Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 42523

Transport and Vehicle Engineering

Data Calibration of the Actual versus the Theoretical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Based Accelerometer Reading through Remote Monitoring of Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover
This paper shows the application of Structural Health Monitoring, SHM into bridges. Bridges are structures built to provide passage over a physical obstruction such as rivers, chasms or roads. The Philippines has a total of 8,166 national bridges as published on the 2015 atlas of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and only 2,924 or 35.81% of these bridges are in good condition. As a result, PHP 30.464 billion of the 2016 budget of DPWH is allocated on roads and/or bridges maintenance alone. Intensive spending is owed to the present practice of outdated manual inspection and assessment, and poor structural health monitoring of Philippine infrastructures. As the School of Civil, Environmental, & Geological Engineering of Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT) continuous its well driven passion in research based projects, a partnership with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and the DPWH launched the application of Structural Health Monitoring, (SHM) in Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover. The flyover is located along Nagtahan Boulevard in Sta. Mesa, Manila that connects Brgy. 411 and Brgy. 635. It gives service to vehicles going from Lacson Avenue to Mabini Bridge passing over Legarda Flyover. The flyover is chosen among the many located bridges in Metro Manila as the focus of the pilot testing due to its site accessibility, and complete structural built plans and specifications necessary for SHM as provided by the Bureau of Design, BOD department of DPWH. This paper focuses on providing a method to calibrate theoretical readings from STAAD Vi8 Pro and sync the data to actual MEMS accelerometer readings. It is observed that while the design standards used in constructing the flyover was reflected on the model, actual readings of MEMS accelerometer display a large difference compared to the theoretical data ran and taken from STAAD Vi8 Pro. In achieving a true seismic response of the modeled bridge or hence syncing the theoretical data to the actual sensor reading also called as the independent variable of this paper, analysis using single degree of freedom (SDOF) of the flyover under free vibration without damping using STAAD Vi8 Pro is done. The earthquake excitation and bridge responses are subjected to earthquake ground motion in the form of ground acceleration or Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA. Translational acceleration load is used to simulate the ground motion of the time history analysis acceleration record in STAAD Vi8 Pro.
Low Cost Sensors for Rail-Side Tree Canopy Analysis
During the autumn season, leaf fall coupled with adverse weather conditions can create issues with low adhesion on the rail network. This can cause significant problems for the wheel-track interface resulting in delays for passengers. To help mitigate the problem, more information is needed regarding the spatial variation of canopy vegetation alongside railway lines. This research investigated the potential of a low-cost sensor that can capture hemispherical images of tree canopies at a high spatial and temporal resolution. The device comprises of a Raspberry Pi with a fish eye lens which is programmed to capture and analyse tree canopy images over time automatically. Importantly, the onboard PiNoir camera has been modified to capture near infrared imagery to take advantage of the spectral properties of vegetation and thus provide a clearer view of leaves. This waterproof automatic device can be left out in the field over autumn and relay data instantly back to the cloud. By collecting data in this way, daily leaf fall can be monitored along the track, with areas of high leaf fall being reported instantly and assimilated into models. This will allow adhesion management to become more efficient. The device also has potential for use in forested environments.
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Unified Philippine Accident Reporting and Database System in Optimizing Road Crash Data Usage with Various Stakeholders
The Unified Philippine Accident Reporting and Database System (UPARDS), is a newly developed system by Dr. Francis Aldrine Uy of the Mapua Institute of Technology. The main purpose is to provide an advanced road accident investigation tool, record keeping and analysis system for stakeholders such as Philippine National Police (PNP), Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Health (DOH), and insurance companies. The system is composed of 2 components, the mobile application for road accident investigators that takes advantage of available technology to advance data gathering and the web application that integrates all accident data for the use of all stakeholders. The researchers with the cooperation of PNP’s Vehicle Traffic Investigation Sector of the City of Manila, conducted the field-testing of the application in fifteen (15) accident cases. Simultaneously, the researchers also distributed surveys to PNP, Manila Doctors Hospital, and Charter Ping An Insurance Company to gather their insights regarding the web application. The survey was designed on information systems theory called Technology Acceptance Model. The results of the surveys revealed that the respondents were greatly satisfied with the visualization and functions of the applications as it proved to be effective and far more efficient in comparison with the conventional pen-and-paper method. In conclusion, the pilot study was able to address the need for improvement of the current system.
