Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 43397

Transport and Vehicle Engineering

Approach to Establish Logistics as a Central Scientific Discipline of Tomorrow's Industry
Most of the today’s companies face increasing need to operate efficiently. Driven by global trends like shorter product cycles, mass customization and the rising speed of delivery, manufacturing value chains are becoming more and more distributed. Manufacturing processes are becoming highly integrated, e.g. 3D printing. All these changes are affecting companies´ organization. They are leading towards individual, small scale, and ad-hoc logistics processes and structures, and finally, towards a significant increase in the importance of logistics itself since traditional value chains transform into agile value networks. In the past logistics has been following manufacturing but in the future industry, this role allocation might change. With this increase in the logistics practice of companies and businesses, the relevance of logistics research as the methodological foundation of logistics networks and processes is gaining importance. Logistics research is evolving into a central and highly interdisciplinary science for the future industry. Using the example of Germany, this paper discusses ways to establish logistics as a central scientific discipline of the future industry. About three million people work in the logistics sector in Germany. Only automotive and retail industry have more employees. Even though there is a bunch of logistics degree programs at more than 100 institutions of higher education, a common understanding of logistics as a research discipline is missing. In this paper an innovative approach will be presented, including; identified perspectives on logistics, such as process orientation, IT orientation or employees orientation, relevant scientific disciplines for logistics science, a concept for interdisciplinary research approaches to unify the perspectives of the different scientific disciplines on logistics and the methodological base of logistics science.
Difference between Riding a Bicycle on a Sidewalk or in the Street by Usual Traveling Means
Bicycle users must ride on the street according the law in Japan, but in practice, many bicycle users ride on the sidewalk. Drivers generally feel that bicycles riding in the street are in the way. In contrast, pedestrians generally feel that bicycles riding on the sidewalk are in the way. That seems to make sense. What, then, is the difference between riding a bicycle on the sidewalk or in the street by usual traveling means. We made 3D computer graphics models of pedestrians, a car, and a bicycle at an intersection. The bicycle was positioned to choose between advancing to the sidewalk or the street after a few seconds. We then made a 2D stimulus picture by changing the point of view of the 3DCG model pictures. Attitudes were surveyed using this 2D stimulus picture, and we compared attitudes between three groups, people traveling by car, on foot, or by bicycle. Here we report the survey result.
Verification of the Effect of the Hazard-Perception Training Tool for Drivers Ported from a Tablet Device to a Smartphone
In a previous study, we developed a hazard-perception training tool for drivers using a tablet device and verified its effectiveness. Accident movies recorded by drive recorders were separated into scenes before and after the collision. The scene before the collision is presented to the driver. The driver then touches the screen to point out where he/she feels danger. After the screen is touched, the tool presents the collision scene and tells the driver if what he/she pointed out is correct. Various effects were observed such as this tool increased the discovery rate of collision targets and reduced the reaction time. In this study, we optimized this tool for the smartphone and verified its effectiveness. Verifying in the same way as in the previous study on tablet devices clarified that the same effect can be obtained on the smartphone screen.
Estimation of the Dynamic Fragility of Padre Jacinto Zamora Bridge Due to Traffic Loads
The Philippines, composed of many islands, is connected with approximately 8030 bridges. Continuous evaluation of the structural condition of these bridges is needed to safeguard the safety of the general public. With most bridges reaching its design life, retrofitting and replacement may be needed. Concerned government agencies allocate huge costs for periodic monitoring and maintenance of these structures. The rising volume of traffic and aging of these infrastructures is challenging structural engineers to give rise for structural health monitoring techniques. Numerous techniques are already proposed and some are now being employed in other countries. Vibration Analysis is one way. The natural frequency and vibration of a bridge are design criteria in ensuring the stability, safety and economy of the structure. Its natural frequency must not be so high so as not to cause discomfort and not so low that the structure is so stiff causing it to be both costly and heavy. It is well known that the stiffer the member is, the more load it attracts. The frequency must not also match the vibration caused by the traffic loads. If this happens, a resonance occurs. Vibration that matches a systems frequency will generate excitation and when this exceeds the member’s limit, a structural failure will happen. This study presents a method for calculating dynamic fragility through the use of vibration-based monitoring system. Dynamic fragility is the probability that a structural system exceeds a limit state when subjected to dynamic loads. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 based from the available construction drawings provided by the Department of Public Works and Highways. It was verified and adjusted based from the actual condition of the bridge. The bridge design specifications are also checked using nondestructive tests. The approach used in this method properly accounts the uncertainty of observed values and code-based structural assumptions. The vibration response of the structure due to actual loads is monitored using installed sensors on the bridge. From the determinacy of these dynamic characteristic of a system, threshold criteria can be established and fragility curves can be estimated. This study conducted in relation with the research project between Department of Science and Technology, Mapúa Institute of Technology, and the Department of Public Works and Highways also known as Mapúa-DOST Smart Bridge Project deploys Structural Health Monitoring Sensors at Zamora Bridge. The bridge is selected in coordination with the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structural plans for the bridge are also readily available.
