Design of an Automatic Saw Cutting Machine for Wood and Aluminum
The uses of wood in furniture, building, bridges and aluminum in transportation and construction, make aluminum and forest economy a prominent matter in North America. Machines available to date to cut the aforementioned materials are mostly industry oriented with complex structure and operations which require special training and skill. Furthermore, requirements such as pneumatics, 3-phase supply are associated with cost, maintenance, and safety hazards. Power saws are very useful tools used to cut and shape materials; however, they can cause serious hand injuries. Operator’s hands in table saw are vulnerable as they are used to guide pieces into the saw. Apart from hands, saw operator is also prone to material being kicked back out of the saw or sustain eye or respiratory injuries due to rapidly flying sawdust and other debris. In this paper, design of an automatic saw cutting machine has been proposed to ensure safety, portability, usage at domestic level and capability to cut both aluminum and wood. This paper demonstrates detailed Mechanical design in SOLIDWORKS and Control Systems using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), based on the aforementioned design objectives.
Forced Vibration of a Planar Curved Beam on Pasternak Foundation
The objective of this study is to investigate the forced vibration of a planar, curved composite beam on a two-parameter foundation by using the mixed finite element method. The finite element formulation is based on the Timoshenko beam theory. In order to solve the problems in the frequency domain, the element matrices for two nodded curvilinear elements are transformed into Laplace space. The results are transformed back to the time domain by the well known numerical Modified Durbin’s transformation algorithm. First, the proposed finite element formulation is verified by forced vibration of a planar, curved Timoshenko beam resting on Winkler foundation and the finite element results are compared with the results available in the literature. Finally, forced vibration of a planar, curved composite beam resting on Pasternak foundation is analyzed.
The Effect of Transparent Oil Wood Stain on the Colour Stability of Spruce Wood during Weathering
Nowadays the use of wood, both indoors and outdoors, is constantly increasing. However wood is a natural organic material and in the exterior is subjected to a degradation process caused by abiotic factors (solar radiation, rain, moisture, wind, dust etc.). This process affects only surface layers of wood but neglecting some of the basic rules of wood protection leads to increased possibility of biological agents attack and thereby influences a function of the wood element. The process of wood degradation can be decreased by proper surface treatment, especially in the case of less naturally durable wood species, as spruce. Modern coating systems are subjected to many requirements such as colour stability, hydrophobicity, low volatile organic compound (VOC) content, long service life or easy maintenance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour stability of spruce wood (Picea abies), as the basic parameter indicating the coating durability, treated with two layers of transparent natural oil wood stain and exposed to outdoor conditions. The test specimens were exposed for 2 years to natural weathering and 2000 hours to artificial weathering in UV-chamber. The colour parameters were measured before and during exposure to weathering by the spectrophotometer according to CIELab colour space. The comparison between untreated and treated wood and both testing procedures was carried out. The results showed a significant effect of coating on the colour stability of wood, as expected. Nevertheless, increasing colour changes of wood observed during the exposure to weathering differed according to applied testing procedure - natural and artificial.
Response of Solar Updraft Power Plants Incorporating Material Nonlinearity
Solar updraft power plants (SUPP) provide a great potential for green and environmentally friendly renewable power generation. An up to 1000 m high chimney represents one of the major parts of each SUPP, which consist of the main shell structure and the stiffening rings. Including the nonlinear material behavior in a simulation of the chimney is computationally a demanding task. However, allowing the formation of cracking in concrete leads to a more economical design of the structure. In this work, an FE model of a SUPP is presented incorporating the nonlinear material behavior. The effect of wind loading intensity on the structural response is explored. Furthermore, the influence of the stiffness of the ring beams on the global behavior is as well investigated. The obtained results indicate that the minimum reinforcement is capable of carrying the tensile stresses provided that the ring beams are rather stiff.
Submodeling of Mega-Shell Reinforced Concrete Solar Chimneys
Solar updraft power plants (SUPPs) made from reinforced concrete (RC) are an innovative technology to generate solar electricity. An up to 1000 m high chimney represents the major part of each SUPP ensuring the updraft of the warmed air from the ground. Numerical simulation of nonlinear behavior of such large mega shell concrete structures is a challenging task, and computationally expensive. A general finite element approach to simulate reinforced concrete bearing behavior is presented and verified on a simply supported beam, as well as the technique of submodeling. The verified numerical approach is extended and consecutively transferred to a more complex chimney structure of a SUPP. The obtained results proved the reliability of submodeling technique in analyzing critical regions of simple and complex mega concrete structures with high accuracy and dramatic decrease in the computation time.
