An Overview of Electronic Waste as Aggregate in Concrete
Rapid growth of world population and widespread urbanization has remarkably increased the development of the construction industry which caused a huge demand for sand and gravels. Environmental problems occur when the rate of extraction of sand, gravels, and other materials exceeds the rate of generation of natural resources. Therefore, an alternative source is essential to replace the materials used in concrete. Nowadays electronic products have become an integral part of daily life which provides with more comfort, security, easy exchange of information. These electronic wastes (E-Wastes) materials have serious human health concerns and require extreme care in its disposal to avoid adverse impacts. Disposal or dumping of these electronic wastes also causes major issues because it is highly complex to handle and often contains highly toxic chemicals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, Brominates Flame Retardants (BFRs), Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) and phosphorus compounds. These E-Wastes can be incorporated in concrete to make sustainable environment. This paper deals with the composition, preparation of E-Waste material and its properties. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on the behavior of concrete with incorporation of E-Wastes. Many research shows a strong possibility of using E-waste as a substitute of aggregates in concrete. As a result of this tends to decrease the use natural aggregates in concrete and a prime importance where substitute of aggregates can be explored.
Effect of Water-Cement Ratio on the Compressive Strength of Sandcrete Block Blended with Sawdust Ash
The problem of managing agricultural and industrial wastes has become a challenge in recent time. Therefore, research in the area of minimizing waste accumulation through reclamation and recycling has been ignited considering their aesthetic and ecological problems caused by the improper disposal. Areas of research aimed at reducing waste include the use of sawdust ash, rice-husk ash and groundnut-husk ash to partially replace cement in the production of concrete or sandcrete blocks. The use of sawdust ash (SDA) as replacement of cement in the production of sandcrete blocks was investigated. The aim was to determine the percentage of SDA and water-cement ratio that would give the 28-day maximum strength. The sawdust ash was used to partially replace Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in various proportions (0%, 5% 10%, 15% and 20%).Cubes were produced using mix ratio 1:4 and water-cement ratios of 0.40, 0.50, 0.55 and 0.60.The cubes were tested at the ages of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days for each proportion of OPC/SDA and water cement ratio. The results indicated that compressive strength of blocks at 28 days was 3.80N/mm2 and 3.50N/mm2 for 5% SDA at water-cement ratios 0.55 and 0.60 respectively. The compressive strength for 10% SDA was 2.87N/mm2 and 3.10N/mm2 at water-cement ratios 0.55 and 0.60 respectively. The 5% and 10% percentage replacements have compressive greater than the required strength of 2.00N/mm2 specified by the Nigerian National Building Code (2006) for non-load bearing walls. By these results sandcrete blocks with up to 10% SDA replacement at water-cement ratios 0.55 and 0.60 can be used for non-load bearing walls.
Studying the Structural Behaviour of RC Beams with Circular Openings of Different Sizes and Locations Using FE Method
<p class="Abstract">This paper aims to investigate the structural behaviour of RC beams with circular openings of different sizes and locations modelled using ABAQUS FEM software. Seven RC beams with the dimensions of 1200 mm×150 mm×150 mm were tested under three-point loading. Group A consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the shear zone. However, Group B consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the flexural zone. The final RC beam did not have any openings, to provide a control beam for comparison. The results show that increasing the diameter of the openings increases the maximum deflection and the ultimate failure load decreases relative to the control beam. In the shear zone, the presence of the openings caused an increase in the maximum deflection ranging between 4% and 22% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 26% and 36% compared to the control beam. However, the presence of the openings in the flexural zone caused an increase in the maximum deflection of between 1.5% and 19.7% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 6% and 13% relative to the control beam. In this study, the optimum location for placing circular openings was found to be in the flexural zone of the beam with a diameter of less than 30% of the depth of the beam.
