Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54355

Transport and Vehicle Engineering

381
98810
Effect of Nano-Alumina on the Mechanical Properties of Cold Recycled Asphalt
Abstract:
In order to reduce road building costs and reduce environmental damage, recycled materials can be used instead of mineral materials in the production of asphalt mixtures. Today, in most parts of the world, cold recycled asphalt with bitumen emulsion, has acceptable results. However, Cold Recycled Asphalt have some deficiency such as stripping, thermal cracking, and rutting. This requires the addition of additives to reduce this deficiency of recycled pavement with emulsified asphalt. In this research, nano-alumina and emulsified asphalt were used to modify the properties of recycled asphalt mixtures according to the technical specifications and the operation of cold recycling. Marshall test methods, dynamic creep test, and resiliency modulus test has been used to obtain the nano-alumina’s effects on asphalt mixture properties. The results show that the addition of nano-alumina would reduce the Marshall stability in samples but increases the rutting resistance. The resiliency modulus increases significantly with this additive.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
380
97902
Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology
Authors:
Abstract:
Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit back-calculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections, and FEM predicted deflections. Then concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using HWD (Heavy Weight Deflectometer) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
379
96875
Understanding the Factors That Enable Logistics Integration in the ‎Port Sector: Evidence from Iranian Seaport Sector
Abstract:
The main purpose of this research is to propose a conceptual framework to analyze port logistics integration in general and for the Iranian port sector in particular, including consideration of the challenges, outcomes, and opportunities in implementing port logistics integration. First, a literature review of studies on logistics integration in seaports and terminals is conducted. Second, a new conceptual framework for port logistics integration is proposed to incorporate the role of the new variables emerging from the recent developments in the global business environment. The literature review has found the logistics process and operations, information integration, value-added services, and logistics practices, organizational activities, resource sharing and institutional support being influential to logistics integration. The study used survey method to test the proposed conceptual framework. Both online and self-administrative survey have been used to collect data from ‎port official staffs in Iranian seaports and their associations (internal port ‎stakeholders) as well ‎as other experts in various actors. In the study, the questionnaire was first validated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and then by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the EFA and CFA confirmed the finding from the literature review. Research results and conceptual framework shed the lights on port logistics integration concept and suggest guidelines and procedures improve port logistics integration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
378
95990
Microscopic Simulation of Toll Plaza Safety and Operations
Abstract:
The use of microscopic traffic simulation in evaluating the operational and safety conditions at toll plazas is demonstrated. Two toll plazas in New Jersey are selected as case studies and were developed and validated in Paramics traffic simulation software. In order to simulate drivers’ lane selection behavior in Paramics, a utility-based lane selection approach is implemented in Paramics Application Programming Interface (API). For each vehicle approaching the toll plaza, a utility value is assigned to each toll lane by taking into account the factors that are likely to impact drivers’ lane selection behavior, such as approach lane, exit lane and queue lengths. The results demonstrate that similar operational conditions, such as lane-by-lane toll plaza traffic volume can be attained using this approach. In addition, assessment of safety at toll plazas is conducted via a surrogate safety measure. In particular, the crash index (CI), an improved surrogate measure of time-to-collision (TTC), which reflects the severity of a crash is used in the simulation analyses. The results indicate that the spatial and temporal frequency of observed crashes can be simulated using the proposed methodology. Further analyses can be conducted to evaluate and compare various different operational decisions and safety measures using microscopic simulation models.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
377
95926
Development of K-Factor for Road Geometric Design: A Case Study of North Coast Road in Java
Abstract:
On the one hand, parameters which are used for determining the number of lane on the new road construction are average annual average daily traffic (AADT) and peak hour factor (K-factor). On the other hand, the value of K-factor listed in the guidelines and manual for road planning in Indonesia is a value of adoption or adaptation from foreign guidelines or manuals. Thus, the value is less suitable for Indonesian condition due to differences in road conditions, vehicle type, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study is to provide an example on how to determine k-factor values at a road segment with particular conditions in north coast road, West Java. The methodology is started with collecting traffic volume data for 24 hours over 365 days using PLATO (Automated Traffic Counter) with the approach of video image processing. Then, the traffic volume data is divided into per hour and analyzed by comparing the peak traffic volume in the 30th hour (or other) with the AADT in the same year. The analysis has resulted that for the 30th peak hour the K-factor is 0.97. This value can be used for planning road geometry or evaluating the road capacity performance for the 4/2D interurban road.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
376
94642
The Analysis of Increment of Road Traffic Accidents in Libya: Case Study City of Tripoli
Abstract:
Safety is an important consideration in the design and operation of streets and highways. Traffic and highway engineers working with law enforcement officials are constantly seeking for better methods to ensure safety for motorists and pedestrians. Also, a highway safety improvement process involves planning, implementation, and evaluation. The planning process requires that engineers collect and maintain traffic safety data, identify the hazards location, conduct studies and establish project priorities. Unfortunately, in Libya, the increase in demand for private transportation in recent years, due to poor or lack of public transportation led to some traffic problems especially in the capital (Tripoli). Also, the growth of private transportation has significant influences on the society regarding road traffic accidents (RTAs). This study investigates the most critical factors affect RTAs in Tripoli the capital city of Libya. Four main classifications were chosen to build the questionnaire, namely; human factors, road factors, vehicle factors and environmental factors. Moreover, a quantitative method was used to collect the data from the field, the targeted sample size 400 respondents include; drivers, pedestrian and passengers and relative importance index (RII) were used to rank the factors of one group and between all groups. The results show that the human factors have the most significant impacts compared with other factors. Also, 84% of respondents considered the over speeding as the most significant factor cusses of RTAs while 81% considered the disobedience to driving regulations as the second most influential factor in human factors. Also, the results showed that poor brakes or brake failure factor a great impact on the RTAs among the vehicle factors with nearly 74%, while 79% categorized poor or no street lighting factor as one of the most effective factors on RTAs in road factors and third effecting factor concerning all factors. The environmental factors have the slights influences compared with other factors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
375
94151
Active Linear Quadratic Gaussian Secondary Suspension Control of Flexible Bodied Railway Vehicle
Abstract:
Passenger comfort has been paramount in the design of suspension systems of high speed cars. To analyze the effect of vibration on vehicle ride quality, a vertical model of a ten degree of freedom railway passenger vehicle, with front and rear suspension is built. It includes car body flexible effects and vertical rigid modes. A second order linear shaping filter is constructed to model Gaussian white noise into random rail excitation. The temporal correlation between the front and rear wheels is given by a second order pade's approximation. The complete track and the vehicle model is then designed. An active secondary suspension system based on a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimal control method is designed. The results show that the LQG control method reduces the vertical acceleration, pitching acceleration and vertical bending vibration of the car body as compared to the passive system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
374
93195
Understanding the Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Building Mobility of a Service Transportation Models
Abstract:
Introduction: The way we travel is rapidly changing, car ownership and use are declining among young people and those residents in urban areas. Also, the increasing role and popularity of sharing economy companies like Uber highlight a movement towards consuming transportation solutions as a service [Mobility of a Service]. This research looks to bridge the knowledge gap that exists between city mobility, smart cities, sharing economy and social entrepreneurship business models. Understanding of this subject is crucial for smart city design, as access to affordable transport has been identified as a contributing factor to social isolation leading to issues around health and wellbeing. Methodology: To explore the current fit vis-a-vis transportation business models and social impact this research undertook a comparative analysis between a systematic literature review and a Delphi study. The systematic literature review was undertaken to gain an appreciation of the current academic thinking on ‘social entrepreneurship and smart city mobility’. The second phase of the research initiated a Delphi study across a group of 22 participants to review future opinion on ‘how social entrepreneurship can assist city mobility sharing models?’. The Delphi delivered an initial 220 results, which once cross-checked for duplication resulted in 130. These 130 answers were sent back to participants to score importance against a 5-point LIKERT scale, enabling a top 10 listing of areas for shared user transports in society to be gleaned. One further round (4) identified no change in the coefficient of variant thus no further rounds were required. Findings: Initial results of the literature review returned 1,021 journals using the search criteria ‘social entrepreneurship and smart city mobility’. Filtering allied to ‘peer review’, ‘date’, ‘region’ and ‘Chartered associated of business school’ ranking proffered a resultant journal list of 75. Of these, 58 focused on smart city design, 9 on social enterprise in cityscapes, 6 relating to smart city network design and 3 on social impact, with no journals purporting the need for social entrepreneurship to be allied to city mobility. The future inclusion factors from the Delphi expert panel indicated that smart cities needed to include shared economy models in their strategies. Furthermore, social isolation born by costs of infrastructure needed addressing through holistic A-political social enterprise models, and a better understanding of social benefit measurement is needed. Conclusion: In investigating the collaboration between key public transportation stakeholders, a theoretical model of social enterprise transportation models that positively impact upon the smart city needs of reduced transport poverty and social isolation was formed. As such, the research has identified how a revised business model of Mobility of a Service allied to a social entrepreneurship can deliver impactful measured social benefits associated to smart city design existent research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
373
93191
Assessing Sustainability Dimensions of Transportation as a Critical Infrastructure: Jordan as a Case Study
Abstract:
Infrastructure is the fundamental facility that plays an important part in socio-economic development for modern societies, if such sector is well planned, managed by decision makers in a way that is compatible with the population growth, safety, and national security needs; it will enrich progress, prosperity, awareness, social and economic welfare for any country. Infrastructure is the most important aspect of life because it can provide materials, products, and services that will improve and facilitate living conditions and maintain sustainability at the same time, and in order to study critical infrastructure, in general, we must think sustainability. Otherwise there will be a significant gap. The planning processes for sustainability include urban infrastructure and public transportation are considered the most important sectors for economic development for both developed and developing countries as they are linked to the civilizational and urban development, meanwhile, choosing the appropriate transportation mode that will provide a good level of service, and increase the satisfaction of the potential users is a difficult task. This research paper tries to assess where is Jordan located vs. each transportation sustainability dimensions in aspects related to social, economic and environmental dimensions based on (Zietsman et al. 2006) adopted model for sustainability transportation infrastructure. Measures of performance indicators for each dimensional goal were traced and supported with needed data, figures and statistical findings. The study uses analytical, descriptive style and methodology based on different references and previous studies from secondary data sources to support the case. Recommendations for enhancing sustainability were concluded, and future reform directions were proposed which can be applied to Jordan and generalized for other developing countries with similar circumstances.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