Testing of the Decreasing Bond Strength of Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive by Low Temperatures
When using wood products bonded by polyvinyl acetate, glues such as windows are the most limiting element of degradation of the glued joint due to weather changes. In addition to moisture and high temperatures, the joint may damage the low temperature below freezing point, where dimensional changes in the material and distortion of the adhesive film occur. During the experiments, the joints were exposed to several degrees of sub-zero temperatures from 0 °C to -40 °C and then to compare how the decreasing temperature affects the strength of the joint. The experiment was performed on wood beech samples (Fagus sylvatica), bonded with PVAc with D3 resistance and the shear strength of bond was measured. The glued and treated samples were tested on a laboratory testing machine, recording the strength of the joint. The statistical results have given us information that the strength of the joint gradually decreases with decreasing temperature, but a noticeable and statistically significant change is achieved only at very low temperatures.
Finite Element Analysis of the Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers
Most of the concrete bridges in Nepal constructed during 90's and before are made up of low strength ordinary concrete which might be one of the reasons for damage in higher magnitude earthquake. Those bridges were designed by the outdated bridge codes which might not account the large seismic loads. This research investigates the seismic vulnerability of the existing single column ordinary concrete bridge pier by finite element modeling, using the software Seismostruct. The existing bridge pier capacity has been assessed using nonlinear pushover analysis and performance is compared after retrofitting those pier models with CFRP. Furthermore, the seismic evaluation was made by conducting cyclic loading test at different drift percentage. The performance analysis of bridge pier by nonlinear pushover analysis is further validated by energy dissipation phenomenon measured from the hysteric loop for each model of ordinary concrete piers.
The Impact of Using Building Information Modeling Technology in Construction Projects Management
This research links the use of Building Information Modeling technology in constructions and infrastructure projects, starting from the moment when considering the establishment of a project to demolishing or renovating it, going through the design work, planning, procurement and implementation. BIM Software's which used are Revit, Navisworks and Asta Project in the case study for the Atletico Madrid Stadium project (Wanda Stadium). Also, the project improves through various phases of construction (planning - implementation - management). Besides, the level of the details managed within this project advances gradually. In addition, the construction process problems become about 30 % less than before, resulting from high coordination between designing, implementation and follow through that is done by the project management office (PMO). The current disposition in the industry is to tightly manage the detail contained within the planning and coordination phases of construction, but we miss the opportunity to manage that data as it matures and grows into the execution and commissioning phases.
Analysis of Beams with Web Opening Subject to Vertical Loads
The steel beams with web opening including the cellular and castellated I-beams are fabricated from a solid web I-beam through a double cutting method to a specific shape and size along the beam. The two halves of the beams are then welded together, increasing the overall depth of the web section. In this paper, the deflection of the cellular and castellated beams subject to uniform vertical loads are investigated using Finite Element Autodesk simulation package. The structural response of the beams with web opening are compared with regular solid beams. Additionally, parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the geometric properties of a cellular beam to its structural responses.
Nonlinear Modelling and Analysis of Piezoelectric Smart Thin-Walled Structures in Supersonic Flow
Thin-walled structures are used more and more widely in modern aircrafts and some other structures in aerospace field nowadays. Accompanied by the wider applications, the vibration of the structures has been a bigger problem. Because of the direct and converse piezoelectric effect, piezoelectric materials combined to host thin-walled structures, named as piezoelectric smart structures, can be an effective way to suppress the vibration. So, an accurate model for piezoelectric thin-walled structures in air flow is necessary and important. In our recent work, an electromechanical coupling nonlinear aerodynamic finite element model of piezoelectric smart thin-walled structures is built based on the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory and first-order piston theory for aerodynamic pressure of supersonic flow. Von Kármán type nonlinearity is considered in the present model. Finally, the model is validated by experimental and numerical results from the literature, which can describe the vibration of the structures in supersonic flow precisely.
