Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46707

Transport and Vehicle Engineering

Changing the Way South Africa Think about Parking Provision at Tertiary Institutions
For decades, South Africa has been planning transportation systems from a supply, rather than a demand side, perspective. In terms of parking, this relates to requiring minimum parking provision, which are enforced by city officials. Newer insight is starting to indicate that South Africa needs to re-think this philosophy in light of a new policy environment that desires a different outcome. Urban policies have shifted from reliance on the private car for access, to employing a wide range of alternative modes. Car dominated travel is influenced by various parameters, of which the availability and location of parking plays a significant role. The question is therefore, what is the right strategy to achieve the desired transport outcomes for SA. The focus of this paper is used to assess this issue with regard to parking provision, and specifically at a tertiary institution. A parking audit was conducted at the Stellenbosch campus of Stellenbosch University, monitoring occupancy at all 60 parking areas, every hour during business hours over a five-day period. The data from this survey was compared with the prescribed number of parking bays according to the Stellenbosch Municipality zoning scheme (requiring a minimum of 0.4 bays per student). The analysis shows that by providing 0.09 bays per student, the maximum total daily occupation of all the parking areas did not exceed an 80 percent occupation rate. It is concluded that the prevailing parking standards are not supportive of the new urban and transport policy environment, but that it is extremely conservative from a practical demand point of view.
Comparative Operating Speed and Speed Differential Day and Night Time Models for Two Lane Rural Highways
Speed is the independent parameter which plays a vital role in the highway design. Design consistency of the highways is checked based on the variation in the operating speed. Often the design consistency fails to meet the driver’s expectation which results in the difference between operating and design speed. Literature reviews have shown that significant crashes take place in horizontal curves due to lack of design consistency. The paper focuses on continuous speed profile study on tangent to curve transition for both day and night daytime. Data is collected using GPS device which gives continuous speed profile and other parameters such as acceleration, deceleration were analyzed along with Tangent to Curve Transition. In this present study, models were developed to predict operating speed on tangents and horizontal curves as well as model indicating the speed reduction from tangent to curve based on continuous speed profile data. It is observed from the study that vehicle tends to decelerate from approach tangent to between beginning of the curve and midpoint of the curve and then accelerates from curve to tangent transition. The models generated were compared for both day and night and can be used in the road safety improvement by evaluating the geometric design consistency.
Modelling Social Influence and Cultural Variation in Global Low-Carbon Vehicle Transitions
Vehicle purchase is a technology adoption decision that will strongly influence future energy and emission outcomes. Global integrated assessment models (IAMs) provide valuable insights into the medium and long terms effects of socio-economic development, technological change and climate policy. In this paper we present a unique and transparent approach for improving the behavioural representation of these models by incorporating social influence effects to more accurately represent consumer choice. This work draws together strong conceptual thinking and robust empirical evidence to introduce heterogeneous and interconnected consumers who vary in their aversion to new technologies. Focussing on vehicle choice, we conduct novel empirical research to parameterise consumer risk aversion and how this is shaped by social and cultural influences. We find robust evidence for social influence effects, and variation between countries as a function of cultural differences. We then formulate an approach to modelling social influence which is implementable in both simulation and optimisation-type models. We use two global integrated assessment models (IMAGE and MESSAGE) to analyse four scenarios that introduce social influence and cultural differences between regions. These scenarios allow us to explore the interactions between consumer preferences and social influence. We find that incorporating social influence effects into global models accelerates the early deployment of electric vehicles and stimulates more widespread deployment across adopter groups. Incorporating cultural variation leads to significant differences in deployment between culturally divergent regions such as the USA and China. Our analysis significantly extends the ability of global integrated assessment models to provide policy-relevant analysis grounded in real-world processes.
Exploring Health-Related Inequalities between Private, Public and Active Transport Users Using Relative Importance Index: Case Study on Santiago De Chile
The aim of the paper is recognising inequalities through the self-assessment of health-related factors, in the context of daily mobilities in Santiago de Chile. Human capabilities will be used as the theoretical basis for the recognition and assessment of these factors regarding the functioning (what people are currently able to do) and capabilities (what people want to achieve and what is valuable for them), reflecting differences across social groups and among types of transport users. The self-assessment of health-related factors considers perceptions of stress, physical effort, proximity to other transport users, pollution, safety, and comfort. The types of transport users are classified as: private (cars, taxis, colectivos, motos), public (buses and metro) and active (bicycles and walking). The methodology follows a capability-based questionnaire, which was applied in different areas of Santiago de Chile, considering concepts extracted from the human capabilities list. The self-assessment of these health-related factors examines the context of peoples’ mobilities for performing their daily activities, considering socioeconomic differences as income, age, gender, disabilities, residence location and primary mode choice. The paper uses Relative Importance Index (RII) for weighting the relative influence or valuation of the factors. The respondents were asked to rate the importance of each factor on a scale from 1 to 5, in an ascending order of importance. The results suggest that these health-related factors impact not just the perceptions of users, but their well-being and their propensity for achieving their capabilities and the things they value in life. The paper is focused on the development of an applicable approach, measuring factors that should be included in transport project appraisal, as a more comprehensive and complementary method.