372
92817
Landscape Pattern Evolution and Optimization Strategy in Wuhan Urban Development Zone, China
Authors:
Abstract:
With the rapid development of urbanization process in China, its environmental protection pressure is severely tested. So, analyzing and optimizing the landscape pattern is an important measure to ease the pressure on the ecological environment. This paper takes Wuhan Urban Development Zone as the research object, and studies its landscape pattern evolution and quantitative optimization strategy. First, remote sensing image data from 1990 to 2015 were interpreted by using Erdas software. Next, the landscape pattern index of landscape level, class level, and patch level was studied based on Fragstats. Then five indicators of ecological environment based on National Environmental Protection Standard of China were selected to evaluate the impact of landscape pattern evolution on the ecological environment. Besides, the cost distance analysis of ArcGIS was applied to simulate wildlife migration thus indirectly measuring the improvement of ecological environment quality. The result shows that the area of land for construction increased 491%. But the bare land, sparse grassland, forest, farmland, water decreased 82%, 47%, 36%, 25% and 11% respectively. They were mainly converted into construction land. On landscape level, the change of landscape index all showed a downward trend. Number of patches (NP), Landscape shape index (LSI), Connection index (CONNECT), Shannon's diversity index (SHDI), Aggregation index (AI) separately decreased by 2778, 25.7, 0.042, 0.6, 29.2%, all of which indicated that the NP, the degree of aggregation and the landscape connectivity declined. On class level, the construction land and forest, CPLAND, TCA, AI and LSI ascended, but the Distribution Statistics Core Area (CORE_AM) decreased. As for farmland, water, sparse grassland, bare land, CPLAND, TCA and DIVISION, the Patch Density (PD) and LSI descended, yet the patch fragmentation and CORE_AM increased. On patch level, patch area, Patch perimeter, Shape index of water, farmland and bare land continued to decline. The three indexes of forest patches increased overall, sparse grassland decreased as a whole, and construction land increased. It is obvious that the urbanization greatly influenced the landscape evolution. Ecological diversity and landscape heterogeneity of ecological patches clearly dropped. The Habitat Quality Index continuously declined by 14%. Therefore, optimization strategy based on greenway network planning is raised for discussion. This paper contributes to the study of landscape pattern evolution in planning and design and to the research on spatial layout of urbanization.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
371
92486
A Risk-Based Comprehensive Framework for the Assessment of the Security of Multi-Modal Transport Systems
Abstract:
The challenges of the rapid growth in the demand for transport has traditionally been seen within the context of the problems of congestion, air quality, climate change, safety, and affordability. However, there are increasing threats including those related to crime such as cyber-attacks that threaten the security of the transport of people and goods. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper presents for the first time, a comprehensive framework for the assessment of the current and future security issues of multi-modal transport systems. The approach or method proposed is based on a structured framework starting with a detailed specification of the transport asset map (transport system architecture), followed by the identification of vulnerabilities. The asset map and vulnerabilities are used to identify the various approaches for exploitation of the vulnerabilities, leading to the creation of a set of threat scenarios. The threat scenarios are then transformed into risks and their categories, and include insights for their mitigation. The consideration of the mitigation space is holistic and includes the formulation of appropriate policies and tactics and/or technical interventions. The quality of the framework is ensured through a structured and logical process that identifies the stakeholders, reviews the relevant documents including policies and identifies gaps, incorporates targeted surveys to augment the reviews, and uses subject matter experts for validation. The approach to categorising security risks is an extension of the current methods that are typically employed. Specifically, the partitioning of risks into either physical or cyber categories is too limited for developing mitigation policies and tactics/interventions for transport systems where an interplay between physical and cyber processes is very often the norm. This interplay is rapidly taking on increasing significance for security as the emergence of cyber-physical technologies, are shaping the future of all transport modes. Examples include: Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) in road transport; the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) in rail transport; Automatic Identification System (AIS) in maritime transport; advanced Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) technologies in air transport; and the Internet of Things (IoT). The framework adopts a risk categorisation scheme that considers risks as falling within the following threat→impact relationships: Physical→Physical, Cyber→Cyber, Cyber→Physical, and Physical→Cyber). Thus the framework enables a more complete risk picture to be developed for today’s transport systems and, more importantly, is readily extendable to account for emerging trends in the sector that will define future transport systems. The framework facilitates the audit and retro-fitting of mitigations in current transport operations and the analysis of security management options for the next generation of Transport enabling strategic aspirations such as systems with security-by-design and co-design of safety and security to be achieved. An initial application of the framework to transport systems has shown that intra-modal consideration of security measures is sub-optimal and that a holistic and multi-modal approach that also addresses the intersections/transition points of such networks is required as their vulnerability is high. This is in-line with traveler-centric transport service provision, widely accepted as the future of mobility services. In summary, a risk-based framework is proposed for use by the stakeholders to comprehensively and holistically assess the security of transport systems. It requires a detailed understanding of the transport architecture to enable a detailed vulnerabilities analysis to be undertaken, creates threat scenarios and transforms them into risks which form the basis for the formulation of interventions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