Finite Element Analysis of Piezolaminated Structures with Both Geometric and Electroelastic Material Nonlinearities
Piezoelectric laminated smart structures can be subjected to the strong driving electric field, which may result in large displacements and rotations. In one hand, piezoelectric materials usually behave very significant material nonlinear effects under strong electric fields. On the other hand, thin-walled structures undergoing large displacements and rotations exist nonnegligible geometric nonlinearity. In order to give a precise prediction of piezo laminated smart structures under the large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for material nonlinearity (piezoelectric part) and geometric nonlinearity based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is first validated by both experimental and numerical examples from the literature. Afterwards, it is applied to simulate for plate and shell structures with multiple piezoelectric patches under the strong applied electric field. From the simulation results, it shows that large discrepancies occur between linear and nonlinear predictions for piezoelectric laminated structures driving at the strong electric field. Therefore, both material and geometric nonlinearities should be taken into account for piezoelectric structures under strong electric.
Particleboard Production from Atmospheric Plasma Treated Wheat Straw Particles
Particle boards have being used in the civil engineering as a decking for load bearing and non-load bearing vertical walls and horizontal panels (e. g. floors, ceiling, roofs) in a large scale. When the straw is used as non-wood material for manufacturing of lignocellulosic panels, problems with wax layer on the surface of the material can occur. Higher percentage of silica and wax cause the problems with the adhesion of the adhesive and this is the reason why it is necessary to break the surface layer for the better bonding effect. Surface treatment of the particles cause better mechanical properties, physical properties and the overall better results of the composite material are reached. Plasma application is one possibility how to modify the surface layer. The aim of this research is to modify the surface of straw particles by using cold plasma treatment. Surface properties of lignocellulosic materials were observed before and after cold plasma treatment. Cold plasma does not cause any structural changes deeply in the material. There are only changes in surface layers, which are required. Results proved that the plasma application influenced the properties of surface layers and the properties of composite material.
Comparative Study on Fire Safety Evaluation Methods for External Cladding Systems: ISO 13785-2 and BS 8414
Technological development has led to the construction of super-tall buildings and insulators are increasingly used as exterior finishing materials to save energy. However, insulators are usually combustible and vulnerable to fire. Fires like that at Wooshin Golden Suite Building in Busan, Korea in 2010 and that at CCTV Building in Beijing, China are the major examples of fire spread accelerated by combustible insulators. The exterior finishing materials of a high-rise building are not made of insulators only, but they are integrated with the building’s external cladding system. There is a limit in evaluating the fire safety of a cladding system with a single small-unit material such as a cone calorimeter. Therefore, countries provide codes to evaluate the fire safety of exterior finishing materials using full-scale tests. This study compares and to examine the applicability of the methods to Korea. Standard analysis showed differences in the type and size of fire sources and duration and exterior finishing materials also differed in size. In order to confirm the differences, fire tests were conducted on identical external cladding systems to compare fire safety. Although the exterior finishing materials were identical, varying degrees of fire spread were observed, which could be considered as differences in the type and size of the fire sources and duration. Therefore, it is deduced that extended studies should be conducted before the evaluation methods and standards are employed in Korea. The two standards for evaluating fire safety provided different results. Peak heat release rate was 5.5MW in ISO method and 3.0±0.5MW in BS method. Peak heat release rate in ISO method continued for 15 minutes. Fire ignition, growth, full development and decay evolved for 30 minutes in BS method where wood cribs were used as fire sources. Therefore, follow-up studies should be conducted to determine which of the two standards provides fire sources that approximate the size of flames coming out from the openings or those spreading to the outside when a fire occurs at a high-rise building.
Surface Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membranes for Potential Use in Membrane Distillation
A study aimed at developing membrane distillation (MD) processes that can be used for brackish/saline water purification will be presented. MD is a membrane-based technology that presents a possibility to counteract challenges associated with pressure driven membranes at high separation efficiencies. Membrane distillation membranes (MDM) are affected by wettability and fouling. Wetting inside the pores of the membrane is elevated by the hydrophilic characteristic of the membrane, while fouling is mostly induced by the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction of pollutants and the surface of the hydrophobic membranes, hence block the pores of the membranes. These properties are not desirable. As such, a carefully designed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MDM composed of a super-hydrophobic modified backbone and a super-hydrophilic thin layer has been developed to concurrently overcome these challenges. The membranes were characterized using contact angle measurements to confirm their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. SEM and SAXS were used to study the morphology and pore distribution on the surface of the membrane. The contact angles of the active surface ≤ 30º and that of the backbone ≥ 140º has thus revealed that the active surface was highly hydrophilic while the backbone was highly hydrophobic. The SEM and the SAXS results have also confirmed that the membranes are highly porous. These materials demonstrated a potential to remove salts from water at high efficiencies.