Impact of Joule Heating on the Electrical Conduction Behavior of Carbon Composite Laminates under Simulated Lightning Strike
Increasing demands for high strength and lightweight materials in aircraft industry prompted the wide use of carbon composites in recent decades. Carbon composite laminates used on aircraft structures are subject to lightning strikes. Unlike its metal/alloy counterparts, carbon fiber reinforced composites demonstrate smaller electrical conductivity, yielding more severe damages due to Joule heating. The anisotropic nature of composite laminates makes the electrical and thermal conduction within carbon composite laminates even more complicated. Good understanding of the electrical conduction behavior of carbon composites is the key to effective lightning protection design. The goal of this study is to numerically and experimentally investigate the impact of ultra-high temperature induced by simulated lightning strike on the electrical conduction of carbon composites. A lightning simulator is designed to apply standard lightning current waveform to composite laminates. Multiple carbon composite laminates made from IM7 and AS4 carbon fiber are tested and the transient resistance data is recorded. A microstructure based resistor network model is developed to describe the electrical and thermal conduction behavior, with consideration of temperature dependent material properties. Material degradations such as thermal and electrical breakdown are also modeled to include the effect of high current and high temperature induced by lightning strikes. Good match between the simulation results and experimental data indicates that the developed model captures the major conduction mechanisms. A parametric study is then conducted using the validated model to investigate the effect of system parameters such as fiber volume fraction, inter-ply interface quality, and lightning current waveforms.
Model-Based Fault Diagnosis in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites Using Particle Filtering
Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRP) used as aircraft structure are subject to lightning strike, putting structural integrity under risk. Indirect damage may occur after a lightning strike where the internal structure can be damaged due to excessive heat induced by lightning current, while the surface of the structures remains intact. Three damage modes may be observed after a lightning strike: fiber breakage, inter-ply delamination and intra-ply cracks. The assessment of internal damage states in composite is challenging due to complicated microstructure, inherent uncertainties, and existence of multiple damage modes. In this work, a model based approach is adopted to diagnose faults in carbon composites after lighting strikes. A resistor network model is implemented to relate the overall electrical and thermal conduction behavior under simulated lightning current waveform to the intrinsic temperature dependent material properties, microstructure and degradation of materials. A fault detection and identification (FDI) module utilizes the physics based model and a particle filtering algorithm to identify damage mode as well as calculate the probability of structural failure. Extensive simulation results are provided to substantiate the proposed fault diagnosis methodology with both single fault and multiple faults cases. The approach is also demonstrated on transient resistance data collected from a IM7/Epoxy laminate under simulated lightning strike.
3D Non-Linear Model Describing the Behaviour of Peripheral High Capacity Saw-Tooth Connectors Subjected to Compressive Load
This contribution aims to demonstrate the behaviour of a high capacity saw-tooth connectors fixed at the edges of a slender reinforced concrete slab. The connectors are subjected to compressive load and mainly designed to transfer shear forces into the slab either from steel truss or cable, as in truss bridge or cable stayed bridge. A 3D finite element model is carried out in ANSYS Workbench environment to simulate the specimen. The description of non-linear material behaviour is implemented by using an elasto-plastic model. The material model is defined by adopting Menetrey-Willam failure criterion and non-associated flow rule. Hardening/softening law is obtained by using power hardening function and fracture based function, which define the behaviour of concrete based on the stressstrain relation. The contacts between the concrete and the connector are defined by Augmented formulation, while multi-point-constraint formulation (MPC) is used to define the contact of reinforcement rebars-concrete. Hex mesh is chosen to mitigate the calculation cost and get a better result, whereas the size of mesh is determined to be in line with the fracture energy limits. The model shows a good agreement with the experimental force – displacement relation, with discrepancy of 2-5%. Moreover, the model gives the same values of the strain of the concrete attained from the experiments, where many strain gauges are distributed around the connector. It is observed that the behaviour of the connector is brittle, where the failure occurs after moving the connector 1.4 mm. However, the load capacity of the connector is higher than the conventional types of connectors, where it reaches 1994 KN. An early test had been carried out on the saw tooth connector embedded in the middle of the specimen showed that the concrete’s failure formed as a wedge surrounding the connector. The width of that wedge is relatively wider than the one acquired from the test of the peripheral connectors. Therefore, based on many tests and models, a study is conducted intending to increase the ductility of the concrete around the saw-tooth connector by allocating double headed shear studs around it. The allocation of the studs depends on the shear stresses and minimum principal stresses in the concrete. The results of the model indicate that the heads of the studs increase the confinement of the concrete and hence increase significantly the load capacity of the connector by almost 19%. Even though, the ductility of the concrete is increased, the maximum displacement of the connector decreased. The difference of the displacement happens, because of the crushing of the concrete between the lowest teeth of the connector and the head of the studs.
