Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50735

Sport and Health Sciences

479
88909
Using Motives of Sports Consumption to Explain Team Identity: A Comparison between Football Fans across the Pond
Abstract:
Spectators follow their favorite sports teams for different reasons. While some attend a sporting event simply for its entertainment value, others do so because of the personal sense of achievement and accomplishment their connection with a sports team creates. Moreover, the level of identity spectators feel toward their favorite sports team falls in a broad continuum. Some are mere spectators. For those spectators, their association to a sports team has little impact on their self-image. Others are die-hard fans who are proud of their association with their team and whose connection with that team is an important reflection of who they are. Several motives for sports consumption can be used to explain the level of spectator support in a variety of sports. Those motives can also be used to explain the variance in the identification, attachment, and loyalty spectators feel toward their favorite sports team. Motives for sports consumption can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. In this study, motives for sports consumption was used to discriminate the level of identity spectators feel toward their sports team. It was hypothesized that spectators with a strong level of team identity would report higher rates of interest in player, interest in sports, and interest in team than spectators with a low level of team identity. And spectators with a low level of team identity would report higher rates for entertainment value, bonding with friends or family, and wholesome environment. Football spectators in the United States and England were surveyed about their motives for football consumption and their level of identification with their favorite football team. To assess if the motives of sports fans differed by level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) under the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure found in SPSS was performed. The independent variables were level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, and the dependent variables were the sport fan motives. A tripartite split (low, moderate, high) was used on a composite measure for team identity. Preliminary results show that effect of team identity is statistically significant (p < .001) for at least nine of the 17 motives for sports consumption assessed in this investigation. These results indicate that the motives of spectators with a strong level of team identity differ significantly from spectators with a low level of team identity. Those differences can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. Sports marketers can use these methods and results to develop identity profiles of spectators and create marketing strategies specifically designed to attract those spectators based on their unique motives for consumption and their level of team identification.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
478
88198
Comparison between Mental Toughness and Level of Physical Activity between Staff and Students in University of Tabriz
Abstract:
The aim of this paper was to compare physical activity and mental toughness in the staff and students of the University of Tabriz. 615 people participated in this study and filled demographic questionnaire, mental thoughness48 (MTQ48) questionnaire and habitual physical activity questionnaire (Baecke physical activity questionnaire). The research sample included 355 students and 260 staff (615 questionnaires). For analyzing hypotheses MANOVA, correlation and independent t-test were used. Based on the result; some subscales of mental toughness and physical activity were significantly related. The result showed the significant correlation between mental toughness and physical activity in student and no significant correlation in staff. Students were significantly physically more active than staff, and mental toughness was higher in staff. There was no difference in mental toughness variable between active participants (active staff and student). The results of this study showed that mental toughness could influence the way a person cope with living conditions. It is expected that mental toughness changes can lead to changing in levels of physical activity. It should be noted that the other variables should not be ignored.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
477
87731
Effect of Oral Immonoglobulin (IgY) Ingestion on Post Exercise Muscle Soreness and Muscle Damage Markers in Females
Abstract:
Intense resistance-type activity generally elicits delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in individuals unaccustomed to such action. DOMS is a combination of contractile tissue microtrauma, osmotic pressure changes, alteration calcium regulation, and inflammation. Elevated muscle-specific enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is a marker of striated muscle damage. Avian immunoglobulin (IgY) mediates inflammation and may thereby reduce post-exercise DOMS. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral IgY and placebo (Pl) on CK, serum relevels, and perceived pain following induced DOMS. Methods: Healthy college-aged females (N=16) were randomly divided into an experimental group (IgY) and a control group (PL). CK serum levels were recorded followed by 14 days of supplementation of either IgY or Pl at the following doses: days 1-2 =4.5 g, days 3-5 =9.0 g, and days 6-14 =13.5 g. Following the 14 d, lower limb DOMS was induced using two methods of resistance training. After 48 hours, subjects reported for a second blood draw. Results: One-way ANOVA resulted in the IgY group posting significantly less (p < 0.05) serum CK than the PL group. Furthermore, the IgY group experienced significantly less post-test perceived soreness than the Pl group. Conclusion: IgY supplementation lessens muscle CK levels and perceived muscle soreness following exercise, possibly due to an anti-inflammatory effect. It was suggested that IgY may serve as a buffer for DOMS thereby allowing the participant to continue vigorous exercise without discomfort.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
476
85173
Relations among Coping with Stress, Anxiety and the Achievement Motive of Athletes and Non-Athletes
Authors:
Abstract:
This research deals with relations among strategies and styles of coping with stress, social interaction anxiety and the achievement motive of young athletes and non-athletes. The research was conducted on the sample of 402 examinees (197 female and 205 male participants) of the average age of 20.76, divided into three groups: athletes, recreationists, and non-athletes. The COPE-S questionnaire, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Achievement Motivation Questionnaire (MOP 2002) were used for conducting this research and they had satisfactory reliability. The results of the research indicate that athletes, recreationists and non-athletes are not different when it comes to strategies and styles of coping with stress. Non- athletes have more noticeable social interaction anxiety when compared to athletes (U=5281.5, p=.000) and also when compared to recreationists (U=7573, p=.000). There was a difference among these three groups in the achievement motive (χ2(2)=23,544, p=.000) and the three components of this motive (Competing with others, χ2(2)=31,718, p=.000, Perseverance, χ2(2)=9,415, p=.009 and Planning orientation, χ2(2)=8,171, p=.017). The research also indicates a significant difference in the relation between social interaction anxiety and the achievement motive of examinee subgroups, where the most significant difference is between athletes and non- athletes (q=-.45). Moreover, women more frequently use emotion-focused coping (U=16718, p=.003), while men more frequently use avoidance (U=14895.5, p=.000). Women have a lead when it comes to expressing social anxiety (U=17750.5, p=.036) and the achievement motive (U=17395.5, p=.020). The discussion of the results includes findings of similar previous research and theoretical concepts of the variables which were examined. Future research should be oriented towards examining the background of the differences which were (not) gained as well as towards the influence of personality dimensions on the variables which were examined in order to apply the results in practice in the best way.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