Travel Time Estimation of Public Transport Networks Based on Commercial Incidence Areas in Quito Historic Center
Public transportation buses usually vary the speed depending on the places with the number of passengers. They require having efficient travel planning, a plan that will help them choose the fast route. Initially, an estimation tool is necessary to determine the travel time of each route, clearly establishing the possibilities. In this work, we give a practical solution that makes use of a concept that defines as areas of commercial incidence. These areas are based on the hypothesis that in the commercial places there is a greater flow of people and therefore the buses remain more time in the stops. The areas have one or more segments of routes, which have an incidence factor that allows to estimate the times. In addition, initial results are presented that verify the hypotheses and that promise adequately the travel times. In a future work, we take this approach to make an efficient travel planning system.
Travel Planning in Public Transport Networks Applying the Algorithm A* for Metropolitan District of Quito
The present project consists in applying the informed search algorithm A star (A*) to solve traveler problems, applying it by urban public transportation routes. The digitization of the information allowed to identify 26% of the total of routes that are registered within the Metropolitan District of Quito. For the validation of this information, data were taken in field on the travel times and the difference with respect to the times estimated by the program, resulting in that the difference between them was not greater than 2:20 minutes. We validate A* algorithm with the Dijkstra algorithm, comparing nodes vectors based on the public transport stops, the validation was established through the student t-test hypothesis. Then we verified that the times estimated by the program using the A* algorithm are similar to those registered on field. Furthermore, we review the performance of the algorithm generating iterations in both algorithms. Finally, with these iterations, a hypothesis test was carried out again with student t-test where it was concluded that the iterations of the base algorithm Dijsktra are greater than those generated by the algorithm A*.
A Finite Element Based Predictive Stone Lofting Simulation Methodology for Automotive Vehicles
Predictive simulations are one of the key focus areas in safety-critical industries such as aerospace and high-performance automotive engineering. The stone-chipping study is one such effort taken up by the industry to predict and evaluate the damage caused due to gravel impact on vehicles. This paper describes a finite elements based method that can simulate the ejection of gravel chips from a vehicle tire. The FE simulations were used to obtain the initial ejection velocity of the stones for various driving conditions using a computational contact mechanics approach. To verify the accuracy of the tire model, several parametric studies were conducted. The FE simulations resulted in stone loft velocities ranging from 0–8 m/s, regardless of tire speed. The stress on the tire at the instant of initial contact with the stone increased linearly with vehicle speed. Mesh convergence studies indicated that a highly resolved tire mesh tends to result in better momentum transfer between the tire and the stone. A fine tire mesh also showed a linearly increasing relationship between the tire forward speed and stone lofting speed, which was not observed in coarser meshes. However, it also highlighted a potential challenge, in that the ejection velocity vector of the stone seemed to be sensitive to the mesh, owing to the FE-based contact mechanical formulation of the problem.
Study of a Complete Free Route Implementation in the European Airspace
Harmonized with SESAR (Single European Sky Research) initiatives, a new concept related with airspace structures have been introduced in Europe, the Free Route Airspace. The key of free route is based in an airspace where users may freely plan a route between a defined entry and exit waypoint, with the possibility of routing via intermediate points, the free route flights remain subject to air traffic control (ATC) for the established separations. Free route airspace does not present anymore fixed airways to airspace users, as a consequence it brings a new paradigm for managing safe separations of aircrafts inside these airspace blocks . Nowadays, several European nations have been introduced the concept, some of them in a complete or partial stage, but finally offering limited benefits to airspace users for this condition. This research evaluates the future scenario of free route implementation across Europe, considering a unique airspace block configuration with a complete upper airspace with free route. The paper is centered in investigating the benefits for airspace users, and the study of possible increments of Air Traffic Controllers task loads with a full application. In this research, fast time simulations are carrying out for discovering how much flight time and distance aircrafts can save with an overall free route establishment. In the other side, the paper explains the evolution of conflicts derivate from possible separation losses between aircrafts in this new environment. Free route conflicts can emerges in any points of the airspace, requiring a great effort for solving it, in comparison with fixed airways, where conflicts normally were found by controllers in known waypoints, and they solved using the fixed network as reference. The airspace configuration modelled in this study take into account the actual navigation waypoints structure, moving into a future scenario, where new ones waypoints are added and new traffic flow patterns appears. In this sense, this research explores the advantages and unknown difficulties that a large scale application of free route concept can carry out in the European airspace.
