Analysis of Train Passenger Chair Using Ergonomic Function Deployment Method
Indonesian people use trains for their transportation, especially they use economy class trains transportation because it is cheaper and has more precise schedule than any other ground transportation. Nevertheless, this economy class passenger seat raises some inconvenience issues for passengers. This is due to the design of the chair on the economic class of train class that did not adjusted to the shape of anthropometry of Indonesian people. So the research needs to be conducted on the design of chair on economic class of train.The purpose of this research is to make the design of chair economy class passenger seat ergonomically. This research method uses questionnaires, and anthropometry measurement. The data obtained is processed using House of Quality of Ergonomic Function Development. From the results of analysis and data processing obtained important changes from the original design. Ergonomic chair design according to the analysis is stainless steel frame, seat height 390 mm, seat width for each passenger 400 mm with a depth of 400 mm. Design of backrest is 840 mm height, 430 mm width and 300 mm length that can move at the angle of 105-1150. The width of the footrest is 42 mm and 400 mm length. The thickness of cushion in a chair is 100 mm.
Effectiveness of Variable Speed Limit Signs in Reducing Crash Rates on Roadway Construction Work Zones in Alaska
As a driver's speed increases, so do the probability of an incident and likelihood of injury. The presence of equipment, personnel, and a changing landscape in construction zones create greater potential for incident. This is especially concerning in Alaska, where summer construction activity, coinciding with the peak annual traffic volumes, cannot be avoided. In order to reduce vehicular speeding in work zones, and therefore the probability of crash and incident occurrence, variable speed limit (VSL) systems can be implemented in the form of radar speed display trailers since the radar speed display trailers were shown to be effective at reducing vehicular speed in construction zones. Allocation of VSL not only help reduce the 85th percentile speed but also it will predominantly reduce mean speed as well. Total of 2147 incidents along with 385 crashes occurred only in one month around the construction zone in the Alaska which seriously requires proper attention. This research provided a thorough crash analysis to better understand the cause and provide proper countermeasures. Crashes were predominantly recoded as vehicle- object collision and sideswipe type and thus significant amount of crashes fall in the group of no injury to minor injury type in the severity class. But still, 35 major crashes with 7 fatal ones in a one month period require immediate action like the implementation of the VSL system as it proved to be a speed reducer in the construction zone on Alaskan roadways.
Implementation of Model Reference Adaptive Control in Tuning of Controller Gains for Following-Vehicle System with Fixed Time Headway
To avoid collision between following vehicles and vehicles in front, it is vital to keep appropriate, safe spacing between both vehicles over all speeds. Therefore, the following vehicle needs to have exact information regarding the speed and spacing between vehicles. This project is conducted to simulate the tuning of controller gain for a vehicle-following system through the selected control strategy, spacing control policy and fixed-time headway policy. In addition, the paper simulates and designs an adaptive gain controller for a road-vehicle-following system which uses information on the spacing, velocity and also acceleration of a preceding vehicle in the proposed one-vehicle look-ahead strategy. The mathematical model is implemented using Kirchhoff and Newton’s Laws, and stability simulated. The trial-error method was used to obtain a suitable value of controller gain. However, the adaptive-based controller system was able to optimize the gain value automatically. Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is designed and utilized and based on firstly the Gradient and secondly the Lyapunov approach. The Lyapunov approach considers stability. The Gradient approach was found to improve the best value of gain in the controller system with fixed-time headway.
Technical and Economic Potential of Partial Electrification of Railway Lines
Electrification of railway lines allows to increase speed, power, capacity and energetic efficiency of rolling stocks. However, this process of electrification is complex and costly. An electrification project is not just about design of catenary. It also includes installation of structures around electrification, as substation installation, electrical isolation, signalling, telecommunication and civil engineering structures. France has more than 30,000 km of railways, whose only 53% are electrified. The others 47% of railways use diesel locomotive and represent only 10% of the circulation (tons.km). For this reason, a new type of electrification, less expensive than the usual, is requested to enable the modernization of these railways. One solution could be the use of hybrids trains. This technology opens up new opportunities for less expensive infrastructure development such as the partial electrification of railway lines. In a partially electrified railway, the power supply of theses hybrid trains could be made either by the catenary or by the on-board energy storage system (ESS). Thus, the on-board ESS would feed the energetic needs of the train along the non-electrified zones while in electrified zones, the catenary would feed the train and recharge the on-board ESS. This paper’s objective deals with the technical and economic potential identification of partial electrification of railway lines. This study provides different scenarios of electrification by replacing the most expensive places to electrify using on-board ESS. The target is to reduce the cost of new electrification projects, i.e. reduce the cost of electrification infrastructures while not increasing the cost of rolling stocks. In this study, scenarios are constructed in function of the electrification’s cost of each structure. The electrification’s cost varies considerably because of the installation of catenary support in tunnels, bridges and viaducts is much more expensive than in others zones of the railway. These scenarios will be used to describe the power supply system and to choose between the catenary and the on-board energy storage depending on the position of the train on the railway. To identify the influence of each partial electrification scenario in the sizing of the on-board ESS, a model of the railway line and of the rolling stock is developed for a real case. This real case concerns a railway line located in the south of France. The energy consumption and the power demanded at each point of the line for each power supply (catenary or on-board ESS) are provided at the end of the simulation. Finally, the cost of a partial electrification is obtained by adding the civil engineering costs of the zones to be electrified plus the cost of the on-board ESS. The study of the technical and economic potential ends with the identification of the most economically interesting scenario of electrification.