Applying Pre-Accident Observational Methods for Accident Assessment and Prediction at Intersections in Norrkoping City in Sweden
Traffic safety at intersections is highly represented, given the fact that accidents occur randomly in time and space. It is necessary to judge whether the intersection is dangerous or not based on short-term observations, and not waiting for many years of assessing historical accident data. There are active and pro-active road infrastructure safety methods for assessing safety at intersections. This study aims to investigate the use of quantitative and qualitative pre-observational methods as best practice for accident prediction, future black spot identification and treatment. Historical accident data from STRADA (the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) was used within Norrkoping city in Sweden. The ADT (Average Daily Traffic), capacity and speed were used to predict accident rates. Locations with the highest accident records and predicted accident counts were identified and hence audited qualitatively by using Street Audit. The results from these quantitative and qualitative methods were analyzed, validated and compared. The paper provides recommendations on the used methods as well as on how to reduce the accident occurrence at the chosen intersections.
Rear Seat Belt Use in Developing Countries- A Case Study from the United Arab Emirates
The seat belt is a vital tool in improving traffic safety conditions and minimising injuries due to traffic accidents. Most developing countries are facing a big problem in human and financial losses due to traffic crashes. One way to minimise these losses is using seat belts by passengers on the front and rear motor vehicle seats but sometimes close to nothing is known about the rates of seat belt utilisation among rear seat passengers in many developing countries. Therefore, there is a need to estimate these rates in order to know the extent of this problem and how people interact with traffic safety measures like seat belts and find demographic characteristics that contribute to wearing or non-wearing of seat belts with the aim of finding solutions to improve wearing rates. In this paper, an observational study was done to gather data on restraints use on rear motor vehicles seats in eight observational stations in a rapidly developing country, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and estimate a use rate for the whole country. Also, a questionnaire was used in order to study demographic characteristics affecting the wearing of seat belts on rear seats. Results of the observational study showed that the overall wearing rate was 12.3% which is considered very low when compared to other countries. Survey results show that single, male, less educated passengers from Arab and South Asian backgrounds use seat belts reportedly less than others. Finally, solutions are put forward to improve this wearing rate based on the results of this study.
An Approaching Index for to Evaluate a Forward Collision Probability
This paper presents an approaching forward collision probability index (AFCPI) for alerting and assisting driver keeping safety distance to avoid the forward collision accident in highway driving. The time to collision (TTC) and time headway (TH) are used to evaluate the TTC forward collision probability index (TFCPI) and the TH forward collision probability index (HFCPI), respectively. The Mamdani fuzzy inference algorithm is presented combining TFCPI and HFCPI for calculating the approaching collision probability index of the vehicle. The AFCPI is easier understanding for the driver even who didn’t have any professional knowledge in vehicle professional field. At the same time, the driver’s behavior is taking into account for suiting each driver. For the approaching index, the value 0 is indicating the 0% probability of forward collision, and the values 0.5 and 1 are indicating the 50% and 100% probabilities of forward collision respectively. It is useful and easy understanding for the presented approaching index of forward collision for to alert driver to avoid the forward collision accidents when driving in highway. That is the driver understanding completely the meaning of the approaching index.
