Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Transport and Vehicle Engineering

345
85925
Relationship between Driving under the Influence and Traffic Safety
Abstract:
Among traffic crashes, driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is the most dangerous behavior in Seoul, South Korea. In 2016 alone 40 deaths occurred on of 2,857 cases of DUI. Since DUI is one of the major factors in increasing the severity of crashes, the intensive management of DUI required to reduce traffic crash deaths and the crash damages. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DUI and traffic safety in order to establish countermeasures for traffic safety improvement. The analysis was conducted on the habitual drivers who drove under the influence. Information of habitual drivers is matched to crash data and fine data. The descriptive statistics on data used in this study, which consists of driver license acquisition, traffic fine, and crash data provided by the Korean National Police Agency, are described. The drivers under the influence are classified by statistically significant criteria, such as driver’s age, license type, driving experience, and crash reasons. With the results of the analysis, we propose some countermeasures to enhance traffic safety.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
344
85628
SkyCar Rapid Transit System: An Integrated Approach of Modern Transportation Solutions in the New Queen Elizabeth Quay, Perth, Western Australia
Abstract:
The SkyCar Rapid Transit System (SRT) is an innovative intelligent transport system for the sustainable urban transport system. This system will increase the urban area network connectivity and decrease urban area traffic congestion. The SRT system is designed as a suspended Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) system that travels under a guideway 5m above the ground. A driver-less passenger is via pod-cars that hang from slender beams supported by columns that replace existing lamp posts. The beams are setup in a series of interconnecting loops providing non-stop travel from beginning to end to assure journey time. The SRT forward movement is effected by magnetic motors built into the guideway. Passenger stops are at either at line level 5m above the ground or ground level via a spur guideway that curves off the main thoroughfare. The main objective of this paper is to propose an integrated Automated Transit Network (ATN) technology for the future intelligent transport system in the urban built environment. To fulfil the objective a 4D simulated model in the urban built environment has been proposed by using the concept of SRT-ATN system. The methodology for the design, construction and testing parameters of a Technology Demonstrator (TD) for proof of concept and a Simulator (S) has been demonstrated. The completed TD and S will provide an excellent proving ground for the next development stage, the SRT Prototype (PT) and Pilot System (PS). This paper covered by a 4D simulated model in the virtual built environment is to effectively show how the SRT-ATN system works. OpenSim software has been used to develop the model in a virtual environment, and the scenario has been simulated to understand and visualize the proposed SkyCar Rapid Transit Network model. The SkyCar system will be fabricated in a modular form which is easily transported. The system would be installed in increasingly congested city centers throughout the world, as well as in airports, tourist resorts, race tracks and other special purpose for the urban community. This paper shares the lessons learnt from the proposed innovation and provides recommendations on how to improve the future transport system in urban built environment. Safety and security of passengers are prime factors to be considered for this transit system. Design requirements to meet the safety needs to be part of the research and development phase of the project. Operational safety aspects would also be developed during this period. The vehicles, the track and beam systems and stations are the main components that need to be examined in detail for safety and security of patrons. Measures will also be required to protect columns adjoining intersections from errant vehicles in vehicular traffic collisions. The SkyCar Rapid Transit takes advantage of all current disruptive technologies; batteries, sensors and 4G/5G communication and solar energy technologies which will continue to reduce the costs and make the systems more profitable. SkyCar's energy consumption is extremely low compared to other transport systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
343
85538
Automation of Savitsky's Method for Power Calculation of High Speed Vessel and Generating Empirical Formula
Abstract:
The design of high-speed craft has recently become one of the most active areas of naval architecture. Speed increase makes these vehicles more efficient and useful for military, economic or leisure purpose. The planing hull is designed specifically to achieve relatively high speed on the surface of the water. Speed on the water surface is closely related to the size of the vessel and the installed power. The Savitsky method was first presented in 1964 for application to non-monohedric hulls and for application to stepped hulls. This method is well known as a reliable comparative to CFD analysis of hull resistance. A computer program based on Savitsky’s method has been developed using MATLAB. The power of high-speed vessels has been computed in this research. At first, the program reads some principal parameters such as displacement, LCG, Speed, Deadrise angle, inclination of thrust line with respect to keel line etc. and calculates the resistance of the hull using empirical planning equations of Savitsky. However, some functions used in the empirical equations are available only in the graphical form, which is not suitable for the automatic computation. We use digital plotting system to extract data from nomogram. As a result, value of wetted length-beam ratio and trim angle can be determined directly from the input of initial variables, which makes the power calculation automated without manually plotting of secondary variables such as p/b and other coefficients and the regression equations of those functions are derived by using data from different charts. Finally, the trim angle, mean wetted length-beam ratio, frictional coefficient, resistance, and power are computed and compared with the results of Savitsky and good agreement has been observed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