Congestion Management on Arterial Roads
Natural disasters are inevitable to the biodiversity of planet earth. Disasters such as flood, tsunami, and tornadoes could be brutal, harsh and devastating. In Australia, flooding is a major issue, which is experienced by different parts of the country. In such crisis, delays in evacuation could decide the life and death of the people living in those regions. Congestion management could become a mammoth task if there are no steps taken prior to such situations. As road expansion is not considered as a viable option to resolve such problems by the authorities due to many reasons, like lack of financial support and land space, they tend to focus their attention on optimizing the current resources they possess and use traffic signals to overcome such issue. In this particular paper, it discusses such an effort which was carried out in Geelong, Victoria. Arterial roads with signalized intersections were used in our model; traffic data’s were collected from Vicroads. Traffic signaling software SIDRA was used to model the roads, and the information gathered. Various road parameters utilized along with different road constraints to assess and improve the corridor performances to achieve the best possible Level of Services (LOS).
A Multi-Objective Gate Assignment Model Based on Airport Terminal Configuration
Assigning aircrafts’ activities to appropriate gates is one the most challenging issues in airport authorities’ multiple criteria decision making. The potential financial loss due to imbalances of demand and supply in congested airports, higher occupation rates of gates, and the existing restrictions to expand facilities provide further evidence for the need for an optimal supply allocation. Passengers walking distance, towing movements, extra fuel consumption (as a result of awaiting longer to taxi when taxi conflicts happen at the apron area), etc. are the major traditional components involved in GAP models. In particular, the total cost associated with gate assignment problem highly depends on the airport terminal layout. The study herein presents a well-elaborated literature review on the topic focusing on major concerns, applicable variables and objectives, as well as proposing a three-objective mathematical model for the gate assignment problem. The model has been tested under different concourse layouts in order to check its performance in different scenarios. Results revealed that terminal layout pattern is a significant parameter in airport and that the proposed model is capable of dealing with key constraints and objectives, which supports its practical usability for future decision making tools. Potential solution techniques were also suggested in this study for future works.
Territorial Analysis of the Public Transport Supply: Case Study of Recife City
This paper is part of an ongoing PhD thesis. It seeks to develop a model to identify the spatial failures of the public transportation supply. In the construction of the model, it also seeks to detect the social needs arising from the disadvantage in transport. The case study is carried out for the Brazilian city of Recife. Currently, Recife has a population density of 7,039.64 inhabitants per km². Unfortunately, only 46.9% of urban households on public roads have adequate urbanization. Allied to this reality, the trend of the occupation of the poorest population is that of the peripheries, a fact that has been consolidated in Brazil and Latin America, thus burdening the families' income, since the greater the distances covered for the basic activities and consequently also the transport costs. In this way, there have been great impacts caused by the supply of public transportation to locations with low demand or lack of urban infrastructure. The model under construction uses methods such as Currie’s Gap Assessment associated with the London’s Public Transport Access Level, and the Public Transport Accessibility Index developed by Saghapour. It is intended to present the stage of the thesis with the spatial/need gaps of the neighborhoods of Recife already detected. The benefits of the geographic information system are used in this paper. It should be noted that gaps are determined from the transport supply indices. In this case, considering the presence of walking catchment areas. Still in relation to the detection of gaps, the relevant demand index is also determined. This, in turn, is calculated through indicators that reflect social needs. With the use of the smaller Brazilian geographical unit, the census sector, the model with the inclusion of population density in the study areas should present more consolidated results. Based on the results achieved, an analysis of transportation disadvantage will be carried out as a factor of social exclusion in the study area. It is anticipated that the results obtained up to the present moment, already indicate a strong trend of public transportation in areas of higher income classes, leading to the understanding that the most disadvantaged population migrates to those neighborhoods in search of employment.
Rail Degradation Modelling Using Autoregressive Moving Average with Exogenous Inputs: A Case Study Applied to Melbourne Tram System
There is a necessity among rail transportation authorities for a superior understanding of the rail track degradation overtime and the factors influencing rail degradation. They need an accurate technique to identify the appropriate time that rail tracks fail or needs maintenance in order to maximize the safety and comfort of the passengers and the vehicles as well as improve the cost effectiveness of maintenance work. An accurate model can play a key role in prediction of the long-term behaviour of railroad tracks. An accurate model can decrease the cost of maintenance. In this research, the rail track degradation is predicted using an autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX). An ARMAX has been implemented on Melbourne tram data to estimate the values for the tram track degradation. Gauge values and rail usage in Million Gross Tone (MGT) are the main parameters used in the model. The developed model can accurately predict the future status of the tram tracks.