A Parking Demand Forecasting Method for Making Parking Policy in the Center of Kabul City
Parking demand in the Central Business District (CBD) has enlarged with the increase of the number of private vehicles due to rapid economic growth, lack of an efficient public transport and traffic management system. This has resulted in low mobility, poor accessibility, serious congestion, high rates of traffic accident fatalities and injuries and air pollution, mainly because people have to drive slowly around to find a vacant spot. With parking pricing and enforcement policy, considerable advancement could be found, and on-street parking spaces could be managed efficiently and effectively. To evaluate parking demand and making parking policy, it is required to understand the current parking condition and driver’s behavior, understand how drivers choose their parking type and location as well as their behavior toward finding a vacant parking spot under parking charges and search times. This study illustrates the result from an observational, revealed and stated preference surveys and experiment. Attained data shows that there is a gap between supply and demand in parking and it has maximized. For the modeling of the parking decision, a choice model was constructed based on discrete choice modeling theory and multinomial logit model estimated by using SP survey data; the model represents the choice of an alternative among different alternatives which are priced on-street, off-street, and illegal parking. Individuals choose a parking type based on their preference concerning parking charges, searching times, access times and waiting times. The parking assignment model was obtained directly from behavioral model and is used in parking simulation. The study concludes with an evaluation of parking policy.
Data Calibration of the Actual versus the Theoretical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Based Accelerometer Reading through Remote Monitoring of Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover
This paper shows the application of Structural Health Monitoring, SHM into bridges. Bridges are structures built to provide passage over a physical obstruction such as rivers, chasms or roads. The Philippines has a total of 8,166 national bridges as published on the 2015 atlas of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and only 2,924 or 35.81% of these bridges are in good condition. As a result, PHP 30.464 billion of the 2016 budget of DPWH is allocated on roads and/or bridges maintenance alone. Intensive spending is owed to the present practice of outdated manual inspection and assessment, and poor structural health monitoring of Philippine infrastructures. As the School of Civil, Environmental, & Geological Engineering of Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT) continuous its well driven passion in research based projects, a partnership with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and the DPWH launched the application of Structural Health Monitoring, (SHM) in Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover. The flyover is located along Nagtahan Boulevard in Sta. Mesa, Manila that connects Brgy. 411 and Brgy. 635. It gives service to vehicles going from Lacson Avenue to Mabini Bridge passing over Legarda Flyover. The flyover is chosen among the many located bridges in Metro Manila as the focus of the pilot testing due to its site accessibility, and complete structural built plans and specifications necessary for SHM as provided by the Bureau of Design, BOD department of DPWH. This paper focuses on providing a method to calibrate theoretical readings from STAAD Vi8 Pro and sync the data to actual MEMS accelerometer readings. It is observed that while the design standards used in constructing the flyover was reflected on the model, actual readings of MEMS accelerometer display a large difference compared to the theoretical data ran and taken from STAAD Vi8 Pro. In achieving a true seismic response of the modeled bridge or hence syncing the theoretical data to the actual sensor reading also called as the independent variable of this paper, analysis using single degree of freedom (SDOF) of the flyover under free vibration without damping using STAAD Vi8 Pro is done. The earthquake excitation and bridge responses are subjected to earthquake ground motion in the form of ground acceleration or Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA. Translational acceleration load is used to simulate the ground motion of the time history analysis acceleration record in STAAD Vi8 Pro.
Low Cost Sensors for Rail-Side Tree Canopy Analysis
During the autumn season, leaf fall coupled with adverse weather conditions can create issues with low adhesion on the rail network. This can cause significant problems for the wheel-track interface resulting in delays for passengers. To help mitigate the problem, more information is needed regarding the spatial variation of canopy vegetation alongside railway lines. This research investigated the potential of a low-cost sensor that can capture hemispherical images of tree canopies at a high spatial and temporal resolution. The device comprises of a Raspberry Pi with a fish eye lens which is programmed to capture and analyse tree canopy images over time automatically. Importantly, the onboard PiNoir camera has been modified to capture near infrared imagery to take advantage of the spectral properties of vegetation and thus provide a clearer view of leaves. This waterproof automatic device can be left out in the field over autumn and relay data instantly back to the cloud. By collecting data in this way, daily leaf fall can be monitored along the track, with areas of high leaf fall being reported instantly and assimilated into models. This will allow adhesion management to become more efficient. The device also has potential for use in forested environments.