475
84114
Assesment of Quality of Life among Iranian Male Amateur Athletes via WHOQOL-Brief
Abstract:
The aims of the present study are to assess and compare the health habits and quality of life (QoL) of Iranian amateur athletes in different sports. A total of 120 male amateur athletes between 17 and 31 years, engaged in 16 kinds of sports which include team (n=44), individual (n=40) and combat sports (n=36) from sports clubs in the west cities of Iran; and also those not involved in any competition in the past. Additionally, this is a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study, which the subjects completed the WHOQOL-brief questionnaire to evaluate QoL. The questionnaire is composed of 26 questions in four domains (physical health, psychological, social and environmental domains), that was applied in the Persian language. Information on the frequency and duration of training sessions were also collected. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to verify normal distribution, followed by the chi-squared test for proportions and simple analysis of variance for comparisons between groups of sports. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationships between the variables analyzed. According to the findings, those from individual sports obtained highest points in the all domains of QoL; physical domains (87.1 ± 8.1 point), psychological domains (87.6 ± 9.6 point), social domains (89.7 ± 9.2 point), environmental domains (75.5± 10.7 point) and overall QoL score (84.9 ± 9.4 point). Generally, social domains were the highest QoL index (84.3 ± 7.2 points), and environmental domains were the lowest QoL index (68.1 ± 10.8 points), in all of the sports. No correlations were found between QoL domains and time engaged in the sport (r = 0.01; p = 0.93), number of weekly training sessions (r = 0.09; p = 0.37) and session duration (r = -0.06; p= 0.58). Comparison of QoL results with those of the general population revealed higher levels in the physical and psychological components of amateur athletes. In the present study, engaging in sports was associated with higher QoL levels in amateur athletes, particularly in the physical and psychological domains. Moreover, correlations were found between the overall score and domains of QoL.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
474
83844
Investigation of Various Variabilities of Attitudes toward Teaching as a Profession Levels of Physical Education and Sports School Students
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the level attitudes toward teaching as a profession to various variables of the students in physical education and sports departments. 277 students who are studying at the departments of physical education and sports teaching, sports management and coaching in Ahi Evran University, College of Physical Education and Sports participated to the research. Personal information tool and teaching profession scale consisting 34 items were used as data collection tool in the research. Distribution, frequency, t test and anova test were used in comparison of the related data. As a result of statistical analysis, attitudes toward teaching as a profession levels do not differ according to gender, but significant differences were detected in the exercise regularly and department.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
473
82648
The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Equestrian Jumping Tasks
Abstract:
Imagery is a popular mental technique used by athletes and coaches to improve learning and performance. It has been widely investigated and beneficial in the sports context. However, the imagery application in equestrian sport has been understudied. Thus, the effectiveness of imagery should encompass the application in the equestrian sport to ensure its application covert all sports. Unlike most sports (e.g., football, badminton, tennis, ski) which are both mental and physical are dependent solely upon human decision and response, equestrian sports involves the interaction of human-horse collaboration to success in the equestrian tasks. This study aims to investigate the effect of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks, motivation and imagery ability. It was hypothesized that the use of PETTLEP imagery intervention will significantly increase in the skill equestrian jumping tasks. It was also hypothesized that riders’ imagery ability and motivation will increase across phases. The participants were skilled riders with less to no imagery experience. A single-subject ABA design was employed. The study was occurred over five week’s period at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Equestrian Park. Imagery ability was measured using the Sport Imagery Assessment Questionnaires (SIAQ), the motivational measured based on the Motivational imagery ability measure for Sport (MIAMS). The effectiveness of the PETTLEP imagery intervention on show jumping tasks were evaluated by the professional equine rider on the observational scale. Results demonstrated the improvement on all equestrian jumping tasks for the most participants from baseline to intervention. Result shows the improvement on imagery ability and participants’ motivations after the PETTLEP imagery intervention. Implication of the present study include underlining the impact of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks. The result extends the previous research on the effectiveness of PETTLEP imagery in the sports context that involves interaction and collaboration between human and horse.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
472
81917
Reliability and Validity for Measurement of Body Composition: A Field Method
Abstract:
Measurement of body composition via a field method has the most popular instruments which are used to estimate the percentage of body fat. Among the instruments used are the Body Mass Index, Bio Impedance Analysis and Skinfold Test. All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, are mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the reliability and convergent validity of the instruments. A total of 40 students, males and females aged between 13 and 14 years participated in this study. The study found that the test retest and Pearson correlation coefficient of reliability for the three instruments is very high, r = .99. While the inter class reliability also are at high level with r = .99 for Body Mass Index and Bio Impedance Analysis, r = .96 for Skin fold test. Intra class reliability coefficient for these three instruments is too high for Body Mass Index r = .99, Bio Impedance Analysis r = .97, and Skin fold Test r = .90. However, Standard Error of Measurement value for all three instruments indicates the Body Mass Index is the most appropriate instrument with a mean value of .000672 compared with other instruments. The findings show that the Body Mass Index is an instrument which is the most accurate and reliable in estimating body fat percentage for the population studied.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