Nonlinear Estimation Model for Rail Track Deterioration
Rail transport authorities around the world have been facing a significant challenge when predicting rail infrastructure maintenance work for a long period of time. Generally, maintenance monitoring and prediction is conducted manually. With the restrictions in economy, the rail transport authorities are in pursuit of improved modern methods which can provide precise prediction of rail maintenance time and location. The expectation from such a methods is to develop models to minimize the human error that is strongly related to manual prediction. Such models will help them in understanding how the track degradation occurs overtime under the change in different conditions (e.g. rail load, rail type, rail profile). They need a well-structured technique to identify the precise time that rail tracks fail in order to minimize the maintenance cost/time and secure the vehicles. The rail track characteristics which have been collected over the years will be used in developing rail track degradation prediction models. Since these data have been collected in large volumes and the data collection is done either electronically and manually, it is possible to have some errors. Sometimes these errors make it impossible to use them in prediction model development. This is one of the major draw backs in rail track degradation prediction. An accurate model can play a key role in the estimation of the long-term behavior of rail tracks. Accurate models increase the track safety and decrease the cost of maintenance in long term. In this research a short review of rail track degradation prediction models have been discussed before estimating rail track degradation for the curve sections of Melbourne tram track system using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model.
Imputation of Urban Movement Patterns Using Big Data
Big data typically refers to consumer datasets revealing some detailed heterogeneity in human behavior, which if harnessed appropriately, could potentially revolutionize our understanding of the collective phenomena of the physical world. Inadvertent missing values skew these datasets and compromise the validity of the thesis. Here we discuss a conceptually consistent strategy for identifying other relevant datasets to combine with available big data, to plug the gaps and to create a rich requisite comprehensive dataset for subsequent analysis. Specifically, emphasis is on how these methodologies can for the first time enable the construction of more detailed pictures of passenger demand and drivers of mobility on the railways. These methodologies can predict the influence of changes within the network (like a change in time-table or impact of a new station), explain local phenomena outside the network (like rail-heading) and the other impacts of urban morphology. Our analysis also reveals that our new imputation data model provides for more equitable revenue sharing amongst network operators who manage different parts of the integrated UK railways.
A Statistical Approach for a Station-Level Subway Ridership Estimation: Focus on the Impact of Bus Demand and Commercial Business Characteristics
The primary purpose of this study is to develop a methodological framework to predict daily subway ridership at a station-level and to examine the association between subway ridership and bus demand incorporating commercial business facility in the vicinity of each subway station. Previous studies have mainly discussed the socio-economic characteristics, land-use, and built environment as factors which have an impact on subway ridership. However, it has rarely been considered not only the endogenous relationship between bus and subway demand but also the characteristics of commercial business within a subway station’s sphere of influence. Regarding a statistical approach to estimate subway ridership at a station level, many studies rely on Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression, but there was a lack of study for considering endogeneity and heteroscedastic issues which might have in the subway ridership prediction model. Therefore, this study focused on both discovering the impacts of bus demand and commercial business characteristics on subway ridership and developing more precise subway ridership estimation accounting for its statistical bias. The spatial scope of the study covers entire Seoul city in South Korea and includes 243 stations with the temporal scope set at twenty-four hours with one-hour interval time panels each. The subway and bus ridership was collected Seoul Smart Card data from 2015 and 2016. Three-Stage Least Square(3SLS) approach was applied to develop daily subway ridership model as capturing the endogeneity and heteroscedasticity between bus and subway demand. Independent variables incorporating in the modeling process were commercial business characteristics, social-economic characteristics, safety index, transit facility attributes, and dummies for seasons and time zone. As a result, it was found that bus ridership and subway ridership were endogenous each other and they had a significantly positive sign of coefficients which means one transit mode could increase another transportation mode’s ridership. In other words, two transit modes of subway and bus have a mutual relationship instead of the competitive relationship. The commercial business characteristics are the most critical dimension among the independent variables. The variables of commercial business facility rate in the paper containing six types: medical, educational, recreational, financial, food service, and shopping. From the model result, a higher rate in medical, financial buildings, shopping, and food service facility lead to increment of subway ridership at a station, while recreational and educational facility shows lower subway ridership. The results of model accuracy tests by out of samples provided that 3SLS model has less mean square error rather than OLS, and showed the methodological approach for the 3SLS model was plausible to estimate more accurate subway ridership.