Conventional Four Steps Travel Demand Modeling for Kabul New City
This research is very essential towards transportation planning of Kabul New City. In this research, the travel demand of Kabul metropolitan area (Existing and Kabul New City) are evaluated for three different target years of (2015, Current), (2025, Mid-term) and (2040, Long-term). The outcome of this study indicates that, though currently, the vehicle volume is less than the physical capacity of existing road networks, still Kabul city is suffering from daily traffic congestions. This is mainly due to lack of transportation management, the absence of proper policies, improper public transportation system and violation of traffic rules and regulations by inhabitants. On the other hand, the observed result indicates that the current vehicle to capacity ratio (VCR) which is the most used index to judge traffic status in the city is around 0.79. This indicates the inappropriate traffic condition of the city. Moreover, by the growth of population in mid-term (2025) and long-term (2040) and in the case of no development in the road network and transportation system, the VCR value will dramatically increase to 1.40 (2025) and 2.5 (2040). This can be a critical situation for an urban area from an urban transportation perspective. Thus, by introducing high-capacity public transportation system and the development of road network in Kabul New City and integrating these links with the existing city road network, significant improvements were observed in the value of VCR.
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Unified Philippine Accident Reporting and Database System in Optimizing Road Crash Data Usage with Various Stakeholders
The Unified Philippine Accident Reporting and Database System (UPARDS), is a newly developed system by Dr. Francis Aldrine Uy of the Mapua Institute of Technology. The main purpose is to provide an advanced road accident investigation tool, record keeping and analysis system for stakeholders such as Philippine National Police (PNP), Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Health (DOH), and insurance companies. The system is composed of 2 components, the mobile application for road accident investigators that takes advantage of available technology to advance data gathering and the web application that integrates all accident data for the use of all stakeholders. The researchers with the cooperation of PNP’s Vehicle Traffic Investigation Sector of the City of Manila, conducted the field-testing of the application in fifteen (15) accident cases. Simultaneously, the researchers also distributed surveys to PNP, Manila Doctors Hospital, and Charter Ping An Insurance Company to gather their insights regarding the web application. The survey was designed on information systems theory called Technology Acceptance Model. The results of the surveys revealed that the respondents were greatly satisfied with the visualization and functions of the applications as it proved to be effective and far more efficient in comparison with the conventional pen-and-paper method. In conclusion, the pilot study was able to address the need for improvement of the current system.
Road Accidents to School Children’s in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Road accidents resulting to deaths and injuries have become a new public health challenge especially in developing countries including Tanzania. Reports from Tanzania Traffic Police Force shows that last year 2016 accidents increased compare to previous year 2015, accident happened from 3710 up to 5219, accidents and safety data indicate that children are the most vulnerable to road crashes where 78 pupils died and 182 others were seriously injured in separate roads accident last year. A survey done by Amend indicates that Pupil mode of transport in Dar es salaam schools are by walk 87%, bus 9.21%, car 1.32%, motorcycle 0.88%, 3-wheeler 0.24%, train 0.14%, bicycle 0.10%, ferry 0.07%, and combined mode 0.44%. According to this study, majority of school children’s uses walking mode, most of school children’s agreed to continue using walking mode and request to have signs for traffic control during crossing road like STOP sign and CHILD CROSSING sign for safe crossing. Because children not only sit inside this buses (Daladala) but also they walk in a group to/from school, and few (33.2%) parents or adults are willing to supervise their children’s during working to school while 50% of parents agree to let their children walking alone to school if the public transport started from nearby street. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods of research by conducting physical surveying on sample districts. The main objectives of this research are to carries out all factors affecting school children’s when they use public road, to promote and encourage the safe use of public road by all classes especially pupil or student through the circulation of advice, information and knowledge gain from research and to recommends future direction for the developments for road design or plan to vulnerable users. The research also critically analyze the problems causing death and injuries to school children’s in Dar es Salaam Region. This study determines the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors, such as socio-economic, status, and distance from school, number of sibling, behavioral problems, knowledge and attitudes of public and their parents towards road safety and parent educational study traffic. The study comes up with some of recommendations including Infrastructure Improvements like, safe footpaths, Safe crossings, Speed humps, Speed limits, Road signs. However, Planners and policymakers wishing to increase walking and cycling among children need to consider options that address distance constraints, the land use planners and transport professionals use better understanding of the various factors that affect children’s choices of school travel mode, results suggest that all school travel attributes should be considered during school location.