Road Accidents to School Children’s in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Road accidents resulting to deaths and injuries have become a new public health challenge especially in developing countries including Tanzania. Reports from Tanzania Traffic Police Force shows that last year 2016 accidents increased compare to previous year 2015, accident happened from 3710 up to 5219, accidents and safety data indicate that children are the most vulnerable to road crashes where 78 pupils died and 182 others were seriously injured in separate roads accident last year. A survey done by Amend indicates that Pupil mode of transport in Dar es salaam schools are by walk 87%, bus 9.21%, car 1.32%, motorcycle 0.88%, 3-wheeler 0.24%, train 0.14%, bicycle 0.10%, ferry 0.07%, and combined mode 0.44%. According to this study, majority of school children’s uses walking mode, most of school children’s agreed to continue using walking mode and request to have signs for traffic control during crossing road like STOP sign and CHILD CROSSING sign for safe crossing. Because children not only sit inside this buses (Daladala) but also they walk in a group to/from school, and few (33.2%) parents or adults are willing to supervise their children’s during working to school while 50% of parents agree to let their children walking alone to school if the public transport started from nearby street. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods of research by conducting physical surveying on sample districts. The main objectives of this research are to carries out all factors affecting school children’s when they use public road, to promote and encourage the safe use of public road by all classes especially pupil or student through the circulation of advice, information and knowledge gain from research and to recommends future direction for the developments for road design or plan to vulnerable users. The research also critically analyze the problems causing death and injuries to school children’s in Dar es Salaam Region. This study determines the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors, such as socio-economic, status, and distance from school, number of sibling, behavioral problems, knowledge and attitudes of public and their parents towards road safety and parent educational study traffic. The study comes up with some of recommendations including Infrastructure Improvements like, safe footpaths, Safe crossings, Speed humps, Speed limits, Road signs. However, Planners and policymakers wishing to increase walking and cycling among children need to consider options that address distance constraints, the land use planners and transport professionals use better understanding of the various factors that affect children’s choices of school travel mode, results suggest that all school travel attributes should be considered during school location.
Road Accidents in Urban and Rural Areas in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Motorcycles transport commonly known as (Boda boda) in Tanzania has been growing up in the recent years in both urban and rural areas. Since motorcycles have been authorized to carry passengers in Tanzania they have been associated with many accidents resulting in large number of deaths and injuries in the country. Most of the road traffic injury victims are passengers, motorcyclists and pedestrians. Males are over represented in all cases. Most of the deceased were 18-29 years old. The increase of motorcycles has been accompanied with the increase of motorcycle crashes causing deaths and injuries to passengers as well as riders. According to the data collected, the statistics shows that from January to December 2015, the total number of 4079 motorcycles was involved in accidents in the country, causing 1747 deaths and 4826 injuries. Compares to the report of January to December 2014 whereby the total number of motorcycles involved in accidents were 3710, causing 1423 deaths and 3622 injuries. This is according to the report provided by the Road safety Chief Commander in Tanzania.
Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock
This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.
Velocity Logs Error Reduction for In-Service Calibration of Vessel Performance Indicators
Vessel behavior in different operational and weather conditions constitutes the main area of interest for the ship operator. Ship speed and fuel consumption are the most decisive parameters in this respect, as their correlation provides information about the economic and environmental efficiency of the vessel, becoming the basis of decision making in terms of maintenance and trading. In the analysis of vessel operational profile for the evaluation of fuel consumption and the equivalent CO2 emissions footprint, the indications of Speed Through Water are widely used. The seasonal and regional variations in seawater characteristics, which are available nowadays, can provide the basis for accurate estimation of the errors in Speed Through Water indications at any time. Accuracy in the speed value on a route basis can enable operator identify the ship fuel and propulsion efficiency and proceed with improvements. This paper discusses case studies, where the actual vessel speed was corrected by a post-processing algorithm. The effects of the vessel correction to standard Key Performance Indicators, as well as operational findings not identified earlier, are also discussed.