370
92478
Design and Analysis for a 4-Stage Crash Energy Management System for Railway Vehicles
Abstract:
A 4-stage crash energy management (CEM) system for subway rail vehicles used by Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) in the USA is developed in this paper. The 4 stages of this new CEM system include 1) energy absorbing coupler (draft gear and shear bolts), 2) primary energy absorbers (aluminum honeycomb structured box), 3) secondary energy absorbers (crush tube), and 4) collision post and corner post. A sliding anti-climber and a fixed anti-climber are designed at the front of the vehicle cooperating with the 4-stage CEM to maximize the energy to be absorbed and minimize the damage to passengers and crews. In order to investigate the effectiveness of this CEM system, both finite element (FE) methods and crashworthiness test have been employed. The whole vehicle consists of 3 married pairs, i.e., six cars. In the FE approach, full-scale railway car models are developed and different collision cases such as a single moving car impacting a rigid wall, two moving cars into a rigid wall, two moving cars into two stationary cars, six moving cars into six stationary cars and so on are investigated. The FE analysis results show that the railway vehicle incorporating this CEM system has a superior crashworthiness performance. In the crashworthiness test, a simplified vehicle front end including the sliding anti-climber, the fixed anti-climber, the primary energy absorbers, the secondary energy absorber, the collision post and the corner post is built and impacted to a rigid wall. The same test model is also analyzed in the FE and the results such as crushing force, stress, and strain of critical components, acceleration and velocity curves are compared and studied. FE results show very good comparison to the test results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
369
92415
Economic Growth Relations to Domestic and International Air Passenger Transport in Brazil
Abstract:
This study examined for cointegration and causal relationships between economic growth and regular domestic and international passenger air transport in Brazil. Total passengers embarked and disembarked was used as a proxy for air transport activity and gross domestic product (GDP) as a proxy for economic development. The test spanned the period from 2000 to 2015 for domestic passenger traffic and from 1995 to 2015 for international traffic. The results confirm the hypothesis that there is cointegration between passenger traffic series and economic development, showing a bi-directional Granger causal relationship between domestic traffic and economic development and unidirectional influence by economic growth on international passenger air transport demand. Variance decomposition of the series showed that domestic air transport was far more important than international transport to promoting economic development in Brazil.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
368
92259
Cycleloop Personal Rapid Transit: An Exploratory Study for Last Mile Connectivity in Urban Transport
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, author explores for most sustainable last mile transport mode addressing present problems of traffic congestion, jams, pollution and travel stress. Development of energy-efficient sustainable integrated transport system(s) is/are must to make our cities more livable. Emphasis on autonomous, connected, electric, sharing system for effective utilization of systems (vehicles and public infrastructure) is on the rise. Many surface mobility innovations like PBS, Ride hailing, ride sharing, etc. are, although workable but if we analyze holistically, add to the already congested roads, difficult to ride in hostile weather, causes pollution and poses commuter stress. Sustainability of transportation is evaluated with respect to public adoption, average speed, energy consumption, and pollution. Why public prefer certain mode over others? How commute time plays a role in mode selection or shift? What are the factors play-ing role in energy consumption and pollution? Based on the study, it is clear that public prefer a transport mode which is exhaustive (i.e., less need for interchange – network is widespread) and intensive (i.e., less waiting time - vehicles are available at frequent intervals) and convenient with latest technologies. Average speed is dependent on stops, number of intersections, signals, clear route availability, etc. It is clear from Physics that higher the kerb weight of a vehicle; higher is the operational energy consumption. Higher kerb weight also demands heavier infrastructure. Pollution is dependent on source of energy, efficiency of vehicle, average speed. Mode can be made exhaustive when the unit infrastructure cost is less and can be offered intensively when the vehicle cost is less. Reliable and seamless integrated mobility till last ¼ mile (Five Minute Walk-FMW) is a must to encourage sustainable public transportation. Study shows that average speed and reliability of dedicated modes (like Metro, PRT, BRT, etc.) is high compared to road vehicles. Electric vehicles and more so battery-less or 3rd rail vehicles reduce pollution. One potential mode can be Cycleloop PRT, where commuter rides e-cycle in a dedicated path – elevated, at grade or underground. e-Bike with kerb weight per rider at 15 kg being 1/50th of car or 1/10th of other PRT systems makes it sustainable mode. Cycleloop tube will be light, sleek and scalable and can be modular erected, either on modified street lamp-posts or can be hanged/suspended between the two stations. Embarking and dis-embarking points or offline stations can be at an interval which suits FMW to mass public transit. In terms of convenience, guided e-Bike can be made self-balancing thus encouraging driverless on-demand vehicles. e-Bike equipped with smart electronics and drive controls can intelligently respond to field sensors and autonomously move reacting to Central Controller. Smart switching allows travel from origin to destination without interchange of cycles. DC Powered Batteryless e-cycle with voluntary manual pedaling makes it sustainable and provides health benefits. Tandem e-bike, smart switching and Platoon operations algorithm options provide superior through-put of the Cycleloop. Thus Cycleloop PRT will be exhaustive, intensive, convenient, reliable, speedy, sustainable, safe, pollution-free and healthy alternative mode for last mile connectivity in cities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