Road Accidents in Urban and Rural Areas in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Motorcycles transport commonly known as (Boda boda) in Tanzania has been growing up in the recent years in both urban and rural areas. Since motorcycles have been authorized to carry passengers in Tanzania they have been associated with many accidents resulting in large number of deaths and injuries in the country. Most of the road traffic injury victims are passengers, motorcyclists and pedestrians. Males are over represented in all cases. Most of the deceased were 18-29 years old. The increase of motorcycles has been accompanied with the increase of motorcycle crashes causing deaths and injuries to passengers as well as riders. According to the data collected, the statistics shows that from January to December 2015, the total number of 4079 motorcycles was involved in accidents in the country, causing 1747 deaths and 4826 injuries. Compares to the report of January to December 2014 whereby the total number of motorcycles involved in accidents were 3710, causing 1423 deaths and 3622 injuries. This is according to the report provided by the Road safety Chief Commander in Tanzania.
Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock
This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.
Velocity Logs Error Reduction for In-Service Calibration of Vessel Performance Indicators
Vessel behavior in different operational and weather conditions constitutes the main area of interest for the ship operator. Ship speed and fuel consumption are the most decisive parameters in this respect, as their correlation provides information about the economic and environmental efficiency of the vessel, becoming the basis of decision making in terms of maintenance and trading. In the analysis of vessel operational profile for the evaluation of fuel consumption and the equivalent CO2 emissions footprint, the indications of Speed Through Water are widely used. The seasonal and regional variations in seawater characteristics, which are available nowadays, can provide the basis for accurate estimation of the errors in Speed Through Water indications at any time. Accuracy in the speed value on a route basis can enable operator identify the ship fuel and propulsion efficiency and proceed with improvements. This paper discusses case studies, where the actual vessel speed was corrected by a post-processing algorithm. The effects of the vessel correction to standard Key Performance Indicators, as well as operational findings not identified earlier, are also discussed.
A Study of Traditional Mode in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transportation
The traditional mode is a non-motorized vehicle powered by human or animal power. The objective of the study was to define the strategy of using traditional modes by the framework of sustainable urban transport in support of urban tourism activities. The study of the traditional mode does not include a modified mode using the engine power as motor tricycles are often called ‘bentor ‘in Indonesia. The use of non-motorized traditional mode in Indonesia has begun to shift, and its use began to be eliminated by the change of propulsion using the machine. In an effort to push back the use of traditional mode one of them with tourism activities. Strategies for the use of traditional modes within the framework of sustainable urban transport are seen from three dimensions: social, economic and environmental. The social dimension related to accessibility and livability, an economic dimension related to traditional modes can promote products and tourist attractions, while the environmental dimension related to the needs of the users/groups with respect to safety, comfort. The traditional mode is rarely noticed by the policy makers, and public opinion in its use needs attention. The involvement of policy-making between stakeholders and the community is needed in the development of sustainable traditional mode strategies in support of urban tourism activities.
