Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53783

Structural and Construction Engineering

181
96274
Development of Numerical Model to Compute Water Hammer Transients in Pipe Flow
Abstract:
Water hammer is a hydraulic transient problem which is commonly encountered in the penstocks of hydropower plants. The numerical model was developed to estimate the transient behavior of pressure waves in pipe systems. The computational algorithm was proposed to model the water hammer phenomenon in a pipe system with pump shutdown at midstream and sudden valve closure at downstream. To predict the pressure head and flow velocity as a function of time as a result of rapidly closing a valve and pump shutdown, two boundary conditions at the ends considering pump operation and valve control can be implemented as specified equations of the pressure head and flow velocity based on the characteristics method. It was shown that the effects of transient flow make it determine the needs for protection devices, such as surge tanks, surge relief valves, or air valves, at various points in the system against overpressure and low pressure. It produced reasonably good performance with the results of the proposed transient model for pipeline systems. The proposed numerical model can be used as an efficient tool for the safety assessment of hydropower plants due to water hammer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
180
95315
Statistical Characteristics of Code Formula for Design of Concrete Structures
Abstract:
In this research, a statistical analysis is carried out to examine the statistical properties of the formula given in the design code for concrete structures. The design formulas of the Korea highway bridge design code - the limit state design method (KHBDC) which is the current national bridge design code and the design code for concrete structures by Korea Concrete Institute (KCI) are applied for the analysis. The safety levels provided by the strength formulas of the design codes are defined based on the probabilistic and statistical theory.KHBDC is a reliability-based design code. The load and resistance factors of this code were calibrated to attain the target reliability index. It is essential to define the statistical properties for the design formulas in this calibration process. In general, the statistical characteristics of a member strength are due to the following three factors. The first is due to the difference between the material strength of the actual construction and that used in the design calculation. The second is the difference between the actual dimensions of the constructed sections and those used in design calculation. The third is the difference between the strength of the actual member and the formula simplified for the design calculation. In this paper, the statistical study is focused on the third difference. The formulas for calculating the shear strength of concrete members are presented in different ways in KHBDC and KCI. In this study, the statistical properties of design formulas were obtained through comparison with the database which comprises the experimental results from the reference publications. The test specimen was either reinforced with the shear stirrup or not. For an applied database, the bias factor was about 1.12 and the coefficient of variation was about 0.18. By applying the statistical properties of the design formula to the reliability analysis, it is shown that the resistance factors of the current design codes satisfy the target reliability indexes of both codes. Also, the minimum resistance factors of the KHBDC which is written in the material resistance factor format and KCE which is in the member resistance format are obtained and the results are presented. A further research is underway to calibrate the resistance factors of the high strength and high-performance concrete design guide.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
179
94806
Characteristics of Cement Pastes Incorporating Different Amounts of Waste Cellular Concrete Powder
Abstract:
In this study different amounts of waste cellular concrete powder (WCCP) as replacement of cement have been investigated as an attempt to produce green binder, which is useful for sustainable construction applications. From zero to up to 60% of WCCP by mass replacement amounts of cement has been conducted. Consistency, compressive strength, bending strength and the activity index of WCCP through seven to ninety days old specimens have been examined, where the optimum WCCP replacement was up to 30%, depending on which the activity index still increased to the end of test period (90 days) and this could be an evidence for its continuity to increase for longer age. Also up to 30% of WCCP increased the bending strength to be higher than the control one. The main point in the present study that there is a possibility of replacing cement by 30% of WCCP, however, it is preferable to be less than this amount.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
178
93645
Empirical Modeling of Air Dried Rubberwood Drying System
Abstract:
Southern Thailand is home to a large area of rubber tree which is a major source of timber. The knowledge in rubberwood drying process depends on an experience of technician to conduct the key parameter from the initial until wood dried. In this study, the aim of the research is to verify the empirical model for drying kinetics by comparing with experimental results as well as using statistical analysis on the mathematics models to predict the drying kinetic of rubberwood drying. During the experiment, the temperature of the hot air and the average air flow velocity are kept at 80-100°C and 1.75 m/s. The samples were tested moisture content (MC) until less than 12% dry basis (d.b.). The drying kinetic is simulated using an empirical solver. The experimental results illustrated that the moisture content reduced as the drying temperature and time increased. The coefficient of moisture ratio (MR) between the empirical and experimental model was tested with three statistical parameters, R-square (R²), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Chi-square (χ²) to predict the accuracy of the parameters. The experimental results on moisture ratio had a good fit with the empirical model. Additionally, the results indicated that the drying of rubberwood using Henderson and Pabis (R²=0.9963) method revealed suitable level of agreement and could present well estimations for the moisture movement than others and clarify drying kinetics of air-dried rubberwood with hot air. Therefore, the empirical results were valid and can be used in future experiments and numerical model for improvement in drying process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