367
92227
Neural Network Modelling for Turkey Railway Load Carrying Demand
Abstract:
The transport sector has an undisputed place in human life. People need transport access to continuous increase day by day with growing population. The number of rail network, urban transport planning, infrastructure improvements, transportation management and other related areas is a key factor affecting our country made it quite necessary to improve the work of transportation. In this context, it plays an important role in domestic rail freight demand planning. Alternatives that the increase in the transportation field and has made it mandatory requirements such as the demand for improving transport quality. In this study generally is known and used in studies by the definition, rail freight transport, railway line length, population, energy consumption. In this study, Iron Road Load Net Demand was modeled by multiple regression and ANN methods. In this study, model dependent variable (Output) is Iron Road Load Net demand and 6 entries variable was determined. These outcome values extracted from the model using ANN and regression model results. In the regression model, some parameters are considered as determinative parameters, and the coefficients of the determinants give meaningful results. As a result, ANN model has been shown to be more successful than traditional regression model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
366
91205
Application of Global Predictive Real Time Control Strategy to Improve Flooding Prevention Performance of Urban Stormwater Basins
Abstract:
Sustainability as one of the key elements of Smart cities, can be realized by employing Real Time Control Strategies for city’s infrastructures. Nowadays Stormwater management systems play an important role in mitigating the impacts of urbanization on natural hydrological cycle. These systems can be managed in such a way that they meet the smart cities standards. In fact, there is a huge potential for sustainable management of urban stormwater and also its adaptability to global challenges like climate change. Hence, a dynamically managed system that can adapt itself to instability of the environmental conditions is desirable. A Global Predictive Real Time Control approach is proposed in this paper to optimize the performance of stormwater management basins in terms of flooding prevention. To do so, a mathematical optimization model is developed then solved using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Results show an improved performance at system-level for the stormwater basins in comparison to static strategy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
365
91204
Design of Smart Urban Lighting by Using Social Sustainability Approach
Abstract:
Creating cities, objects and spaces that are economically, environmentally and socially sustainable and which meet the challenge of social interaction and generation change will be one of the biggest tasks of designers. Social sustainability is about how individuals, communities and societies live with each other and set out to achieve the objectives of development model which they have chosen for themselves. Urban lightning as one of the most important elements of urban furniture that people constantly interact with it in public spaces; can be a significant object for designers. Using intelligence by internet of things for urban lighting makes it more interactive in public environments. It can encourage individuals to carry out appropriate behaviors and provides them the social awareness through new interactions. The greatest strength of this technology is its strong impact on many aspects of everyday life and users' behaviors. The analytical phase of the research is based on a multiple method survey strategy. Smart lighting proposed in this paper is an urban lighting designed on results obtained from a collective point of view about the social sustainability. In this paper, referring to behavioral design methods, the social behaviors of the people has been studied. Data show that people demands for a deeper experience of social participation, safety perception and energy saving with the meaningful use of interactive and colourful lighting effects. By using intelligent technology, some suggestions are provided in the field of future lighting to consider the new forms of social sustainability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
364
90821
The Use of Lane-Centering to Assure the Visible Light Communication Connectivity for a Platoon of Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:
The new emerging Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology has been subjected to intensive investigation, evaluation, and lately, deployed in the context of convoy-based applications for Intelligent Transportations Systems (ITS). The technology limitations were defined and supported by different solutions proposals to enhance the crucial alignment and mobility limitations. In this paper, we propose the incorporation of VLC technology and Lane-Centering (LC) technique to assure the VLC-connectivity by keeping the autonomous vehicle aligned to the lane center using vision-based lane detection in a convoy-based formation. Such combination can ensure the optical communication connectivity with a lateral error less than 30 cm. As soon as the road lanes are detectable, the evaluated system showed stable behavior independently from the inter-vehicle distances and without the need for any exchanged information of the remote vehicles. The evaluation of the proposed system is verified using VLC prototype and an empirical result of LC running application over 60 km in Madrid M40 highway.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
363
90579
Distribution Routs Redesign through the Vehicle Problem Routing in Havana Distribution Center
Abstract:
Cuban business and economic policy are in the constant update as well as facing a client ever more knowledgeable and demanding. For that reason become fundamental for companies competitiveness through the optimization of its processes and services. One of the Cuban’s pillars, which has been sustained since the triumph of the Cuban Revolution back in 1959, is the free health service to all those who need it. This service is offered without any charge under the concept of preserving human life, but it implied costly management processes and logistics services to be able to supply the necessary medicines to all the units who provide health services. One of the key actors on the medicine supply chain is the Havana Distribution Center (HDC), which is responsible for the delivery of medicines in the province; as well as the acquisition of medicines from national and international producers and its subsequent transport to health care units and pharmacies in time, and with the required quality. This HDC also carries for all distribution centers in the country. Given the eminent need to create an actor in the supply chain that specializes in the medicines supply, the possibility of centralizing this operation in a logistics service provider is analyzed. Based on this decision, pharmacies operate as clients of the logistic service center whose main function is to centralize all logistics operations associated with the medicine supply chain. The HDC is precisely the logistic service provider in Havana and it is the center of this research. In 2017 the pharmacies had affectations in the availability of medicine due to deficiencies in the distribution routes. This is caused by the fact that they are not based on routing studies, besides the long distribution cycle. The distribution routs are fixed, attend only one type of customer and there respond to a territorial location by the municipality. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned problem, the objective of this research is to optimize the routes system in the Havana Distribution Center. To accomplish this objective, the techniques applied were document analysis, random sampling, statistical inference and tools such as Ishikawa diagram and the computerized software’s: ArcGis, Osmand y MapIfnfo. As a result, were analyzed four distribution alternatives; the actual rout, by customer type, by the municipality and the combination of the two last. It was demonstrated that the territorial location alternative does not take full advantage of the transportation capacities or the distance of the trips, which leads to elevated costs breaking whit the current ways of distribution and the currents characteristics of the clients. The principal finding of the investigation was the optimum option distribution rout is the 4th one that is formed by hospitals and the join of pharmacies, stomatology clinics, polyclinics and maternal and elderly homes. This solution breaks the territorial location by the municipality and permits different distribution cycles in dependence of medicine consumption and transport availability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
362
90357
A Study of the Interactions between the Inter-City Traffic System and the Spatial Structure Evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from Time and Space Dimensions
Abstract:
The evolution of the urban agglomeration spatial structure requires strong support of the inter-city traffic system. And the inter-city traffic system can not only meet the demand of the urban agglomeration transportation but also guide the economic development. To correctly understand the relationship between inter-city traffic planning and urban agglomeration can help the urban agglomeration coordinated developing with the inter-city traffic system. The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most representative urban agglomerations in China with strong economic vitality, high city levels, diversified urban space form, and improved transport infrastructure. With the promotion of industrial division in the Yangtze River Delta and the regional travel facilitation brought by inter-city traffic, the urban agglomeration is characterized by highly increasing of inter-city transportation demand, the urbanization of regional traffic, adjacent regional transportation links breaking administrative boundaries, the networked channels and so on. Therefore, the development of inter-city traffic system presents new trends and challenges. This paper studies the interactions between inter-city traffic system and regional economic growth, regional factor flow, and regional spatial structure evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from two dimensions of time and space. On this basis, the adaptability of inter-city traffic development mode and urban agglomeration space structure is analyzed. First of all, the coordination between urban agglomeration planning and inter-city traffic planning is judged from the planning level. Secondly, the coordination between inter-city traffic elements and industries and population distributions is judged from the perspective of space. Finally, the coordination of the cross-regional planning and construction of inter-city traffic system is judged. The conclusions can provide an empirical reference for intercity traffic planning in Yangtze River Delta region and other urban agglomerations, and it is also of great significance to optimize the allocation of urban agglomerations and the overall operational efficiency.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
361
90284
Statistic Regression and Open Data Approach for Identifying Economic Indicators That Influence e-Commerce
Abstract:
This paper presents a statistical approach to identify explanatory variables linearly related to e-commerce sales. The proposed methodology allows specifying a regression model in order to quantify the relevance between openly available data (economic and demographic) and national e-commerce sales. The proposed methodology consists in collecting data, preselecting input variables, performing regressions for choosing variables and models, testing and validating. The usefulness of the proposed approach is twofold: on the one hand, it allows identifying the variables that influence e- commerce sales with an accessible approach. And on the other hand, it can be used to model future sales from the input variables. Results show that e-commerce is linearly dependent on 11 economic and demographic indicators.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
360
90061
Old Community Spatial Integration: Discussion on the Mechanism of Aging Space System Replacement
Abstract:
Future the society aging of population will create the social problem has not had the good mechanism solution in the Asian country, especially in Taiwan. In the future ten year the people in Taiwan must facing the condition which is localization aging social problem. In this situation, how to use the spatial in eco way to development space use to solve the old age spatial demand is the way which might develop in the future Taiwan society. Over the next 10 years, taking care of the aging people will become part of the social problem of aging phenomenon. The research concentrate in the feasibility of spatial substitution, secondary use of spatial might solve out of spatial problem for aging people. In order to prove the space usable, the research required to review the project with the support system and infill system for space experiment, by using network grid way. That defined community level of space elements location relationship, make new definitions of space and return to cooperation. Research to innovation in the the appraisal space causes the possibility, by spatial replacement way solution on spatial insufficient suitable condition. To evaluation community spatial by using the support system and infill system in order to see possibilities of use in replacement inner space and modular architecture into housing. The study is discovering the solution on the Eco way to develop space use to figure out the old age spatial demand.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