Seismic Performance of Benchmark Building Installed with Semi-active Dampers
The seismic performance of 20-storey benchmark building with semi-active dampers is investigated under various earthquake ground motions. The Semi-Active Variable Friction Dampers (SAVFD) and Magnetorheological Dampers (MR) are used in this study. A recently proposed predictive control algorithm is employed for SAVFD and a simple mechanical model based on a Bouc–Wen element with clipped optimal control algorithm is employed for MR damper. A parametric study is carried out to ascertain the optimum parameters of the semi-active controllers, which yields the minimum performance indices of controlled benchmark building. The effectiveness of dampers is studied in terms of the reduction in structural responses and performance criteria. To minimize the cost of the dampers, the optimal location of the damper, rather than providing the dampers at all floors, is also investigated. The semi-active dampers installed in benchmark building effectively reduces the earthquake-induced responses. Lesser number of dampers at appropriate locations also provides comparable response of benchmark building, thereby reducing cost of dampers significantly. The effectiveness of two semi-active devices in mitigating seismic responses is cross compared. Among two semi-active devices majority of the performance criteria of MR dampers are lower than SAVFD installed with benchmark building. Thus the performance of the MR dampers is far better than SAVFD in reducing displacement, drift, acceleration and base shear of mid to high-rise building against seismic forces.
Seismic Assessment of Flat Slab and Conventional Slab System for Irregular Building Equipped with Shear Wall
Particular instability of structural building under lateral load (e.g earthquake) will rise due to irregularity in vertical and horizontal direction as stated in SNI 03-1762-2012. The conventional slab has been considered for its less contribution in increasing the stability of the structure, except special slab system such as flat slab turned into account. In this paper, the analysis of flat slab system at Sequis Tower located in South Jakarta will be assessed its performance under earthquake. It consists of 6 floors of the basement where the flat slab system is applied. The flat slab system will be the main focus in this paper to be compared for its performance with conventional slab system under earthquake. Regarding the floor plan of Sequis Tower basement, re-entrant corner signed for this building is 43.21% which exceeded the allowable re-entrant corner is 15% as stated in ASCE 7-05 Based on that, the horizontal irregularity will be another concern for analysis, otherwise vertical irregularity does not exist for this building. Flat slab system is a system where the slabs use drop panel with shear head as their support instead of using beams. Major advantages of flat slab application are decreasing dead load of structure, removing beams so that the clear height can be maximized, and providing lateral resistance due to lateral load. Whilst, deflection at middle strip and punching shear are problems to be detail considered. Torsion usually appears when the structural member under flexure such as beam or column dimension is improper in ratio. Considering flat slab as alternative slab system will keep the collapse due to torsion down. Common seismic load resisting system applied in the building is a shear wall. Installation of shear wall will keep the structural system stronger and stiffer affecting in reduced displacement under earthquake. Eccentricity of shear wall location of this building resolved the instability due to horizontal irregularity so that the earthquake load can be absorbed. Performing linear dynamic analysis such as response spectrum and time history analysis due to earthquake load is suitable as the irregularity arise so that the performance of structure can be significantly observed. Utilization of response spectrum data for South Jakarta which PGA 0.389g is basic for the earthquake load idealization to be involved in several load combinations stated on SNI 03-1726-2012. The analysis will result in some basic seismic parameters such as period, displacement, and base shear of the system; besides the internal forces of the critical member will be presented. Predicted period of a structure under earthquake load is 0.45 second, but as different slab system applied in the analysis then the period will show a different value. Flat slab system will probably result in better performance for the displacement parameter compare to conventional slab system due to higher contribution of stiffness to the whole system of the building. In line with displacement, the deflection of the slab will result smaller for flat slab than a conventional slab. Henceforth, shear wall will be effective to strengthen the conventional slab system than flat slab system.