A Study of Traditional Mode in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transportation
The traditional mode is a non-motorized vehicle powered by human or animal power. The objective of the study was to define the strategy of using traditional modes by the framework of sustainable urban transport in support of urban tourism activities. The study of the traditional mode does not include a modified mode using the engine power as motor tricycles are often called ‘bentor ‘in Indonesia. The use of non-motorized traditional mode in Indonesia has begun to shift, and its use began to be eliminated by the change of propulsion using the machine. In an effort to push back the use of traditional mode one of them with tourism activities. Strategies for the use of traditional modes within the framework of sustainable urban transport are seen from three dimensions: social, economic and environmental. The social dimension related to accessibility and livability, an economic dimension related to traditional modes can promote products and tourist attractions, while the environmental dimension related to the needs of the users/groups with respect to safety, comfort. The traditional mode is rarely noticed by the policy makers, and public opinion in its use needs attention. The involvement of policy-making between stakeholders and the community is needed in the development of sustainable traditional mode strategies in support of urban tourism activities.
Increased Stability of Rubber-Modified Asphalt Mixtures to Swelling, Expansion and Rebound Effect during Post-Compaction
The application of rubber into bituminous mixtures requires attention and careful during mixing and compaction. Rubber modifies the properties because it reacts in the internal structure of bitumen at high temperatures changing the performance of the mixture (interaction process of solvents with binder-rubber aggregate). The main change is the increasing of the viscosity and elasticity of the binder due to the larger sizes of the rubber particles by dry process but, this positive effect is counteracted by short mixing times, compared to wet technology, and due to the transport processes, curing time and post-compaction of the mixtures. Therefore, negative effects as swelling of rubber particles, rebounding effect of the specimens and thermal changes by different expansion of the structure inside the mixtures, can change the mechanical properties of the rubberized blends. Based on the dry technology, different asphalt-rubber binders using devulcanized or natural rubber (truck and bus tread rubber), have served to demonstrate these effects and how to solve them into two dense-gap graded rubber modified asphalt concrete mixes (RUMAC) to enhance the stability, workability and durability of the compacted samples by Superpave gyratory compactor method. This paper specifies the procedures developed in the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Palermo during September 2016 to March 2017, for characterising the post-compaction and mix-stability of the one conventional mixture (hot mix asphalt without rubber) and two gap-graded rubberized asphalt mixes according granulometry for rail sub-ballast layers with nominal size of Ø22.4mm of aggregates according European standard. Thus, the main purpose of this laboratory research is the application of ambient ground rubber from scrap tires processed at conventional temperature (20ºC) inside hot bituminous mixtures (160-220ºC) as a substitute for 1.5%, 2% and 3% by weight of the total aggregates (3.1 to 6.2% by volumetric part of the limestone aggregates with density 2.81g/cm3) considered, not as a part of the asphalt binder. The reference bituminous mixture was designed with 4% of binder and ±3% of air voids, manufactured for a conventional bitumen B50/70 at 160ºC-145ºC mix-compaction temperatures to guarantee the workability of the mixes. The proportions of rubber proposed are 60-40% and 20-80% for each rubber fractions descripted, respectively (as example, a 60% of Ø0.4-2mm and 40% of Ø2-4mm). The temperature of the asphalt cement is between 160-180ºC for mixing and 145-160ºC for compaction, according the optimal values for viscosity using Brookfield viscometer and ‘ring and ball’ - penetration tests. These crumb rubber particles act as a rubber-aggregate into the mixture, varying sizes between 0.4mm to 2mm in a first fraction, and 2-4mm as second proportion. Ambient ground rubber with a specific gravity of 1.154g/cm3 is used. The rubber is free of loose fabric, wire and other contaminants. It was found optimal results in real beams and cylindrical specimens with each HMA mixture reducing the swelling effect. Different factors as temperature, particle sizes of rubber, number of cycles and pressures of compaction that affect the interaction process are explained.