Minimizing Vehicular Traffic via Integrated Land Use Development: A Heuristic Optimization Approach
The current traffic impact assessment methodology and environmental quality review process for approval of land development project are conventional, stagnant, and one-dimensional. The environmental review policy and procedure lacks in providing the direction to regulate or seek alternative land uses and sizes that exploits the existing or surrounding elements of built environment (‘4 D’s’ of development – Density, Diversity, Design, and Distance to Transit) or smart growth principles which influence the travel behavior and have a significant effect in reducing vehicular traffic. Additionally, environmental review policy does not give directions on how to incorporate urban planning into the development in ways such as incorporating non-motorized roadway elements such as sidewalks, bus shelters, and access to community facilities. This research developed a methodology to optimize the mix of land uses and sizes using the heuristic optimization process to minimize the auto dependency development and to meet the interests of key stakeholders. A case study of Willets Point Mixed Use Development in Queens, New York, was used to assess the benefits of the methodology. The approved Willets Point Mixed Use project was based on maximum envelop of size and land use type allowed by current conventional urban renewal plans. This paper will also evaluate the parking accumulation for various land uses to explore the potential for shared parking to further optimize the mix of land uses and sizes. This research is very timely and useful to many stakeholders interested in understanding the benefits of integrated land uses and its development.
Applying Theory of Self-Efficacy in Intelligent Transportation Systems by Potential Usage of Vehicle as a Sensor
The objective of the study is to formulate a self-regulation model that shall enhance the usage of Intelligent Transportation Systems by understanding the theory of self-efficacy. The core logic of the self-regulation model shall monitor driver's behavior based on the situations related to the various sources of Self Efficacy like enactive mastery, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and physiological arousal in addition to the vehicle data. For this study, four different vehicle data, speed, drowsiness, diagnostic data and surround camera views are considered. This data shall be given to the self-regulation model for evaluation. The oddness, which is the output of self-regulation model, shall feed to Intelligent Transportation Systems where appropriate actions are being taken. These actions include warning to the user as well as the input to the related transportation systems. It is also observed that the usage of vehicle as a sensor reduces the wastage of resource utilization or duplication. Altogether, this approach enhances the intelligence of the transportation systems especially in safety, productivity and environmental performance.
Environmental Policy in Europe: The Single European Sky and the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme
Traffic growth, capacity constraints, climate change and the necessity to develop a more cost efficient system led to an ambitious initiative to reform the architecture of airspace management. This initiative, launched by the European Commission (EC), is called Single European Sky (SES). The four Key Performance Areas (KPAs) of SES are environment; cost efficiency; capacity; and safety. In the environment KPA Performance Indicators for Air Navigation Services Providers (ANSPs) are established to ensure that improvement in sustainability is achieved. In addition, aviation is included in the European Union’s Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS): the EC sets limits on CO2 emissions and provides economic incentives to airlines to reduce emissions by establishing a market-based trading system. EU-ETS can be used to simultaneously promote economic efficiency and achieve environmental goals on a sustainable basis. This research paper examines the existence of cancel-out effects between supply-led, i.e. SES, and demand-led management, i.e. EU ETS, policies by following a systemic stakeholder approach. Environmental economics theory and industrial economics are applied to identify factors that have a significant influence on the two policies. The paper also addresses the issue of governance and its possible failure regarding the full implementation and efficiency of the schemes. From a methodological perspective, Delphi is conducted in two rounds to encapsulate policy complexity at an in-depth level. The target population comprises stakeholders involved in SES and EU ETS. To select candidates purposive and snowball sampling was used. Thus, the sample consists of 39 senior managers/experts from Civil Aviation Authorities; ANSPs; aviation-related organizations and institutions; and airlines. Based on the results of the Delphi and building on its theoretical background, the researchers developed a conceptual model to address governance failure, thus effectively linking supply- to demand-oriented aviation policies in a holistic manner.
Social Capital in Housing Reconstruction Post Disaster Case of Yogyakarta Post Earthquake
This paper will focus on the concept of social capital for especially housing reconstruction post disaster. The context of the study is Indonesia and Yogyakarta Post-Earthquake 2006 as a case, but it is expected that the concept can be adopted in the general post-disaster reconstruction. The discussion will be started from issues on house reconstruction post disaster in Indonesia and Yogyakarta; defining of the Social Capital as a concept for effective management capacity based on community; social capital post Java earthquake utilizing Gotong Royong; community mutual self-help, and approach and strategy towards community based reconstruction.