Performance Evaluation of Composite Beam under Uniform Corrosion
Composite member (concrete and steel) has been widely advanced for structural utilization due to its best performance in resisting load, reducing the total weight of the structure, increasing stiffness, and other available advantages. On the other hand, the environment load such as corrosion (e.g. chloride ingress) creates significant time-dependent degradation for steel. Analysis performed in this paper is mainly considered uniform corrosion for evaluating the composite beam without examining the pit corrosion as the initial corrosion formed. Corrosion level in terms of weight loss is modified in yield stress and modulus elasticity of steel. Those two mechanical properties are utilized in this paper for observing the stresses due to corrosion attacked. As corrosion level increases, the effective width of the composite beam in the concrete section will be wider. The position of a neutral axis of composite section will indicate the composite action due to corrosion of composite beam so that numerous shear connectors provided must be reconsidered. Flexure capacity quantification provides stresses, and shear capacity calculation derives connectors needed in overcoming the shear problem for composite beam under corrosion. A model of simply supported composite beam examined in this paper under uniform corrosion where the stresses as the focus of the evaluation. Principal stress at the first stage of composite construction decline as the corrosion level incline, parallel for the second stage stress analysis where the tension region held by the steel undergoes lower capacity due to corrosion. Total stresses of the composite section for steel to be born significantly decreases particularly in the outermost fiber of tension side. Whereas, the available compression side is smaller as the corrosion level increases so that the stress occurs on the compression side shows reduction as well. As a conclusion, the increment of corrosion level will degrade both compression and tension side of stresses.
Design of an Automatic Saw Cutting Machine for Wood and Aluminum
The uses of wood in furniture, building, bridges and aluminum in transportation and construction, make aluminum and forest economy a prominent matter in North America. Machines available to date to cut the aforementioned materials are mostly industry oriented with complex structure and operations which require special training and skill. Furthermore, requirements such as pneumatics, 3-phase supply are associated with cost, maintenance, and safety hazards. Power saws are very useful tools used to cut and shape materials; however, they can cause serious hand injuries. Operator’s hands in table saw are vulnerable as they are used to guide pieces into the saw. Apart from hands, saw operator is also prone to material being kicked back out of the saw or sustain eye or respiratory injuries due to rapidly flying sawdust and other debris. In this paper, design of an automatic saw cutting machine has been proposed to ensure safety, portability, usage at domestic level and capability to cut both aluminum and wood. This paper demonstrates detailed Mechanical design in SOLIDWORKS and Control Systems using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), based on the aforementioned design objectives.
Forced Vibration of a Planar Curved Beam on Pasternak Foundation
The objective of this study is to investigate the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam lying on elastic foundation by using the mixed finite element method. The finite element formulation is based on the Timoshenko beam theory. In order to solve the problems in frequency domain, the element matrices of two nodded curvilinear elements are transformed into Laplace space. The results are transformed back to the time domain by the well known numerical Modified Durbin’s transformation algorithm. First, the proposed finite element formulation is verified through the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved Timoshenko beam resting on Winkler foundation and the finite element results are compared with the results available in the literature. Then, the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation is conducted.
The Effect of Transparent Oil Wood Stain on the Colour Stability of Spruce Wood during Weathering
Nowadays the use of wood, both indoors and outdoors, is constantly increasing. However wood is a natural organic material and in the exterior is subjected to a degradation process caused by abiotic factors (solar radiation, rain, moisture, wind, dust etc.). This process affects only surface layers of wood but neglecting some of the basic rules of wood protection leads to increased possibility of biological agents attack and thereby influences a function of the wood element. The process of wood degradation can be decreased by proper surface treatment, especially in the case of less naturally durable wood species, as spruce. Modern coating systems are subjected to many requirements such as colour stability, hydrophobicity, low volatile organic compound (VOC) content, long service life or easy maintenance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour stability of spruce wood (Picea abies), as the basic parameter indicating the coating durability, treated with two layers of transparent natural oil wood stain and exposed to outdoor conditions. The test specimens were exposed for 2 years to natural weathering and 2000 hours to artificial weathering in UV-chamber. The colour parameters were measured before and during exposure to weathering by the spectrophotometer according to CIELab colour space. The comparison between untreated and treated wood and both testing procedures was carried out. The results showed a significant effect of coating on the colour stability of wood, as expected. Nevertheless, increasing colour changes of wood observed during the exposure to weathering differed according to applied testing procedure - natural and artificial.