471
80849
The Role of Chemerin and Myostatin after Physical Activity
Abstract:
Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Obesity as an inflammatory disease plays a key role in the beginning and development of atheroma processes by secretory function of adipose tissue in the synthesis and release of cytokines. Chemerin is mainly originated from adipose tissue which can affect the development of atherosclerosis as paracrine and create the mobilization of macrophages and inflammatory responses in atherosclerosis plaques created. Resistance training for 10 weeks could reduce levels of plasma myostatin. It seems that resistance training can reduce atrophy and increase muscular strength; and it plays role as an autocrine mechanism to guide the growth of skeletal muscle in response to mechanical stimuli times. Better understanding of adipokines can help to further understand the complications of obesity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
470
80751
Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Economy Following Exercise-Induced Fatigue
Abstract:
Running economy is a key physiological parameter of an individual’s running efficacy and a valid tool for predicting performance outcomes. Of the many factors known to influence running economy (RE), footwear certainly plays a role owing to its characteristics that vary substantially from model to model. Although minimalist footwear is believed to enhance RE and thereby endurance performance, conclusive research reports are scarce. Indeed, debates remain as to which footwear characteristics most alter RE. The purposes of this study were, therefore, two-fold: (a) to determine whether wearing minimalist shoes results in better RE compared to shod and to identify relationships with kinematic and muscle activation patterns; (b) to determine whether changes in RE with minimalist shoes are still evident following a fatiguing bout of exercise. Well-trained male distance runners (n=10; 29.0 ± 7.5 yrs; 71.0 ± 4.8 kg; 176.3 ± 6.5 cm) partook first in a maximal O₂ uptake determination test (VO₂ₘₐₓ = 61.6 ± 7.3 ml min⁻¹ kg⁻¹) 7 days prior to the experimental sessions. Second, in a fully randomized fashion, an RE test consisting of three 8-min treadmill runs in shod and minimalist footwear were performed prior to and following exercise induced fatigue (EIF). The minimalist and shod conditions were tested with a minimum of 7-day wash-out period between conditions. The RE bouts, interspaced by 2-min rest periods, were run at 2.79, 3.33, and 3.89 m s⁻¹ with a 1% grade. EIF consisted of 7 times 1000 m at 94-97% VO₂ₘₐₓ interspaced with 3-min recovery. Cardiorespiratory, electromyography (EMG), kinematics, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were measured throughout the experimental sessions. A significant main speed effect on RE (p=0.001) and stride frequency (SF) (p=0.001) was observed. The pairwise comparisons showed that running at 2.79 m s⁻¹ was less economic compared to 3.33, and 3.89 m s⁻¹ (3.56 ± 0.38, 3.41 ± 0.45, 3.40 ± 0.45 ml O₂ kg⁻¹ km⁻¹; respectively) and that SF increased as a function of speed (79 ± 5, 82 ± 5, 84 ± 5 strides min⁻¹). Further, EMG analyses revealed that root mean square EMG significantly increased as a function of speed for all muscles (Biceps femoris, Gluteus maximus, Gastrocnemius, Tibialis anterior, Vastus lateralis). During EIF, the statistical analysis revealed a significant main effect of time on lactate production (from 2.7 ± 5.7 to 11.2 ± 6.2 mmol L⁻¹), RPE scores (from 7.6 ± 4.0 to 18.4 ± 2.7) and peak HR (from 171 ± 30 to 181 ± 20 bpm), expect for the recovery period. Surprisingly, a significant main footwear effect was observed on running speed during intervals (p=0.041). Participants ran faster with minimalist shoes compared to shod (3:24 ± 0:44 min [95%CI: 3:14-3:34] vs. 3:30 ± 0:47 min [95%CI: 3:19-3:41]). Although EIF altered lactate production and RPE scores, no other effect was noticeable on RE, EMG, and SF pre- and post-EIF, except for the expected speed effect. The significant footwear effect on running speed during EIF was unforeseen but could be due to shoe mass and/or heel-toe-drop differences. We also cannot discard the effect of speed on foot-strike pattern and therefore, running performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
469
80351
The Role of the Coach in Elite Equestrian Sport
Abstract:
The British Equestrian Federation (BEF) aims to develop a holistic coach education and certification program, moving away from traditional autocratic instruction in line with the UK Coaching Framework. This framework is based on generic coaching science research where the coach is cited as a pivotal aspect in developing sporting success. Theoretic knowledge suggests that the role of the sports coach is to develop the physical, tactical, technical and psychological attributes of the athlete and is responsible for the planning, organization and delivery of the training plan and competition schedule. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that is the role required in equestrian sport as the rider takes responsibility for many of these tasks. This research aimed to address the void in current knowledge by gaining an understanding of coaching in equestrian sport in order to improve coaching education system through awareness of the role of the coach. Objectives were to examine the relationship between coach and rider at elite level in equestrian sport providing empirical evidence to suggest that the rider is, in part, ‘self –coached’. To identify the elite equestrian coaches’ role in coaching these ‘self-coached riders. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews was used. A sample of elite coaches (N=3) and elite riders (N=3) were interviewed. Analysis of the transcripts revealed a total of 534 meaning units that were further grouped into sub-themes and general themes from the coaches’ perspective and the riders’ perspective. This led to the development of a final thematic structure revealing major dimensions that characterized coaching in elite equestrian sport. It was found that the riders at the elite level coach themselves the majority of the time, therefore, can be considered as ‘self-coached’ athletes. However, they do use elite coaches in a mentoring and consultancy role, where they seek guidance from the coach on specific problems, to sound ideas off or to seek reassurance that what they are doing is correct. Findings from this research suggest that the rider-coach relationship at the elite level is a professional one, based on trust and respect, but not a close relationship as seen in other sports. The results show the imperative need for the BEF to educate coaches in coaching the self-coached rider at the elite level, particularly in terms of mentoring skills. As well as incorporating rider education aimed at developing the independent, self-coached riders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
468
80288
Predictors and Prevention of Sports’ Injuries among Male Professional Footballers in Nigeria