Imported Oil Logistics to Central and Southern Europe Refineries
Countries of Central and Southern Europe have a typical feature: oil consumption in the region exceeds own commodity production capacity by far. So crude oil import prevails in the region’s crude oil consumption structure. Transportation using marine and pipeline transport is a common method of the imported oil delivery in the region. For certain refineries, in addition to possible transportation by oil pipelines from seaports, oil is delivered from Russian oil fields. With the view to these specific features and geographic location of the region’s refineries, three ways of imported oil delivery can be singled out: oil delivery by tankers to the port and subsequent transportation by pipeline transport of the port and the refinery; oil delivery by tanker fleet to the port and subsequent transportation by oil trunk pipeline transport; oil delivery from the fields by oil trunk pipelines to refineries. Oil is also delivered by road, internal water, and rail transport. However, the volumes transported this way are negligible in comparison to the three above transportation means. Multimodal oil transportation to refineries using the pipeline and marine transport is one of the biggest cargo flows worldwide. However, in scientific publications this problem is considered mainly for certain modes of transport. Therefore, this study is topical. To elaborate an efficient transportation policy of crude oil supply to Central and Southern Europe, in this paper the geographic concentration of oil refineries was determined and the capacities of the region’s refineries were assessed. The quantitative analysis method is used as a tool. The port infrastructure and the oil trunk pipeline system capacity were assessed in terms of delivery of raw materials to the refineries. The main groups of oil consuming countries were determined. The trends of crude oil production in the region were reviewed. The changes in production capacities and volumes at refineries in the last decade were shown. Based on the revealed refining trends, the scope of possible crude oil supplies to the refineries of the region under review was forecast. The existing transport infrastructure is able to handle the increased oil flow.
Airport Pavement Crack Measurement Systems and Crack Density for Pavement Evaluation
This paper reviews the status of existing practice and research related to measuring pavement cracking and using crack density as a pavement surface evaluation protocol. Crack density for pavement evaluation is currently not widely used within the airport community and its use by the highway community is limited. However, surface cracking is a distress that is closely monitored by airport staff and significantly influences the development of maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction plans for airport pavements. Therefore crack density has the potential to become an important indicator of pavement condition if the type, severity and extent of surface cracking can be accurately measured. A pavement distress survey is an essential component of any pavement assessment. Manual crack surveying has been widely used for decades to measure pavement performance. However, the accuracy and precision of manual surveys can vary depending upon the surveyor and performing surveys may disrupt normal operations. Given the variability of manual surveys, this method has shown inconsistencies in distress classification and measurement. This can potentially impact the planning for pavement maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction and the associated funding strategies. A substantial effort has been devoted for the past 20 years to reduce the human intervention and the error associated with it by moving toward automated distress collection methods. The automated methods refer to the systems that identify, classify and quantify pavement distresses through processes that require no or very minimal human intervention. This principally involves the use of a digital recognition software to analyze and characterize pavement distresses. The lack of established protocols for measurement and classification of pavement cracks captured using digital images is a challenge to developing a reliable automated system for distress assessment. Variations in types and severity of distresses, different pavement surface textures and colors and presence of pavement joints and edges all complicate automated image processing and crack measurement and classification. This paper summarizes the commercially available systems and technologies for automated pavement distress evaluation. A comprehensive automated pavement distress survey involves collection, interpretation, and processing of the surface images to identify the type, quantity and severity of the surface distresses. The outputs can be used to quantitatively calculate the crack density. The systems for automated distress survey using digital images reviewed in this paper can assist the airport industry in the development of a pavement evaluation protocol based on crack density. Analysis of automated distress survey data can lead to a crack density index. This index can be used as a means of assessing pavement condition and to predict pavement performance. This can be used by airport owners to determine the type of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation in a more consistent way.