177
91461
Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers under Eccentric Loading
Abstract:
In this paper, an experimental study on twelve square columns was conducted to investigate the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete (RC) short columns subjected to eccentric loadings. The columns were divided into three groups with three cross sections (200×200×1200, 250×250×1500 and 300×300×1800 mm). Each group was tested under two different eccentricities: 10% and 20% of the width of samples measured from the center of the column cross section. Four columns were developed in each arrangement. Two columns in each category were left unwrapped as control samples, and two were wrapped with one layer CFRP perpendicular to the specimen surface. In general; CFRP sheets has enhanced the performance of the strengthened columns compared to the control columns. It was noticed that the percentage of compressive capacity enhancement was decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size, and increasing loading eccentricity generally leads to reduced load bearing capacity in columns. In the same group specimens, when the eccentricity increased the percentage of enhancement in load carrying capacity was increased. The study concludes that the optimum use of the CFRP sheets for axial strength enhancement is for smaller cross-section columns under higher eccentricities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
176
90886
Fault Study and Reliability Analysis of Rotative Machine
Abstract:
This paper analyzes the influence of failure mode and harmfulness of rotative machine according to FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis) method, and finds out the weak links that affect the reliability of this equipment. Also in this paper, fault tree analysis software is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis, pointing out the main factors of failure of this equipment. Based on the experimental results, this paper puts forward corresponding measures for prevention and improvement, and fundamentally improves the inherent reliability of this rotative machine, providing the basis for the formulation of technical conditions for the safe operation of industrial applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
175
90841
Integrating Dependent Material Planning Cycle into Building Information Management: A Building Information Management-Based Material Management Automation Framework
Abstract:
The collaboration and integration between all building information management (BIM) processes and tasks are necessary to ensure that all project objectives can be delivered. The literature review has been used to explore the state of the art BIM technologies to manage construction materials as well as the challenges which have faced the construction process using traditional methods. Thus, this paper aims to articulate a framework to integrate traditional material planning methods such as ABC analysis theory (Pareto principle) to analyse and categorise the project materials, as well as using independent material planning methods such as Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) and Fixed Order Point (FOP) into the BIM 4D, and 5D capabilities in order to articulate a dependent material planning cycle into BIM, which relies on the constructability method. Moreover, we build a model to connect between the material planning outputs and the BIM 4D and 5D data to ensure that all project information will be accurately presented throughout integrated and complementary BIM reporting formats. Furthermore, this paper will present a method to integrate between the risk management output and the material management process to ensure that all critical materials are monitored and managed under the all project stages. The paper includes browsers which are proposed to be embedded in any 4D BIM platform in order to predict the EOQ as well as FOP and alarm the user during the construction stage. This enables the planner to check the status of the materials on the site as well as to get alarm when the new order will be requested. Therefore, this will lead to manage all the project information in a single context and avoid missing any information at early design stage. Subsequently, the planner will be capable of building a more reliable 4D schedule by allocating the categorised material with the required EOQ to check the optimum locations for inventory and the temporary construction facilitates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
174
90475
The Successful in Construction Project via Effectiveness of Project Team
Abstract:
The construction industry is one of the most important sectors that contribute to the nation’s economy and catalyze towards the growth of other industries. However, some construction projects have not been completed on its stipulated time and duration, scope and budget due to several factors. This problem arises due to the weaknesses of human factors, especially from ineffective leadership quality practiced by project managers and contractors in managing project teams. Therefore, a construction project should impose the element of Project Team. The project team is formed in the implementation of the project which includes the project brief, project scope, customer requirements and provided designs. Many organizations in the construction sector use teams to meet today's global competition and customer expectations, however, team effectiveness evaluation is required. In insuring the construction team is successful and effectiveness, the construction department must encourage, measure, set up, and evaluate or review the effectiveness of project team that was formed. In order to produce a better outcome for a high-end project, an effective and efficient project team is required which also help in increasing overall productivity. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of team effectiveness in the construction project team based on the overall construction project performance. It examines several different factors which related to team effectiveness. It also examines the relationship between team effectiveness factor and project performance aspect. Team Effect Review and Project Performance Review are developed to be used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using several statistical tests. Results obtained from data analysis are validated using semi-structured interviews. Besides that, a comprehensive survey were developed to assess the way construction project teams in order to maintain its effectiveness throughout the project phase. In order to determine a project successful it has been found that Project Team Leadership is the most important factor. In addition, the definition of team effectiveness in the construction project team is developed based on the perspective of project clients and project team members. The results of this study are expected to provide an idea on the factors that are needed to be focused on improving the team's effectiveness towards project performance aspects. At the same time, the definition of team effectiveness from team members and owner views has been developed in order to provide a better understanding of the word team's effectiveness in construction projects.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
173
90264
Study on the Impact of Size and Position of the Shear Field in Determining the Shear Modulus of Glulam Beam Using Photogrammetry Approach
Abstract:
The shear modulus of a timber beam can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. The shear field test method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test. The current code of practice advises using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. The size and the position of the constructing square might influence the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the size and the position effect of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system has been employed to determine the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. Six glue laminated beams were produced and tested. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of the size effect and the position effect of the square. The results have shown that the size of the square has a noticeable influence on the value of shear modulus, while, the position of the square within the area with the constant shear force does not affect the measured mean shear modulus.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
172
89719
Numerical Analysis of the Flexural Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Rectangular Flange Girders
Abstract:
A tubular flange girder is an I-shaped steel girder with either one of both of the usual flat flange plates replaced with a hollow section. Typically, these hollow sections are either rectangular or circular in shape. Concrete filled tubular flange girders (CFTFGs) are unconventional I-shaped beams that use a hollow structural section as the top flange which is filled with concrete. The resulting section offers very high lateral torsional buckling strength and stiffness compared with conventional steel I-beams of similar depth, width and weight, typically leading to a reduction in lateral bracing requirements. This paper is focussed on investigating the ultimate capacity of concrete filled rectangular tubular flange girders (CFRTFGs). These are complex members and their behaviour is governed by a number of inter-related parameters. The FE model is developed using ABAQUS software, 3-D finite element (FE) model for simply supported CFRTFGs subjected to two point loads applied at the third-span points is built. An initial geometrical imperfection of (L/1000), as well as geometrical and material nonlinearities, are introduced into the model, where L denotes the span of the girder. In this numerical model, the concrete and steel materials are modelled using eight-node solid and four-node shell elements, respectively. In addition to the FE model, simplified analytical expressions for the flexural capacity are also proposed, and the results are compared to those from the FE analyses. The analytical expressions, which are suitable for design, are also shown to be capable of providing an accurate depiction of the bending moment capacity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
171
89516
Identifying Reforms Required in Construction Contracts from Resolved Disputed Cases
Abstract:
The construction industry is plagued with disputes and litigation in India with many stalled projects seeking dispute resolution. This has an adverse effect on the performance and overall project delivery and impacts future investments within the industry. While construction industry is the major driver of growth, there has not been major reforms in the government construction contracts. The study is aimed at identifying the proactive means of dispute avoidance, focusing on reforms required within the construction contracts, by studying 49 arbitration awards of construction disputes. The claims presented in the awards are aggregated to study the causes linked to the contract document and are referred against the prospective recommendation and practices as surveyed from literature review of research papers. Within contract administration, record keeping has been a major concern as they are required by the parties to substantiate the claims or the counterclaims and therefore are essential in any dispute redressal process. The study also observes that the right judgment is inhibited when the record keeping is improper and due to lack of coherence between documents, the dispute resolution period is also prolonged. The finding of the research will be relevant to industry practitioners in contract drafting with a view to avoid disputes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
170
88968
Productivity of Construction Companies Using the Management of Threats and Opportunities ‎in Construction Projects of Iran
Abstract:
The cost overrun of the construction projects has always been one of the main problems of the construction companies caused by the risky nature of the construction projects. Therefore, today, the application of risk management is inevitable. Although in theory, the issue of risk management is divided into the opportunities and threats management, in practice, most of the projects have been focused on the threats management. However, considering the opportunities management and applying the opportunities-response strategies can lead to the improved profitability of the construction projects of the companies. In this paper, a new technique is developed to identify the opportunities in the construction projects using an improved protocol and propose the appropriate opportunities-response strategies to the construction companies to provide them with higher profitability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol for selecting the most appropriate strategies in ‎response to the opportunities and threats, two projects from a construction company in Iran were ‎studied. Both projects selected were in mid-range in terms of size and similar in terms of time, ‎run time and costs. Finally, the output indicates that using the proposed opportunities-response strategies show that the company's profitability in the future can be increased approximately for similar projects.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
169
88922
A Study on the Safety Evaluation of Pier According to the Water Level Change by the Monte-Carlo Method
Abstract:
Recently, global warming phenomenon has led to natural disasters caused by global environmental changes, and due to abnormal weather events, the frequency and intensity of heavy rain storm typhoons are increasing. Therefore, it is imperative to prepare for future heavy rain storms and typhoons. This study selects arbitrary target bridges and performs numerical analysis to evaluate the safety of bridge piers in the event that the water level changes. The numerical model is based on two-dimensional surface elements. Actual reinforced concrete was simulated by modeling concrete to include reinforcements, and a contact boundary model was applied between the ground and the concrete. The water level applied to the piers was considered at 18 levels between 7.5 m and 16.1 m. The elastic modulus, compressive strength, tensile strength, and yield strength of the reinforced concrete were calculated using 250 random combinations and numerical analysis was carried out for each water level. In the results of analysis, the bridge exceeded the stated limit at 15.0 m. At the maximum water level of 16.1m, the concrete’s failure rate was 35.2%, but the probability that the reinforcement would fail was 61.2%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
168
87801
Contributing Factors to Building Failures and Defects in the Nigerian Construction Industry
Abstract:
Building defect and failure are common phenomena in the Nigerian construction industry. The activities of the inexperienced labor force in the Nigerian construction industry have tarnished the image of practicing construction professionals in recent past. Defects and collapse can cause unnecessary expenditure, delays, loss of lives, property and left many people injured. They are also generating controversies among parties involved. Also, if this situation is left unanswered and untreated, it will lead to more serious problems in the future upcoming construction projects in Nigeria. Quite a number of factors are responsible for collapse of high-rise, reinforced concrete buildings in Nigeria. Government, professional bodies and stakeholders are asking countless questions as to who should be responsible and how solutions could be proffered. Therefore this study is aimed to identify the contributing factors to high-rise buildings defects and failures in Nigeria, which frequently occur in construction project in order to minimize time and cost and also the roles of professionals and other participants play in the industry in terms of the use of building materials, placement and curing of concrete, modification in the use of a building, collapse of building induced by fire and other causes. The data is collected from questionnaire from various players in construction industry in Nigeria. This study is succeeds in identifying the causes of building failure and also suggesting possible measures to be taken by government and other regulatory bodies in the building industry to avert this and also improve the effectiveness of managing appraisal process of failures and defects in the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
167
85329
Characteristics of Different Volumes of Waste Cellular Concrete Powder-Cement Paste for Sustainable Construction
Abstract:
Cellular concrete powder (CCP) is not used widely as supplementary cementitious material, but in the literature, its efficiency is proved when it used as a replacement of cement in concrete mixtures. In this study, different amounts of raw CCP (CCP as a waste material without any industrial modification) will be used to investigate the characteristics of cement pastes and the effects of CCP on the properties of the cement pastes. It is an attempt to produce green binder paste, which is useful for sustainable construction applications. The fresh and hardened properties of a number of CCP blended cement paste will be tested in different life periods, and the optimized CCP volume will be reported with more significant investigations on durability properties. Different replacing of mass percentage (low and high) of the cement mass will be conducted (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). The consistency, flexural strength, and compressive strength will be the base indicator for the further properties' investigations. The CCP replacement until 50% have been tested until 7 days, and the initial results showed a linear relationship between strength and the percentage of the replacement; that is an optimistic indicator for further replacement percentages of waste CCP.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
166
85208
A Study on Shear Field Test Method in Timber Shear Modulus Determination Using Stereo Vision System
Abstract:
In the structural timber design, the shear modulus of the timber beam is an important factor that needs to be determined accurately. According to BS EN 408, shear modulus can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. Although torsion test creates pure shear status in the beam, it does not represent the real-life situation when the beam is in the service. On the other hand, shear field test method creates similar loading situation as in reality. The latter method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test as indicated in BS EN 408. Current testing practice code advised using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. Timber is not a homogenous material, but a heterogeneous and this characteristic makes timber to undergo a non-uniform deformation. Therefore, the dimensions and the location of the constructing square in the area with the constant transverse force might alter the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the shape, size, and location of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system was developed to capture the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. This approach is an accurate and non-contact method to extract the 3D coordination of targeted object using two cameras. Two group of three glue laminated beams were produced and tested by the mean of four-point bending test according to BS EN 408. Group one constructed using two materials, laminated bamboo lumber and structurally graded C24 timber and group two consisted only structurally graded C24 timber. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of size and location of the square in the determination of shear modulus of the beam. The results have shown that the size of the square is an affecting factor in shear modulus determination. However, the location of the square in the area with the constant shear force does not affect the shear modulus.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
165
84979
Experimental Investigation on Shear Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Steel Fibres
Abstract:
Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has been widely used in industrial pavements and non-structural elements such as pipes, culverts, tunnels, and precast elements. The strengthening effect of fibres in the concrete matrix is achieved primarily due to the bridging effect of fibres at the crack interfaces. The workability of the concrete was reduced on addition of high percentages of steel fibres. The optimum percentage of addition of steel fibres varies with its aspect ratio. For this study, 1% addition of steel has resulted to be the optimum percentage for both Hooked and Crimped Steel Fibres and was added to the beam specimens. The fibres restrain efficiently the cracks and take up residual stresses beyond the cracking. In this sense, diagonal cracks are effectively stitched up by fibres crossing it. The failure of beams within the shear failure range changed from shear to flexure in the presence of sufficient steel fibre quantity. The shear strength is increased with the addition of steel fibres and had exceeded the enhancement obtained with the transverse reinforcement. However, such increase is not directly in proportion with the quantity of fibres used. Considering all the clarification made in the present experimental investigation, it is concluded that 1% of crimped steel fibres with an aspect ratio of 50 is the best type of steel fibres for replacement of transverse stirrups in high strength concrete beams when compared to the steel fibres with hooked ends.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
164
84445
Tower Crane Selection and Positioning on Construction Sites
Abstract:
Cranes are a key element in construction projects as they are the primary lifting equipment and among the most expensive construction equipment. Thus, selecting cranes and locating them on-site is an important factor for a project's profitability. We focus on a site with supply and demand areas that have to be connected by tower cranes. There are several types of tower cranes differing in certain specifications such as costs or operating radius. The objective is to select cranes and determine their locations such that each demand area is connected to its supply area at minimum cost. We detail the problem setting and show how to obtain a discrete set of candidate locations for each crane type without losing optimality. This discretization allows us to reduce our problem to the classic set cover problem. Despite its NP-hardness, we achieve good results employing a standard solver and a greedy heuristic, respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
163
84385