Response of Solar Updraft Power Plants Incorporating Material Nonlinearity
Solar updraft power plants (SUPP) provide a great potential for green and environmentally friendly renewable power generation. An up to 1000 m high chimney represents one of the major parts of each SUPP, which consist of the main shell structure and the stiffening rings. Including the nonlinear material behavior in a simulation of the chimney is computationally a demanding task. However, allowing the formation of cracking in concrete leads to a more economical design of the structure. In this work, an FE model of a SUPP is presented incorporating the nonlinear material behavior. The effect of wind loading intensity on the structural response is explored. Furthermore, the influence of the stiffness of the ring beams on the global behavior is as well investigated. The obtained results indicate that the minimum reinforcement is capable of carrying the tensile stresses provided that the ring beams are rather stiff.
Submodeling of Mega-Shell Reinforced Concrete Solar Chimneys
Solar updraft power plants (SUPPs) made from reinforced concrete (RC) are an innovative technology to generate solar electricity. An up to 1000 m high chimney represents the major part of each SUPP ensuring the updraft of the warmed air from the ground. Numerical simulation of nonlinear behavior of such large mega shell concrete structures is a challenging task, and computationally expensive. A general finite element approach to simulate reinforced concrete bearing behavior is presented and verified on a simply supported beam, as well as the technique of submodeling. The verified numerical approach is extended and consecutively transferred to a more complex chimney structure of a SUPP. The obtained results proved the reliability of submodeling technique in analyzing critical regions of simple and complex mega concrete structures with high accuracy and dramatic decrease in the computation time.
Testing of the Decreasing Bond Strength of Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive by Low Temperatures
When using wood products bonded by polyvinyl acetate, glues such as windows are the most limiting element of degradation of the glued joint due to weather changes. In addition to moisture and high temperatures, the joint may damage the low temperature below freezing point, where dimensional changes in the material and distortion of the adhesive film occur. During the experiments, the joints were exposed to several degrees of sub-zero temperatures from 0 °C to -40 °C and then to compare how the decreasing temperature affects the strength of the joint. The experiment was performed on wood beech samples (Fagus sylvatica), bonded with PVAc with D3 resistance and the shear strength of bond was measured. The glued and treated samples were tested on a laboratory testing machine, recording the strength of the joint. The statistical results have given us information that the strength of the joint gradually decreases with decreasing temperature, but a noticeable and statistically significant change is achieved only at very low temperatures.
Finite Element Analysis of the Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers
Most of the concrete bridges in Nepal constructed during 90's and before are made up of low strength ordinary concrete which might be one of the reasons for damage in higher magnitude earthquake. Those bridges were designed by the outdated bridge codes which might not account the large seismic loads. This research investigates the seismic vulnerability of the existing single column ordinary concrete bridge pier by finite element modeling, using the software Seismostruct. The existing bridge pier capacity has been assessed using nonlinear pushover analysis and performance is compared after retrofitting those pier models with CFRP. Furthermore, the seismic evaluation was made by conducting cyclic loading test at different drift percentage. The performance analysis of bridge pier by nonlinear pushover analysis is further validated by energy dissipation phenomenon measured from the hysteric loop for each model of ordinary concrete piers.
The Impact of Using Building Information Modeling Technology in Construction Projects Management
This research links the use of Building Information Modeling technology in constructions and infrastructure projects, starting from the moment when considering the establishment of a project to demolishing or renovating it, going through the design work, planning, procurement and implementation. BIM Software's which used are Revit, Navisworks and Asta Project in the case study for the Atletico Madrid Stadium project (Wanda Stadium). Also, the project improves through various phases of construction (planning - implementation - management). Besides, the level of the details managed within this project advances gradually. In addition, the construction process problems become about 30 % less than before, resulting from high coordination between designing, implementation and follow through that is done by the project management office (PMO). The current disposition in the industry is to tightly manage the detail contained within the planning and coordination phases of construction, but we miss the opportunity to manage that data as it matures and grows into the execution and commissioning phases.
Analysis of Beams with Web Opening Subject to Vertical Loads
The steel beams with web opening including the cellular and castellated I-beams are fabricated from a solid web I-beam through a double cutting method to a specific shape and size along the beam. The two halves of the beams are then welded together, increasing the overall depth of the web section. In this paper, the deflection of the cellular and castellated beams subject to uniform vertical loads are investigated using Finite Element Autodesk simulation package. The structural response of the beams with web opening are compared with regular solid beams. Additionally, parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the geometric properties of a cellular beam to its structural responses.