Minimizing Vehicular Traffic via Integrated Land Use Development: A Heuristic Optimization Approach
The current traffic impact assessment methodology and environmental quality review process for approval of land development project are conventional, stagnant, and one-dimensional. The environmental review policy and procedure lacks in providing the direction to regulate or seek alternative land uses and sizes that exploits the existing or surrounding elements of built environment (‘4 D’s’ of development – Density, Diversity, Design, and Distance to Transit) or smart growth principles which influence the travel behavior and have a significant effect in reducing vehicular traffic. Additionally, environmental review policy does not give directions on how to incorporate urban planning into the development in ways such as incorporating non-motorized roadway elements such as sidewalks, bus shelters, and access to community facilities. This research developed a methodology to optimize the mix of land uses and sizes using the heuristic optimization process to minimize the auto dependency development and to meet the interests of key stakeholders. A case study of Willets Point Mixed Use Development in Queens, New York, was used to assess the benefits of the methodology. The approved Willets Point Mixed Use project was based on maximum envelop of size and land use type allowed by current conventional urban renewal plans. This paper will also evaluate the parking accumulation for various land uses to explore the potential for shared parking to further optimize the mix of land uses and sizes. This research is very timely and useful to many stakeholders interested in understanding the benefits of integrated land uses and its development.
Applying Theory of Self-Efficacy in Intelligent Transportation Systems by Potential Usage of Vehicle as a Sensor
The objective of the study is to formulate a self-regulation model that shall enhance the usage of Intelligent Transportation Systems by understanding the theory of self-efficacy. The core logic of the self-regulation model shall monitor driver's behavior based on the situations related to the various sources of Self Efficacy like enactive mastery, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and physiological arousal in addition to the vehicle data. For this study, four different vehicle data, speed, drowsiness, diagnostic data and surround camera views are considered. This data shall be given to the self-regulation model for evaluation. The oddness, which is the output of self-regulation model, shall feed to Intelligent Transportation Systems where appropriate actions are being taken. These actions include warning to the user as well as the input to the related transportation systems. It is also observed that the usage of vehicle as a sensor reduces the wastage of resource utilization or duplication. Altogether, this approach enhances the intelligence of the transportation systems especially in safety, productivity and environmental performance.
Environmental Policy in Europe: The Single European Sky and the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme
Traffic growth, capacity constraints, climate change and the necessity to develop a more cost efficient system led to an ambitious initiative to reform the architecture of airspace management. This initiative, launched by the European Commission (EC), is called Single European Sky (SES). The four Key Performance Areas (KPAs) of SES are environment; cost efficiency; capacity; and safety. In the environment KPA Performance Indicators for Air Navigation Services Providers (ANSPs) are established to ensure that improvement in sustainability is achieved. In addition, aviation is included in the European Union’s Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS): the EC sets limits on CO2 emissions and provides economic incentives to airlines to reduce emissions by establishing a market-based trading system. EU-ETS can be used to simultaneously promote economic efficiency and achieve environmental goals on a sustainable basis. This research paper examines the existence of cancel-out effects between supply-led, i.e. SES, and demand-led management, i.e. EU ETS, policies by following a systemic stakeholder approach. Environmental economics theory and industrial economics are applied to identify factors that have a significant influence on the two policies. The paper also addresses the issue of governance and its possible failure regarding the full implementation and efficiency of the schemes. From a methodological perspective, Delphi is conducted in two rounds to encapsulate policy complexity at an in-depth level. The target population comprises stakeholders involved in SES and EU ETS. To select candidates purposive and snowball sampling was used. Thus, the sample consists of 39 senior managers/experts from Civil Aviation Authorities; ANSPs; aviation-related organizations and institutions; and airlines. Based on the results of the Delphi and building on its theoretical background, the researchers developed a conceptual model to address governance failure, thus effectively linking supply- to demand-oriented aviation policies in a holistic manner.
Social Capital in Housing Reconstruction Post Disaster Case of Yogyakarta Post Earthquake
This paper will focus on the concept of social capital for especially housing reconstruction post disaster. The context of the study is Indonesia and Yogyakarta Post-Earthquake 2006 as a case, but it is expected that the concept can be adopted in the general post-disaster reconstruction. The discussion will be started from issues on house reconstruction post disaster in Indonesia and Yogyakarta; defining of the Social Capital as a concept for effective management capacity based on community; social capital post Java earthquake utilizing Gotong Royong; community mutual self-help, and approach and strategy towards community based reconstruction.