Improvement of Pedestrian Walkway Facilities to Enhance Pedestrian Safety: Initiatives in India
The present study brings out the initiatives taken by Government of India under Karnataka state in Bengaluru city. Deteriorating quality of the pedestrian environment and the increasing risk of pedestrian crashes are major concerns for most of the cities in India. The recent shift in the priority to motorized transport needs and the abating condition of existing pedestrian facilities can be considered as prime reasons for the increasing pedestrian-related crashes in India. Most of the pedestrian sidewalks in the country showcases inadequate width, lack of supporting street furniture, frequent utility repair works, illegal parking, street vendor encroachment which forces the pedestrian to walk on the carriageway risking their life. Bengaluru City, the IT capital hub of the nation, is not much different from this. The increase in number of pedestrian crashes in Bengaluru reflects the same. To resolve this issue and to ensure safe, sustainable and pedestrian-friendly sidewalks, Government of Karnataka, India has implemented newfangled pedestrian sidewalks popularized under Tender S.U.R.E. projects. Tender SURE adopts unique urban street design guidelines where the pedestrians are given prime preference. The design focuses on three major aspects – a well-designed sidewalk for the safe movement of pedestrians and cyclist, consistent traffic and travel lane widths for ease of traffic flow, shifting and relaying of sub-terrain utilities to avoid frequent digging of roads. The design also incorporates bicycle lane, facilities for disabled pedestrians, bus bays, parking bays, hawker zones, along with required street fixtures and other intersection geometry improvements. The present study presents an assessment of the quality and performance of the pedestrian sidewalk and the walkability index of the newly built pedestrian-friendly sidewalks. Various physical and environmental factors affecting pedestrian safety are identified and studied in detail. The pedestrian mobility is quantified through Pedestrian Level of Service (PLoS) and the comfort and is reckoned by Walkability Index (WI). The Quality of Service (QoS) is finally derived for the improved facilities. It is observed that the new initiatives taken in reference to improve the pedestrian safety have succeeded in Bengaluru by attaining a Quality of Service of ‘A’ grade.
Estimation of Traffic Information of Missing Links in Urban Arterials Using Bayesian Network
Traffic information helps drivers to travel a faster path or to estimate time when they reach destination. Since information collecting system including detecting devices are imperfect, there exist missing links. To get missing links traffic information, this study aims to estimate and complement traffic information of missing links using Bayesian network. The reason of applying Bayesian network is that traffic information of each link have dependencies with adjacent links because vehicles on links move continuously from link to link. The scope of the study is urban arterials in Daegu metropolitan city, South Korea. Based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) data of Dalgubeol-daero in Daegu metropolitan city, an algorithm using R programming was developed. Results showed that the Bayesian network methodology efficiently estimated the traffic information of missing links. Using the algorithm proposed in this study, Daegu metropolitan city is able to provide high-quality traffic information to its citizens.
Using Open Source Data and GIS Techniques to Overcome Data Deficiency and Accuracy Issues in the Construction and Validation of Transportation Network: Case of Kinshasa City
An accurate representation of the transportation system serving the region is one of the important aspects of transportation modeling. Such representation often requires developing an abstract model of the system elements, which also requires important amount of data, surveys and time. However, in some cases such as in developing countries, data deficiencies, time and budget constraints do not always allow such accurate representation, leaving opportunities to assumptions that may negatively affect the quality of the analysis. With the emergence of Internet open source data especially in the mapping technologies as well as the advances in Geography Information System, opportunities to tackle these issues have raised. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to demonstrate such application through a practical case of the development of the transportation network for the city of Kinshasa. The GIS geo-referencing was used to construct the digitized map of Transportation Analysis Zones using available scanned images. Centroids were then dynamically placed at the center of activities using an activities density map. Next, the road network with its characteristics was built using OpenStreet data and other official road inventory data by intersecting their layers and cleaning up unnecessary links such as residential streets. The accuracy of the final network was then checked, comparing it with satellite images from Google and Bing. For the validation, the final network was exported into Emme3 to check for potential network coding issues. Results show a high accuracy between the built network and satellite images, which can mostly be attributed to the use of open source data.
The Planning Strategies of Public Sports Facilities Based on the Field Investigation: Case Study of Songyuan, China
With the National Fitness Program being established as a national strategy by the Chinese government, Chinese old planning strategies of sports facilities which are based on the purpose for hosting high-level sports events have been failed to meet the rapid growth of Chinese residents’ healthy needs. As the most important carrier for promoting the health of citizens in China, public sports facilities may have further conflicts when they are planned without considering the characteristics of the city itself and the fitness needs of the urban residents. With the planning practice in Songyuan in northeastern China, this paper explores the key planning strategies of public sports facilities through the field investigation to obtain the current situation of public sports facilities in Songyuan and the questionnaire to get the date of Songyuan residents’ fitness characteristics and needs. Findings from this investigation suggest that the planning of public sports facilities in Songyuan should first increase the quantities of public sports facilities at the community level, which could match the fitness population and meet the fitness needs in Songyuan. Secondly, the planning should combine with other available resources, such as urban parks, squares and other places where Songyuan residents often choose to do physical activities to enhance the vitality of public sports facilities. Finally, the planning should also link the urban transportation system in Songyuan to improve the accessibility and efficiency of public sports facilities. All these planning strategies could provide essential information for updating the urban and regional design of Songyuan.