Abstract:
The study assessed the influence of playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches, skill level and competition level on the occurrence and severity of football injuries. The prospective outline of the study was as follows: after a baseline examination and measurements were performed ascertaining possible predictors of injury, all players were followed up weekly for one year to register subsequent injuries and complaints. Four hundred and thirty-five out of 455 subjects completed the weekly follow-ups over one year. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data collected. Results showed that playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches skill level and competition level were predictors of injuries among the professional footballer. Playing on natural grass, acclimatization, reduction of physical overload, among others, were strategies postulated for preventing injuries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
467
80219
Preliminary Study Investigating Trunk Muscle Fatigue and Cognitive Function in Event Riders during a Simulated Jumping Test
Abstract:
The Olympic discipline of eventing is the triathlon of equestrian sport, consisting of dressage, cross-country and show jumping. Falls on the cross-country are common and can be serious even causing death to rider. Research identifies an increased risk of a fall with an increasing number of obstacles and for jumping efforts later in the course suggesting fatigue maybe a contributing factor. Advice based on anecdotal evidence suggests riders undertake strength and conditioning programs to improve their ‘core’, thus improving their ability to maintain and control their riding position. There is little empirical evidence to support this advice. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate truck muscle fatigue and cognitive function during a simulated jumping test. Eight adult riders participated in a riding test on a Racewood Event simulator for 10 minutes, over a continuous jumping programme. The SEMG activity of six trunk muscles were bilaterally measured at every minute, and normalised root mean squares (RMS) and median frequencies (MDF) were computed from the EMG power spectra. Visual analogue scales (VAS) measuring Fatigue and Pain levels and Cognitive Function ‘tapping’ tests were performed before and after the riding test. Average MDF values for all muscles differed significantly between each sampled minute (p = 0.017), however a consistent decrease from Minute 1 and Minute 9 was not found, suggesting the trunk muscles fatigued and then recovered as other muscle groups important in maintaining the riding position during dynamic movement compensated. Differences between the MDF and RMS of different muscles were highly significant (H=213.01, DF=5, p < 0.001), supporting previous anecdotal evidence that different trunk muscles carry out different roles of posture maintenance during riding. RMS values were not significantly different between the sampled minutes or between riders, suggesting the riding test produced a consistent and repeatable effect on the trunk muscles. MDF values differed significantly between riders (H=50.8, DF = 5, p < 0.001), suggesting individuals may experience localised muscular fatigue of the same test differently, and that other parameters of physical fitness should be investigated to provide conclusions. Lumbar muscles were shown to be important in maintaining the position, therefore physical training program should focus on these areas. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-riding test VAS Pain and Fatigue scores or cognitive function test scores, suggesting the riding test was not significantly fatiguing for participants. However, a near significant correlation was found between time of riding test and VAS Pain score (p = 0.06), suggesting somatic pain may be a limiting factor to performance. No other correlations were found between the factors of participant riding test time, VAS Pain and Fatigue, however a larger sample needs to be tested to improve statistical analysis. The findings suggest the simulator riding test was not sufficient to provoke fatigue in the riders, however foundations for future studies have been laid to enable methodologies in realistic eventing settings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
466
79361
Effects of Static Stretching Exercises on Flexibility and Sprint Performance in Inactive Healthy Girls
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of static stretching exercises on the flexibility and sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls. A total of 27 girls were randomly divided into control group (n=15) and stretching group (n=12) who performed static stretching. Sit and reach flexibility and 30-meter sprint pre-tests were performed for both groups. Static stretching exercises were performed three times, 30 sec. practice and 15 sec. rest for each leg only on five muscle by stretching group. The post-tests were performed in five minutes after static stretching exercise. Paired t-test was used to analyze differentiations among the group parameters. According to research results, there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test flexibility (p < 0.05) and sprint test results (p < 0.01). As a conclusion of the study, static stretching exercises improve flexibility but decrease sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
465
79358
Examination of 12-14 Years Old Volleyball Players’ Body Image Levels
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to examine the body image levels of 12-14 years old girls who are playing volleyball. The research group consists of 113 girls who are playing volleyball in Sakarya during the fall season of 2015-2016. Data was collected by means of the 'Body Image Questionnaire' which was originally developed by Secord and Jourard. The consequence of repeated analysis of the reliability of the scale was determined to as '.96'. This study employed statistical calculations as mean, standard deviation and t-test. According to results of this study, it was determined that the mean point of the volleyball players is 158.5 ± 25.1 (minimum=40; maximum=200) and it can be said that the volleyball players’ body image levels are high. There is a significant difference between the underweight (167.4 ± 20.7) and normal weight (151.4 ± 26.2) groups according to their Body Mass Index. Body image levels of underweight group were determined higher than normal weight group.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
464
77579
Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking
Abstract:
The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (&plusmn;1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (&plusmn;3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (&plusmn;4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (&plusmn;2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (&plusmn;1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (&plusmn;4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p &lt; 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p &lt; 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
463
77365
Effects of a Student-Centered Approach to Assessment on Students' Attitudes towards 'Applied Statistics' Course