Evaluation of Fire Resistance of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns with Spiral Wire Rope
This research evaluated fire resistances of high-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) column, spiral wire rope which applied with 60, and 100MPa. The fire resistance test of RC column with loading condition was conducted following the ISO 834 (3 hours). This experiment set mixing of fiber (PP fiber, Steel fiber) and types of horizontal reinforcement as a variable of reinforcement method. The fire resistance test measured the main steel bar’s max and mean temperatures also the shrinkage and shrinking ratio of columns(500 X 500 X 3,000mm) with loadings. As a result, the specimen of 60MPa attained three hours fire resistance with only spiral wire rope. Also, the specimen of 100MPa must be reinforced with fibers and spiral wire rope to attain three hours fire resistance.
Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strenghtened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) under Concentric Loading
This study aims at investigating the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete short columns. Three sets of columns were built for this purpose: 200x200x1200 mm; 250x250x1500 mm and 300x300x1800 mm. Each set includes a control column and a strengthened column with one layer of CFRP sheets. All columns were tested under the effect of pure axial compression load. The results of the study show that using CFRP sheets resulted in capacity enhancement of 37%, 32% and 27% for the 200×200, 250×250, and 300×300 mm, respectively. The results of the experimental program demonstrated that the percentage of improvement in strength decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size of the column.
Dynamic Analysis of Submerged Floating Tunnel Subjected to Hydrodynamic and Seismic Loadings
Submerged floating tunnel (SFT) is a new solution for the transportation infrastructure through sea straits, fjords, and inland waters, and can be a good alternative to long span suspension bridges. SFT is a massive cylindrical structure that floats at a certain depth below the water surface and subjected to extreme environmental conditions. The identification of dominant structural response of SFT becomes more important due to intended environmental conditions for the design of SFT. The time domain dynamic problem of SFT moored by vertical and inclined mooring cables/anchors is formulated. The dynamic time history analysis of SFT subjected to hydrodynamic and seismic excitations is performed. The SFT is modeled by finite element 3D beam, and the mooring cables are modeled by truss elements. Based on the dynamic time history analysis the displacements and internal forces of SFT were calculated. The response of SFT is presented for hydrodynamic and seismic excitations. The transverse internal forces of SFT were the maximum compared to vertical direction, for both hydrodynamic and seismic cases; this indicates that the cable system provides very small stiffness in transverse direction as compared to vertical direction of SFT.
Investigation of Thermal Comfort Conditions of Vernacular Buildings Taking into Consideration Various Use Patterns: A Case Study
The main goal of this paper is to explore the thermal comfort conditions in traditional buildings during all seasons of the year taking into consideration various use patterns. For this purpose a dwelling of vernacular architecture is selected and data regarding the indoor and outdoor air and surface temperature as well as the relative humidity are collected. These measurements are conducted in situ during the period of a year. Also, this building is occupied periodically and a calendar of occupancy was kept (duration of residence, hours of heating system operation, hours of natural ventilation, etc.) in order to correlate the indoor conditions recorded with the use patterns via statistical analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the high thermal inertia of the stone masonry walls and the different orientation of the rooms is addressed. Thus, this paper concludes in some interesting results on the effect of the users in the indoor climate conditions in the case of buildings with high thermal inertia envelops.
Evaluation of the Sustainability of Greek Vernacular Architecture in Different Climate Zones: Architectural Typology and Building Physics
Investigating the integration of bioclimatic design into vernacular architecture could lead to interesting results regarding the preservation of cultural heritage while enhancing the energy efficiency of historic buildings. Furthermore, these recognized principles and systems of bioclimatic design in vernacular settlements could be applied to modern architecture and thus to new buildings in such areas. This study introduces an approach to categorizing distinct technologies and design principles of bioclimatic design based on a thoughtful approach to various climatic zones and environment in Greece (mountainous areas, islands and lowlands). For this purpose, various types of dwellings are evaluated for their response to climate, regarding the layout of the buildings (orientation, floor plans’ shape, semi-open spaces), the site planning, the openings (size, position, protection), the building envelope (walls: construction materials-thickness, roof construction detailing) and the migratory living pattern according to seasonal needs. As a result, various passive design principles (that could be adapted to current architectural practice in such areas, in order to optimize the relationship between site, building, climate and energy efficiency) are proposed.
