Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 51955

Sport and Health Sciences

466
91649
Effect of Pregnenolone Supplement on Biological Variables after Plyometric Training for Volleyball Players
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of 100 mg/d Pregnenolone on biological variables after plyometric training for volleyball players. Methods: 15 male volleyball players participated in this study. Serum levels of testosterone, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate, and glucose were measured before and post-exercise. Results: Testosterone was not altered, while creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate, and glucose levels significantly decreased. It is recommended to use Pregnenolone administration to decreased muscle damage and delayed fatigue for volleyball players after plyometric training. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that oral Pregnenolone administration of 100 mg/d might decrease muscle damage and delayed fatigue which may affect positively the volleyball players after a plyometric training bout.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
465
91648
Effect of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, IGF₁, and Physical Performance of Volleyball Players
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to assess the effect of resistance training on muscle strength and physical performance of volleyball players of Physical Education College, Helwan University. The researcher used the experimental method of pre-post measurements of one group of 10 volleyball players. The execution of the program was through the period of 12/8/2018 to 12/10/2018; included 24 training units, 3 training units weekly for 8 weeks. The training program revealed an improvement in post measurement of muscle strength, IGF₁ (insulin-like growth factor 1), and physical performance of players. It may be concluded that the resistance training may include changes in hormones and muscle fibers leading to hypertrophy of the muscle and physical performance. It is recommended to use the results of the study in rationing the loads and training programs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
464
90721
Elevated Systemic Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress and Cerebrovascular Function in Professional Rugby Union Players: The Link to Impaired Cognition
Abstract:
Introduction and aims: Sports-related concussion (SRC) represents a significant and growing public health concern in rugby union, yet remains one of the least understood injuries facing the health community today. Alongside increasing SRC incidence rates, there is concern that prior recurrent concussion may contribute to long-term neurologic sequelae in later-life. This may be due to an accelerated decline in cerebral perfusion, a major risk factor for neurocognitive decline and neurodegeneration, though the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. The present study hypothesised that recurrent concussion in current professional rugby union players would result in elevated systemic oxidative-nitrosative stress, reflected by a free radical-mediated reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and impaired cerebrovascular and cognitive function. Methodology: A longitudinal study design was adopted across the 2017-2018 rugby union season. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of South Wales Ethics Committee. Data collection is ongoing, and therefore the current report documents result from the pre-season and first half of the in-season data collection. Participants were initially divided into two subgroups; 23 professional rugby union players (aged 26 ± 5 years) and 22 non-concussed controls (27 ± 8 years). Pre-season measurements were performed for cerebrovascular function (Doppler ultrasound of middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) in response to hypocapnia/normocapnia/hypercapnia), cephalic venous concentrations of the ascorbate radical (A•-, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), NO (ozone-based chemiluminescence) and cognition (neuropsychometric tests). Notational analysis was performed to assess contact in the rugby group throughout each competitive game. Results: 1001 tackles and 62 injuries, including three concussions were observed across the first half of the season. However, no associations were apparent between number of tackles and any injury type (P > 0.05). The rugby group expressed greater oxidative stress as indicated by increased A•- (P < 0.05 vs. control) and a subsequent decrease in NO bioavailability (P < 0.05 vs. control). The rugby group performed worse in the Ray Auditory Verbal Learning Test B (RAVLT-B, learning, and memory) and the Grooved Pegboard test using both the dominant and non-dominant hands (visuomotor coordination, P < 0.05 vs. control). There were no between-group differences in cerebral perfusion at baseline (MCAv: 54 ± 13 vs. 59 ± 12, P > 0.05). Likewise, no between-group differences in CVRCO2Hypo (2.58 ± 1.01 vs. 2.58 ± 0.75, P > 0.05) or CVRCO2Hyper (2.69 ± 1.07 vs. 3.35 ± 1.28, P > 0.05) were observed. Conclusion: The present study identified that the rugby union players are characterized by impaired cognitive function subsequent to elevated systemic-oxidative-nitrosative stress. However, this appears to be independent of any functional impairment in cerebrovascular function. Given the potential long-term trajectory towards accelerated cognitive decline in populations exposed to SRC, prophylaxis to increase NO bioavailability warrants consideration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
463
90717
The Effect of Hypertrophy Strength Training Using Traditional Set vs. Cluster Set on Maximum Strength and Sprinting Speed
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training Cluster set-method compared to traditional set-method 30 m sprinting time and maximum strength in squats and bench-press. Thirteen Physical Education students, 7 males and 6 females between the age of 19-28 years old were recruited. The students were random divided in three groups. Traditional set group (TSG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (±SD) (22.3 ± 1.5 years), body mass (79.2 ± 15.4 kg) and height (177.5 ± 11.3 cm). Cluster set group (CSG) consist of 3 males and 2 females aged (22.4 ± 3.29 years), body mass (81.0 ± 24.0 kg) and height (179.2 ± 11.8 cm) and a control group (CG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (21.5 ± 2.4 years), body mass (82.1 ± 17.4 kg) and height (175.5 ± 6.7 cm). The intervention consisted of performing squat and bench press at 70% of 1RM (twice a week) for 8 weeks using 10 repetition and 4 sets. Two types of strength-training methods were used , cluster set (CS) where the participants (CSG) performed 2 reps 5 times with a 10 s recovery in between reps and 50 s recovery between sets, and traditional set (TS) where the participants (TSG) performed 10 reps each set with 90 s recovery in between sets. The pre-tests and post-tests conducted were 1 RM in both squats and bench press, and 10 and 30 m sprint time. The 1RM test were performed with Eleiko XF barbell (20 kg), Eleiko weight plates, rack and bench from Hammerstrength. The speed test was measured with the Brower speed trap II testing system (Brower Timing Systems, Utah, USA). The participants received an individualized training program based on the pre-test of the 1RM. In addition, a mid-term test of 1RM was carried out to adjust training intensity. Each training session were supervised by the researchers. Beast sensors (Milano, Italy) were also used to monitor and quantify the training load for the participants. All groups had a statistical significant