Nonlinear Modelling and Analysis of Piezoelectric Smart Thin-Walled Structures in Supersonic Flow
Thin-walled structures are used more and more widely in modern aircrafts and some other structures in aerospace field nowadays. Accompanied by the wider applications, the vibration of the structures has been a bigger problem. Because of the direct and converse piezoelectric effect, piezoelectric materials combined to host thin-walled structures, named as piezoelectric smart structures, can be an effective way to suppress the vibration. So, an accurate model for piezoelectric thin-walled structures in air flow is necessary and important. In our recent work, an electromechanical coupling nonlinear aerodynamic finite element model of piezoelectric smart thin-walled structures is built based on the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory and first-order piston theory for aerodynamic pressure of supersonic flow. Von Kármán type nonlinearity is considered in the present model. Finally, the model is validated by experimental and numerical results from the literature, which can describe the vibration of the structures in supersonic flow precisely.
Finite Element Analysis of Piezolaminated Structures with Both Geometric and Electroelastic Material Nonlinearities
Piezoelectric laminated smart structures can be subjected to the strong driving electric field, which may result in large displacements and rotations. In one hand, piezoelectric materials usually behave very significant material nonlinear effects under strong electric fields. On the other hand, thin-walled structures undergoing large displacements and rotations exist nonnegligible geometric nonlinearity. In order to give a precise prediction of piezo laminated smart structures under the large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for material nonlinearity (piezoelectric part) and geometric nonlinearity based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is first validated by both experimental and numerical examples from the literature. Afterwards, it is applied to simulate for plate and shell structures with multiple piezoelectric patches under the strong applied electric field. From the simulation results, it shows that large discrepancies occur between linear and nonlinear predictions for piezoelectric laminated structures driving at the strong electric field. Therefore, both material and geometric nonlinearities should be taken into account for piezoelectric structures under strong electric.
Particleboard Production from Atmospheric Plasma Treated Wheat Straw Particles
Particle boards have being used in the civil engineering as a decking for load bearing and non-load bearing vertical walls and horizontal panels (e. g. floors, ceiling, roofs) in a large scale. When the straw is used as non-wood material for manufacturing of lignocellulosic panels, problems with wax layer on the surface of the material can occur. Higher percentage of silica and wax cause the problems with the adhesion of the adhesive and this is the reason why it is necessary to break the surface layer for the better bonding effect. Surface treatment of the particles cause better mechanical properties, physical properties and the overall better results of the composite material are reached. Plasma application is one possibility how to modify the surface layer. The aim of this research is to modify the surface of straw particles by using cold plasma treatment. Surface properties of lignocellulosic materials were observed before and after cold plasma treatment. Cold plasma does not cause any structural changes deeply in the material. There are only changes in surface layers, which are required. Results proved that the plasma application influenced the properties of surface layers and the properties of composite material.
Comparative Study on Fire Safety Evaluation Methods for External Cladding Systems: ISO 13785-2 and BS 8414
Technological development has led to the construction of super-tall buildings and insulators are increasingly used as exterior finishing materials to save energy. However, insulators are usually combustible and vulnerable to fire. Fires like that at Wooshin Golden Suite Building in Busan, Korea in 2010 and that at CCTV Building in Beijing, China are the major examples of fire spread accelerated by combustible insulators. The exterior finishing materials of a high-rise building are not made of insulators only, but they are integrated with the building’s external cladding system. There is a limit in evaluating the fire safety of a cladding system with a single small-unit material such as a cone calorimeter. Therefore, countries provide codes to evaluate the fire safety of exterior finishing materials using full-scale tests. This study compares and to examine the applicability of the methods to Korea. Standard analysis showed differences in the type and size of fire sources and duration and exterior finishing materials also differed in size. In order to confirm the differences, fire tests were conducted on identical external cladding systems to compare fire safety. Although the exterior finishing materials were identical, varying degrees of fire spread were observed, which could be considered as differences in the type and size of the fire sources and duration. Therefore, it is deduced that extended studies should be conducted before the evaluation methods and standards are employed in Korea. The two standards for evaluating fire safety provided different results. Peak heat release rate was 5.5MW in ISO method and 3.0±0.5MW in BS method. Peak heat release rate in ISO method continued for 15 minutes. Fire ignition, growth, full development and decay evolved for 30 minutes in BS method where wood cribs were used as fire sources. Therefore, follow-up studies should be conducted to determine which of the two standards provides fire sources that approximate the size of flames coming out from the openings or those spreading to the outside when a fire occurs at a high-rise building.