Markov Random Field-Based Segmentation Algorithm for Detection of Land Cover Changes Using Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar Polarimetric Images
The information on land use/ land cover changing plays essential role for environmental assessment, planning, and management of regional development. Remotely sensed imagery is widely used for providing information in many change detection applications. Polarimetric Synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image with the discrimination capability between different scattering mechanisms, is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. This paper proposes a new boundary-based segmentation algorithm as a fundamental step for land cover change detection. In this method, first, two PolSAR images are segmented using integration of marker-controlled watershed algorithm and coupled Markov random field (MRF). Then, object-based classification is performed to determine changed/no changed image objects. Compared with pixel-based support vector machine (SVM) classifier, this novel segmentation algorithm significantly reduces the speckle effect in PolSAR images and improves the accuracy of binary classification in object-based level. The experimental results on Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric images show a 3%, and 6% improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient, respectively. Also, the proposed method can correctly distinguish homogeneous image parcels.
Enabling the Physical Elements of Pedestrian Friendly District around Rail Station for Supporting Transit Oriented Development
Rail-station area development that is based on the concept of TOD (Transit Oriented Development) is principally oriented to the pedestrian accessibility for daily mobility. The aim of this research is elaborating how far is the existing physical elements of rail-station district could facilitate the pedestrian mobility and establish pedestrian friendly district toward implementation of transit oriented development concept. This research was conducted through some steps: (i) mapping rail-station area pedestrian sidewalk and pedestrian network as well as activity nodes and transit nodes, (ii) assessing the level of pedestrian sidewalk connectivity that connecting trip origin and destination. The research area coverage in this case limits on walking distance of rail station (around 500 meters or 10-15 minutes walking). The finding of this research shows the current condition of street and pedestrian sidewalk network and connectivity, the good preference of on foot modal share (more than 50%) is achieved. Nevertheless, it depends on the distance from the trip origin to destination.
Location Detection of Vehicular Accident Using GNSS/IMU Navigator
Vehicle tracking and accident recognizing are considered by many industries like insurance and vehicle rental companies. The main goal of this paper is to detect the location of a car accident by combining different methods. The methods, which are considered in this paper, are GNSS/IMU-based navigation and vehicle accident detection algorithms. They are expressed by a set of raw measurements, which are obtained from a designed integrator black box using GNSS and inertial sensors. Another concern of this paper is definition of accident detection algorithm base on its jerk to identify the position of that accident. In fact, the results convinced us that even in GNSS blockage areas, the position of the accident could be detected by GNSS/INS integration with 50% improvement compared to GNSS stand alone.
Traffic Safety and Risk Assessment Model by Analysis of Questionnaire Survey: A Case Study of S. G. Highway, Ahmedabad, India
Road Safety is a multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional issue. An effective model can assess the risk associated with highway safety. A questionnaire survey is very essential to identify the events or activities which are causing unsafe condition for traffic on an urban highway. A questionnaire of standard questions including vehicular, human and infrastructure characteristics can be made. Responses from the age wise group of road users can be taken on field. Each question or an event holds a specific risk weightage, which contributes in creating an inappropriate and unsafe flow of traffic. The probability of occurrence of an event can be calculated from the data collected from the road users. Finally, the risk score can be calculated by considering the risk factor and the probability of occurrence of individual event and addition of all risk score for the individual event will give the total risk score of a particular road. Standards for risk score can be made and total risk score can be compared with the standards. Thus road can be categorized based on risk associated and traffic safety on it. With this model, one can assess the need for traffic safety improvement on a given road, and qualitative data can be analysed.
Modelling of Passengers Exchange Between Trains and Platforms
The evaluation of the passenger exchange time is necessary for railway operators in order to optimize and dimension rail traffic. Several influential parameters are identified and studied. Each parameter leads to a modeling completed with the buildingEXODUS software. The objective is the modelling of passenger exchanges measured by passenger counting. Population size is dimensioned using passenger counting files which are a report of the train service and contain following useful informations: number of passengers who get on and leave the train, exchange time. These information are collected by sensors placed at the top of each train door. With passenger counting files it is possible to know how many people are engaged in the exchange and how long is the exchange, but it is not possible to know passenger flow of the door. All the information about observed exchanges are thus not available. For this reason and in order to minimize inaccuracies, only short exchanges (less than 30 seconds) with a maximum of people are performed.