342
85135
Predicting Seoul Bus Ridership Using Artificial Neural Network Algorithm with Smartcard Data
Abstract:
Currently, in Seoul, users have the privilege to avoid riding crowded buses with the installation of Bus Information System (BIS). BIS has three levels of on-board bus ridership level information (spacious, normal, and crowded). However, there are flaws in the system due to it being real time which could provide incomplete information to the user. For example, a bus comes to the station, and on the BIS it shows that the bus is crowded, but on the stop that the user is waiting many people get off, which would mean that this station the information should show as normal or spacious. To fix this problem, this study predicts the bus ridership level using smart card data to provide more accurate information about the passenger ridership level on the bus. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an interconnected group of nodes, that was created based on the human brain. Forecasting has been one of the major applications of ANN due to the data-driven self-adaptive methods of the algorithm itself. According to the results, the ANN algorithm was stable and robust with somewhat small error ratio, so the results were rational and reasonable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
341
85068
Toward the Understanding of Shadow Port's Growth: The Level of Shadow Port
Abstract:
The term ‘shadow port’ is used to describe a port whose markets are dominated by an adjacent port that has a more competitive capability. Recently, researchers have put effort into studying the mechanisms of how a regional port, in the shadow of a nearby predominant port which is a capital city port, can compete and grow. However, such mechanism is still unclear. This study thus focuses on understanding the growth of shadow port and the type of shadow port by using the two capital city ports of Thailand; Bangkok port (the former main port) and Laem Chabang port (the current main port), as the case study. By developing an understanding of the mechanisms of shadow, port could ultimately lead to an increase in the competitiveness. In this study, a framework of opportunity capture (introduced by Magala, 2004) will be used to create a framework for the study of the growth of the selected shadow port. In the process of building this framework, five groups of port development experts, consisting of government, council, academia, logistics provider and industry, will be interviewed. To facilitate this work, the Noticing, Collecting and Thinking model which was developed by Seidel (1998) will be used in an analysis of the dataset. The resulting analysis will be used to classify the type of shadow port. The type of these ports will be a significant factor for developing a feasible strategic guideline for the future management planning of ports, particularly, shadow ports, and then to increase the competitiveness of a nation’s maritime transport industry, and eventually lead to a boost in the national economy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
340
85066
Developing a Shadow Port: A Case Study of Bangkok Port and Laem Chabang Port, Thailand
Abstract:
Maritime transportation has been a crucial part of world economics. Recently, researchers have put effort into studying the mechanisms of how a regional port, in the shadow of a nearby predominant port, can compete and grow. However, limited research has focused on the competition issues for a shadow port which is a capital city port. This study will thus focus on this question of the growth of a capital city port which is under the shadow of the adjacent capital city port by using the two capital city ports of Thailand; Bangkok port (the former main port) and Laem Chabang port (the current main port). For this work, a framework of opportunity capture will be used, and five groups of port development experts (government, council, logistics provider, academia and industry) will be interviewed. The responses will be analysed using the noticing, collecting and thinking model. The resulting analysis will be appropriate for use in developing guidelines for the future management of a range of shadow ports established in a capital city, enabling them to operate in a competitive environment more effectively. The resultant growth of these ports will be a significant factor in increasing the competitiveness of a nation’s maritime transport industry and eventually lead to a boost in the national economy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
339
84949
Visualization of the Mobility Patterns of Public Bike Sharing System in Seoul
Abstract:
This study analyzed and visualized the rental and return data of the public bike sharing system in Seoul, Ttareungyi, from September 2015 to October 2017. With the surge of system users, the number of times of collection and distribution in 2017 increased by three times compared to 2016. The city plans to deploy about 20,000 public bicycles by the end of 2017 to expand the system. Based on about 3.3 million historical data, we calculated the average trip time and the number of trips from one station to another station. The mobility patterns between stations are graphically displayed using R and Tableau. Demand for public bike sharing system is heavily influenced by day and weather. As a result of plotting the number of rentals and returns of some stations on weekdays and weekends at intervals of one hour, there was a difference in rental patterns. As a result of analysis of the rental and return patterns by time of day, there were a lot of returns at the morning peak and more rentals at the afternoon peak at the center of the city. It means that stock of bikes varies largely in the time zone and public bikes should be rebalanced timely. The result of this study can be applied as a primary data to construct the demand forecasting function of the station when establishing the rebalancing strategy of the public bicycle.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