359
89837
Exploring Service Performance of Area-Based Bus Service for Dhaka: A Case Study of Dhaka Chaka
Abstract:
Dhaka North City Corporation introduced first area-based bus service on 10 August 2016 to run through Gulshan and Banani area to dilute sufferings of the people which started with the ban on movement of the bus in these areas after Holy Artisan terrorist attack. This study explores service quality performance of Dhaka Chaka on the basis of information provided by its riders on a questionnaire survey. Total thirteen service quality indicators have been ranked on a scale of 1-5, and they have been classified under three latent variables based on their correlation using eigenvalue and rotated factor matrix derived through factor analysis process. Mean, and skewness has been calculated for each indicator. It has been found that ticket price and ticketing system have relatively poor average service quality rank than other factors. All other factors have moderately good performance. The study also suggests some recommendation to improve service quality of Dhaka Chaka based on the interrelation between considered parameters.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
358
89469
Factors That Influence Choice of Walking Mode in Work Trips: Case Study of Rasht, Iran
Abstract:
In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the role of urban planning in walking capability and the effects of individual and socioeconomic factors on the physical activity levels of city dwellers. Although considerable number of studies are conducted about walkability and for identifying the effective factors in walking mode choice in developed countries, to our best knowledge, literature lacks in the study of factors affecting choice of walking mode in developing countries. Due to the high importance of health aspects of human societies and in order to make insights and incentives for reducing traffic during rush hours, many researchers and policy makers in the field of transportation planning have devoted much attention to walkability studies; they have tried to improve the effective factors in the choice of walking mode in city neighborhoods. In this study, effective factors in walkability that have proven to have significant impact on the choice of walking mode, are studied at the same time in work trips. The data for the study is collected from the employees in their workplaces by well-instructed people using questionnaires; the statistical population of the study consists of 117 employed people who commute daily from work to home in Rasht city of Iran during the beginning of spring 2015. Results of the study which are found through the linear regression modeling, show that people who do not have freedom of choice for choosing their living locations and need to be present at their workplaces in certain hours have lower levels of walking. Additionally, unlike some of the previous studies which were conducted in developed countries, coincidental effects of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the income level of employees, do not have a significant effect on the walking level in work travels.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
357
89244
Locating Speed Limit Signs for Highway Tunnel Entrance and Exit
Abstract:
The brightness changes at highway tunnel entrance and exit have an effect on the physical and psychological conditions of drivers. It is more conducive for examining driving safety with quantitative analysis of the physical and psychological characteristics of drivers to determine the speed limit sign locations at the tunnel entrance and exit sections. In this study, the physical and psychological effects of tunnels on traffic sign recognition of drivers are analyzed; subsequently, experiments with the assistant of Eyelink-II Type eye movement monitoring system are conducted in the typical tunnels in Ji-Qing freeway and Xi-Zha freeway, to collect the data of eye movement indexes “Fixation Duration” and “Eyeball Rotating Speed”, which typically represent drivers' mental load and visual characteristics. On this basis, the paper establishes a visual recognition model for the speed limit signs at the highway tunnel entrances and exits. In combination with related standards and regulations, it further presents the recommended values for locating speed limit signs under different tunnel conditions. A case application on Panlong tunnel in Ji-Qing freeway is given to generate the helpful improvement suggestions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
356
88916
Road Transition Design on Freeway Tunnel Entrance and Exit Based on Traffic Capacity
Abstract:
Road transition design on freeway tunnel entrance and exit is one vital factor in realizing smooth transition and improving traveling safety for vehicles. The goal of this research is to develop a horizontal road transition design tool that considers the transition technology of traffic capacity consistency to explore its accommodation mechanism. The influencing factors of capacity are synthesized and a modified capacity calculation model focusing on the influence of road width and lateral clearance is developed based on the VISSIM simulation to calculate the width of road transition sections. To keep the traffic capacity consistency, the right side of the transition section of the tunnel entrance and exit is divided into three parts: front arc, an intermediate transition section, and end arc; an optimization design on each transition part is conducted to improve the capacity stability and horizontal alignment transition. A case study on the Panlong Tunnel in Ji-Qing freeway illustrates the application of the tool.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
355
88727
Traffic Noise Study at Intersection in Bangalore: A Case Study
Abstract:
The present study is to know the level of noises emanated from vehicles in intersections located in urban areas using Sound Level Meter and the possibility of reducing noise levels through traffic flow optimization. The main objective is to study traffic noise level of the Intersections located at on-going metro construction activities and which are away from metro construction activities. To compare traffic noise level between stop phase, go phase and drive phase at the Intersections. To study the effect of traffic noise level of directional movement of traffic and variation in noise level during day and night times. The range of Noise level observed at intersections is between 60 to 105 decibel. The noise level of stop and drive phases were minimum and almost same where go phase had maximum noise level. By comparing noise level of directional movement of traffic, it has been noticed that Vijayanagar intersection has no significant difference in their noise level and all other intersection has a significant difference in their noise level. By comparing noise level of stop, go and drive phase it has been noticed that there was a significant difference in noise level during peak hours compared to off-peak hour. By comparing noise level between Metro and Non-Metro construction activity intersections it has been noticed that there was a significant difference in noise level. By comparing noise level during day and night times, significant differences in noise level were observed at all intersections.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