Use of Numerical Tools Dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock
This study shows the opportunity to use numerical tools dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock. Indeed, some lawful requirements can now be demonstrated by using numerical tools. The first part of this study presents the use of modelling evacuation tool to satisfy the criteria of evacuation time for the rolling stock. The buildingEXODUS software is used to model and simulate the evacuation of rolling stock. Firstly, in order to demonstrate the reliability of this tool to calculate the complete evacuation time, a comparative study was achieved between a real test and simulations done with buildingEXODUS. Multiple simulations are performed to capture the stochastic variations in egress times. Then, a new study is done to calculate the complete evacuation time of a train with the same geometry but with a different interior architecture. The second part of this study shows some applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics. This work presents the approach of a multi scales validation of numerical simulations of standardized tests with Fire Dynamics Simulations software developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This work highlights in first the cone calorimeter test, described in the standard ISO 5660, in order to characterize the fire reaction of materials. The aim of this process is to readjust measurement results from the cone calorimeter test in order to create a data set usable at the seat scale. In the second step, the modelisation concerns the fire seat test described in the standard EN 45545-2. The data set obtained thanks to the validation of the cone calorimeter test was set up in the fire seat test. To conclude with the third step, after controlled the data obtained for the seat from the cone calorimeter test, a larger scale simulation with a real part of train is achieved.
Study of Parameters Influencing Dwell Times for Trains
The work presented here shows a study on several parameters identified as influencing dwell times for trains. Three kinds of rolling stocks are studied for this project and the parameters presented are the number of passengers, the allocation of passengers, their priorities, the platform station height, the door width and the train design. In order to make this study, a lot of records have been done in several stations in Paris (France). Then, in order to study these parameters, numerical simulations are completed. The goal is to quantify the impact of each parameter on the dwelling times. For example, this study highlights the impact of platform height and the presence of steps between the platform and the train. Three types of station platforms are concerned by this study : ‘optimum’ station platform which is 920 mm high, standard station platform which is 550 mm high, and high station platform which is 1150 mm high and different kinds of steps exist in order to fill these gaps. To conclude, this study shows the impact of these parameters on dwell times and their impact in function of the size of population.
Approach to Functional Safety-Compliant Design of Electric Power Steering Systems for Commercial Vehicles
In this paper, we propose a design approach for the safety mechanism of an actuator used in a commercial vehicle’s EPS system. As the number of electric/electronic system in a vehicle increases, the importance of the functional safety has been receiving much attention. EPS(Electric Power Steering) systems for commercial vehicles require large power than passenger vehicles, and hence, dual motor can be applied to get more torque. We show how to formulate the development process for the design of hardware and software of an EPS system using dual motors. A lot of safety mechanisms for the processor, sensors, and memory have been suggested, however, those for actuators have not been fully researched. It is shown by metric analyses that the target ASIL(Automotive Safety Integrated Level) is satisfied in the point of view of hardware of EPS controller.
Challenges and Opportunities in Computing Logistics Cost in E-Commerce Supply Chain
Revenue generation of a logistics company depends on how the logistics cost of a shipment is calculated. Logistics cost of a shipment is a function of distance & speed of the shipment travel in a particular network, its volumetric size and dead weight. Logistics billing is based mainly on the consumption of the scarce resource (space or weight carrying capacity of a carrier). Shipment’s size or deadweight is a function of product and packaging weight, dimensions and flexibility. Hence, to arrive at a standard methodology to compute accurate cost to bill the customer, the interplay among above mentioned physical attributes along with their measurement plays a key role. This becomes even more complex for an ecommerce company, like Flipkart, which caters to shipments from both warehouse and marketplace in an unorganized non-standard market like India. In this paper, we will explore various methodologies to define a standard way of billing the non-standard shipments across a wide range of size, shape and deadweight. Those will be, usage of historical volumetric/dead weight data to arrive at a factor which can be used to compute the logistics cost of a shipment, also calculating the real/contour volume of a shipment to address the problem of irregular shipment shapes which cannot be solved by conventional bounding box volume measurements. We will also discuss certain key business practices and operational quality considerations needed to bring standardization and drive appropriate ownership in the ecosystem.