338
84191
A Survey on Intelligent Traffic Management with Cooperative Driving in Urban Roads
Abstract:
Traffic management and traffic planning are important issues, especially in big cities. Due to the increase of personal vehicles and the physical constraints of urban roads, the problem of transportation especially in crowded cities over time is revealed. This situation reduces the living standards, and it can put human life at risk because the vehicles such as ambulance, fire department are prevented from reaching their targets. Even if the city planners take these problems into account, emergency planning and traffic management are needed to avoid cases such as traffic congestion, intersections, traffic jams caused by traffic accidents or roadworks. In this study, in smart traffic management issues, proposed solutions using intelligent vehicles acting in cooperation with urban roads are examined. Traffic management is becoming more difficult due to factors such as fatigue, carelessness, sleeplessness, social behavior patterns, and lack of education. However, autonomous vehicles, which remove the problems caused by human weaknesses by providing driving control, are increasing the success of practicing the algorithms developed in city traffic management. Such intelligent vehicles have become an important solution in urban life by using 'swarm intelligence' algorithms and cooperative driving methods to provide traffic flow, prevent traffic accidents, and increase living standards. In this study, studies conducted in this area have been dealt with in terms of traffic jam, intersections, regulation of traffic flow, signaling, prevention of traffic accidents, cooperation and communication techniques of vehicles, fleet management, transportation of emergency vehicles. From these concepts, some taxonomies were made out of the way. This work helps to develop new solutions and algorithms for cities where intelligent vehicles that can perform cooperative driving can take place, and at the same time emphasize the trend in this area.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
337
83233
Performance of Bridge Approach Slabs in Bridge Construction: A Case Study
Abstract:
Long-term differential settlement between the bridge structure and the bridge embankment typically results in an abrupt grade change, causing driver discomfort, impairing driver safety, and exerting a potentially excessive impact traffic loading on the abutment. This paper has analysed a case of study showing the effect of an approaching slab realized in a bridge constructed at Tirane-Elbasan Motorway. The layer thickness under the slab is modeled as homogenous, the slab is a reinforced concrete structure and over that the asphaltic layers take place. Analysis indicates that reinforced concrete approaching slab distributes the stresses quite uniformly into the road fill layers and settlements varies in a range less than 2.50 cm in the total slab length of 6.00 m with a maximum slope of 1/240. Results taken from analytical analysis are compared with topographic measurements done on field and they carry great similarities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
336
83231
A Survey on Intelligent Connected-Vehicle Applications Based on Intercommunication Techniques in Smart Cities
Abstract:
Connected-Vehicles consists of intelligent vehicles, each of which can communicate with each other. Smart Cities are the most prominent application area of intelligent vehicles that can communicate with each other. The most important goal that is desired to be realized in Smart Cities planned for facilitating people's lives is to make transportation more comfortable and safe with intelligent/autonomous/driverless vehicles communicating with each other. In order to ensure these, the city must have communication infrastructure in the first place, and the vehicles must have the features to communicate with this infrastructure and with each other. In this context, intelligent transport studies to solve all transportation and traffic problems in classical cities continue to increase rapidly. In this study, current connected-vehicle applications developed for smart cities are considered in terms of communication techniques, vehicular networking, IoT, urban transportation implementations, intelligent traffic management, road safety, self driving. Taxonomies and assessments performed in the work show the trend of studies in inter-vehicle communication systems in smart cities and they are contributing to by ensuring that the requirements in this area are revealed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
335
83097
Three-Stage Least Squared Models of a Station-Level Subway Ridership: Incorporating an Analysis on Integrated Transit Network Topology Measures
Abstract:
The urban transit system is a critical part of a solution to the economic, energy, and environmental challenges. Furthermore, it ultimately contributes the improvement of people’s quality of lives. For taking these kinds of advantages, the city of Seoul has tried to construct an integrated transit system including both subway and buses. The effort led to the fact that approximately 6.9 million citizens use the integrated transit system every day for their trips. Diagnosing the current transit network is a significant task to provide more convenient and pleasant transit environment. Therefore, the critical objective of this study is to establish a methodological framework for the analysis of an integrated bus-subway network and to examine the relationship between subway ridership and parameters such as network topology measures, bus demand, and a variety of commercial business facilities. Regarding a statistical approach to estimate subway ridership at a station level, many previous studies relied on Ordinary Least Square regression, but there was lack of studies considering the endogeneity issues which might show in the subway ridership prediction model. This study focused on both discovering the impacts of integrated transit network topology measures and endogenous effect of bus demand on subway ridership. It could ultimately contribute to developing more accurate subway ridership estimation accounting for its statistical bias. The spatial scope of the study covers Seoul city in South Korea, and it includes 243 subway stations and 10,120 bus stops with the temporal scope set during twenty-four hours with one-hour interval time panels each. The subway and bus ridership information in detail was collected from the Seoul Smart Card data in 2015 and 2016. First, integrated subway-bus network topology measures which have characteristics regarding connectivity, centrality, transitivity, and reciprocity were estimated based on the complex network theory. The results of integrated transit network topology analysis were compared to subway-only network topology. Also, the non-recursive approach which is Three-Stage Least Square was applied to develop the daily subway ridership model as capturing the endogeneity between bus and subway demands. Independent variables included roadway geometry, commercial business characteristics, social-economic characteristics, safety index, transit facility attributes, and dummies for seasons and time zone. Consequently, it was found that network topology measures were significant size effect. Especially, centrality measures showed that the elasticity was a change of 4.88% for closeness centrality, 24.48% for betweenness centrality while the elasticity of bus ridership was 8.85%. Moreover, it was proved that bus demand and subway ridership were endogenous in a non-recursive manner as showing that predicted bus ridership and predicted subway ridership is statistically significant in OLS regression models. Therefore, it shows that three-stage least square model appears to be a plausible model for efficient subway ridership estimation. It is expected that the proposed approach provides a reliable guideline that can be used as part of the spectrum of tools for evaluating a city-wide integrated transit network.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
334
82352
Evaluation of Manual and Automatic Calibration Methods for Digital Tachographs
Abstract:
This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the need for automotive calibration methods for digital tachographs. Digital tachographs are mandatory for vehicles used in people and goods transport and they are an important aspect of road safety and inspection. Digital tachographs need to be calibrated for workshops in order for the digital tachograph to display and record speed and odometer values correctly. By regulation, the calibration of digital tachographs can be manual or automatic. It is shown in this paper that manual calibration of digital tachographs is prone to errors and the deviation between manual and automatic calibration parameters is out of acceptable limits. Therefore it is maintained that automatic calibration methods are in order for digital tachograph calibration and the legislation should be revised to prevent manual calibration approaches. The presented experimental results and error analysis clearly support the claims of the paper by evaluating and statistically comparing manual and automatic calibration methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
333
81501
Comparative Operating Speed and Speed Differential Day and Night Time Models for Two Lane Rural Highways
Abstract:
Speed is the independent parameter which plays a vital role in the highway design. Design consistency of the highways is checked based on the variation in the operating speed. Often the design consistency fails to meet the driver’s expectation which results in the difference between operating and design speed. Literature reviews have shown that significant crashes take place in horizontal curves due to lack of design consistency. The paper focuses on continuous speed profile study on tangent to curve transition for both day and night daytime. Data is collected using GPS device which gives continuous speed profile and other parameters such as acceleration, deceleration were analyzed along with Tangent to Curve Transition. In this present study, models were developed to predict operating speed on tangents and horizontal curves as well as model indicating the speed reduction from tangent to curve based on continuous speed profile data. It is observed from the study that vehicle tends to decelerate from approach tangent to between beginning of the curve and midpoint of the curve and then accelerates from curve to tangent transition. The models generated were compared for both day and night and can be used in the road safety improvement by evaluating the geometric design consistency.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
332
81314
Exploring Health-Related Inequalities between Private, Public and Active Transport Users, Using Relative Importance Index: Case Study on Santiago de Chile
Abstract:
The aim of the paper is recognising inequalities through the self-assessment of health-related factors, in the context of daily mobilities in Santiago de Chile. Human capabilities will be used as the theoretical basis for the recognition and assessment of these factors regarding the functioning (what people are currently able to do) and capabilities (what people want to achieve and what is valuable for them), reflecting differences across social groups and among types of transport users. The self-assessment of health-related factors considers perceptions of stress, physical effort, proximity to other transport users, pollution, safety, and comfort. The types of transport users are classified as: private (cars, taxis, colectivos, motos), public (buses and metro) and active (bicycles and walking). The methodology follows a capability-based questionnaire, which was applied in different areas of Santiago de Chile, considering concepts extracted from the human capabilities list. The self-assessment of these health-related factors examines the context of peoples’ mobilities for performing their daily activities, considering socioeconomic differences as income, age, gender, disabilities, residence location and primary mode choice. The paper uses Relative Importance Index (RII) for weighting the relative influence or valuation of the factors. The respondents were asked to rate the importance of each factor on a scale from 1 to 5, in an ascending order of importance. The results suggest that these health-related factors impact not just the perceptions of users, but their well-being and their propensity for achieving their capabilities and the things they value in life. The paper is focused on the development of an applicable approach, measuring factors that should be included in transport project appraisal, as a more comprehensive and complementary method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
331
81288
Travel Time Estimation of Public Transport Networks Based on Commercial Incidence Areas in Quito Historic Center
Abstract:
Public transportation buses usually vary the speed depending on the places with the number of passengers. They require having efficient travel planning, a plan that will help them choose the fast route. Initially, an estimation tool is necessary to determine the travel time of each route, clearly establishing the possibilities. In this work, we give a practical solution that makes use of a concept that defines as areas of commercial incidence. These areas are based on the hypothesis that in the commercial places there is a greater flow of people and therefore the buses remain more time in the stops. The areas have one or more segments of routes, which have an incidence factor that allows to estimate the times. In addition, initial results are presented that verify the hypotheses and that promise adequately the travel times. In a future work, we take this approach to make an efficient travel planning system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
330
81275
Travel Planning in Public Transport Networks Applying the Algorithm A* for Metropolitan District of Quito
Abstract:
The present project consists in applying the informed search algorithm A star (A*) to solve traveler problems, applying it by urban public transportation routes. The digitization of the information allowed to identify 26% of the total of routes that are registered within the Metropolitan District of Quito. For the validation of this information, data were taken in field on the travel times and the difference with respect to the times estimated by the program, resulting in that the difference between them was not greater than 2:20 minutes. We validate A* algorithm with the Dijkstra algorithm, comparing nodes vectors based on the public transport stops, the validation was established through the student t-test hypothesis. Then we verified that the times estimated by the program using the A* algorithm are similar to those registered on field. Furthermore, we review the performance of the algorithm generating iterations in both algorithms. Finally, with these iterations, a hypothesis test was carried out again with student t-test where it was concluded that the iterations of the base algorithm Dijsktra are greater than those generated by the algorithm A*.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
329
80530
Estimation of Traffic Information of Missing Links in Urban Arterials Using Bayesian Network
Abstract:
Traffic information helps drivers to travel a faster path or to estimate time when they reach destination. Since information collecting system including detecting devices are imperfect, there exist missing links. To get missing links traffic information, this study aims to estimate and complement traffic information of missing links using Bayesian network. The reason of applying Bayesian network is that traffic information of each link have dependencies with adjacent links because vehicles on links move continuously from link to link. The scope of the study is urban arterials in Daegu metropolitan city, South Korea. Based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) data of Dalgubeol-daero in Daegu metropolitan city, an algorithm using R programming was developed. Results showed that the Bayesian network methodology efficiently estimated the traffic information of missing links. Using the algorithm proposed in this study, Daegu metropolitan city is able to provide high-quality traffic information to its citizens.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
328
80526
Using Open Source Data and GIS Techniques to Overcome Data Deficiency and Accuracy Issues in the Construction and Validation of Transportation Network: Case of Kinshasa City
Abstract:
An accurate representation of the transportation system serving the region is one of the important aspects of transportation modeling. Such representation often requires developing an abstract model of the system elements, which also requires important amount of data, surveys and time. However, in some cases such as in developing countries, data deficiencies, time and budget constraints do not always allow such accurate representation, leaving opportunities to assumptions that may negatively affect the quality of the analysis. With the emergence of Internet open source data especially in the mapping technologies as well as the advances in Geography Information System, opportunities to tackle these issues have raised. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to demonstrate such application through a practical case of the development of the transportation network for the city of Kinshasa. The GIS geo-referencing was used to construct the digitized map of Transportation Analysis Zones using available scanned images. Centroids were then dynamically placed at the center of activities using an activities density map. Next, the road network with its characteristics was built using OpenStreet data and other official road inventory data by intersecting their layers and cleaning up unnecessary links such as residential streets. The accuracy of the final network was then checked, comparing it with satellite images from Google and Bing. For the validation, the final network was exported into Emme3 to check for potential network coding issues. Results show a high accuracy between the built network and satellite images, which can mostly be attributed to the use of open source data.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
327
80508
The Planning Strategies of Public Sports Facilities Based on the Field Investigation: Case Study of Songyuan, China
Abstract:
With the National Fitness Program being established as a national strategy by the Chinese government, Chinese old planning strategies of sports facilities which are based on the purpose for hosting high-level sports events have been failed to meet the rapid growth of Chinese residents’ healthy needs. As the most important carrier for promoting the health of citizens in China, public sports facilities may have further conflicts when they are planned without considering the characteristics of the city itself and the fitness needs of the urban residents. With the planning practice in Songyuan in northeastern China, this paper explores the key planning strategies of public sports facilities through the field investigation to obtain the current situation of public sports facilities in Songyuan and the questionnaire to get the date of Songyuan residents’ fitness characteristics and needs. Findings from this investigation suggest that the planning of public sports facilities in Songyuan should first increase the quantities of public sports facilities at the community level, which could match the fitness population and meet the fitness needs in Songyuan. Secondly, the planning should combine with other available resources, such as urban parks, squares and other places where Songyuan residents often choose to do physical activities to enhance the vitality of public sports facilities. Finally, the planning should also link the urban transportation system in Songyuan to improve the accessibility and efficiency of public sports facilities. All these planning strategies could provide essential information for updating the urban and regional design of Songyuan.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
326
80506
A Study on Bicycle Riding Behavior on Bike-Only Road
Abstract:
Recently, riding a bicycle is recommended as an eco-friendly means of transportation. In Seoul, the mayor has secured budget for extending bicycle infrastructure. As bicycle rental centers are adopted in places, more citizens are using bike rental service on bike-only roads for leisure. However, most of the citizens are not experienced in riding bicycles. They usually do not wear helmets, keep the balance of bicycle riding, and pay attention to nearby occasions. Therefore, in this study, bicycles on Han-river bike-only road were tracked, and their behaviors were analyzed in order to show how dangerously beginner riders are riding. The number of conflicts is calculated to evaluate riding safety on the most crowded bike-only road. As a result, conflicts between beginner riders and fast-driving skilled drivers are frequently observed especially at night, and on weekends. In conclusion, it is suggested that the government should acknowledge citizens the fact that bikes are vehicles and adopt a test for bike driving.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
325
80452
Estimating Destinations of Bus Passengers Using Smart Card Data
Abstract:
Nowadays, automatic fare collection (AFC) system is widely used in many countries. However, smart card data from many of cities does not contain alighting information which is necessary to build OD matrices. Therefore, in order to utilize smart card data, destinations of passengers should be estimated. In this paper, kernel density estimation was used to forecast probabilities of alighting stations of bus passengers and applied to smart card data in Seoul, Korea which contains boarding and alighting information. This method was also validated with actual data. In some cases, stochastic method was more accurate than deterministic method. Therefore, it is sufficiently accurate to be used to build OD matrices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
324
80430
A Statistical Study on Young UAE Driver’s Behavior towards Road Safety
Abstract:
Road safety and associated behaviors have received significant attention in recent years, reflecting general public concern. This paper portrays a statistical scenario of the young drivers in UAE with emphasis on various concern points of young driver’s behavior and license issuance. Although there are many factors contributing to road accidents, statistically it is evident that age plays a major role in road accidents. Despite ensuring strict road safety laws enforced by the UAE government, there is a staggering correlation among road accidents and young driver’s at UAE. However, private organizations like BMW and RoadSafetyUAE have extended its support on conducting surveys on driver’s behavior with an aim to ensure road safety. Various strategies such as road safety law enforcement, license issuance, adapting new technologies like safety cameras and raising awareness can be implemented to improve the road safety concerns among young drivers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