A Study on Bicycle Riding Behavior on Bike-Only Road
Recently, riding a bicycle is recommended as an eco-friendly means of transportation. In Seoul, the mayor has secured budget for extending bicycle infrastructure. As bicycle rental centers are adopted in places, more citizens are using bike rental service on bike-only roads for leisure. However, most of the citizens are not experienced in riding bicycles. They usually do not wear helmets, keep the balance of bicycle riding, and pay attention to nearby occasions. Therefore, in this study, bicycles on Han-river bike-only road were tracked, and their behaviors were analyzed in order to show how dangerously beginner riders are riding. The number of conflicts is calculated to evaluate riding safety on the most crowded bike-only road. As a result, conflicts between beginner riders and fast-driving skilled drivers are frequently observed especially at night, and on weekends. In conclusion, it is suggested that the government should acknowledge citizens the fact that bikes are vehicles and adopt a test for bike driving.
Estimating Destinations of Bus Passengers Using Smart Card Data
Nowadays, automatic fare collection (AFC) system is widely used in many countries. However, smart card data from many of cities does not contain alighting information which is necessary to build OD matrices. Therefore, in order to utilize smart card data, destinations of passengers should be estimated. In this paper, kernel density estimation was used to forecast probabilities of alighting stations of bus passengers and applied to smart card data in Seoul, Korea which contains boarding and alighting information. This method was also validated with actual data. In some cases, stochastic method was more accurate than deterministic method. Therefore, it is sufficiently accurate to be used to build OD matrices.
A Statistical Study on Young UAE Driver's Behavior towards Road Safety
Road safety and associated behaviors have received significant attention in recent years, reflecting general public concern. This paper portrays a statistical scenario of the young drivers at UAE with emphasis on various concern points of young driver’s behavior and license issuance. Although there are many factors contributing to road accidents, statistically it is evident that age plays a major role in road accidents. Despite ensuring strict road safety laws enforced by the UAE government, there is a staggering correlation among road accidents and young drivers at UAE. However, private organizations like BMW and RoadSafetyUAE have extended its support on conducting surveys on driver’s behavior with an aim to ensure road safety. Various strategies as road safety law enforcement, license issuance, adapting new technologies like safety cameras and raising awareness can be implemented to improve the road safety concerns among young drivers.
Study on Influence Factors of Walkability of Rail Transit Station Area
Based on the comparative analysis of the relevant evaluation methods of walking environment, this paper selects the combined evaluation method of macro urban morphology analysis and micro urban design quality survey, then investigates and analyzes the walking environment of three rail transit station area in Nanjing to explore the influence factor and internal relation of walkability of rail transit station area. Analysis shows that micro urban design factors have greater impact on the walkability of rail transit station area compared with macro urban morphology factors, the convenience is the key factor in the four aspects of convenience, security, identity and comfortability of the urban design factors, the convenience is not only affected by the block network form, but also related to the quality of the street space. The overall evaluation of walkability comes from the overlapping and regrouping of the walking environment at different levels, but some environmental factors play a leading role. The social attributes of pedestrians also partly influence their walking perception and evaluation.
Spatial Accessibility Analysis of Kabul City Public Transport
Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan. It is the focal point of educational, industrial, etc. of Afghanistan. Additionally, the population of Kabul has grown recently and will increase because of return of refugees and shifting of people from other province to Kabul city. However, this increase in population, the issues of urban congestion and other related problems of urban transportation in Kabul city arises. One of the problems is public transport (large buses) service and needs to be modified and enhanced especially large bus routes that are operating in each zone of the 22 zone of Kabul City. To achieve the above mentioned goal of improving public transport, Spatial Accessibility Analysis is one of the important attributes to assess the effectiveness of transportation system and urban transport policy of a city, because accessibility indicator as an alternative tool to support public policy that aims the reinforcement of sustainable urban space. The case study of this research compares the present model (present bus route) and the modified model of public transport. Furthermore, present model, the bus routes in most of the zones are active, however, with having low frequency and unpublished schedule, and accessibility result is analyzed in four cases, based on the variables of accessibility. Whereas in modified model all zones in Kabul is taken into consideration with having specified origin and high frequency. Indeed the number of frequencies is kept high; however, this number is based on the number of buses Millie Bus Enterprise Authority (MBEA) owns. The same approach of cases is applied in modified model to figure out the best accessibility for the modified model. Indeed, the modified model is having a positive impact in congestion level in Kabul city. Besides, analyses of person trip and trip distribution have been also analyzed because how people move in the study area by each mode of transportation. So, the general aims of this research are to assess the present movement of people, identify zones in need of public transport and assess equity level of accessibility in Kabul city. The framework of methodology used in this research is based on gravity analysis model of accessibility; besides, generalized cost (time) of travel and travel mode is calculated. The main data come from person trip survey, socio-economic characteristics, demographic data by Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2008, study of Kabul city and also from the previous researches on travel pattern and the remaining data regarding present bus line and routes have been from MBEA. In conclusion, this research explores zones where public transport accessibility level is high and where it is low. It was found that both models the downtown area or central zones of Kabul city is having high level accessibility. Besides, the present model is the most unfavorable compared with the modified model based on the accessibility analysis.