Integrated Services Hub for Exploration and Production Industry: An Indian Narrative
India is at the cusp of major reforms in the hydrocarbon sector. Oil and gas sector is highly liberalised to attract private investment and to increase domestic production. Major hydrocarbon Exploration & Production (E&P) activity here have been undertaken by Government owned companies but with easing up and reworking of hydro carbon exploration licensing policies private players have also joined the fray towards achieving energy security for India. Government of India has come up with policy and administrative reforms including Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP), Sagarmala (port-led development with coastal connectivity), and Development of Small Discovered Fields, etc. with the intention to make industry friendly conditions for investment, ease of doing business and reduce gestation period. To harness the potential resources of Deep water and Ultra deep water, High Pressure – High Temperature (HP-HT) regions, Coal Bed Methane (CBM), Shale Hydrocarbons besides Gas Hydrates, participation shall be required from both domestic and international players. Companies engaged in E&P activities in India have traditionally been managing through their captive supply base, but with crude prices under hammer, the need is being felt to outsource non-core activities. This necessitates establishment of a robust support services to cater to E&P Industry, which is currently non-existent to meet the bourgeon challenges. This paper outlines an agenda for creating an Integrated Services Hub (ISH) under Special Economic Zone (SEZ) to facilitate complete gamut of non-core support activities of E&P industry. This responsive and proficient multi-usage facility becomes viable with better resource utilization, economies of scale to offer cost effective services. The concept envisages companies to bring-in their core technical expertise leaving complete hardware peripherals outsourced to this ISH. The Integrated Services Hub, complying with the best in class global standards, shall typically provide following Services under Single Window Solution, but not limited to: a) Logistics including supply base operations, transport of manpower and material, helicopters, offshore supply vessels, warehousing, inventory management, sourcing and procurement activities, international freight forwarding, domestic trucking, customs clearance service etc. b) Trained/Experienced pool of competent Manpower (Technical, Security etc.) will be available for engagement by companies on either short or long term basis depending upon the requirements with provisions of meeting any training requirements. c) Specialized Services through tie-up with global best companies for Crisis Management, Mud/Cement, Fishing, Floating Dry-dock besides provision of Workshop, Repair and Testing facilities, etc. d) Tools and Tackles including drill strings, etc. A pre-established Integrated Services Hub shall facilitate an early start-up of activities with substantial savings in time lines. This model can be replicated at other parts of the world to expedite E&P activities.
Study on Optimization Design of Pressure Hull for Underwater Vehicle
In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the pressure hull structure, optimization of underwater vehicle based on response surface methodology, a method for optimizing the design of pressure hull structure was studied. To determine the pressure shell of 5 dimensions as a design variable, the application of thin shell theory and the CCS (Chinese Classification Society) specification was carried on the preliminary design. In order to optimize variables of the feasible region, different methods were studied and implemented such as Opt LHD method (to determine the design test sample points in the feasible domain space), parametric ABAQUS solution for each sample point response, and the two order polynomial response for the surface model of the limit load of structures. Based on the ultimate load of the structure and the quality of the shell, the two-generation genetic algorithm was used to solve the response surface, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained. The final optimization result was 41.68% higher than that of the initial design, and the shell quality was reduced by about 27.26%. The parametric method can ensure the accuracy of the test and improve the efficiency of optimization.
Influence of Peripheral Vision Restrictions on the Walking Trajectory When Texting While Walking
One major problem related to the use of smartphones is texting while simultaneously engaging in other things, resulting in serious road accidents. Apart from texting while driving being one of the most dangerous behaviors, texting while walking is also dangerous because it narrows the walker's field of vision. Despite the narrowing of a person’s central vision caused by texting while walking, many smartphone users habitually text while walking. Smartphone users often overlook the potential harm associated with this behavior even while crossing roads. They fail to understand that they can become victims of traffic accidents because they have successfully texted while walking many times in their lives. This study aims to clarify the influence of peripheral vision on the stability of the walking trajectory when the person texts while walking. In total, nine healthy male university students participated in the experiment. Their mean age was 21.4 years, and STD was 0.7 years. They attempted to walk 10 m in three situations. In the first situation, participants walked without texting. This was considered as the control (CTR) situation. The second situation involved texting while walking (TWG) without any restrictions. In the third situation, participants texted while walking; however, their peripheral visions were restricted by experimental peripheral goggles (PRS). The horizontal distances (HDS) and directions (right or left) of the footprints from the virtual straight line drawn from the starting point to the goal point were measured as the scale of horizontal stability. The longitudinal distances (LDS) between the footprints were measured as the scale of the walking rhythm. The results showed that the HDS of the footprints from the straight line increased as the participants walked in the TWG and PRS situations. In the PR situation, this tendency was particularly remarkable. In addition, the LDS between the footprints decreased in the order of the CTR, TWG, and PRS situations. The ANOVA results showed significant differences in the three situations with respect to HDS [F(2,23) = 38.27, p < 0.05]] and LDS [F(2,23) =10.92, p < 0.05]]. The differences among these situations showed that the narrowing of the walker's vision because of smartphone use influences the walking trajectory and rhythm. In contrast, the difference between the TWG and PRS situations revealed that the walkers seem to use their peripheral vision marginally when they text while walking. Therefore, we concluded that texting while walking narrows the vision; however, texting in situations with restricted peripheral vision, such as night roads, will considerably increase the dangers associated with texting while walking.