Markov Random Field-Based Segmentation Algorithm for Detection of Land Cover Changes Using Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar Polarimetric Images
The information on land use/ land cover changing plays essential role for environmental assessment, planning, and management of regional development. Remotely sensed imagery is widely used for providing information in many change detection applications. Polarimetric Synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image with the discrimination capability between different scattering mechanisms, is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. This paper proposes a new boundary-based segmentation algorithm as a fundamental step for land cover change detection. In this method, first, two PolSAR images are segmented using integration of marker-controlled watershed algorithm and coupled Markov random field (MRF). Then, object-based classification is performed to determine changed/no changed image objects. Compared with pixel-based support vector machine (SVM) classifier, this novel segmentation algorithm significantly reduces the speckle effect in PolSAR images and improves the accuracy of binary classification in object-based level. The experimental results on Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric images show a 3%, and 6% improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient, respectively. Also, the proposed method can correctly distinguish homogeneous image parcels.
Enabling the Physical Elements of Pedestrian Friendly District around Rail Station for Supporting Transit Oriented Development
Rail-station area development that is based on the concept of TOD (Transit Oriented Development) is principally oriented to the pedestrian accessibility for daily mobility. The aim of this research is elaborating how far is the existing physical elements of rail-station district could facilitate the pedestrian mobility and establish pedestrian friendly district toward implementation of transit oriented development concept. This research was conducted through some steps: (i) mapping rail-station area pedestrian sidewalk and pedestrian network as well as activity nodes and transit nodes, (ii) assessing the level of pedestrian sidewalk connectivity that connecting trip origin and destination. The research area coverage in this case limits on walking distance of rail station (around 500 meters or 10-15 minutes walking). The finding of this research shows the current condition of street and pedestrian sidewalk network and connectivity, the good preference of on foot modal share (more than 50%) is achieved. Nevertheless, it depends on the distance from the trip origin to destination.
Traffic Safety and Risk Assessment Model by Analysis of Questionnaire Survey: A Case Study of S. G. Highway, Ahmedabad, India
Road Safety is a multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional issue. An effective model can assess the risk associated with highway safety. A questionnaire survey is very essential to identify the events or activities which are causing unsafe condition for traffic on an urban highway. A questionnaire of standard questions including vehicular, human and infrastructure characteristics can be made. Responses from the age wise group of road users can be taken on field. Each question or an event holds a specific risk weightage, which contributes in creating an inappropriate and unsafe flow of traffic. The probability of occurrence of an event can be calculated from the data collected from the road users. Finally, the risk score can be calculated by considering the risk factor and the probability of occurrence of individual event and addition of all risk score for the individual event will give the total risk score of a particular road. Standards for risk score can be made and total risk score can be compared with the standards. Thus road can be categorized based on risk associated and traffic safety on it. With this model, one can assess the need for traffic safety improvement on a given road, and qualitative data can be analysed.
Modelling of Passengers Exchange Between Trains and Platforms
The evaluation of the passenger exchange time is necessary for railway operators in order to optimize and dimension rail traffic. Several influential parameters are identified and studied. Each parameter leads to a modeling completed with the buildingEXODUS software. The objective is the modelling of passenger exchanges measured by passenger counting. Population size is dimensioned using passenger counting files which are a report of the train service and contain following useful informations: number of passengers who get on and leave the train, exchange time. These information are collected by sensors placed at the top of each train door. With passenger counting files it is possible to know how many people are engaged in the exchange and how long is the exchange, but it is not possible to know passenger flow of the door. All the information about observed exchanges are thus not available. For this reason and in order to minimize inaccuracies, only short exchanges (less than 30 seconds) with a maximum of people are performed.