Experimental Characterisation of the Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements in Chips
Abstract:
This work deals with the experimental study of the mechanical behavior, by shear tests (fracture shear), elements of concrete beams reinforced with fibers in chips. These fibers come from the machining waste of the steel parts. The shear tests are carried out on prismatic specimens of dimensions (10x20x120) cm3. The fibers are characterized by mechanical resistance and tearing. The optimal composition of the concrete was determined by the workability test. Two fiber contents are selected for this study (W = 0.6% and W = 0.8%) and a BT control concrete (W = 0%), of the same composition as the matrix is developed to serve as a reference with a Sable on Gravel ratio equal to one (S / G = 1). The comparison of the different results obtained shows that the chips fibers confer a significant ductility to the material after cracking of the concrete. Also, the fibers used limit diagonal cracks in shear and improve strength and rigidity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
162
84304
Comprehensive Risk Assessment Model in Agile Construction Environment
Abstract:
The article focuses on a developed comprehensive model to be used in an agile environment for the risk assessment and selection based on multi-attribute methods. The model is based on a multi-attribute evaluation of risk in construction, and the determination of their optimality criterion values are calculated using complex Multiple Criteria Decision-Making methods. The model may be further applied to risk assessment in an agile construction environment. The attributes of risk in a construction project are selected by applying the risk assessment condition to the construction sector, and the construction process efficiency in the construction industry accounts for the agile environment. The paper presents the comprehensive risk assessment model in an agile construction environment. It provides a background and a description of the proposed model and the developed analysis of the comprehensive risk assessment model in an agile construction environment with the criteria.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
161
83350
Finite Element Analysis of Cold Formed Steel Screwed Connections
Abstract:
Steel Structures are commonly used for rapid erections and multistory constructions due to its inherent advantages. However, the high accuracy required in detailing and heavier sections, make it difficult to erect in place and transport. Cold Formed steel which are specially made by reducing carbon and other alloys are used nowadays to make thin-walled structures. Various types of connections are being reported as well as practiced for the thin-walled members such as bolting, riveting, welding and other mechanical connections. Commonly self-drilling screw connections are used for cold-formed purlin sheeting connection. In this paper an attempt is made to develop a moment resting frame which can be rapidly and remotely constructed with thin walled sections and self-drilling screws. Semi-rigid Moment connections are developed with Rectangular thin-walled tubes and the screws. The Finite Element Analysis programme ABAQUS is used for modelling the screwed connections. The various modelling procedures for simulating the connection behavior such as tie-constraint model, oriented spring model and solid interaction modelling are compared and are critically reviewed. From the experimental validations the solid-interaction modelling identified to be the most accurate one and are used for predicting the connection behaviors. From the finite element analysis, hysteresis curves and the modes of failure were identified. Parametric studies were done on the connection model to optimize the connection configurations to get desired connection characteristics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
160
83189
Non-Linear Static Analysis of Screwed Moment Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Frames
Abstract:
Cold-formed steel frames are preferable for framed constructions due to its low seismic weights and results into low seismic forces, but on the contrary, significant lateral deflections are expected under seismic/wind loading. The various factors affecting the lateral stiffness of steel frames are the stiffness of connections, beams and columns. So, by increasing the stiffness of beam, column and making the connections rigid will enhance the lateral stiffness. The present study focused on Structural elements made of rectangular hollow sections and fastened with screwed in-plane moment connections for the building frames. The self-drilling screws can be easily drilled on either side of the connection area with the help of gusset plates. The strength of screwed connections can be made 1.2 times the connecting elements. However, achieving high stiffness in connections is also a challenging job. Hence in addition to beam and column stiffness’s the connection stiffness are also going to be a governing parameter in the lateral deflections of the frames. SAP 2000 Non-linear static analysis has been planned to study the seismic behavior of steel frames. The SAP model will be consisting of nonlinear spring model for the connection to account the semi-rigid connections and the nonlinear hinges will be assigned for beam and column sections according to FEMA 273 guidelines. The reliable spring and hinge parameters will be assigned based on an experimental and analytical database. The non-linear static analysis is mainly focused on the identification of various hinge formations and the estimation of lateral deflection and these will contribute as an inputs for the direct displacement-based Seismic design. The research output from this study are the modelling techniques and suitable design guidelines for the performance-based seismic design of cold-formed steel frames.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
159