Surface Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membranes for Potential Use in Membrane Distillation
A study aimed at developing membrane distillation (MD) processes that can be used for brackish/saline water purification will be presented. MD is a membrane-based technology that presents a possibility to counteract challenges associated with pressure driven membranes at high separation efficiencies. Membrane distillation membranes (MDM) are affected by wettability and fouling. Wetting inside the pores of the membrane is elevated by the hydrophilic characteristic of the membrane, while fouling is mostly induced by the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction of pollutants and the surface of the hydrophobic membranes, hence block the pores of the membranes. These properties are not desirable. As such, a carefully designed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MDM composed of a super-hydrophobic modified backbone and a super-hydrophilic thin layer has been developed to concurrently overcome these challenges. The membranes were characterized using contact angle measurements to confirm their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. SEM and SAXS were used to study the morphology and pore distribution on the surface of the membrane. The contact angles of the active surface ≤ 30º and that of the backbone ≥ 140º has thus revealed that the active surface was highly hydrophilic while the backbone was highly hydrophobic. The SEM and the SAXS results have also confirmed that the membranes are highly porous. These materials demonstrated a potential to remove salts from water at high efficiencies.
Evaluation of Fire Resistance of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns with Spiral Wire Rope
This research evaluated fire resistances of high-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) column, spiral wire rope which applied with 60, and 100MPa. The fire resistance test of RC column with loading condition was conducted following the ISO 834 (3 hours). This experiment set mixing of fiber (PP fiber, Steel fiber) and types of horizontal reinforcement as a variable of reinforcement method. The fire resistance test measured the main steel bar’s max and mean temperatures also the shrinkage and shrinking ratio of columns(500 X 500 X 3,000mm) with loadings. As a result, the specimen of 60MPa attained three hours fire resistance with only spiral wire rope. Also, the specimen of 100MPa must be reinforced with fibers and spiral wire rope to attain three hours fire resistance.
Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strenghtened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) under Concentric Loading
This study aims at investigating the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete short columns. Three sets of columns were built for this purpose: 200x200x1200 mm; 250x250x1500 mm and 300x300x1800 mm. Each set includes a control column and a strengthened column with one layer of CFRP sheets. All columns were tested under the effect of pure axial compression load. The results of the study show that using CFRP sheets resulted in capacity enhancement of 37%, 32% and 27% for the 200×200, 250×250, and 300×300 mm, respectively. The results of the experimental program demonstrated that the percentage of improvement in strength decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size of the column.
Dynamic Analysis of Submerged Floating Tunnel Subjected to Hydrodynamic and Seismic Loadings
Submerged floating tunnel (SFT) is a new solution for the transportation infrastructure through sea straits, fjords, and inland waters, and can be a good alternative to long span suspension bridges. SFT is a massive cylindrical structure that floats at a certain depth below the water surface and subjected to extreme environmental conditions. The identification of dominant structural response of SFT becomes more important due to intended environmental conditions for the design of SFT. The time domain dynamic problem of SFT moored by vertical and inclined mooring cables/anchors is formulated. The dynamic time history analysis of SFT subjected to hydrodynamic and seismic excitations is performed. The SFT is modeled by finite element 3D beam, and the mooring cables are modeled by truss elements. Based on the dynamic time history analysis the displacements and internal forces of SFT were calculated. The response of SFT is presented for hydrodynamic and seismic excitations. The transverse internal forces of SFT were the maximum compared to vertical direction, for both hydrodynamic and seismic cases; this indicates that the cable system provides very small stiffness in transverse direction as compared to vertical direction of SFT.