354
87315
Harmonizing Spatial Plans: A Methodology to Integrate Sustainable Mobility and Energy Plans to Promote Resilient City Planning
Abstract:
Local administrations are facing established targets on sustainable development from different disciplines at the heart of different city departments. Nevertheless, some of these targets, such as CO2 reduction, relate to two or more disciplines, as it is the case of sustainable mobility and energy plans (SUMP & SECAP/SEAP). This opens up the possibility to efficiently cooperate among different city departments and to create and develop harmonized spatial plans by using available resources and together achieving more ambitious goals in cities. The steps of the harmonization processes developed result in the identification of areas to achieve common strategic objectives. Harmonization, in other words, helps different departments in local authorities to work together and optimize the use or resources by sharing the same vision, involving key stakeholders, and promoting common data assessment to better optimize the resources. A methodology to promote resilient city planning via the harmonization of sustainable mobility and energy plans is presented in this paper. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a representative city engaged in an innovation process in efficient spatial planning is used as a case study. The harmonization process of sustainable mobility and energy plans covers identifying matching targets between different fields, developing different spatial plans with dual benefit and common indicators guaranteeing the continuous improvement of the harmonized plans. The proposed methodology supports local administrations in consistent spatial planning, considering both energy efficiency and sustainable mobility. Thus, municipalities can use their human and economic resources efficiently. This guarantees an efficient upgrade of land use plans integrating energy and mobility aspects in order to achieve sustainability targets, as well as to improve the wellbeing of its citizens.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
353
87176
Analysis of Road Network Vulnerability Due to Merapi Volcano Eruption
Abstract:
The eruption of Merapi Volcano in Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2010 caused many casualties due to minimum preparedness in facing disaster. Increasing population capacity and evacuating to safe places become very important to minimize casualties. Regional government through the Regional Disaster Management Agency has divided disaster-prone areas into three parts, namely ring 1 at a distance of 10 km, ring 2 at a distance of 15 km and ring 3 at a distance of 20 km from the center of Mount Merapi. The success of the evacuation is fully supported by road network infrastructure as a way to rescue in an emergency. This research attempts to model evacuation process based on the rise of refugees in ring 1, expanded to ring 2 and finally expanded to ring 3. The model was developed using SATURN (Simulation and Assignment of Traffic to Urban Road Networks) program version 11.3. 12W, involving 140 centroid, 449 buffer nodes, and 851 links across Yogyakarta Special Region, which was aimed at making a preliminary identification of road networks considered vulnerable to disaster. An assumption made to identify vulnerability was the improvement of road network performance in the form of flow and travel times on the coverage of ring 1, ring 2, ring 3, Sleman outside the ring, Yogyakarta City, Bantul, Kulon Progo, and Gunung Kidul. The research results indicated that the performance increase in the road networks existing in the area of ring 2, ring 3, and Sleman outside the ring. The road network in ring 1 started to increase when the evacuation was expanded to ring 2 and ring 3. Meanwhile, the performance of road networks in Yogyakarta City, Bantul, Kulon Progo, and Gunung Kidul during the evacuation period simultaneously decreased in when the evacuation areas were expanded. The results of preliminary identification of the vulnerability have determined that the road networks existing in ring 1, ring 2, ring 3 and Sleman outside the ring were considered vulnerable to the evacuation of Mount Merapi eruption. Therefore, it is necessary to pay a great deal of attention in order to face the disasters that potentially occur at anytime.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
352
86539
A Case-Study Analysis on the Necessity of Testing for Cyber Risk Mitigation on Maritime Transport
Abstract:
In recent years, researchers have started to turn their attention to cyber security and maritime security independently, neglecting, in most cases, to examine the areas where these two critical issues are intertwined. The impact of cybersecurity issues on the maritime economy is emerging dramatically. Maritime transport and all related activities are conducted by technology-intensive platforms, which today rely heavily on information systems. The paper’s argument is that when no defense is completely effective against cyber attacks, it is vital to test responses to the inevitable incursions. Hence, preparedness in the form of testing existing cybersecurity structure via different tools for potential attacks is vital for minimizing risks. Traditional criminal activities may further be facilitated and evolved through the misuse of cyberspace. Kidnap, piracy, fraud, theft of cargo and imposition of ransomware are the major of these activities that mainly target the industry’s most valuable asset; the ship. The paper, adopting a case-study analysis, based on stakeholder consultation and secondary data analysis, namely policy and strategic-related documentation, presents the importance of holistic testing in the sector. Arguing that poor understanding of the issue leads to the adoption of ineffective policies the paper will present the level of awareness within the industry and assess the risks and vulnerabilities of ships to these cybercriminal activities. It will conclude by suggesting that testing procedures must be focused on three main pillars within the maritime transport sector: the human factor, the infrastructure, and the procedures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):