323
80309
Study on Influencing Factors of Walkability of Rail Transit Station Area
Abstract:
Based on the comparative analysis of the relevant evaluation methods of walking environment, this paper selects the combined evaluation method of macro urban morphology analysis and micro urban design quality survey, then investigates and analyzes the walking environment of three rail transit station area in Nanjing to explore the influence factor and internal relation of walkability of rail transit station area. Analysis shows that micro urban design factors have greater impact on the walkability of rail transit station area compared with macro urban morphology factors, the convenience is the key factor in the four aspects of convenience, security, identity and comfortability of the urban design factors, the convenience is not only affected by the block network form, but also related to the quality of the street space. The overall evaluation of walkability comes from the overlapping and regrouping of the walking environment at different levels, but some environmental factors play a leading role. The social attributes of pedestrians also partly influence their walking perception and evaluation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
322
80208
Spatial Accessibility Analysis of Kabul City Public Transport
Abstract:
Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan. It is the focal point of educational, industrial, etc. of Afghanistan. Additionally, the population of Kabul has grown recently and will increase because of return of refugees and shifting of people from other province to Kabul city. However, this increase in population, the issues of urban congestion and other related problems of urban transportation in Kabul city arises. One of the problems is public transport (large buses) service and needs to be modified and enhanced especially large bus routes that are operating in each zone of the 22 zone of Kabul City. To achieve the above mentioned goal of improving public transport, Spatial Accessibility Analysis is one of the important attributes to assess the effectiveness of transportation system and urban transport policy of a city, because accessibility indicator as an alternative tool to support public policy that aims the reinforcement of sustainable urban space. The case study of this research compares the present model (present bus route) and the modified model of public transport. Furthermore, present model, the bus routes in most of the zones are active, however, with having low frequency and unpublished schedule, and accessibility result is analyzed in four cases, based on the variables of accessibility. Whereas in modified model all zones in Kabul is taken into consideration with having specified origin and high frequency. Indeed the number of frequencies is kept high; however, this number is based on the number of buses Millie Bus Enterprise Authority (MBEA) owns. The same approach of cases is applied in modified model to figure out the best accessibility for the modified model. Indeed, the modified model is having a positive impact in congestion level in Kabul city. Besides, analyses of person trip and trip distribution have been also analyzed because how people move in the study area by each mode of transportation. So, the general aims of this research are to assess the present movement of people, identify zones in need of public transport and assess equity level of accessibility in Kabul city. The framework of methodology used in this research is based on gravity analysis model of accessibility; besides, generalized cost (time) of travel and travel mode is calculated. The main data come from person trip survey, socio-economic characteristics, demographic data by Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2008, study of Kabul city and also from the previous researches on travel pattern and the remaining data regarding present bus line and routes have been from MBEA. In conclusion, this research explores zones where public transport accessibility level is high and where it is low. It was found that both models the downtown area or central zones of Kabul city is having high level accessibility. Besides, the present model is the most unfavorable compared with the modified model based on the accessibility analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
321
80202
Modeling Activity Pattern Using XGBoost for Mining Smart Card Data
Abstract:
Smart-card data are expected to provide information on activity pattern as an alternative to conventional person trip surveys. The focus of this study is to propose a method for training the person trip surveys to supplement the smart-card data that does not contain the purpose of each trip. We selected only available features from smart card data such as spatiotemporal information on the trip and geographic information system (GIS) data near the stations to train the survey data. XGboost, which is state-of-the-art tree-based ensemble classifier, was used to train data from multiple sources. This classifier uses a more regularized model formalization to control the over-fitting and show very fast execution time with well-performance. The validation results showed that proposed method efficiently estimated the trip purpose. GIS data of station and duration of stay at the destination were significant features in modeling trip purpose.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
320
80183
Missing Link Data Estimation with Recurrent Neural Network: An Application Using Speed Data of Daegu Metropolitan Area
Abstract:
In terms of ITS, information on link characteristic is an essential factor for plan or operation. But in practical cases, not every link has installed sensors on it. The link that doesn’t have data on it called 'Missing Link.' The purpose of this study is to impute data of this missing links. To get these data, this study applies the machine learning method. With machine learning, especially for deep learning process can estimate missing link data from present link data. For deep learning process, this study used 'Recurrent Neural Network' to take time-series data of road. As input data, dedicated short-range communications(DSRC) data of Dalgubul-daero of Daegu Metropolitan Area had been fed into the learning process. Neural network structure has 17 links of present data as input, 15 hidden layers, for 1 missing link data. As a result, data of target link was taken about 85% of accuracy compared with actual data.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
319
78448
Analysis of Train Passenger Seat Using Ergonomic Function Deployment Method
Abstract:
Indonesian people use trains for their transportation, especially they use economy class train transportation because it is cheaper and has a more precise schedule than any other ground transportation. Nevertheless, the economy class passenger seat raises some inconvenience issues for passengers. This is due to the design of the chair on the economic class of trains that did not adjusted to the shape of anthropometry of Indonesian people. Thus, research needs to be conducted on the design of the seats in the economic class of trains. The purpose of this research is to make the design of economy class passenger seats ergonomic. This research method uses questionnaires and anthropometry measurements. The data obtained is processed using House of Quality of Ergonomic Function Development. From the results of analysis and data processing were obtained important changes from the original design. Ergonomic chair design according to the analysis is a stainless steel frame, seat height 390 mm, with a seat width for each passenger of 400 mm and a depth of 400 mm. Design of the backrest has a height of 840 mm, width of 430 mm and length of 300 mm that can move at the angle of 105-115 degrees. The width of the footrest is 42 mm and 400 mm length. The thickness of the seat cushion is 100 mm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
318
78445
Effect of Compressibility of Brake Friction Materials on Vibration Occurrence
Abstract:
Brakes are one of the most important safety and performance components in automobiles and airplanes. Development of brakes has mainly focused on increasing braking power and stability. Nowadays, brake noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) together with brake dust emission and pad life are very important to vehicle drivers. The main objective of this research is to define the relationship between compressibility of friction materials and their tendency to generate vibration. An experimental study of the friction-induced vibration obtained by the disc brake system of a passenger car is conducted. Three commercial brake pad materials from different manufacturers are tested and evaluated under various brake conditions against cast iron disc brake. First of all, compressibility test for the brake friction material are measured for each pad. Then, brake dynamometer is used to simulate and reproduce actual vehicle braking conditions. Finally, a comparison between the three pad specimens is conducted. The results showed that compressibility have a very significant effect on reduction the vibration occurrence.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
317
78413
Determining Abnomal Behaviors in UAV Robots for Trajectory Control in Teleoperation
Authors:
Abstract:
Change points are abrupt variations in a data sequence. Detection of change points is useful in modeling, analyzing, and predicting time series in application areas such as robotics and teleoperation. In this paper, a change point is defined to be a discontinuity in one of its derivatives. This paper presents a reliable method for detecting discontinuities within a three-dimensional trajectory data. The problem of determining one or more discontinuities is considered in regular and irregular trajectory data from teleoperation. We examine the geometric detection algorithm and illustrate the use of the method on real data examples.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
316
78396
Effectiveness of Variable Speed Limit Signs in Reducing Crash Rates on Roadway Construction Work Zones in Alaska
Abstract:
As a driver's speed increases, so do the probability of an incident and likelihood of injury. The presence of equipment, personnel, and a changing landscape in construction zones create greater potential for incident. This is especially concerning in Alaska, where summer construction activity, coinciding with the peak annual traffic volumes, cannot be avoided. In order to reduce vehicular speeding in work zones, and therefore the probability of crash and incident occurrence, variable speed limit (VSL) systems can be implemented in the form of radar speed display trailers since the radar speed display trailers were shown to be effective at reducing vehicular speed in construction zones. Allocation of VSL not only help reduce the 85th percentile speed but also it will predominantly reduce mean speed as well. Total of 2147 incidents along with 385 crashes occurred only in one month around the construction zone in the Alaska which seriously requires proper attention. This research provided a thorough crash analysis to better understand the cause and provide proper countermeasures. Crashes were predominantly recoded as vehicle- object collision and sideswipe type and thus significant amount of crashes fall in the group of no injury to minor injury type in the severity class. But still, 35 major crashes with 7 fatal ones in a one month period require immediate action like the implementation of the VSL system as it proved to be a speed reducer in the construction zone on Alaskan roadways.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):