Feasibility Studies through Quantitative Methods: The Revamping of a Tourist Railway Line in Italy
Recently, the Italian government has approved a new law for public contracts and has been laying the groundwork for restarting a planning phase. The government has adopted the indications given by the European Commission regarding the estimation of the external costs within the Cost-Benefit Analysis, and has been approved the ‘Guidelines for assessment of Investment Projects’. In compliance with the new Italian law, the aim of this research was to perform a feasibility study applying quantitative methods regarding the revamping of an Italian tourist railway line. A Cost-Benefit Analysis was performed starting from the quantification of the passengers’ demand potentially interested in using the revamped rail services. The benefits due to the external costs reduction were also estimated (quantified) in terms of variations (with respect to the not project scenario): climate change, air pollution, noises, congestion, and accidents. Estimations results have been proposed in terms of the Measure of Effectiveness underlying a positive Net Present Value equal to about 27 million of Euros, an Internal Rate of Return much greater the discount rate, a benefit/cost ratio equal to 2 and a PayBack Period of 15 years.
The Influence of Travel Experience within the Perceived Public Transport Quality
The perceived public transport quality is an important driver that influences both the customer satisfaction and mobility choices. The competition among transport operators needs to improve the quality of the services and identify which attributes are perceived as relevant by the passengers. Among the 'traditional' public transport quality attributes there are, for example, travel and waiting time, regularity of the services, ticket price. By contrast, there are some 'non-conventional' attributes that could significantly influence the customer satisfaction jointly with the 'traditional' ones. Among these, the beauty/aesthetics of the transport terminals (e.g. rail station and bus terminal) is probably one of the most impacting on user perception. Starting from these considerations, the point stressed in this paper was if (and how much) the travel experience of the overall travel (e.g. how long is the travel, how many transport modes must be used) influences the perception of the public transport quality. The aim of this paper was to investigate the weight of the terminal quality (e.g. aesthetic, comfort and service offered) within the overall travel experience. The case study was the extra-urban Italian bus network. The passengers of the major Italian terminal bus were interviewed and the analysis of the results shows that about the 75% of the travelers, are available to pay up to 30% more for the ticket price for having a high quality terminal. A travel experience effect was observed: the average perceived transport quality varies with the characteristic of the overall trip. The passengers that have a 'long trip' (travel time greater than 2 hours) perceived as 'low' the overall quality of the trip even if they pass through a high quality terminal. The opposite occurs for the 'short trip' passengers. This means that if a traveler passes through a high quality station, the overall perception of that terminal could be significantly reduced if he is tired from a long trip. This result is important and if will be confirmed through other case studies, will allow concluding that the 'travel experience impact' must be considered as an explicit design variable for public transport services and planning.
A Study on the Planning of Urban Road Traffic Signs Based on the Leisure Involvement of Self-Driving Tourists
With the upgrade development of the tourism industry from the simple sightseeing tour to the leisure and vacation, people's travel idea has undergone a fundamental change. More and more people begin to pursue liberal and personal tourism, so self-driving tourism has become the main form of current tourism activities. With the self-driving tourism representing the general trend, the importance of convenient tourism transportation and perfect road traffic signs have become more and more prominent. A clear urban road traffic signs can help visitors quickly identify the direction and distance to the tourism destination. The purpose of this article is analyzing the planning of urban road traffic signs which can bring positive impact on the participation in the recreation involved of self-driving tourists. The content of this article is divided into three parts. Based on the literature review and theoretical analysis, the first part constructs a structural variance model. The model is from three dimensions: the attention of the self-driving tourists to the urban traffic signs along the road, the perception of the self-driving tourists to the road traffic signs itself, the perceptions of the self-driving tourists to the tourism destination information on the traffic signs. Through this model, the paper aims to explore the influence of the urban road traffic signs to the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. The second part aims to verify through the hypothesis model the questionnaire survey and come to preliminary conclusions. The preliminary conclusions are as follows: firstly, the color, shape, size, setting mode and occurrence frequency of urban road traffic sign have significant influence on the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. Secondly, the influence on the leisure behavior involvement is obviously higher than the influence on the leisure psychological involvement. Thirdly, the information about the tourism destination marked on the urban road traffic signs has not obviously influence on the leisure psychological involvement, but it has distinct influence on the leisure behavior involvement of self-driving tourists. The third part puts forward that the planning of urban road traffic signs should focus on the angle of the impact of road traffic signs on people's psychology and behavior. On the basis of the above conclusions, the paper researches the color, shape, size, setting mode and information labeling of urban road traffic signs so that they can preferably satisfy the demand of the leisure involvement of self-driving tourists.
Functional to the Urban: Global Drivers and Impacts of Rural Transformation
In recent years, rural areas have transformed at a very high pace, becoming completely functional to a variety of urban needs and desires. Such modifications have had far-reaching implications on the structure of the countryside and the preservation of its resources. While the shifts occurring within rural settlements are inherent to their evolution, the recent rural transformation is not the outcome of a natural process. Following massive urbanization and technological advancement in recent decades, countryside has progressively become one of the most frequent leisure destinations for urban residents, while maintaining its fundamental function to support urban areas with food and natural resources. Yet, despite the undeniable impacts of urbanization on rural transformation, the majority of disciplinary studies have ignored the link between prosperity of cities and dramatic alteration of rural communities; only few architecture and urban design studies specifically address rural shifts and their consequences. Based on critical analysis of relevant literature, case studies and investigation of the main aspects of rural spaces—involving population, economy, morphology, culture, and environment—the research presented in this paper sheds light on the tangible and intangible consequences of recent rural changes globally. The study investigates unprecedented recent shifts in rural spaces and discusses how these shifts trigger the functionality of rural to the urban. Finally, the paper challenges the mainstream definitions of rural areas and raises the question of whether current rural settlements can still be named as such.