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this cross sectional study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching and learning Statistics from a student centered perspective in higher education institutions. Statistics education has emphasized the application of tangible and interesting examples in order to motivate students learning about statistical concepts. Participants in this study were 112 bachelor students enrolled in the ‘Applied Statistics’ course in Sports University of Tirana. Experimental group students received a student-centered teaching approach; Control group students received an instructor-centered teaching approach. This study found student-centered approach student group had statistically significantly higher assessments scores (52.1 ± 18.9) at the end of the evaluation compared to instructor-centered approach student group (61.8 ± 16.4), (t (108) = 2.848, p = 0.005). Results concluded that student-centered perspective can improve student positive attitude to statistical methods and to motivate project work. Therefore, findings of this study may be very useful to the higher education institutions to establish their learning strategies especially for courses related to Statistics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
462
77297
Haematological Responses on Amateur Cycling Stages Race
Abstract:
multiple stage bicycle races require high physiological loads from professional cyclists. Such demands can lead to immunosuppression and health problems. However, in this type of competition, little is known about its physiological effects on amateur athletes, who generally receive less medical support. Thus, this study analyzes the hematological effects of a multiple stage bicycle race on amateur cyclists. Seven Brazilian national amateur cyclists (34 ± 4.21 years) underwent a laboratory test to evaluate VO2Max (69.89 ± 7.43 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1). Six days later, these volunteers raced in the Tour of Goiás, participating in five races in four days (435 km) of competition. Arterial blood samples were collected one day before and one day after the competition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to evaluate the data distribution and Wilcoxon to compare the two moments (p < 0.05) of data collection. The results show: Red cells ↓ 7.8% (5.1 ± 0.28 vs 4.7 ± 0.37 106 / mm 3, p = 0.01); Hemoglobin ↓ 7.9% (15.1 ± 0.31 vs 13.9 ± 0.27 g / dL, p = 0.01); Leukocytes ↑ 9.5% (4946 ± 553 versus 5416 ± 1075 / mm 3, p = 0.17); Platelets ↓ 7.0% (200.2 ± 51.5 vs 186.1 ± 39.5 / mm 3, p = 0.01); LDH ↑ 11% (164.4 ± 28.5 vs 182.5 ± 20.5 U / L, p = 0.17); CK ↑ 13.5% (290.7 ± 206.1 vs 330.1 ± 90.5 U / L, p = 0.39); CK-MB ↑ 2% (15.7 ± 3.9 vs. 20.1 ± 2.9 U / L, p = 0.06); Cortizol ↓ 13.5% (12.1 ± 2.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.9 μg / dL, p = 0.01); Total testosterone ↓ 7% (453.6 ± 120.1 vs 421.7 ± 74.3 ng / dL, p = 0.12); IGF-1 ↓ 15.1% (213.8 ± 18.8 vs 181.5 ± 34.7 ng / mL, p = 0.04). This means that there was significant reductions in O2 allocation / transport capacities, vascular injury disruption, and a fortuitous reduction of muscle skeletal anabolism along with maintenance and / or slight elevation of immune function, glucose and lipid energy and myocardial damage. Therefore, the results suggest that no abnormal health effect was identified among the athletes after participating in the Tour de Goiás.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
461
76964
A Twelve-Week Intervention Programme to Improve the Gross Motor Skills of Selected Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract:
Neuro-typical children develop the motor skills necessary to play, do schoolwork and interact with others. However, this is not observed in children who have learning or behavioural problems. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often referred to as clumsy because their body parts do not work well together in a sequence. Physical Activity (PA) has shown to be beneficial to the general population, therefore, providing children with ASD opportunities to take part in PA programmes, could prove to be beneficial in many ways and should be investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a specialised group intervention programme, to attempt to improve gross motor skills of selected children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of eight and 13 years. A government school for ASD learners was recruited to take part in this study, and a sample of convenience (N=7) was selected. Children in the experimental group (n=4) participated in a 12-week group intervention programme twice per week, while the control group continued with their normal daily routine. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2), was administered pre- and post-test to determine the children’s gross motor proficiency and to determine if the group intervention programme had an effect on the gross motor skills of the experimental group. Statistically significant improvements were observed in total motor skill proficiency (p < 0.05), of the experimental group. These results demonstrate the importance of gross motor skills interventions for children diagnosed with ASD. Future research should include more participants to ensure that the results can be generalised.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
460
76962
Influence of Facilities, Equipment and Nutrition on Athletes Performance at the West African Universities Games Competitions
Abstract:
The research was undertaken to examine the influence of sports facilities, equipment, and nutrition on athletes' performance in West-Africa Universities Games (WAUG) with the objectives of finding the areas of success and failure. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Availability of facilities, equipment and nutrition questionnaire (AFENQ) was administered on hundred (n-100) participants - athletes from five Nigerian Universities from South-West, Nigeria which included Federal University of Technology, Akure, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Lagos State University, Oyo, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Awoye and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. Nigeria. The tests re-test reliability value obtained from the instrument using Pearson Product Moment Correlation co-efficient of 0.86 was used to analyze the result. While the questionnaire collected was subjected to influential descriptive statistics of multiple regression to analyse the data. The results of the data showed that facilities, equipment, and nutrition variables when taken together effectively predict the performance of the athletes during WAUG competitions. The implication is that sports organizers should provide sports resources for the improved performance of the athletes, and that, university managers should employ nutritionist to plan and prepare food for the university athletes before and after major competitions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
459
76950
Training Volume and Myoelectric Responses of Lower Body Muscles with Differing Foam Rolling Periods
Abstract:
Foam rolling is a practice that has increased in popularity before and after strength training. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of different foam rolling periods for the lower body muscles on subsequent performance (total repetitions and training volume), myoelectric activity and rating of perceived exertion in trained men. Fourteen trained men (26.2 ± 3.2 years, 178 ± 0.04 cm height, 82.2 ± 10 kg weight and body mass index 25.9 ± 3.3kg/m2) volunteered for this study. Four repetition maximum (4-RM) loads were determined for hexagonal bar deadlift and 45º angled leg press during test and retest sessions over two nonconsecutive days. Five experimental protocols were applied in a randomized design, which included: a traditional protocol (control)—a resistance training session without prior foam rolling; or resistance training sessions performed following one (P1), two (P2), three (P3), or four (P4) sets of 30 sec. foam rolling for the lower extremity musculature. Subjects were asked to roll over the medial and lateral aspects of each muscle group with as much pressure as possible. All foam rolling was completed at a cadence of 50 bpm. These procedures were performed on both sides unilaterally as described below. Quadriceps: between the apex of the patella and the ASIS; Hamstring: between the gluteal fold and popliteal fossa; Triceps surae: between popliteal fossa and calcaneus tendon. The resistance training consisted of five sets with 4-RM loads and two-minute rest intervals between sets, and a four-minute rest interval between the hexagonal bar deadlift and the 45º angled leg press. The number of repetitions completed, the myoelectric activity of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), semitendinosus (SM) and medial gastrocnemius (GM) were recorded, as well as the rating of perceived exertion for each protocol. There were no differences between the protocols in the total repetitions for the hexagonal bar deadlift (Control - 16.2 ± 5.9; P1 - 16.9 ± 5.5; P2 - 19.2 ± 5.7; P3 - 19.4 ± 5.2; P4 - 17.2 ± 8.2) (p > 0.05) and 45º angled leg press (Control - 23.3 ± 9.7; P1 - 25.9 ± 9.5; P2 - 29.1 ± 13.8; P3 - 28.0 ± 11.7; P4 - 30.2 ± 11.2) exercises. Similar results between protocols were also noted for myoelectric activity (p > 0.05) and rating of perceived exertion (p > 0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study indicated no deleterious effects on performance, myoelectric activity and rating of perceived exertion responses during lower body resistance training.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
458
76590
Reliability of Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 Age Band 3 Using Multiple Testers
Abstract:
Introduction: Reliability within and between testers is vital to ensure the accuracy of any motor assessment instrument. However, reliability checks of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) age band 3 using multiple testers assigned to different MABC-2 tasks for the same group of participants are uncommon. Multiple testers were not stated as a choice in the MABC-2 manual. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-tester reliability for using multiple testers to administer the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Methods: Thirty volunteered adolescents (n = 30; 15 males, 15 females; age range: 13 – 16 years) performed the eight tasks in a randomised sequence at three different test stations for the MABC-2 task components (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, Balance). Ethics approval and parental consent were obtained. The participants were videotaped while performing the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Five testers were involved in the data collection process. They were Sports Science graduating students doing their final year project and were supervised by experienced motor assessor. Inter- and intra-tester reliability checks using intra-class coefficient (ICC) were carried out using the videotaped data. Results: The inter-tester reliability between the five testers for the eight tasks ranged from rᵢcc = 0.705 to rᵢcc = 0.995. This suggests that the average agreement between them was considered good to excellent. With the exception of one tester who had rᵢcc = 0.687 for one of the eight tasks (i.e. zip-zap hopping), the intra-tester reliability within each tester ranged from rᵢcc = 0.728 to rᵢcc = 1.000, and this also suggested good to excellent consistency within testers. Discussion: The use of multiple testers with good intra-tester reliability for different test stations is feasible. This method allows several participants to be assessed concurrently at different test stations and saves overall data collection time. Therefore, it is recommended that the administering of MABC-2 with multiple testers should be extended to other age bands ensuring the feasibility of such method for other age bands.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
457
76525
The Effect of Compound Exercises Emphasizing Local and Global Stability on the Dynamic Balance in Elite Taekwondo Athletes
Abstract:
Few studies have been conducted about the effects of compound exercises emphasizing local stability and global stabilization subsystems on the performance of athletes. The present research aimed to study the effect of 6 weeks of compound exercises emphasizing local and global stability on the dynamic balance of elite male Taekwondo athletes. Twenty-seven elite male Taekwondo athletes (with a mean age, mass, and height of 24.4 ± 4.9 years, 75.7 ± 15.1kg, and 181.4 ± 7.8 cm, respectively) were assigned to two groups of control (n=12) and exercise (n=15). 6 weeks of compound exercises in 2 local and global phases. The first phase included activation exercises which were done separately and locally for 3 weeks. Then, integrative exercises specific to the global stabilization subsystems (longitudinal-depth, posterior oblique and anterior, and lateral) was carried out for next 3 weeks. The dynamic balance of subjects was measured in the pre-test and post-test using the Y Balance Test (YBT). After 6 weeks of compound exercises, scores of the YBT in the exercise group showed a significant improvement in all three anterior (p=0.035), posterolateral (p=0.017) and medial (p=0.001) directions in the post-test compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.05 for all comparisons). The findings of the present study suggested that compound exercises focusing on muscle as separate units and then as interdependent chains (muscular subsystems) can significantly increase YBT on elite male Taekwondo athletes in all three directions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
456
75963
The Effects of Mountain Biking as Psychomotor Instrument in Physical Education: Balance’s Evaluation
Abstract:
The school physical education is going through several changes over the years, and diversification of its content from specific interests is one of the reasons for these changes, soon, the formality in education do not have to stay out, but needs to open up the possibilities offered by the world, so the Mountain Bike, an adventure sport, offers several opportunities for intervention Its application in the school allows diverse interventions in front of the psychomotor development, besides opening possibilities for other contents, respecting the previous experiences of the students in their common environment. The choice of theme was due to affinity with the practice and experience of the Mountain Bike at different levels. Both competitive as recreational, professional standard and amateur, focus as principle the bases of the Cycling, coupled with the inclusion in the Centre for Studies in Management of Sport and Leisure and of the Southwest Bahia State University and the preview of the modality&#39;s potential to help the children&rsquo;s psychomotor development. The goal of this research was to demonstrate like a pilot project the effects of the Mountain Bike as psychomotor instrument in physical education at one of the psychomotor valences, Balance, evaluating Immobility, Static Balance and Dynamic Balance. The methodology used Fonseca&rsquo;s Psychomotor Battery in 10 students (n=10) of a brazilian public primary&rsquo;s school, with ages between 9 and 11 years old to use the Mountain Biking contents. The balance&rsquo;s skills dichotomized in Regular and Good. Regarding the variable Immobility, in the initial test, regardless of gender, 70% (n = 7) were considered Regular. After four months of activity, the Good profile, which had only 30% (n = 3) of the sample, evolved to 60% (n = 6). As in Static and Dynamic Balance there was an increase of 30% (n = 3) and 50% (n = 5) respectively for Good. Between genders, female evolution was better for Good in Immobility and in Static Equilibrium. Already the male evolution was better observed in the Dynamic Equilibrium, with 66.7% (n = 4) for Good. Respecting the particularities of the motor development, an indication of the positive effects of the MTB for the evolution in the balance perceived, necessitating studies with greater sampling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