Modeling Activity Pattern Using XGBoost for Mining Smart Card Data
Smart-card data are expected to provide information on activity pattern as an alternative to conventional person trip surveys. The focus of this study is to propose a method for training the person trip surveys to supplement the smart-card data that does not contain the purpose of each trip. We selected only available features from smart card data such as spatiotemporal information on the trip and geographic information system (GIS) data near the stations to train the survey data. XGboost, which is state-of-the-art tree-based ensemble classifier, was used to train data from multiple sources. This classifier uses a more regularized model formalization to control the over-fitting and show very fast execution time with well-performance. The validation results showed that proposed method efficiently estimated the trip purpose. GIS data of station and duration of stay at the destination were significant features in modeling trip purpose.
Missing Link Data Estimation with Recurrent Neural Network: An Application Using Speed Data of Daegu Metropolitan Area
In terms of ITS, information on link characteristic is an essential factor for plan or operation. But in practical cases, not every link has installed sensors on it. The link that doesn’t have data on it called 'Missing Link.' The purpose of this study is to impute data of this missing links. To get these data, this study applies the machine learning method. With machine learning, especially for deep learning process can estimate missing link data from present link data. For deep learning process, this study used 'Recurrent Neural Network' to take time-series data of road. As input data, dedicated short-range communications(DSRC) data of Dalgubul-daero of Daegu Metropolitan Area had been fed into the learning process. Neural network structure has 17 links of present data as input, 15 hidden layers, for 1 missing link data. As a result, data of target link was taken about 85% of accuracy compared with actual data.
Selling Electric Vehicles: Experiences from Car Salesmen in Sweden
Sweden has the second highest electric vehicle (plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle) sales per capita in Europe but in relation to sales of internal combustion engine electric vehicles sales are still minuscular (< 4%). Much research effort has been placed on various technical and user focused barriers and enablers for adoption of electric vehicles. Less effort has been placed on investigating the retail (dealership-customer) sales process of vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. Arguably, no one ought to be better informed about needs and desires of potential electric vehicle buyers than car salesmen, originating from their daily encounters with customers at the dealership. The aim of this paper is to explore the conditions of selling electric vehicle from a car salesmen’s perspective. This includes identifying barriers and enablers for electric vehicle sales originating from internal (dealership and brand) and external (customer, government) sources. In this interview study five car brands (manufacturers) that sell both electric and internal combustion engine vehicles have been investigated. A total of 15 semi-structured interviews have been conducted (three per brand, in rural and urban settings and at different dealerships). Initial analysis reveals several barriers and enablers, experienced by car salesmen, which influence electric vehicle sales. Examples of as reported by car salesmen identified barriers are: -Electric vehicles earn car salesmen less commission on average compared to internal combustion engine vehicles. -It takes more time to sell and deliver an electric vehicle than an internal combustion engine vehicle. -Current leasing contracts entails relatively low second-hand value estimations for electric vehicles and thus a high leasing fee, which negatively affects the attractiveness of electric vehicles for private consumers in particular. -High purchasing price discourages many consumers from considering electric vehicles. -The education and knowledge level of electric vehicles differs between car salesmen, which could affect their self-confidence in meeting well prepared and question prone electric vehicle buyers. Examples of identified enablers are: -Company car tax regulation promotes sales of electric vehicles; in particular, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are sold extensively to companies (up to 95 % of sales). -Low operating cost of electric vehicles such as fuel and service is an advantage when understood by consumers. -The drive performance of electric vehicles (quick, silent and fun to drive) is attractive to consumers. -Environmental aspects are considered important for certain consumer groups. -Fast technological improvements, such as increased range are opening up a wider market for electric vehicles. -For one of the brands; attractive private lease campaigns have proved effective to promote sales. This paper gives insights of an important but often overlooked aspect for the diffusion of electric vehicles (and durable products in general); the interaction between car salesmen and customers at the critical acquiring moment. Extracted through interviews with multiple car salesmen. The results illuminate untapped potential for sellers (salesmen, dealerships and brands) to mitigating sales barriers and strengthening sales enablers and thus becoming a more important actor in the electric vehicle diffusion process.