Experimental Studies of Sigma Thin-Walled Beams Strengthen by Carbon Fibber Reinforcement Polymers Tapes
The review of selected methods of strengthening of steel structures with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (CFRP) tapes and the analysis of influence of composite materials on the steel thin-walled elements is performed in this paper. The study is also focused to the problem of applying fast and effective strengthening methods of the steel structures made of thin-walled profiles. It is worth to note that the issue of strengthening the thin-walled structures is a very complex, due to inability to perform welded joints in this type of elements and the limited ability to applying mechanical fasteners. Moreover, structures made of thin-walled cross-section demonstrate a high sensitivity to imperfections and tendency to interactive buckling, which may substantially contribute to the reduction of critical load capacity. Due to the lack of commonly used and recognized modern methods of strengthening of thin-walled steel structures authors performed the experimental studies of thin-walled sigma profiles strengthened with CFRP tapes. The paper presents the experimental stand and the preliminary results of laboratory test concerning the analysis of the effectiveness of the strengthening steel beams made of thin-walled sigma profiles with CFRP tapes. The study includes six beams made of the cold-rolled sigma profiles with height of 140 mm, wall thickness of 2.5 mm and a length of 3 meters, subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Four beams have been strengthened with carbon fibre tape Sika CarboDur S, while the other two were tested without strengthening to obtain reference results. Based on the obtained results the evaluation of the accuracy of applied composite materials for strengthening of thin-walled structures was performed.
Analysis of the Acoustic Performance of Vertical Internal Seals with Pet Wool as NBR 15.575-4NO Green Towers Building-DF
An extremely disturbing and irritating element in the lives of people and organizations is the noise, the consequences that can bring us has a lot of connection with human health as well as financial and economic aspects. In order to improve the efficiency of buildings in Brazil in general, a performance standard was created, NBR 15.575 in which all buildings are seen in a more systemic and peculiar way, while following the requirements of the standard. The acoustic performance present in these buildings is one such requirement. Based on this, the present work was elaborated with the objective of evaluating through acoustic measurements the acoustic performance of vertical internal fences that are under the incidence of aerial noise of a building in the city of Brasilia-DF. A short theoretical basis is made and soon after the procedures of measurement are described through the control method established by the standard, and its results are evaluated according to the parameters of the same. The measurement performed between rooms of the same unit, presented a standardized sound pressure level difference (D nT, w) equal to 40 dB, thus being classified within the minimum performance required by the standard in question.
Seismic Performance of Concrete Moment Resisting Frames in Western Canada
Performance-based seismic design concepts are increasingly being adopted in various jurisdictions. While the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) is not fully performance-based, it provides some features of a performance-based code, such as displacement control and objective-based solutions. Performance evaluation is an important part of a performance-based design. In this paper, the seismic performance of a set of code-designed 4, 8 and 12 story moment resisting concrete frames located in Victoria, BC, in the western part of Canada at different hazard levels namely, SLE (Service Level Event), DLE (Design Level Event) and MCE (Maximum Considered Event) has been studied. The seismic performance of these buildings has been evaluated based on FEMA 356 and ATC 72 procedures, and the nonlinear time history analysis. Pushover analysis has been used to investigate the different performance levels of these buildings and adjust their design based on the corresponding target displacements. Since pushover analysis ignores the higher mode effects, nonlinear dynamic time history using a set of ground motion records has been performed. Different types of ground motion records, such as crustal and subduction earthquake records have been used for the dynamic analysis to determine their effects. Results obtained from push over analysis on inter-story drift, displacement, shear and overturning moment are compared to those from the dynamic analysis.
[Keynote Speech]: Bridge Damage Detection Using Frequency Response Function
During the past decades, the bridge structures are considered very important portions of transportation networks, due to the fast urban sprawling. With the failure of bridges that under operating conditions lead to focus on updating the default bridge inspection methodology. The structures health monitoring (SHM) using the vibration response appeared as a promising method to evaluate the condition of structures. The rapid development in the sensors technology and the condition assessment techniques based on the vibration-based damage detection made the SHM an efficient and economical ways to assess the bridges. SHM is set to assess state and expects probable failures of designated bridges. In this paper, a presentation for Frequency Response function method that uses the captured vibration test information of structures to evaluate the structure condition. Furthermore, the main steps of the assessment of bridge using the vibration information are presented. The Frequency Response function method is applied to the experimental data of a full-scale bridge.