455
75411
Sports and Beauty: Translating the History of Aesthetics into Today’s World of Sports
Abstract:
An inductive aesthetic approach to sports yields critical and meaningful insight into sports philosophy, sports governance, and sports history. Critical reflection will always remain key to the analysis of the past, present and future of sporting institutions, but a philosophically imaginative method of induction allows certain salient connections to be articulated and potentially implemented between various sporting entities who exist as individuals, particularly between practitioner, owner/manager and observer (‘fan’ or interested party.) By honing in on the concept of beauty in sports, the primary reason for viewership, consumption or engagement with sports comes into focus as an aesthetic concept. While always a subjective or shadowy articulation, an aesthetic state often remains unnecessarily unrevealed due to claims about unconscious states, entire rhetorics (or counter-rhetorics) about beauty, and Misalliance among sporting development systems. Since aesthetics require an inductive state of subjectivity in determining various levels of beauty (which the so-called world of sports often thinks of as morality), the audience for aesthetics in sports also needs an inductive explanation of the concept in which one comes to see a process of viewership at work within themselves that is revealed by a simple need parried outward by a complex process of engagement. The potentially redemptive moment of revelation regarding the beauty of sports and the athlete within these systems creates in the viewer a new space of consciousness where the world of sports discovers some of its longed-for transparency, openness, parity and equity upon which its immediate future depends.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
454
75378
The Effects of Total Resistance Exercises Suspension Exercises Program on Physical Performance in Healthy Individuals
Abstract:
Introduction: Each exercise in suspension exercises offer the use of gravity and body weight; and is thought to develop the equilibrium, flexibility and body stability necessary for daily life activities and sports, in addition to creating the correct functional force. Suspension exercises based on body weight focus the human body as an integrated system. Total Resistance Exercises (TRX) suspension training that physiotherapists, athletic health clinics, exercise centers of hospitals and chiropractic clinics now use for rehabilitation purposes. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of TRX suspension exercises on physical performance in healthy individuals. Method: Healthy subjects divided into two groups; the study group and the control group with 40 individuals for each, between ages 20 to 45 with similar gender distributions. Study group had 2 sessions of suspension exercises per week for 8 weeks and control group had no exercises during this period. All the participants were given explosive strength, flexibility, strength and endurance tests before and after the 8 week period. The tests used for evaluation were respectively; standing long jump test and single leg (left and right) long jump tests, sit and reach test, sit up and back extension tests. Results: In the study group a statistically significant difference was found between prior- and final-tests in all evaluations, including explosive strength, flexibility, core strength and endurance of the group performing TRX exercises. These values were higher than the control groups’ values. The final test results were found to be statistically different between the study and control groups. Study group showed development in all values. Conclusions: In this study, which was conducted with the aim of investigating and comparing the effects of TRX suspension exercises on physical performance, the results of the prior-tests of both groups were similar. There was no significant difference between the prior and the final values in the control group. It was observed that in the study group, explosive strength, flexibility, strength, and endurance development was achieved after 8 weeks. According to these results, it was shown that TRX suspension exercise program improved explosive strength, flexibility, especially core strength and endurance; therefore the physical performance. Based on the results of our study, it was determined that the physical performance, an indispensable requirement of our life, was developed by the TRX suspension system. We concluded that TRX suspension exercises can be used to improve the explosive strength and flexibility in healthy individuals, as well as developing the muscle strength and endurance of the core region. The specific investigations could be done in this area so that programs that emphasize the TRX's physical performance features could be created.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
453
75222
The Effect of Eight-Week Medium Intensity Interval Training and Curcumin Intake on ICMA-1 and VCAM-1 Levels in Menopausal Fat Rats
Abstract:
Background and Purpose: Obesity is an increasing factor in cardiovascular disease and serum levels of cellular adhesion molecule. It plays an important role in predicting risk for coronary artery disease. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of eight weeks moderate intensity interval training and curcumin intake on ICAM-1 & VCAM-1 levels of menopausal fat rats. Materials and methods: in this study, 28 Wistar Menopausal fat rats aged 6-8 weeks with an average weight of 250-300 (gr) were randomly divided into four groups: control, curcumin supplement, moderate intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training + curcumin supplement. (7 rats each group). The training program was planned as 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 10 one-min sets with 50 percent intensity and the 2-minutes interval between sets in the first week. Subjects started with 14 meters per minute, and 2 (m/min) was added to increase their speed weekly until the speed of 28 (m/min) in the 8th week. Blood samples were taken 48 hours after the last training session, and ICAM-1 A and VCAM-1 levels were measured. SPSS software, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the results. Results: The results showed that eight weeks of training and taking curcumin had significant effects on ICAM-1 levels of the rats (p ≤ 0.05). However, it had no significant effect on VCAM-1 levels in menopausal obese rates (p ≥ 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in eight weeks training and taking curcumin. Conclusion: Implementation of moderate intensity interval training and the use of curcumin decreased ICAM-1 significantly.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