improvement in bench press 1RM (TSG 1RM from 56.3 ± 28.9 to 66 ± 28.5 kg; CSG 1RM from 69.8 ± 33.5 to 77.2 ± 34.1 kg and CG 1RM from 67.8 ± 26.6 to 72.2 ± 29.1 kg), whereas only the TSG (1RM from 84.3 ± 26.8 to 114.3 ± 26.5 kg) and CSG (1RM from 100.4 ± 33.9 to 129 ± 35.1 kg) had a statistical significant improvement in Squats 1RM (P < 0.05). However, a between groups examination reveals that there were no marked differences in 1RM squat performance between TSG and CSG (P > 0.05) and both groups had a marked improvements compared to the CG (P < 0.05). On the other hand, no differences between groups were observed in Bench press 1RM. The within groups results indicate that none of the groups had any marked improvement in the distances from 0-10 m and 10-30 m except the CSG which had a notable improvement in the distance from 10-30 m (-0.07 s; P < 0.05). Furthermore, no differences in sprinting abilities were observed between groups. The results from this investigation indicate that traditional set strength training at 70% of 1RM gave close results compared to Cluster set strength training at the same intensity. However, the results indicate that the cluster set had an effect on flying time (10-30 m) indicating that the velocity at which those repetitions were performed could be the explanation factor of this this improvement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
462
90681
The Effect of Different Strength Training Methods on Muscle Strength, Body Composition and Factors Affecting Endurance Performance
Abstract:
The main purpose of this study was to measure the effect of two different strength training methods on muscle strength, muscle mass, fat mass and endurance factors. Fourteen physical education students accepted to participate in this study. The participants were then randomly divided into three groups, traditional training group (TTG), cluster training group (CTG) and control group (CG). TTG consisted of 4 participants aged ( ± SD) (22.3 ± 1.5 years), body mass (79.2 ± 15.4 kg) and height (178.3 ± 11.9 cm). CTG consisted of 5 participants aged (22.2 ± 3.5 years), body mass (81.0 ± 24.0 kg) and height (180.2 ± 12.3 cm). CG consisted of 5 participants aged (22 ± 2.8 years), body mass (77 ± 19 kg) and height (174 ± 6.7 cm). The participants underwent a hypertrophy strength training program twice a week consisting of 4 sets of 10 reps at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), using barbell squat and barbell bench press for 8 weeks. The CTG performed 2 x 5 reps using 10 s recovery in between repetitions and 50 s recovery between sets, while TTG performed 4 sets of 10 reps with 90 s recovery in between sets. Pre- and post-tests were administrated to assess body composition (weight, muscle mass, and fat mass), 1RM (bench press and barbell squat) and a laboratory endurance test (Bruce Protocol). Instruments used to collect the data were Tanita BC-601 scale (Tanita, Illinois, USA), Woodway treadmill (Woodway, Wisconsin, USA) and Vyntus CPX breath-to-breath system (Jaeger, Hoechberg, Germany). Analysis was conducted at all measured variables including time to peak VO2, peak VO2, heart rate (HR) at peak VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at peak VO2, and number of breaths per minute. The results indicate an increase in 1RM performance after 8 weeks of training. The change in 1RM squat was for the TTG = 30 ± 3.8 kg, CTG = 28.6 ± 8.3 kg and CG = 10.3 ± 13.8 kg. Similarly, the change in 1RM bench press was for the TTG = 9.8 ± 2.8 kg, CTG = 7.4 ± 3.4 kg and CG = 4.4 ± 3.4 kg. The within-group analysis from the oxygen consumption measured during the incremental exercise indicated that the TTG had only a statistical significant increase in their RER from 1.16 ± 0.04 to 1.23 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The CTG had a statistical significant improvement in their HR at peak VO2 from 186 ± 24 to 191 ± 12 Beats Per Minute (P < 0.05) and their RER at peak VO2 from 1.11 ± 0.06 to 1.18 ±0.05 (P < 0.05). Finally, the CG had only a statistical significant increase in their RER at peak VO2 from 1.11 ± 0.07 to 1.21 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05). The between-group analysis showed no statistical differences between all groups in all the measured variables from the oxygen consumption test during the incremental exercise including changes in muscle mass, fat mass, and weight (kg). The results indicate a similar effect of hypertrophy strength training irrespective of the methods of the training used on untrained subjects. Because there were no notable changes in body-composition measures, the results suggest that the improvements in performance observed in all groups is most probably due to neuro-muscular adaptation to training.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
461
90417
Aerobic Training Combined with Nutritional Guidance as an Effective Strategy for Improving Aerobic Fitness and Reducing BMI in Inactive Adults
Abstract:
Overweight and obesity can lead to numerous health problems, and inactive people are more often overweight and obese compared to physically active people. Even a moderate weight loss can improve cardiovascular and endocrine disease risk factors. The aim of the study was to examine to what extent overweight and obese adults starting up with two weekly intensive running sessions had an increase in aerobic capacity, reduction in BMI and waist circumference and changes in body composition after 33 weeks of training. An additional aim was to see if there were differences between participants who, in addition to training, also received lifestyle modification education, including practical cooking (nutritional guidance and training group (NTG =32)) compared to those who were not given any nutritional guidance (training group (TG=40)). 72 participants (49 women), mean age of 46.1 ( ± 10.4) were included. Inclusion Criteria: Previous untrained and inactive adults in all age groups, BMI ≥ 25, desire to become fitter and reduce their BMI. The two weekly supervised training sessions consisted of 10 min warm up followed by 20 to 21 min effective interval running where the participants’ heart rate were between 82 and 92% of hearth rate maximum. The sessions were completed with ten minutes whole body strength training. Measures of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and 3000m running time were performed at the start of the project (T1), after 15 weeks (T2) and at the end of the project (T3). Measurements of fat percentage, muscle mass, and visceral fat were performed at T1 and T3. Twelve participants (9 women) from both groups, who all scored around average on the 3000 m pre-test, were chosen to do a VO₂max test at T1 and T3. The NTG were given ten theoretical sessions (80 minutes each) and eight practical cooking sessions (140 minutes each). There was a significant reduction in bout groups for WC and BMI from T1 to T2. There was not found any further reduction from T2 to T3. Although not significant, NTG reduced their WC more than TG. For both groups, the percentage reduction in WC was similar to the reduction in BMI. There was a decrease in fat percentage in both groups from pre-test to post-test, whereas, for muscle mass, a small, but insignificant increase was observed for both groups. There was a decrease in 3000m running time for both groups from T1 to T2 as well as from T2 to T3. The difference between T2 and T3 was not statistically significant. The 12 participants who tested VO₂max had an increase of 2.86 ( ± 3.84) mlkg⁻¹ min⁻¹ in VO₂max and 3:02 min (± 2:01 min) reduction in running time over 3000 m from T1 until T3. There was a strong, negative correlation between the two variables. The study shows that two intensive running session in 33 weeks can increase aerobic fitness and reduce BMI, WC and fat percent in inactive adults. Cost guidance in addition to training will give additional effect.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
