. Doctors taking part in the survey ranged from foundation years (26%) to consultants (40%). 17.7% of participants knew the guidelines for moderate intensity activity for 19 - 64 year olds. Only one participant knew all of the guidance for both 19 - 64 year olds and older adults. While 71.6% of doctors felt they were adequately informed about how to exercise, only 45.6% met the minimum recommended guidance for moderate intensity activity. Conclusion: More work is needed to promote the physical activity guidelines and exercise prescription to doctors working within a secondary care setting. In addition, doctors require more support to personally meet the recommended minimum level of physical activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
474
88198
Comparison between Mental Toughness and Level of Physical Activity between Staff and Students in University of Tabriz
Abstract:
The aim of this paper was to compare physical activity and mental toughness in the staff and students of the University of Tabriz. 615 people participated in this study and filled demographic questionnaire, mental thoughness48 (MTQ48) questionnaire and habitual physical activity questionnaire (Baecke physical activity questionnaire). The research sample included 355 students and 260 staff (615 questionnaires). For analyzing hypotheses MANOVA, correlation and independent t-test were used. Based on the result; some subscales of mental toughness and physical activity were significantly related. The result showed the significant correlation between mental toughness and physical activity in student and no significant correlation in staff. Students were significantly physically more active than staff, and mental toughness was higher in staff. There was no difference in mental toughness variable between active participants (active staff and student). The results of this study showed that mental toughness could influence the way a person cope with living conditions. It is expected that mental toughness changes can lead to changing in levels of physical activity. It should be noted that the other variables should not be ignored.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
473
88141
The Role of Physical Activity on Some Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Disease
Abstract:
Hyperlipidemia or an increase in blood lipids is a condition that has been rising, especially during the last decade, with the advancement of the life-span of the car, as an important disease. In fact, it is one of the complications of industrial life and semi-industrial. Hyperlipidemia alone is not a disease, but it is recognized as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. The methodology of this review article is the use of research to provide the best solution for physical activity and exercise in relation to lowering blood lipids and lowering blood pressure. Also, factors that contribute to improving the health status of humans should be introduced. Research findings in this article show that physical activity with a specific duration and severity can keep a person away from the cardiovascular disease. The result shows that regular physical activity with low intensity and long periods of time is essential for human health. Physical mobility reduces blood pressure, reduces the harmful fats and does not cause cardiovascular disease. More than half of the patients suffering from cardiovascular problems are afflicted with blood lipids. On the other hand, high blood pressure is one of the serious health hazards in the world today, which causes a large number of cardiovascular problems and mortality in the world. Undoubtedly, the second most common risk factor for heart disease is high blood pressure after cigarette smoking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
472
88011
The Effect of Sexual Assault on Sport Participation Trajectories from Adolescence through Young Adulthood
Authors:
Abstract:
Objectives: Certain life change events were shown to have strong effects on physical activity-related behavior, but more research is needed to investigate the longer-term effects of different life change events on physical activity-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of experiencing physically or non-physically forced sexual activity on sports participation from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: This study used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data. Group-based trajectory modeling was utilized to examine the effect of experiencing sexual assault on trajectories of sports participation from adolescence to young adulthood. Results: Male participants were divided into three trajectory groups (i.e., Low-stable, High-decreasing, and High-stable) and female participants were divided into two trajectory groups (i.e., Low-stable and High-decreasing). The main finding of this study is that women who experienced non-physically forced sexual activity significantly decreases sports participation throughout the trajectory in ‘High-decreasing group.’ The effect of non-physically forced sexual activity on women’s sports participation was considerably weakened and became insignificant after including psychological depression in the model as a potential mediator. Discussion: Special attention should be paid to sport participation among women victims of non-physically forced sexual activity. Further studies are needed to examine other potential mediators in addition to psychological depression when examining the effect of non-physically forced sexual activity on sport participation in women.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
471
87995
The Effects of Physical Activity and Serotonin on Depression, Anxiety, Body Image and Mental Health
Abstract:
Sport has found a special place as an effective phenomenon in all societies of the contemporary world. The relationship between physical activity and exercise with different sciences has provided new fields for human study. The range of issues related to exercise and physical education is such that it requires specialized sciences and special studies. In this article, the psychological and social sections of exercise have been investigated for children and adults. It can be used for anyone in different age groups. Exercise and regular physical movements have a great impact on the mental and social health of the individual in addition to body health. It affects the individual's adaptability in society and his/her personality. Exercise affects the treatment of diseases such as depression, anxiety, stress, body image, and memory. Exercise is a safe haven for young people to achieve the optimum human development in its shelter. The effects of sensorimotor skills on mental actions and mental development are such a way that many psychologists and sports science experts believe these activities should be included in training programs in the first place. Familiarity of students and scholars with different programs and methods of sensorimotor activities not only causes their mental actions; but also increases mental health and vitality, enhances self-confidence and, therefore, mental health.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
470
87979
The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Performance among University Students
Authors:
Abstract:
The study was conducted to determine the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance among university students. A far-famed saying ‘Sound mind in a sound body’ referring to the potential quality of increased physical fitness in the intellectual development of individuals seems to be endorsed. There is a growing body of literature the impact of physical fitness on academic achievement, especially in elementary and middle-school aged children. Even though there are numerous positive effects related to being physically active and physical fitness, their effect on academic achievement is not very much clear for university students. The subjects for this study included 25 students (20 female and 5 male) enrolled in Yeditepe University, Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Department of Health Science Faculty. All participants filled in a questionnaire about their socio-demographic status, general health status, and physical activity status. Health-related physical fitness testing, included several core components: 1) body composition evaluation (body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio), 2) cardiovascular endurance evaluation (queen’s college step test), 3) muscle strength and endurance evaluation (sit-up test, push-up test), 4) flexibility evaluation (sit and reach test). Academic performance evaluation was based on student’s Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA). The prevalence of the subjects participating physical activity was found to be 40% (n = 10). CGPA scores were significantly higher among students having regular physical activity when we compared the students having regular physical activities or not (respectively 2,71 ± 0.46, 3.02 ± 0.28 scores, p = 0.076). The result of the study also revealed that there is positive correlation relationship between sit-up, push up and academic performance points (CGPA) (r = 0.43, p ≤ 0.05 ) and negative correlation relationship between cardiovascular endurance parameter (Queen's College Step Test) and academic performance points (CGPA) (r = -0.47, p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the findings confirmed that physical fitness level was generally associated with academic performance in the study group. Cardiovascular endurance and muscle strength and endurance were associated with student’s CGPA, whereas body composition and flexibility were unrelated to CGPA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):