The Role of Car Dealerships in Promoting Electric Vehicles: Covert Participatory Observations of Car Dealerships in Sweden
While electric vehicles (both battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids) have been on the market for around 6 years, they are still far from mainstream and the knowledge of them is still low among the public. This is likely one of the reasons that Sweden, having one of the highest penetrations of electric vehicles in Europe, still has a long way to go in reaching a fossil free vehicle fleet. Car dealerships are an important medium that connects consumers to vehicles, but somehow, their role in introducing electric vehicles has not yet been thoroughly studied. Research from other domains shows that salespeople can affect customer decisions in their choice of products. The aim of this study is to explore the role of car dealerships when it comes to promoting electric vehicles. The long-term goal is to understand how they could be a key in the effort of achieving a mass introduction of electric vehicles in Sweden. By emulating the customer’s experience, this study investigates the interaction between car salespeople and customers, particularly examining whether they present electric vehicles as viable options. Covert participatory observations were conducted for data collection from four different brands at in total twelve car dealers. The observers worked in pairs and played the role of a customer with needs that could be matched by an electric vehicle. The data was summarized in observation protocols and analyzed using thematic coding. The result shows that only one of twelve salespeople offered an electric vehicle as the first option. When environmental factors were brought up by the observers, the salespeople followed up with lower fuel consumption internal combustion engine vehicles rather than suggesting an electric vehicle. All salespeople possessed at least basic knowledge about electric vehicles but their interest of selling them were low in most cases. One of the reasons could be that the price of electric vehicles is usually higher. This could be inferred from the finding that salespeople tend to have a strong focus on price and economy in their dialogues with customers, regardless which type of car they were selling. In conclusion, the study suggests that car salespeople have the potential to help the market to achieve mass introduction of electric vehicles; however, their potential needs to be exploited further. To encourage salespeople to prioritize electric vehicles in the sales process, right incentives need to be in place.
Analysis of Train Passenger Seat Using Ergonomic Function Deployment Method
Indonesian people use trains for their transportation, especially they use economy class trains transportation because it is cheaper and has more precise schedule than any other ground transportation. Nevertheless, this economy class passenger seat raises some inconvenience issues for passengers. This is due to the design of the chair on the economic class of train class that did not adjusted to the shape of anthropometry of Indonesian people. So the research needs to be conducted on the design of chair on economic class of train.The purpose of this research is to make the design of chair economy class passenger seat ergonomically. This research method uses questionnaires, and anthropometry measurement. The data obtained is processed using House of Quality of Ergonomic Function Development. From the results of analysis and data processing obtained important changes from the original design. Ergonomic chair design according to the analysis is stainless steel frame, seat height 390 mm, seat width for each passenger 400 mm with a depth of 400 mm. Design of backrest is 840 mm height, 430 mm width and 300 mm length that can move at the angle of 105-1150. The width of the footrest is 42 mm and 400 mm length. The thickness of cushion in a chair is 100 mm.
Effect of Compressibility of Brake Friction Materials on Vibration Occurrence
Brakes are one of the most important safety and performance components in automobiles and airplanes. Development of brakes has mainly focused on increasing braking power and stability. Nowadays, brake noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) together with brake dust emission and pad life are very important to vehicle drivers. The main objective of this research is to define the relationship between compressibility of friction materials and their tendency to generate vibration. An experimental study of the friction-induced vibration obtained by the disc brake system of a passenger car is conducted. Three commercial brake pad materials from different manufacturers are tested and evaluated under various brake conditions against cast iron disc brake. First of all, compressibility test for the brake friction material is measured for each pad. Then, brake dynamometer is used to simulate and reproduce actual vehicle braking conditions. Finally, a comparison between the three pad specimens is conducted. The results showed that compressibility has a very significant effect on reduction of the vibration occurrence.
Effectiveness of Variable Speed Limit Signs in Reducing Crash Rates on Roadway Construction Work Zones in Alaska
As a driver's speed increases, so do the probability of an incident and likelihood of injury. The presence of equipment, personnel, and a changing landscape in construction zones create greater potential for incident. This is especially concerning in Alaska, where summer construction activity, coinciding with the peak annual traffic volumes, cannot be avoided. In order to reduce vehicular speeding in work zones, and therefore the probability of crash and incident occurrence, variable speed limit (VSL) systems can be implemented in the form of radar speed display trailers since the radar speed display trailers were shown to be effective at reducing vehicular speed in construction zones. Allocation of VSL not only help reduce the 85th percentile speed but also it will predominantly reduce mean speed as well. Total of 2147 incidents along with 385 crashes occurred only in one month around the construction zone in the Alaska which seriously requires proper attention. This research provided a thorough crash analysis to better understand the cause and provide proper countermeasures. Crashes were predominantly recoded as vehicle- object collision and sideswipe type and thus significant amount of crashes fall in the group of no injury to minor injury type in the severity class. But still, 35 major crashes with 7 fatal ones in a one month period require immediate action like the implementation of the VSL system as it proved to be a speed reducer in the construction zone on Alaskan roadways.