460
90330
Comparison of Donor Motivations in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I vs Division II
Abstract:
Continuous economic downturn and ongoing budget cuts poses higher education with profound challenges which has a direct impact on the collegiate athletic programs. In response to the ever-changing landscape of the fiscal environment, universities seek to boost revenues, resorting to alternative sources of funding. In particular, athletic programs have become increasingly dependent on financial support from their alumni and boosters, which is how athletic departments attempt to offset budget shortfalls and make capital improvements. Although there currently exists three major divisions within National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the majority of the sport management studies on college sport tend to focus on Division I level. Particularly within the donor motivation literature, a plethora of donor motivation studies exist, but mainly on NCAA Division I athletic programs. Since each athletic department functions differently in a number of different dimensions, while institutional difference can also have a huge impact on athletic donor motivations, the current study attempts to fill this gap that exists in the literature. As such, the purpose of this study was to (I) reexamine the factor structure of the Athletic Donor motivation scale; and (II) identify the prominent athletic donor motives in a NCAA Division II athletic program. For the purpose of this study, a total of 232 actual donors were used for analysis. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to test construct validity, and the reliability of the scale was assessed using Composite Reliability. To identify the prominent motivational factors, the means and standard deviations were examined. Results of this study indicated that Vicarious Achievement, Philanthropy, and Commitment are the three primary motivational factors, while Tangible Benefits, was consistently found as an important motive in prior studies was found low. Such findings highlight the key difference and suggest different salient motivations exist that are specific to the context.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
459
88909
Using Motives of Sports Consumption to Explain Team Identity: A Comparison between Football Fans across the Pond
Abstract:
Spectators follow their favorite sports teams for different reasons. While some attend a sporting event simply for its entertainment value, others do so because of the personal sense of achievement and accomplishment their connection with a sports team creates. Moreover, the level of identity spectators feel toward their favorite sports team falls in a broad continuum. Some are mere spectators. For those spectators, their association to a sports team has little impact on their self-image. Others are die-hard fans who are proud of their association with their team and whose connection with that team is an important reflection of who they are. Several motives for sports consumption can be used to explain the level of spectator support in a variety of sports. Those motives can also be used to explain the variance in the identification, attachment, and loyalty spectators feel toward their favorite sports team. Motives for sports consumption can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. In this study, motives for sports consumption was used to discriminate the level of identity spectators feel toward their sports team. It was hypothesized that spectators with a strong level of team identity would report higher rates of interest in player, interest in sports, and interest in team than spectators with a low level of team identity. And spectators with a low level of team identity would report higher rates for entertainment value, bonding with friends or family, and wholesome environment. Football spectators in the United States and England were surveyed about their motives for football consumption and their level of identification with their favorite football team. To assess if the motives of sports fans differed by level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) under the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure found in SPSS was performed. The independent variables were level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, and the dependent variables were the sport fan motives. A tripartite split (low, moderate, high) was used on a composite measure for team identity. Preliminary results show that effect of team identity is statistically significant (p < .001) for at least nine of the 17 motives for sports consumption assessed in this investigation. These results indicate that the motives of spectators with a strong level of team identity differ significantly from spectators with a low level of team identity. Those differences can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. Sports marketers can use these methods and results to develop identity profiles of spectators and create marketing strategies specifically designed to attract those spectators based on their unique motives for consumption and their level of team identification.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
458
88748
Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain
Abstract:
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
457
88747
Evaluation the Influence of Trunk Bracing in Joint Contact Forces in Subjects with Scoliosis
Abstract:
Background: Scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the spine which may influence the abilities of the subjects during standing and walking. Most of the scoliotic subjects use orthosis to reduce the curve and to decrease the risk of curve progression. There was lack of information regarding the effects of orthosis on kinematic and joint contact force. Therefore, this research was done to highlight the effects of orthosis on the aforementioned parameters. Method: 5 scoliotic subjects were recruited in this study, with single curve less than 40 (females with age 13.2 ± 1.7). They were asked to walk with and without orthosis. The kinematic of the joints, force applied on the legs, moments transmitted through the joints and joint contact forces were evaluated in this study. Moreover, the lengths of muscles were determined by use of computer muscle control approach in OpenSim. Results: There was a significant difference between the second peak of vertical ground reaction force while walking with and without orthosis (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between spatiotemporal gait parameters while walking with and without orthosis (P-value > 0.05). The mean values of joint contact forces (vertical component) increased by the use of orthosis, but the difference was not significant (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Although the kinematic of most of the body joints was not influenced by the use of orthosis, the joint contact force may be increased by orthosis. The increase in joint contact force may be due to the performance of orthosis which restricts the motions of pelvic and increases compensatory mechanism used by the subjects to decrease the side effects of the orthosis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
456
88198
Comparison between Mental Toughness and Level of Physical Activity between Staff and Students in University of Tabriz
Abstract:
The aim of this paper was to compare physical activity and mental toughness in the staff and students of the University of Tabriz. 615 people participated in this study and filled demographic questionnaire, mental thoughness48 (MTQ48) questionnaire and habitual physical activity questionnaire (Baecke physical activity questionnaire). The research sample included 355 students and 260 staff (615 questionnaires). For analyzing hypotheses MANOVA, correlation and independent t-test were used. Based on the result; some subscales of mental toughness and physical activity were significantly related. The result showed the significant correlation between mental toughness and physical activity in student and no significant correlation in staff. Students were significantly physically more active than staff, and mental toughness was higher in staff. There was no difference in mental toughness variable between active participants (active staff and student). The results of this study showed that mental toughness could influence the way a person cope with living conditions. It is expected that mental toughness changes can lead to changing in levels of physical activity. It should be noted that the other variables should not be ignored.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
455
87979
The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Performance among University Students
Authors:
Abstract:
The study was conducted to determine the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance among university students. A far-famed saying ‘Sound mind in a sound body’ referring to the potential quality of increased physical fitness in the intellectual development of individuals seems to be endorsed. There is a growing body of literature the impact of physical fitness on academic achievement, especially in elementary and middle-school aged children. Even though there are numerous positive effects related to being physically active and physical fitness, their effect on academic achievement is not very much clear for university students. The subjects for this study included 25 students (20 female and 5 male) enrolled in Yeditepe University, Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Department of Health Science Faculty. All participants filled in a questionnaire about their socio-demographic status, general health status, and physical activity status. Health-related physical fitness testing, included several core components: 1) body composition evaluation (body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio), 2) cardiovascular endurance evaluation (queen’s college step test), 3) muscle strength and endurance evaluation (sit-up test, push-up test), 4) flexibility evaluation (sit and reach test). Academic performance evaluation was based on student’s Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA). The prevalence of the subjects participating physical activity was found to be 40% (n = 10). CGPA scores were significantly higher among students having regular physical activity when we compared the students having regular physical activities or not (respectively 2,71 ± 0.46, 3.02 ± 0.28 scores, p = 0.076). The result of the study also revealed that there is positive correlation relationship between sit-up, push up and academic performance points (CGPA) (r = 0.43, p ≤ 0.05 ) and negative correlation relationship between cardiovascular endurance parameter (Queen's College Step Test) and academic performance points (CGPA) (r = -0.47, p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the findings confirmed that physical fitness level was generally associated with academic performance in the study group. Cardiovascular endurance and muscle strength and endurance were associated with student’s CGPA, whereas body composition and flexibility were unrelated to CGPA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
454
87731
Effect of Oral Immonoglobulin (IgY) Ingestion on Post Exercise Muscle Soreness and Muscle Damage Markers in Females
Abstract:
Intense resistance-type activity generally elicits delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in individuals unaccustomed to such action. DOMS is a combination of contractile tissue microtrauma, osmotic pressure changes, alteration calcium regulation, and inflammation. Elevated muscle-specific enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is a marker of striated muscle damage. Avian immunoglobulin (IgY) mediates inflammation and may thereby reduce post-exercise DOMS. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral IgY and placebo (Pl) on CK, serum relevels, and perceived pain following induced DOMS. Methods: Healthy college-aged females (N=16) were randomly divided into an experimental group (IgY) and a control group (PL). CK serum levels were recorded followed by 14 days of supplementation of either IgY or Pl at the following doses: days 1-2 =4.5 g, days 3-5 =9.0 g, and days 6-14 =13.5 g. Following the 14 d, lower limb DOMS was induced using two methods of resistance training. After 48 hours, subjects reported for a second blood draw. Results: One-way ANOVA resulted in the IgY group posting significantly less (p < 0.05) serum CK than the PL group. Furthermore, the IgY group experienced significantly less post-test perceived soreness than the Pl group. Conclusion: IgY supplementation lessens muscle CK levels and perceived muscle soreness following exercise, possibly due to an anti-inflammatory effect. It was suggested that IgY may serve as a buffer for DOMS thereby allowing the participant to continue vigorous exercise without discomfort.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
453
87429
The Role of Social Networks in Promoting Ethics in Iranian Sports
Abstract:
In this research, the role of social networks in promoting ethics in Iranian sports was investigated. The research adopted a descriptive-analytic method, and the survey’s population consisted of all the athletes invited to the national football, volleyball, wrestling and taekwondo teams. Considering the limited population, the size of the society was considered as the sample size. After the distribution of the questionnaires, 167 respondents answered the questionnaires correctly. The data collection tool was chosen according to Hamid Ghasemi`s, standard questionnaire for social networking and mass media, which has 28 questions. Reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient (94%). The content validity of the questionnaire was also approved by the professors. In this study, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data using statistical software. The benchmark tests used in this research included the following: Binomial test, Friedman test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Vermont Creamers, Good fit test and comparative prototypes. The results showed that athletes believed that social network has a significant role in promoting sport ethics in the community. Telegram has been known to play a big role than other social networks. Moreover, the respondents' view on the role of social networks in promoting sport ethics was significantly different in both men and women groups. In fact, women had a more positive attitude towards the role of social networks in promoting sport ethics than men. The respondents' view of the role of social networks in promoting the ethics of sports in the study groups also had a significant difference. Additionally, there was a significant and reverse relationship between the sports experience and the attitude of national athletes regarding the role of social networks in promoting ethics in sports.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
452
85393
The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach
Abstract:
Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
451
85173