A Study on Application of Elastic Theory for Computing Flexural Stresses in Preflex Beam
This paper presents the step-by-step procedure for using the Elastic Theory to calculate the internal stresses in composite bridge girder prestressed by the Preflexing Technology, called prebeam in Japan and preflex beam worldwide. Following the Prestressing Technology developed late in the 1930’s, the preflex method of prestressing was invented early in the 1950’s by the Belgian engineer, Abraham Lipski, with assistance from Louis Baes, in Brussels. Preflex beam is a pre-cambered composite beam. Basically, it is a pre-cambered I-shaped steel plate-girder which is bent under preflexion loads using the four-points-bending method such that it becomes flat with no pre-camber left. Following that step, high strength concrete is cast on its lower flange. As the concrete hardens, the preflexion loads are removed. The beam recovers a measure of its camber while the rest of it leads to introduction of compressive stress in the concrete. Pouring the upper flange concrete completes the construction. As far as the depth and deflection limitations are the governing requirements in the design process, preflex beam is a suitable option to meet the requirements to a large extent. When it comes to analyzing flexural members in terms of internal stresses, the Elastic Theory has been the convenient method of dealing with similar cases. Researches carried out on the serviceability of the Elastic Theory for predicting internal stresses in preflex beam have concluded that the theory can be satisfactorily used to predict the internal stresses which occur in preflex beam during the preflexion operation and the service life of the beam. Unlike the conventional composite members, preflex beam undergoes different steps during construction; namely, preflexion, lower flange concrete casting, preflexion release, and lastly the upper flange concrete casting. Since the materials used and loading conditions vary from a step to another, stresses are calculated in every single phase under the loads in action with section properties involved in the specific case. Stress accumulation gives the present stress in a section of interest. Graphical concrete presence in the section implies prestress loss due to creep and shrinkage; however, more work is required to be done in this field. In addition to the graphical presentation of this application, this paper further discusses important notes of graphical comparison between the results of an experimental-only research carried out on a preflex beam, with the results of simulation for an identical beam using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) by the author.
Durability of a Cementitious Matrix Based on Treated Sediments
Significant volumes of sediment are annually dredged in France and all over the world. These materials may, in fact, be used beneficially as supplementary cementitious material. This paper studies the durability of a new cement matrix based on marine dredged sediment of Dunkirk-Harbor (north of France). Several techniques are used to characterize the raw sediment such as physical properties, chemical analyses, and mineralogy. The XRD analysis revealed quartz, calcite, kaolinite as main mineral phases. In order to eliminate organic matter and activate some of those minerals, the sediment is calcined at a temperature of 850°C for 1h. Moreover, four blended mortars were formulated by mixing a portland cement (CEM I 52,5 N) and the calcined sediment as partial cement substitute (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Reference mortars, based on the blended cement, were then prepared. This re-use cannot be substantiating and efficient without a durability study. In this purpose, the following tests, mercury porosity, accessible water porosity, chloride permeability, freezing and thawing, external sulfate attack, alkali aggregates reaction, compressive and bending strength tests were conducted on those mortars. The results of most of those tests evidenced the fact that the mortar that contains 10% of the treated sediment is efficient and durable as the reference mortar itself. That would infer that the presence of these calcined sediment improves mortar general behavior.
The Capacity of Bolted and Screw Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Truss Structure through Analytical and Experimental Method
Designing of cold-formed steel capacity connections often based on the formula used for hot rolled steel. It makes the result of the actual capacity connection doesn’t accurate anymore. When the hot rolled steel receives the axial load pull, it will have different characteristics. As the result, there will be failure result when designing Truss structure made of hot rolled steel. This research aims to determine the capacity of actual cold-formed steel connections section which is loaded by the axial tensile force. It will test the appeal of the connection using bolt grafting tool and screw grafting tool. The variations of the test will be on the type of connection (single and double slap), the number of the connection tools and connection configuration. Bold and screw connections failure mode observed in this research are different each other. Failure mode of bolted connections includes sliding pivot plate, tearing at the plate and cutting of the bolt head. While the failure mode of screw connections includes tilting, hole-bearing, pull over and cutting the screw body out. This research was conducted using a laboratory test of HW2-600S Universal Testing Machine model with ASTM E8. It has done in the materials testing laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering UNNES. The results obtained through the laboratory diversification towards theoretical calculations using the standards specified in ISO 7971-2013 Cold-Rolled Steel Structures. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the effective connection in receiving force strength is bolted connections neither single nor double plate. The method used is by applying 4 bolts through 2 parallel lines configuration. Furthermore, this connection deals with the consequences of holding the highest Pmaks, lowest failure risk and getting a little kind of mode of failure.