Implementation of Model Reference Adaptive Control in Tuning of Controller Gains for Following-Vehicle System with Fixed Time Headway
To avoid collision between following vehicles and vehicles in front, it is vital to keep appropriate, safe spacing between both vehicles over all speeds. Therefore, the following vehicle needs to have exact information regarding the speed and spacing between vehicles. This project is conducted to simulate the tuning of controller gain for a vehicle-following system through the selected control strategy, spacing control policy and fixed-time headway policy. In addition, the paper simulates and designs an adaptive gain controller for a road-vehicle-following system which uses information on the spacing, velocity and also acceleration of a preceding vehicle in the proposed one-vehicle look-ahead strategy. The mathematical model is implemented using Kirchhoff and Newton’s Laws, and stability simulated. The trial-error method was used to obtain a suitable value of controller gain. However, the adaptive-based controller system was able to optimize the gain value automatically. Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is designed and utilized and based on firstly the Gradient and secondly the Lyapunov approach. The Lyapunov approach considers stability. The Gradient approach was found to improve the best value of gain in the controller system with fixed-time headway.
Development of a BriMAIN System for Health Monitoring of Railway Bridges
Railways are sometimes lifeline of nations as they consist of huge network of rail lines and bridges. Reportedly many of the bridges are aging, weak, distressed and accident prone. It becomes a really challenging task for Engineers and workers to keep up a regular maintenance schedule for proper functioning which itself is quite a hard hitting job. In this paper we have come up with an innvovative wireless system of maintenance called BriMAIN. In this system we have installed two types of sensors, first one is called a force sensor which will continously analyse the readings of pressure at joints of the bridges and secondly an MPU-6050 triaxial gyroscope+accelerometer which will analyse the deflection of the deck of the bridge. Apart from this a separate database is also being made at the server room so that the data can be visualized by the engineers and a warning can be issued in case reading of the sensors goes above threshold.
Technical and Economic Potential of Partial Electrification of Railway Lines
Electrification of railway lines allows to increase speed, power, capacity and energetic efficiency of rolling stocks. However, this process of electrification is complex and costly. An electrification project is not just about design of catenary. It also includes installation of structures around electrification, as substation installation, electrical isolation, signalling, telecommunication and civil engineering structures. France has more than 30,000 km of railways, whose only 53% are electrified. The others 47% of railways use diesel locomotive and represent only 10% of the circulation (tons.km). For this reason, a new type of electrification, less expensive than the usual, is requested to enable the modernization of these railways. One solution could be the use of hybrids trains. This technology opens up new opportunities for less expensive infrastructure development such as the partial electrification of railway lines. In a partially electrified railway, the power supply of theses hybrid trains could be made either by the catenary or by the on-board energy storage system (ESS). Thus, the on-board ESS would feed the energetic needs of the train along the non-electrified zones while in electrified zones, the catenary would feed the train and recharge the on-board ESS. This paper’s objective deals with the technical and economic potential identification of partial electrification of railway lines. This study provides different scenarios of electrification by replacing the most expensive places to electrify using on-board ESS. The target is to reduce the cost of new electrification projects, i.e. reduce the cost of electrification infrastructures while not increasing the cost of rolling stocks. In this study, scenarios are constructed in function of the electrification’s cost of each structure. The electrification’s cost varies considerably because of the installation of catenary support in tunnels, bridges and viaducts is much more expensive than in others zones of the railway. These scenarios will be used to describe the power supply system and to choose between the catenary and the on-board energy storage depending on the position of the train on the railway. To identify the influence of each partial electrification scenario in the sizing of the on-board ESS, a model of the railway line and of the rolling stock is developed for a real case. This real case concerns a railway line located in the south of France. The energy consumption and the power demanded at each point of the line for each power supply (catenary or on-board ESS) are provided at the end of the simulation. Finally, the cost of a partial electrification is obtained by adding the civil engineering costs of the zones to be electrified plus the cost of the on-board ESS. The study of the technical and economic potential ends with the identification of the most economically interesting scenario of electrification.
Implementation of Congestion Management Strategies on Arterial Roads: Case Study of Geelong
Natural disasters are inevitable to the biodiversity. Disasters such as flood, tsunami and tornadoes could be brutal, harsh and devastating. In Australia, flooding is a major issue experienced by different parts of the country. In such crisis, delays in evacuation could decide the life and death of the people living in those regions. Congestion management could become a mammoth task if there are no steps taken before such situations. In the past to manage congestion in such circumstances, many strategies were utilised such as converting the road shoulders to extra lanes or changing the road geometry by adding more lanes. However, expansion of road to resolving congestion problems is not considered a viable option nowadays. The authorities avoid this option due to many reasons, such as lack of financial support and land space. They tend to focus their attention on optimising the current resources they possess and use traffic signals to overcome congestion problems. Traffic Signal Management strategy was considered a viable option, to alleviate congestion problems in the City of Geelong, Victoria. Arterial road with signalised intersections considered in this paper and the traffic data required for modelling collected from VicRoads. Traffic signalling software SIDRA used to model the roads, and the information gathered from VicRoads. In this paper, various signal parameters utilised to assess and improve the corridor performance to achieve the best possible Level of Services (LOS) for the arterial road.