Relations among Coping with Stress, Anxiety and the Achievement Motive of Athletes and Non-Athletes
Authors:
Abstract:
This research deals with relations among strategies and styles of coping with stress, social interaction anxiety and the achievement motive of young athletes and non-athletes. The research was conducted on the sample of 402 examinees (197 female and 205 male participants) of the average age of 20.76, divided into three groups: athletes, recreationists, and non-athletes. The COPE-S questionnaire, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Achievement Motivation Questionnaire (MOP 2002) were used for conducting this research and they had satisfactory reliability. The results of the research indicate that athletes, recreationists and non-athletes are not different when it comes to strategies and styles of coping with stress. Non- athletes have more noticeable social interaction anxiety when compared to athletes (U=5281.5, p=.000) and also when compared to recreationists (U=7573, p=.000). There was a difference among these three groups in the achievement motive (χ2(2)=23,544, p=.000) and the three components of this motive (Competing with others, χ2(2)=31,718, p=.000, Perseverance, χ2(2)=9,415, p=.009 and Planning orientation, χ2(2)=8,171, p=.017). The research also indicates a significant difference in the relation between social interaction anxiety and the achievement motive of examinee subgroups, where the most significant difference is between athletes and non- athletes (q=-.45). Moreover, women more frequently use emotion-focused coping (U=16718, p=.003), while men more frequently use avoidance (U=14895.5, p=.000). Women have a lead when it comes to expressing social anxiety (U=17750.5, p=.036) and the achievement motive (U=17395.5, p=.020). The discussion of the results includes findings of similar previous research and theoretical concepts of the variables which were examined. Future research should be oriented towards examining the background of the differences which were (not) gained as well as towards the influence of personality dimensions on the variables which were examined in order to apply the results in practice in the best way.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
450
84616
A Peg Board with Photo-Reflectors to Detect Peg Insertion and Pull-Out Moments
Abstract:
Various kinds of pegboards have been developed and used widely in research and clinics of rehabilitation for evaluation and training of patient’s hand function. A common measure in these peg boards is a total time of performance execution assessed by a tester’s stopwatch. Introduction of electrical and automatic measurement technology to the apparatus, on the other hand, has been delayed. The present work introduces the development of a pegboard with an electric sensor to detect moments of individual peg’s insertion and removal. The work also gives fundamental data obtained from a group of healthy young individuals who performed peg transfer tasks using the pegboard developed. Through trails and errors in pilot tests, two 10-hole peg-board boxes installed with a small photo-reflector and a DC amplifier at the bottom of each hole were designed and built by the present authors. The amplified electric analogue signals from the 20 reflectors were automatically digitized at 500 Hz per channel, and stored in a PC. The boxes were set on a test table at different distances (25, 50, 75, and 125 mm) in parallel to examine the effect of hole-to-hole distance. Fifty healthy young volunteers (25 in each gender) as subjects of the study performed successive fast 80 time peg transfers at each distance using their dominant and non-dominant hands. The data gathered showed a clear-cut light interruption/continuation moment by the pegs, allowing accurately (no tester’s error involved) and precisely (an order of milliseconds) to determine the pull out and insertion times of each peg. This further permitted computation of individual peg movement duration (PMD: from peg-lift-off to insertion) apart from hand reaching duration (HRD: from peg insertion to lift-off). An accidental drop of a peg led to an exceptionally long ( < mean + 3 SD) PMD, which was readily detected from an examination of data distribution. The PMD data were commonly right-skewed, suggesting that the median can be a better estimate of individual PMD than the mean. Repeated measures ANOVA using the median values revealed significant hole-to-hole distance, and hand dominance effects, suggesting that these need to be fixed in the accurate evaluation of PMD. The gender effect was non-significant. Performance consistency was also evaluated by the use of quartile variation coefficient values, which revealed no gender, hole-to-hole, and hand dominance effects. The measurement reliability was further examined using interclass correlation obtained from 14 subjects who performed the 25 and 125 mm hole distance tasks at two 7-10 days separate test sessions. Inter-class correlation values between the two tests showed fair reliability for PMD (0.65-0.75), and for HRD (0.77-0.94). We concluded that a sensor peg board developed in the present study could provide accurate (excluding tester’s errors), and precise (at a millisecond rate) time information of peg movement separated from that used for hand movement. It could also easily detect and automatically exclude erroneous execution data from his/her standard data. These would lead to a better evaluation of hand dexterity function compared to the widely used conventional used peg boards.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
449
84114
Assesment of Quality of Life among Iranian Male Amateur Athletes via WHOQOL-Brief
Abstract:
The aims of the present study are to assess and compare the health habits and quality of life (QoL) of Iranian amateur athletes in different sports. A total of 120 male amateur athletes between 17 and 31 years, engaged in 16 kinds of sports which include team (n=44), individual (n=40) and combat sports (n=36) from sports clubs in the west cities of Iran; and also those not involved in any competition in the past. Additionally, this is a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study, which the subjects completed the WHOQOL-brief questionnaire to evaluate QoL. The questionnaire is composed of 26 questions in four domains (physical health, psychological, social and environmental domains), that was applied in the Persian language. Information on the frequency and duration of training sessions were also collected. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to verify normal distribution, followed by the chi-squared test for proportions and simple analysis of variance for comparisons between groups of sports. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationships between the variables analyzed. According to the findings, those from individual sports obtained highest points in the all domains of QoL; physical domains (87.1 ± 8.1 point), psychological domains (87.6 ± 9.6 point), social domains (89.7 ± 9.2 point), environmental domains (75.5± 10.7 point) and overall QoL score (84.9 ± 9.4 point). Generally, social domains were the highest QoL index (84.3 ± 7.2 points), and environmental domains were the lowest QoL index (68.1 ± 10.8 points), in all of the sports. No correlations were found between QoL domains and time engaged in the sport (r = 0.01; p = 0.93), number of weekly training sessions (r = 0.09; p = 0.37) and session duration (r = -0.06; p= 0.58). Comparison of QoL results with those of the general population revealed higher levels in the physical and psychological components of amateur athletes. In the present study, engaging in sports was associated with higher QoL levels in amateur athletes, particularly in the physical and psychological domains. Moreover, correlations were found between the overall score and domains of QoL.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