Approach to Establish Logistics as a Central Scientific Discipline of Tomorrow's Industry
Most of the today’s companies face increasing need to operate efficiently. Driven by global trends like shorter product cycles, mass customization and the rising speed of delivery, manufacturing value chains are becoming more and more distributed. Manufacturing processes are becoming highly integrated, e.g. 3D printing. All these changes are affecting companies´ organization. They are leading towards individual, small scale, and ad-hoc logistics processes and structures, and finally, towards a significant increase in the importance of logistics itself since traditional value chains transform into agile value networks. In the past logistics has been following manufacturing but in the future industry, this role allocation might change. With this increase in the logistics practice of companies and businesses, the relevance of logistics research as the methodological foundation of logistics networks and processes is gaining importance. Logistics research is evolving into a central and highly interdisciplinary science for the future industry. Using the example of Germany, this paper discusses ways to establish logistics as a central scientific discipline of the future industry. About three million people work in the logistics sector in Germany. Only automotive and retail industry have more employees. Even though there is a bunch of logistics degree programs at more than 100 institutions of higher education, a common understanding of logistics as a research discipline is missing. In this paper an innovative approach will be presented, including; identified perspectives on logistics, such as process orientation, IT orientation or employees orientation, relevant scientific disciplines for logistics science, a concept for interdisciplinary research approaches to unify the perspectives of the different scientific disciplines on logistics and the methodological base of logistics science.
Difference between Riding a Bicycle on a Sidewalk or in the Street by Usual Traveling Means
Bicycle users must ride on the street according the law in Japan, but in practice, many bicycle users ride on the sidewalk. Drivers generally feel that bicycles riding in the street are in the way. In contrast, pedestrians generally feel that bicycles riding on the sidewalk are in the way. That seems to make sense. What, then, is the difference between riding a bicycle on the sidewalk or in the street by usual traveling means. We made 3D computer graphics models of pedestrians, a car, and a bicycle at an intersection. The bicycle was positioned to choose between advancing to the sidewalk or the street after a few seconds. We then made a 2D stimulus picture by changing the point of view of the 3DCG model pictures. Attitudes were surveyed using this 2D stimulus picture, and we compared attitudes between three groups, people traveling by car, on foot, or by bicycle. Here we report the survey result.
Verification of the Effect of the Hazard-Perception Training Tool for Drivers Ported from a Tablet Device to a Smartphone
In a previous study, we developed a hazard-perception training tool for drivers using a tablet device and verified its effectiveness. Accident movies recorded by drive recorders were separated into scenes before and after the collision. The scene before the collision is presented to the driver. The driver then touches the screen to point out where he/she feels danger. After the screen is touched, the tool presents the collision scene and tells the driver if what he/she pointed out is correct. Various effects were observed such as this tool increased the discovery rate of collision targets and reduced the reaction time. In this study, we optimized this tool for the smartphone and verified its effectiveness. Verifying in the same way as in the previous study on tablet devices clarified that the same effect can be obtained on the smartphone screen.
Estimation of the Dynamic Fragility of Padre Jacinto Zamora Bridge Due to Traffic Loads
The Philippines, composed of many islands, is connected with approximately 8030 bridges. Continuous evaluation of the structural condition of these bridges is needed to safeguard the safety of the general public. With most bridges reaching its design life, retrofitting and replacement may be needed. Concerned government agencies allocate huge costs for periodic monitoring and maintenance of these structures. The rising volume of traffic and aging of these infrastructures is challenging structural engineers to give rise for structural health monitoring techniques. Numerous techniques are already proposed and some are now being employed in other countries. Vibration Analysis is one way. The natural frequency and vibration of a bridge are design criteria in ensuring the stability, safety and economy of the structure. Its natural frequency must not be so high so as not to cause discomfort and not so low that the structure is so stiff causing it to be both costly and heavy. It is well known that the stiffer the member is, the more load it attracts. The frequency must not also match the vibration caused by the traffic loads. If this happens, a resonance occurs. Vibration that matches a systems frequency will generate excitation and when this exceeds the member’s limit, a structural failure will happen. This study presents a method for calculating dynamic fragility through the use of vibration-based monitoring system. Dynamic fragility is the probability that a structural system exceeds a limit state when subjected to dynamic loads. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 based from the available construction drawings provided by the Department of Public Works and Highways. It was verified and adjusted based from the actual condition of the bridge. The bridge design specifications are also checked using nondestructive tests. The approach used in this method properly accounts the uncertainty of observed values and code-based structural assumptions. The vibration response of the structure due to actual loads is monitored using installed sensors on the bridge. From the determinacy of these dynamic characteristic of a system, threshold criteria can be established and fragility curves can be estimated. This study conducted in relation with the research project between Department of Science and Technology, Mapúa Institute of Technology, and the Department of Public Works and Highways also known as Mapúa-DOST Smart Bridge Project deploys Structural Health Monitoring Sensors at Zamora Bridge. The bridge is selected in coordination with the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structural plans for the bridge are also readily available.