452
75181
The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Oxygenation and Pleasure during Exercise
Abstract:
The prefrontal cortex is involved in the reward system and the insular cortex integrates the afferent inputs arriving from the body’ systems and turns into feelings. Therefore, modulating neuronal activity in these regions may change individuals’ perception in a given situation such as exercise. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) change cerebral oxygenation and pleasure during exercise. Fourteen volunteer healthy adult men were assessed into five different sessions. First, subjects underwent to a maximum incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Then, subjects were randomly assigned to a transcranial direct current stimulation (2mA for 15 min) intervention in a cross over design in four different conditions: anode and cathode electrodes on T3 and Fp2 targeting the insular cortex, and Fpz and F4 targeting prefrontal cortex, respectively; and their respective sham. These sessions were followed by 30 min of moderate intensity exercise. Brain oxygenation was measured in prefrontal cortex with a near infrared spectroscopy. Perceived exertion and pleasure were also measured during exercise. The asymmetry in prefrontal cortex oxygenation before the stimulation decreased only when it was applied over this region which did not occur after insular cortex or sham stimulation. Furthermore, pleasure was maintained during exercise only after prefrontal cortex stimulation (P > 0.7), while there was a decrease throughout exercise (P < 0.03) during the other conditions. We conclude that tDCS over the prefrontal cortex changes brain oxygenation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and maintains perceived pleasure during exercise. Therefore, this technique might be used to enhance effective responses related to exercise.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
451
75061
The Impact of Protein Content on Athletes' Body Composition
Abstract:
Several factors contribute to success in sport and diet is a key component. Athletes’ dietary requirements depend on several aspects, including sport, goals and environment. The importance of individualized dietary advice has been increasingly recognized, including day-to-day dietary advice and specific advice before, during, and after training and/or competition. Evidence-based sport nutrition guidelines underline the importance of macro- and micro-nutrients balance and timing. Moreover, they deeply explore the connection between nutrition, exercise and well-being forming a crucial part of any athlete’s competitive and training program. Normally, a high content of proteins is commonly found in athletes’ diet and carbohydrate intake is not enough or not well planned. This occurs above all in resistance training athletes. In this regarding, the aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different protein and carbohydrate diet content on body composition and sport performance adaptation. Participants, male aged between 18 and 50, physically active (resistance training), were selected depending on their interest and their informed consent to be involved in resistance training fitness program with also weighed food plan and no utilization of food supplements. The sample size of the study was 30. Subjects were divided as study group (n=16) and control group (n=14). For a period of 4 months, both group were subjected to resistance training fitness program and study group follow a specific diet. Macronutrients were chosen and fixed based on Mediterranean diet and ISSN guidelines for sports nutrition. In this regard, the protein requirement has been fixed between 1.6-1.7 g/kg/d taking also into account the biological value. Body composition were evaluated trough anthropometric measurement (weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds) and Bioimpedence Analysis. Physical strength and training status of individuals were evaluated through the One Repetition Maximum test (RM1). Protein intake in studied group was of 1.78 ± 0.12 g/kg/day and 2.24 ± 0.28 g/kg/day in control group. Comparing the two groups, there was a statistically significant increase of body weight, free fat mass and body mass cell of studied group respect to the control group. Fat mass remains almost constant in both groups. Statistically significant changes were observed in quadriceps and biceps circumferences, with an increase in studied group. The MR1 test showed improvement in study group’s strength but no changes in control group. Usually people use to consume hyper-proteic diet to achieve muscle mass development with a carbohydrate intake that is not enough or not well planned. Through this study, it was possible to show that protein intake fixed at 1,7g/kg/d can meet the individual's needs. In parallel, the increased intake of carbohydrates, focusing on quality and timing of assumption, has enabled the obtainment of desired results with a training protocol supporting a hypertrophic strategy. Therefore, the key point seems related to the planning of a structured program both from a nutritional and training point of view. This could preserve, but also improve, individual’s health, taking full advantage from the interaction between nutrition and exercise.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
450
75000
The Effects of Self-Efficacy on Challenge and Threat States
Abstract:
The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) states that self-efficacy is an antecedent of challenge and threat. These states result from conscious and unconscious evaluations of situational demands and personal resources and are represented by both cognitive and physiological markers. Challenge is considered a more adaptive stress response as it is associated with a more efficient cardiovascular profile, as well as better performance and attention effects compared with threat. Self-efficacy is proposed to influence challenge/threat because an individual’s belief that they have the skills necessary to execute the courses of action required to succeed contributes to a perception that they can cope with the demands of the situation. This study experimentally examined the effects of self-efficacy on cardiovascular responses (challenge and threat), demand and resource evaluations, performance and attention under pressurised conditions. Forty-five university students were randomly assigned to either a control (n=15), low self-efficacy (n=15) or high self-efficacy (n=15) group and completed baseline and pressurised golf putting tasks. Self-efficacy was manipulated using false feedback adapted from previous studies. Measures of self-efficacy, cardiovascular reactivity, demand and resource evaluations, task performance and attention were recorded. The high self-efficacy group displayed more favourable cardiovascular reactivity, indicative of a challenge state, compared with the low self-efficacy group. The former group also reported high resource evaluations, but no task performance or attention effects were detected. These findings demonstrate that levels of self-efficacy influence cardiovascular reactivity and perceptions of resources under pressurised conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):