448
83978
Exploring Non-Governmental Organizations’ Performance Management: Bahrain Athletics Association as a Case Study
Abstract:
In the ever-growing field of non-governmental organizations, the enhancement of performance management and measurement systems has been increasingly acknowledged by political, economic, social, legal, technological and environmental factors. Within Bahrain Athletics Association, such enhancement results from the key factors leading performance management including collaboration, feedback, human resource management, leadership and participative management. The exploratory, qualitative research conducted reviewed performance management theory. As reviewed, the key factors leading performance management were identified. Drawing on a non-governmental organization case study, the key factors leading Bahrain Athletics Association’s performance management were explored. By exploring the key factors leading Bahrain Athletics Association’s performance management, the research study proposed a theoretical framework of the key factors leading performance management in non-governmental organizations in general. The research study recommended further investigation of the role of the two key factors of command and control and leadership, combining military and civilian approaches to enhancing non-governmental organizations’ performance management.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
447
83844
Investigation of Various Variabilities of Attitudes toward Teaching as a Profession Levels of Physical Education and Sports School Students
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the level attitudes toward teaching as a profession to various variables of the students in physical education and sports departments. 277 students who are studying at the departments of physical education and sports teaching, sports management and coaching in Ahi Evran University, College of Physical Education and Sports participated to the research. Personal information tool and teaching profession scale consisting 34 items were used as data collection tool in the research. Distribution, frequency, t test and anova test were used in comparison of the related data. As a result of statistical analysis, attitudes toward teaching as a profession levels do not differ according to gender, but significant differences were detected in the exercise regularly and department.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
446
82734
Testing the Possibility of Healthy Individuals to Mimic Fatigability in Multiple Sclerotic Patients
Abstract:
A proper functioning of the Central Nervous System ensures that we are able to accomplish just about everything we do as human beings such as walking, breathing, running, etc. Myelinated neurons throughout the body which transmit signals at high speeds facilitate these actions. In the case of MS, the body’s immune system attacks the myelin sheath surrounding the neurons and overtime destroys the myelin sheaths. Depending upon where the destruction occurs in the brain symptoms can vary from person to person. Fatigue is, however, the biggest problem encountered by an MS sufferer. It is very often described as the bedrock upon which other symptoms of MS such challenges in balance and coordination, dizziness, slurred speech, etc. may occur. Classifying and distinguishing between perceptions based fatigue and performance based fatigability is key to identifying appropriate treatment options for patients. Objective methods for assessing motor fatigability is also key to providing clinicians and physiotherapist with critical information on the progression of the symptom. This study tested if the Fatigue Index Kliniken Schmieder assessment tool can detect fatigability as seen in MS patients when healthy subjects with no known history of neurological pathology mimic abnormal gaits. Thirty three healthy adults between ages 18-58years volunteered as subjects for the study. The subjects, strapped with RehaWatch sensors on both feet, completed 6 gait protocols of normal and mimicked fatigable gaits for 60 seconds per each gait and at 1.38889m/s treadmill speed following clear instructions given.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
445
82655
Examining the Effects of Ticket Bundling Strategies and Team Identification on Purchase of Hedonic and Utilitarian Options
Abstract:
Bundling strategy is a common marketing practice today. In the past decades, both academicians and practitioners have increasingly emphasized the strategic importance of bundling in today’s markets. The reason for increased interest in bundling strategy is that they normally believe that it can significantly increase profits on organization’s sales over time and it is convenient for the customer. However, little efforts has been made on ticket bundling and purchase considerations in hedonic and utilitarian options in sport consumer behavior context. Consumers often face choices between utilitarian and hedonic alternatives in decision making. When consumers purchase certain products, they are only interested in the functional dimensions, which are called utilitarian dimensions. On the other hand, others focus more on hedonic features such as fun, excitement, and pleasure. Thus, the current research examines how utilitarian and hedonic consumption can vary in typical ticket purchasing process. The purpose of this research is to understand the following two research themes: (1) the differential effect of discount framing on ticket bundling: utilitarian and hedonic options and (2) moderating effect of team identification on ticket bundling. In order to test the research hypotheses, an experimental study using a two-way ANOVA, 3 (team identification: low, medium, and high) X 2 (discount frame: ticket bundle sales with utilitarian product, and hedonic product), with mixed factorial design will be conducted to determine whether there is a statistical significance between purchasing intentions of two discount frames of ticket bundle sales within different team identification levels. To compare mean differences among the two different settings, we will create two conditions of ticket bundles: (1) offering a discount on a ticket ($5 off) if they would purchase it along with utilitarian product (e.g., iPhone8 case, t-shirt, cap), and (2) offering a discount on a ticket ($5 off) if they would purchase it along with hedonic product (e.g., pizza, drink, fans featured on big screen). The findings of the current ticket bundling study are expected to have many theoretical and practical contributions and implications by extending the research and literature pertaining to the relationship between team identification and sport consumer behavior. Specifically, this study can provide a reliable and valid framework to understanding the role of team identification as a moderator on behavioral intentions such as purchase intentions. From an academic perspective, the study will be the first known attempt to understand consumer reactions toward different discount frames related to ticket bundling. Even though the game ticket itself is the major commodity of sport event attendance and significantly related to teams’ revenue streams, most recent ticket pricing research has been done in terms of economic or cost-oriented pricing and not from a consumer psychological perspective. For sport practitioners, this study will also provide significant implications. The result will imply that sport marketers may need to develop two different ticketing promotions for loyal fan and non-loyal fans. Since loyal fans concern ticket price than tie-in products when they see ticket bundle sales, advertising campaign should be more focused on discounting ticket price.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