Applying Pre-Accident Observational Methods for Accident Assessment and Prediction at Intersections in Norrkoping City in Sweden
Traffic safety at intersections is highly represented, given the fact that accidents occur randomly in time and space. It is necessary to judge whether the intersection is dangerous or not based on short-term observations, and not waiting for many years of assessing historical accident data. There are active and pro-active road infrastructure safety methods for assessing safety at intersections. This study aims to investigate the use of quantitative and qualitative pre-observational methods as best practice for accident prediction, future black spot identification and treatment. Historical accident data from STRADA (the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) was used within Norrkoping city in Sweden. The ADT (Average Daily Traffic), capacity and speed were used to predict accident rates. Locations with the highest accident records and predicted accident counts were identified and hence audited qualitatively by using Street Audit. The results from these quantitative and qualitative methods were analyzed, validated and compared. The paper provides recommendations on the used methods as well as on how to reduce the accident occurrence at the chosen intersections.
Rear Seat Belt Use in Developing Countries- A Case Study from the United Arab Emirates
The seat belt is a vital tool in improving traffic safety conditions and minimising injuries due to traffic accidents. Most developing countries are facing a big problem in human and financial losses due to traffic crashes. One way to minimise these losses is using seat belts by passengers on the front and rear motor vehicle seats but sometimes close to nothing is known about the rates of seat belt utilisation among rear seat passengers in many developing countries. Therefore, there is a need to estimate these rates in order to know the extent of this problem and how people interact with traffic safety measures like seat belts and find demographic characteristics that contribute to wearing or non-wearing of seat belts with the aim of finding solutions to improve wearing rates. In this paper, an observational study was done to gather data on restraints use on rear motor vehicles seats in eight observational stations in a rapidly developing country, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and estimate a use rate for the whole country. Also, a questionnaire was used in order to study demographic characteristics affecting the wearing of seat belts on rear seats. Results of the observational study showed that the overall wearing rate was 12.3% which is considered very low when compared to other countries. Survey results show that single, male, less educated passengers from Arab and South Asian backgrounds use seat belts reportedly less than others. Finally, solutions are put forward to improve this wearing rate based on the results of this study.
An Approaching Index for to Evaluate a Forward Collision Probability
This paper presents an approaching forward collision probability index (AFCPI) for alerting and assisting driver keeping safety distance to avoid the forward collision accident in highway driving. The time to collision (TTC) and time headway (TH) are used to evaluate the TTC forward collision probability index (TFCPI) and the TH forward collision probability index (HFCPI), respectively. The Mamdani fuzzy inference algorithm is presented combining TFCPI and HFCPI for calculating the approaching collision probability index of the vehicle. The AFCPI is easier understanding for the driver even who didn’t have any professional knowledge in vehicle professional field. At the same time, the driver’s behavior is taking into account for suiting each driver. For the approaching index, the value 0 is indicating the 0% probability of forward collision, and the values 0.5 and 1 are indicating the 50% and 100% probabilities of forward collision respectively. It is useful and easy understanding for the presented approaching index of forward collision for to alert driver to avoid the forward collision accidents when driving in highway. That is the driver understanding completely the meaning of the approaching index.
A Parking Demand Forecasting Method for Making Parking Policy in the Center of Kabul City
Parking demand in the Central Business District (CBD) has enlarged with the increase of the number of private vehicles due to rapid economic growth, lack of an efficient public transport and traffic management system. This has resulted in low mobility, poor accessibility, serious congestion, high rates of traffic accident fatalities and injuries and air pollution, mainly because people have to drive slowly around to find a vacant spot. With parking pricing and enforcement policy, considerable advancement could be found, and on-street parking spaces could be managed efficiently and effectively. To evaluate parking demand and making parking policy, it is required to understand the current parking condition and driver’s behavior, understand how drivers choose their parking type and location as well as their behavior toward finding a vacant parking spot under parking charges and search times. This study illustrates the result from an observational, revealed and stated preference surveys and experiment. Attained data shows that there is a gap between supply and demand in parking and it has maximized. For the modeling of the parking decision, a choice model was constructed based on discrete choice modeling theory and multinomial logit model estimated by using SP survey data; the model represents the choice of an alternative among different alternatives which are priced on-street, off-street, and illegal parking. Individuals choose a parking type based on their preference concerning parking charges, searching times, access times and waiting times. The parking assignment model was obtained directly from behavioral model and is used in parking simulation. The study concludes with an evaluation of parking policy.