Improving Inelastic Capacity of Cold-Formed Steel Beams Using Slotted Blotted Connection
The focus of this paper is to incorporating the slotted bolted connection into the cold-formed steel (CFS) beams with aim of increasing inelastic bending capacity through bolt slip. An extensive finite element analysis was conducted on the through plate CFS bolted connections which are equipped with the slotted hole. The studied parameters in this paper included the following: CFS beam section geometry, the value of slip force, CFS beam thickness. The numerical results indicate that CFS slotted bolted connection exhibit higher inelastic capacity in terms of ductility compare to connection with standards holes. Moreover, the effect of slip force was analysed by comparing the moment-rotation curves of different models with different slip force value. As a result, as the slip force became lower, there was a tendency for the plastic strain to extend from the CFS member to the connection region.
Effect of Hooked-End Steel Fibres Geometry on Pull-Out Behaviour of Ultra-High Performance Concrete
In this study, a comprehensive approach has been adopted to examine in detail the effect of various hook geometries on bond-slip characteristics. Extensive single fibre pull-out tests on ultra-high performance matrix with three different W/B ratios and embedded lengths have been carried out. Test results showed that the mechanical deformation of fibre hook is the main mechanism governing the pull-out behaviour. Furthermore, the quantitative analyses have been completed to compare the hook design contribution of 3D, 4D and 5D fibres to assess overall pull-out behaviour. It was also revealed that there is a strong relationship between the magnitude of hook contribution and W/B ratio (i.e. matrix strength). Reducing the W/B ratio from 0.20 to 0.11 greatly optimizes the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and enables better mobilization, straightening of the hook and results in bond-slip-hardening behaviour.
Innovation in Lean Thinking to Achieve Rapid Construction
Lean thinking holds the potential for improving the construction sector, and therefore, it is a concept that should be adopted by construction sector players and academicians in the real industry. Bridging from that, a learning process for construction sector players regarding this matter should be the agenda in gaining the knowledge in preparation for their career. Lean principles offer opportunities for reducing lead times, eliminating non-value adding activities, reducing variability, and are facilitated by methods such as pull scheduling, simplified operations and buffer reduction. Thus, the drive for rapid construction, which is a systematic approach in enhancing efficiency to deliver a project using time reduction, while lean is the continuous process of eliminating waste, meeting or exceeding all customer requirements, focusing on the entire value stream and pursuing perfection in the execution of a constructed project. The methodology presented is shown to be valid through literature, interviews and questionnaire. The results show that the majority of construction sector players unfamiliar with lean thinking and they agreed that it can improve the construction process flow. With this background knowledge established and identified, best practices and recommended action are drawn.
Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Full Jacket Technics: A Case Study on an Existing Old Building in Madinah
The retrofitting of existing buildings to resist the seismic loads is very important to avoid losing lives or financial disasters. The aim at retrofitting processes is increasing total structure strength by increasing stiffness or ductility ratio. In addition, the response modification factors (R) have to satisfy the code requirements for suggested retrofitting types. In this study, two types of jackets are used, i.e. full reinforced concrete jackets and surrounding steel plate jackets. The study is carried out on an existing building in Madinah by performing static pushover analysis before and after retrofitting the columns. The selected model building represents nearly all-typical structure lacks structure built before 30 years ago in Madina City, KSA. The comparison of the results indicates a good enhancement of the structure respect to the applied seismic forces. Also, the response modification factor of the RC building is evaluated for the studied cases before and after retrofitting. The design of all vertical elements (columns) is given. The results show that the design of retrofitted columns satisfied the code's design stress requirements. However, for some retrofitting types, the ductility requirements represented by response modification factor do not satisfy KSA design code (SBC- 301).