444
82648
The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Equestrian Jumping Tasks
Abstract:
Imagery is a popular mental technique used by athletes and coaches to improve learning and performance. It has been widely investigated and beneficial in the sports context. However, the imagery application in equestrian sport has been understudied. Thus, the effectiveness of imagery should encompass the application in the equestrian sport to ensure its application covert all sports. Unlike most sports (e.g., football, badminton, tennis, ski) which are both mental and physical are dependent solely upon human decision and response, equestrian sports involves the interaction of human-horse collaboration to success in the equestrian tasks. This study aims to investigate the effect of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks, motivation and imagery ability. It was hypothesized that the use of PETTLEP imagery intervention will significantly increase in the skill equestrian jumping tasks. It was also hypothesized that riders’ imagery ability and motivation will increase across phases. The participants were skilled riders with less to no imagery experience. A single-subject ABA design was employed. The study was occurred over five week’s period at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Equestrian Park. Imagery ability was measured using the Sport Imagery Assessment Questionnaires (SIAQ), the motivational measured based on the Motivational imagery ability measure for Sport (MIAMS). The effectiveness of the PETTLEP imagery intervention on show jumping tasks were evaluated by the professional equine rider on the observational scale. Results demonstrated the improvement on all equestrian jumping tasks for the most participants from baseline to intervention. Result shows the improvement on imagery ability and participants’ motivations after the PETTLEP imagery intervention. Implication of the present study include underlining the impact of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks. The result extends the previous research on the effectiveness of PETTLEP imagery in the sports context that involves interaction and collaboration between human and horse.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
443
82220
Quality of Life Assessment across the Cancer Continuum: Understanding the Role of an Exercise Rehabilitation Programme
Abstract:
The Quality of Life (QoL) paradigm is multidimensional, dynamic and modular and its definition differs across the cancer continuum. The challenge in the interpretation of QoL data in clinical research is that QoL is influenced by psychological phenomena such as adaptation to illness. This research aims to obtain a valid and sensitive assessment of QoL change over the continuum disease, and to evaluate a rehabilitation programme aimed at inverting the observed decrease in QoL when patients return to daily living activities. The sample comprised 66 men. Patients were first assessed to establish a baseline (P1-diagnosis). This was followed by a post-test (P2-discharge) and a then-test measurement (P3-retrospective evaluation) and after returning home patients were randomized in experimental and control groups. The experimental group attended a rehabilitation programme over 24 weeks (P4). Results show that from baseline to post-test, QoL decreased significantly. The recalibration then-test confirmed a low QoL in all periods evaluated. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups prove the positive effect of the Exercise Rehabilitation Programme (ERP) on QoL. Understanding the real dynamic of QoL over time would help to adapt rehabilitation programmes by improving sensitivity and efficacy and provide professionals with a more accurate perception of the impact of treatment and side effects on patients&rsquo; QoL. Our results underline the importance of changing the approach adopted by health professionals towards one of watchful waiting on patients&rsquo; QoL until their complete recovery in daily life.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
442
82058
Assessing the Efficiency of Sports Stadiums in India: An Explorative Study of Socio-Economic Sustainability
Abstract:
Sports stadiums are not merely public amenities for entertainment and recreation for a city. They are buildings with extremely high construction investment and running costs which holds the supreme responsibility of social integration, nation building and financial upliftment of the community apart from its primary motive of conducting and promotion of the sports. But the present scenario of sports performances at international events and growing physical inactivity among the youth in India show that the sports facilities are far behind in achieving these goals. A pilot study of Indira Gandhi Sports complex in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh gave an indication of underutilization of sports stadia in India. This probed a crying need for the assessment of the present usage and functioning of the major sports (non-cricketing) facilities within the country. This paper assesses the sustainability of stadiums built for national and international sporting (non-cricket) events in terms of sporting, socio-cultural and financial sustainability by mainly focusing on their usage in non-event days. The criteria for the assessment and comparison of the stadiums within the nation is done using World Stadium Index and GDI (Gross Domestic Income) while with international counterparts using WSI and GNI (Gross National Income). The pilot case of India Gandhi Sports complex in Vijayawada is further investigated for a deeper understanding of the present usage, the existing issues for its underutilization and the way-forward (at least a few) to reach its sustainable potential. The paper finally concludes with the discussion on whether sports stadiums are being utilized to its financial potential and if it is at par with its international counterparts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
441
81917
Reliability and Validity for Measurement of Body Composition: A Field Method
Abstract:
Measurement of body composition via a field method has the most popular instruments which are used to estimate the percentage of body fat. Among the instruments used are the Body Mass Index, Bio Impedance Analysis and Skinfold Test. All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, are mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the reliability and convergent validity of the instruments. A total of 40 students, males and females aged between 13 and 14 years participated in this study. The study found that the test retest and Pearson correlation coefficient of reliability for the three instruments is very high, r = .99. While the inter class reliability also are at high level with r = .99 for Body Mass Index and Bio Impedance Analysis, r = .96 for Skin fold test. Intra class reliability coefficient for these three instruments is too high for Body Mass Index r = .99, Bio Impedance Analysis r = .97, and Skin fold Test r = .90. However, Standard Error of Measurement value for all three instruments indicates the Body Mass Index is the most appropriate instrument with a mean value of .000672 compared with other instruments. The findings show that the Body Mass Index is an instrument which is the most accurate and reliable in estimating body fat percentage for the population studied.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