Data Calibration of the Actual versus the Theoretical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Based Accelerometer Reading through Remote Monitoring of Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover
This paper shows the application of Structural Health Monitoring, SHM into bridges. Bridges are structures built to provide passage over a physical obstruction such as rivers, chasms or roads. The Philippines has a total of 8,166 national bridges as published on the 2015 atlas of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and only 2,924 or 35.81% of these bridges are in good condition. As a result, PHP 30.464 billion of the 2016 budget of DPWH is allocated on roads and/or bridges maintenance alone. Intensive spending is owed to the present practice of outdated manual inspection and assessment, and poor structural health monitoring of Philippine infrastructures. As the School of Civil, Environmental, & Geological Engineering of Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT) continuous its well driven passion in research based projects, a partnership with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and the DPWH launched the application of Structural Health Monitoring, (SHM) in Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover. The flyover is located along Nagtahan Boulevard in Sta. Mesa, Manila that connects Brgy. 411 and Brgy. 635. It gives service to vehicles going from Lacson Avenue to Mabini Bridge passing over Legarda Flyover. The flyover is chosen among the many located bridges in Metro Manila as the focus of the pilot testing due to its site accessibility, and complete structural built plans and specifications necessary for SHM as provided by the Bureau of Design, BOD department of DPWH. This paper focuses on providing a method to calibrate theoretical readings from STAAD Vi8 Pro and sync the data to actual MEMS accelerometer readings. It is observed that while the design standards used in constructing the flyover was reflected on the model, actual readings of MEMS accelerometer display a large difference compared to the theoretical data ran and taken from STAAD Vi8 Pro. In achieving a true seismic response of the modeled bridge or hence syncing the theoretical data to the actual sensor reading also called as the independent variable of this paper, analysis using single degree of freedom (SDOF) of the flyover under free vibration without damping using STAAD Vi8 Pro is done. The earthquake excitation and bridge responses are subjected to earthquake ground motion in the form of ground acceleration or Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA. Translational acceleration load is used to simulate the ground motion of the time history analysis acceleration record in STAAD Vi8 Pro.
Low Cost Sensors for Rail-Side Tree Canopy Analysis
During the autumn season, leaf fall coupled with adverse weather conditions can create issues with low adhesion on the rail network. This can cause significant problems for the wheel-track interface resulting in delays for passengers. To help mitigate the problem, more information is needed regarding the spatial variation of canopy vegetation alongside railway lines. This research investigated the potential of a low-cost sensor that can capture hemispherical images of tree canopies at a high spatial and temporal resolution. The device comprises of a Raspberry Pi with a fish eye lens which is programmed to capture and analyse tree canopy images over time automatically. Importantly, the onboard PiNoir camera has been modified to capture near infrared imagery to take advantage of the spectral properties of vegetation and thus provide a clearer view of leaves. This waterproof automatic device can be left out in the field over autumn and relay data instantly back to the cloud. By collecting data in this way, daily leaf fall can be monitored along the track, with areas of high leaf fall being reported instantly and assimilated into models. This will allow adhesion management to become more efficient. The device also has potential for use in forested environments.
Conventional Four Steps Travel Demand Modeling for Kabul New City
This research is essential towards transportation planning of Kabul New City. In this research, the travel demand of Kabul metropolitan area (Existing and Kabul New City) are evaluated for three different target years of (2015), (2025, Mid-term) and (2040, Long-term). The outcome of this study indicates that, though currently, the vehicle volume is less than physical capacity of existing road networks, still Kabul city is suffering from daily traffic congestions. This is mainly due to lack of transportation management, the absence of proper policies, improper public transportation system and violation of traffic rules and regulations by inhabitants. On the other hand, the observed result indicates that the current vehicle to capacity ratio (VCR) which is the most used index to judge traffic status in the city is around 0.79. This indicates the inappropriate traffic condition of the city. Moreover, by the growth of population in mid-term (2025) and long-term (2040) and in the case of no development in the road network and transportation system, the VCR value will dramatically increase to 1.40 (2025) and 2.5 (2040). This indicates that the Kabul city is going toward critical situation from an urban transportation perspective. Thus, by introducing high-capacity public transportation system and the development of road network in Kabul New City and integrating these links with the existing city road network, significant improvements were observed in the value of VCR.
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Unified Philippine Accident Reporting and Database System in Optimizing Road Crash Data Usage with Various Stakeholders
The Unified Philippine Accident Reporting and Database System (UPARDS), is a newly developed system by Dr. Francis Aldrine Uy of the Mapua Institute of Technology. The main purpose is to provide an advanced road accident investigation tool, record keeping and analysis system for stakeholders such as Philippine National Police (PNP), Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Health (DOH), and insurance companies. The system is composed of 2 components, the mobile application for road accident investigators that takes advantage of available technology to advance data gathering and the web application that integrates all accident data for the use of all stakeholders. The researchers with the cooperation of PNP’s Vehicle Traffic Investigation Sector of the City of Manila, conducted the field-testing of the application in fifteen (15) accident cases. Simultaneously, the researchers also distributed surveys to PNP, Manila Doctors Hospital, and Charter Ping An Insurance Company to gather their insights regarding the web application. The survey was designed on information systems theory called Technology Acceptance Model. The results of the surveys revealed that the respondents were greatly satisfied with the visualization and functions of the applications as it proved to be effective and far more efficient in comparison with the conventional pen-and-paper method. In conclusion, the pilot study was able to address the need for improvement of the current system.