83153
Steel Concrete Composite Bridge: Modelling Approach and Analysis
Abstract:
India being vast in area and population with great scope of international business, roadways and railways network connection within the country is expected to have a big growth. There are numerous rail-cum-road bridges constructed across many major rivers in India and few are getting very old. So there is more possibility of repairing or coming up with such new bridges in India. Analysis and design of such bridges are practiced through conventional procedure and end up with heavy and uneconomical sections. Such heavy class steel bridges when subjected to high seismic shaking has more chance to fail by stability because the members are too much rigid and stocky rather than being flexible to dissipate the energy. This work is the collective study of the researches done in the truss bridge and steel concrete composite truss bridges presenting the method of analysis, tools for numerical and analytical modeling which evaluates its seismic behaviour and collapse mechanisms. To ascertain the inelastic and nonlinear behaviour of the structure, generally at research level static pushover analysis is adopted. Though the static pushover analysis is now extensively used for the framed steel and concrete buildings to study its lateral action behaviour, those findings by pushover analysis done for the buildings cannot directly be used for the bridges as such, because the bridges have completely a different performance requirement, behaviour and typology as compared to that of the buildings. Long span steel bridges are mostly the truss bridges. Truss bridges being formed by many members and connections, the failure of the system does not happen suddenly with single event or failure of one member. Failure usually initiates from one member and progresses gradually to the next member and so on when subjected to further loading. This kind of progressive collapse of the truss bridge structure is dependent on many factors, in which the live load distribution and span to length ratio are most significant. The ultimate collapse is anyhow by the buckling of the compression members only. For regular bridges, single step pushover analysis gives results closer to that of the non-linear dynamic analysis. But for a complicated bridge like heavy class steel bridge or the skewed bridges or complicated dynamic behaviour bridges, nonlinear analysis capturing the progressive yielding and collapse pattern is mandatory. With the knowledge of the postelastic behaviour of the bridge and advancements in the computational facility, the current level of analysis and design of bridges has moved to state of ascertaining the performance levels of the bridges based on the damage caused by seismic shaking. This is because the buildings performance levels deals much with the life safety and collapse prevention levels, whereas the bridges mostly deal with the extent damages and how quick it can be repaired with or without disturbing the traffic after a strong earthquake event. The paper would compile the wide spectrum of modeling to analysis of the steel concrete composite truss bridges in general.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
158
83050
Limit State Evaluation of Bridge According to Peak Ground Acceleration
Abstract:
In the past, the criteria and procedures for the design of concrete structures were mainly based on the stresses allowed for structural components. However, although the frequency of earthquakes has increased and the risk has increased recently, it has been difficult to determine the safety factor for earthquakes in the safety assessment of structures based on allowable stresses. Recently, limit state design method has been introduced for reinforced concrete structures, and limit state-based approach has been recognized as a more effective technique for seismic design. Therefore, in this study, the limit state of the bridge, which is a structure requiring higher stability against earthquakes, was evaluated. The finite element program LS-DYNA and twenty ground motion were used for time history analysis. The fracture caused by tensile and compression of the pier were set to the limit state. In the concrete tensile fracture, the limit state arrival rate was 100% at peak ground acceleration 0.4g. In the concrete compression fracture, the limit state arrival rate was 100% at peak ground acceleration 0.2g.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
157
82921
Review for Mechanical Tests of Corner Joints on Wooden Windows and Effects to the Stiffness
Abstract:
Corner joints are the weakest part of windows, where the members are connected together. Since the dimensions of the windows started become bigger, the strength requirements for corner joints started to increase as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the samples of corner joints of wooden windows. Moisture content of test specimens was stabilized in the climate chamber. After conditioning, test specimens were loaded in the laboratory conditions onto an universal testing machine and the failure load was measured. Data was recalculated by using goniometric, bending moment and stiffness equation to the stiffness coefficients and the bending moments were investigated. The results showed difference that was observed for the mortise with tenon joint and the dowel joint. This difference was explained by a varied adhesive bond area, which is related to the dimensions of dowels (diameter and length) as well. The bending moments and stiffness ware (except of type of corner joint) also affected by type of used adhesive, type of dowels and wood species.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
156
82654
Correction Requirement to AISC Design Guide 31: Case Study of Web Post Buckling Design for Castellated Beams
Abstract:
In the design of Castellated beams (CB), the web post buckling acted by horizontal shear force is one of the important failure modes that have to be considered. It is also a dominant governing mode when design following the AISC 31 design guideline which is just published. However, the equation of the web post buckling given by the guideline is still questionable for most of the engineers. So the purpose of this paper is to study and provide a proposed equation for design the web post buckling with more simplified and convenient to use. The study is also including the improper of the safety factor given by the guideline. The proposed design equation is acquired by regression method based on the results of finite element analysis. An amount of Cellular beam simulated to study is modelled by using shell element, analysis with both geometric and material nonlinearity. The results of the study show that the use of the proposed equation to design the web post buckling in Castellated beams is more simple and precise for computation than the equations provided from the guideline.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
155
81641
Mechanical Properties of Ancient Timber Structure Based on the Non Destructive Test Method: A Study to Feiyun Building, Shanxi, China
Abstract:
The structural assessment is one of a crucial part for ancient timber structure, in which this phase will be the reference for the maintenance and preservation phase. The mechanical properties of a structure are one of an important component of the structural assessment of building. Feiyun as one of the particular preserved building in China will become one of the Pioneer of Timber Structure Building Assessment. The 3-storey building which is located in Shanxi Province consists of complex ancient timber structure. Due to condition and preservation purpose, assessments (visual inspections, Non-Destructive Test and a Semi Non-Destructive test) were conducted. The stress wave measurement, moisture content analyzer, and the micro-drilling resistance meter data will overview the prediction of Mechanical Properties. As a result, the mechanical properties can be used for the next phase as reference for structural damage solutions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
154
81610
Seismic Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Reinforced Concrete Column
Abstract:
Pseudo-dynamic test (PDT) method is an advanced seismic test method that combines loading technology with computer technology. Large-scale models or full scale seismic tests can be carried out by using this method. CFST-RC columns are used in civil engineering structures because of their better seismic performance. A CFST-RC column is composed of four CFST limbs which are connected with RC web in longitudinal direction and with steel tube in transverse direction. For this study, a CFST-RC pier is tested under Four different earthquake time histories having scaled PGA of 0.05g. From the experiment acceleration, velocity, displacement and load time histories are observed. The dynamic magnification factors for acceleration due to Elcentro, Chi-Chi, Imperial Valley and Kobe ground motions are observed as 15, 12, 17 and 14 respectively. The natural frequency of the pier is found to be 1.40 Hz. The result shows that this type of pier has excellent static and earthquake resistant properties.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
153
81402
Effect the Use of Steel Fibers (Dramix) on Reinforced Concrete Slab
Abstract:
Currently, concrete technology continues to grow and continue to innovate one of them using fibers. Fiber concrete has advantages over non-fiber concrete, among others, strong against the effect of shrinkage, ability to reduce crack, fire resistance, etc. In this study, concrete mix design using the procedures listed on SNI 03-2834-2000. The sample used is a cylinder with a height of 30 cm and a width of 15cm in diameter, which is used for compression and tensile testing, while the slab is 400cm x 100cm x 15cm. The fiber used is steel fiber (dramix), with the addition of 2/3 of the thickness of the slabs. The charging is done using a two-point loading. From the result of the research, it is found that the loading of non-fiber slab (0%) of the initial crack is the maximum crack that has passed the maximum crack allowed with a crack width of 1.3 mm with a loading of 1160 kg. The initial crack with the largest load is found on the 1% fiber mixed slab, with the initial crack also being a maximum crack of 0.5mm which also has exceeded the required maximum crack. In the 4% slab the initial crack of 0.1 mm is a minimal initial crack with a load greater than the load of a non-fiber (0%) slab by load1200 kg. While the maximum load on the maximum crack according to the applicable maximum crack conditions, on the 5% fiber mixed slab with a crack width of 0.32mm by loading 1250 kg.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
152
81370
Integral Abutment Bridge: A Study on Types, Importance, Limitations and Design Guidelines
Abstract:
This paper aims to study in general about bridges without expansion joints. Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) fall into this category of bridges. They are having a continuous deck and also the girders are integrated into the abutments. They are most cost effective system in terms of construction, maintenance, and longevity. The main advantage of IAB is that it is corrosion resistant since water is not allowed to pass through the structure. The other attractions of integral bridges are its simple and rapid construction, smooth and uninterrupted deck which provides a safe ride. Also damages to the abutments can be avoided to a great extent due to better load distribution at the bridge ends. Damages due to improper drainage are not seen in IAB because of its properly drained approach slabs thus eliminating the possibility of erosion of the abutment backfill and freeze and thaw damage resulting from saturated backfill.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):