440
81747
Comparing the Knee Kinetics and Kinematics during Non-Steady Movements in Recovered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Badminton Players against an Uninjured Cohort: Case-Control Study
Abstract:
Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament(ACL) helps stabilize the knee joint minimizing tibial anterior translation. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is common in racquet sports and often occurs due to sudden acceleration, deceleration or changes of direction. This mechanism in badminton most commonly occurs during landing after an overhead stroke. Knee biomechanics during dynamic movements such as walking, running and stair negotiation, do not return to normal for more than a year after an ACL reconstruction. This change in the biomechanics may lead to re-injury whilst performing non-steady movements during sports, where these injuries are most prevalent. Aims: To compare if the knee kinetics and kinematics in ACL injury recovered athletes return to the same level as those from an uninjured cohort during standard movements used for clinical assessment and badminton shots. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine: Knee valgus during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Degree of internal or external rotation during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Maximum knee flexion during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump and net shot. Methods: This case-control study included 14 participants with three ACL injury recovered athletes and 11 uninjured participants. The participants performed various functional tasks including vertical drop jump, single leg squat; the forehand net shot and the forehand drop shot. The data was analysed using the two-way ANOVA test, and the reliability of the data was evaluated using the Intra Class Coefficient. Results: The data showed a significant decrease in the range of knee rotation in ACL injured participants as compared to the uninjured cohort (F₇,₅₅₆=2.37; p=0.021). There was also a decrease in the maximum knee flexion angles and an increase in knee valgus angles in ACL injured participants although they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the knee rotation angles in the ACL injured participants which could be a potential cause for re-injury in these athletes in the future. Although the results for decrease in maximum knee flexion angles and increase in knee valgus angles were not significant, this may be due to a limited sample of ACL injured participants; there is potential for it to be identified as a variable of interest in the rehabilitation of ACL injuries. These changes in the knee biomechanics could be vital in the rehabilitation of ACL injured athletes in the future, and an inclusion of sports based tasks, e.g., Net shot along with standard protocol movements for ACL assessment would provide a better measure of the rehabilitation of the athlete.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
439
80849
The Role of Chemerin and Myostatin after Physical Activity
Abstract:
Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Obesity as an inflammatory disease plays a key role in the beginning and development of atheroma processes by secretory function of adipose tissue in the synthesis and release of cytokines. Chemerin is mainly originated from adipose tissue which can affect the development of atherosclerosis as paracrine and create the mobilization of macrophages and inflammatory responses in atherosclerosis plaques created. Resistance training for 10 weeks could reduce levels of plasma myostatin. It seems that resistance training can reduce atrophy and increase muscular strength; and it plays role as an autocrine mechanism to guide the growth of skeletal muscle in response to mechanical stimuli times. Better understanding of adipokines can help to further understand the complications of obesity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
438
80351
The Role of the Coach in Elite Equestrian Sport
Abstract:
The British Equestrian Federation (BEF) aims to develop a holistic coach education and certification program, moving away from traditional autocratic instruction in line with the UK Coaching Framework. This framework is based on generic coaching science research where the coach is cited as a pivotal aspect in developing sporting success. Theoretic knowledge suggests that the role of the sports coach is to develop the physical, tactical, technical and psychological attributes of the athlete and is responsible for the planning, organization and delivery of the training plan and competition schedule. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that is the role required in equestrian sport as the rider takes responsibility for many of these tasks. This research aimed to address the void in current knowledge by gaining an understanding of coaching in equestrian sport in order to improve coaching education system through awareness of the role of the coach. Objectives were to examine the relationship between coach and rider at elite level in equestrian sport providing empirical evidence to suggest that the rider is, in part, ‘self –coached’. To identify the elite equestrian coaches’ role in coaching these ‘self-coached riders. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews was used. A sample of elite coaches (N=3) and elite riders (N=3) were interviewed. Analysis of the transcripts revealed a total of 534 meaning units that were further grouped into sub-themes and general themes from the coaches’ perspective and the riders’ perspective. This led to the development of a final thematic structure revealing major dimensions that characterized coaching in elite equestrian sport. It was found that the riders at the elite level coach themselves the majority of the time, therefore, can be considered as ‘self-coached’ athletes. However, they do use elite coaches in a mentoring and consultancy role, where they seek guidance from the coach on specific problems, to sound ideas off or to seek reassurance that what they are doing is correct. Findings from this research suggest that the rider-coach relationship at the elite level is a professional one, based on trust and respect, but not a close relationship as seen in other sports. The results show the imperative need for the BEF to educate coaches in coaching the self-coached rider at the elite level, particularly in terms of mentoring skills. As well as incorporating rider education aimed at developing the independent, self-coached riders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
437
80288
Predictors and Prevention of Sports’ Injuries among Male Professional Footballers in Nigeria
Abstract:
The study assessed the influence of playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches, skill level and competition level on the occurrence and severity of football injuries. The prospective outline of the study was as follows: after a baseline examination and measurements were performed ascertaining possible predictors of injury, all players were followed up weekly for one year to register subsequent injuries and complaints. Four hundred and thirty-five out of 455 subjects completed the weekly follow-ups over one year. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data collected. Results showed that playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches skill level and competition level were predictors of injuries among the professional footballer. Playing on natural grass, acclimatization, reduction of physical overload, among others, were strategies postulated for preventing injuries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):