Investigation of Thermal Comfort Conditions of Vernacular Buildings Taking into Consideration Various Use Patterns: A Case Study
The main goal of this paper is to explore the thermal comfort conditions in traditional buildings during all seasons of the year taking into consideration various use patterns. For this purpose a dwelling of vernacular architecture is selected and data regarding the indoor and outdoor air and surface temperature as well as the relative humidity are collected. These measurements are conducted in situ during the period of a year. Also, this building is occupied periodically and a calendar of occupancy was kept (duration of residence, hours of heating system operation, hours of natural ventilation, etc.) in order to correlate the indoor conditions recorded with the use patterns via statistical analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the high thermal inertia of the stone masonry walls and the different orientation of the rooms is addressed. Thus, this paper concludes in some interesting results on the effect of the users in the indoor climate conditions in the case of buildings with high thermal inertia envelops.
Evaluation of the Sustainability of Greek Vernacular Architecture in Different Climate Zones: Architectural Typology and Building Physics
Investigating the integration of bioclimatic design into vernacular architecture could lead to interesting results regarding the preservation of cultural heritage while enhancing the energy efficiency of historic buildings. Furthermore, these recognized principles and systems of bioclimatic design in vernacular settlements could be applied to modern architecture and thus to new buildings in such areas. This study introduces an approach to categorizing distinct technologies and design principles of bioclimatic design based on a thoughtful approach to various climatic zones and environment in Greece (mountainous areas, islands and lowlands). For this purpose, various types of dwellings are evaluated for their response to climate, regarding the layout of the buildings (orientation, floor plans’ shape, semi-open spaces), the site planning, the openings (size, position, protection), the building envelope (walls: construction materials-thickness, roof construction detailing) and the migratory living pattern according to seasonal needs. As a result, various passive design principles (that could be adapted to current architectural practice in such areas, in order to optimize the relationship between site, building, climate and energy efficiency) are proposed.
Experimental Studies of Sigma Thin-Walled Beams Strengthen by CFRP Tapes
The review of selected methods of strengthening of steel structures with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tapes and the analysis of influence of composite materials on the steel thin-walled elements are performed in this paper. The study is also focused to the problem of applying fast and effective strengthening methods of the steel structures made of thin-walled profiles. It is worth noting that the issue of strengthening the thin-walled structures is a very complex, due to inability to perform welded joints in this type of elements and the limited ability to applying mechanical fasteners. Moreover, structures made of thin-walled cross-section demonstrate a high sensitivity to imperfections and tendency to interactive buckling, which may substantially contribute to the reduction of critical load capacity. Due to the lack of commonly used and recognized modern methods of strengthening of thin-walled steel structures, authors performed the experimental studies of thin-walled sigma profiles strengthened with CFRP tapes. The paper presents the experimental stand and the preliminary results of laboratory test concerning the analysis of the effectiveness of the strengthening steel beams made of thin-walled sigma profiles with CFRP tapes. The study includes six beams made of the cold-rolled sigma profiles with height of 140 mm, wall thickness of 2.5 mm, and a length of 3 m, subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Four beams have been strengthened with carbon fiber tape Sika CarboDur S, while the other two were tested without strengthening to obtain reference results. Based on the obtained results, the evaluation of the accuracy of applied composite materials for strengthening of thin-walled structures was performed.
Analysis of the Acoustic Performance of Vertical Internal Seals with Pet Wool as NBR 15.575-4NO Green Towers Building-DF
An extremely disturbing and irritating element in the lives of people and organizations is the noise, the consequences that can bring us has a lot of connection with human health as well as financial and economic aspects. In order to improve the efficiency of buildings in Brazil in general, a performance standard was created, NBR 15.575 in which all buildings are seen in a more systemic and peculiar way, while following the requirements of the standard. The acoustic performance present in these buildings is one such requirement. Based on this, the present work was elaborated with the objective of evaluating through acoustic measurements the acoustic performance of vertical internal fences that are under the incidence of aerial noise of a building in the city of Brasilia-DF. A short theoretical basis is made and soon after the procedures of measurement are described through the control method established by the standard, and its results are evaluated according to the parameters of the same. The measurement performed between rooms of the same unit, presented a standardized sound pressure level difference (D nT, w) equal to 40 dB, thus being classified within the minimum performance required by the standard in question.