Use of Numerical Tools Dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock
This study shows the opportunity to use numerical tools dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock. Indeed, some lawful requirements can now be demonstrated by using numerical tools. The first part of this study presents the use of modelling evacuation tool to satisfy the criteria of evacuation time for the rolling stock. The buildingEXODUS software is used to model and simulate the evacuation of rolling stock. Firstly, in order to demonstrate the reliability of this tool to calculate the complete evacuation time, a comparative study was achieved between a real test and simulations done with buildingEXODUS. Multiple simulations are performed to capture the stochastic variations in egress times. Then, a new study is done to calculate the complete evacuation time of a train with the same geometry but with a different interior architecture. The second part of this study shows some applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics. This work presents the approach of a multi scales validation of numerical simulations of standardized tests with Fire Dynamics Simulations software developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This work highlights in first the cone calorimeter test, described in the standard ISO 5660, in order to characterize the fire reaction of materials. The aim of this process is to readjust measurement results from the cone calorimeter test in order to create a data set usable at the seat scale. In the second step, the modelisation concerns the fire seat test described in the standard EN 45545-2. The data set obtained thanks to the validation of the cone calorimeter test was set up in the fire seat test. To conclude with the third step, after controlled the data obtained for the seat from the cone calorimeter test, a larger scale simulation with a real part of train is achieved.
Study of Parameters Influencing Dwell Times for Trains
The work presented here shows a study on several parameters identified as influencing dwell times for trains. Three kinds of rolling stocks are studied for this project and the parameters presented are the number of passengers, the allocation of passengers, their priorities, the platform station height, the door width and the train design. In order to make this study, a lot of records have been done in several stations in Paris (France). Then, in order to study these parameters, numerical simulations are completed. The goal is to quantify the impact of each parameter on the dwelling times. For example, this study highlights the impact of platform height and the presence of steps between the platform and the train. Three types of station platforms are concerned by this study : ‘optimum’ station platform which is 920 mm high, standard station platform which is 550 mm high, and high station platform which is 1150 mm high and different kinds of steps exist in order to fill these gaps. To conclude, this study shows the impact of these parameters on dwell times and their impact in function of the size of population.
Approach to Functional Safety-Compliant Design of Electric Power Steering Systems for Commercial Vehicles
In this paper, we propose a design approach for the safety mechanism of an actuator used in a commercial vehicle’s EPS system. As the number of electric/electronic system in a vehicle increases, the importance of the functional safety has been receiving much attention. EPS(Electric Power Steering) systems for commercial vehicles require large power than passenger vehicles, and hence, dual motor can be applied to get more torque. We show how to formulate the development process for the design of hardware and software of an EPS system using dual motors. A lot of safety mechanisms for the processor, sensors, and memory have been suggested, however, those for actuators have not been fully researched. It is shown by metric analyses that the target ASIL(Automotive Safety Integrated Level) is satisfied in the point of view of hardware of EPS controller.
Challenges and Opportunities in Computing Logistics Cost in E-Commerce Supply Chain
Revenue generation of a logistics company depends on how the logistics cost of a shipment is calculated. Logistics cost of a shipment is a function of distance & speed of the shipment travel in a particular network, its volumetric size and dead weight. Logistics billing is based mainly on the consumption of the scarce resource (space or weight carrying capacity of a carrier). Shipment’s size or deadweight is a function of product and packaging weight, dimensions and flexibility. Hence, to arrive at a standard methodology to compute accurate cost to bill the customer, the interplay among above mentioned physical attributes along with their measurement plays a key role. This becomes even more complex for an ecommerce company, like Flipkart, which caters to shipments from both warehouse and marketplace in an unorganized non-standard market like India. In this paper, we will explore various methodologies to define a standard way of billing the non-standard shipments across a wide range of size, shape and deadweight. Those will be, usage of historical volumetric/dead weight data to arrive at a factor which can be used to compute the logistics cost of a shipment, also calculating the real/contour volume of a shipment to address the problem of irregular shipment shapes which cannot be solved by conventional bounding box volume measurements. We will also discuss certain key business practices and operational quality considerations needed to bring standardization and drive appropriate ownership in the ecosystem.
Evaluation Framework for Investments in Rail Infrastructure Projects
Transport infrastructures are high-cost, long-term investments that serve as vital foundations for the operation of a region or nation and are essential to a country’s or business’s economic development and prosperity, by improving well-being and generating jobs and income. The development of appropriate financing options is of key importance in the decision making process in order develop viable transport infrastructures. The development of transport infrastructure has increasingly been shifting toward alternative methods of project financing such as Public Private Partnership (PPPs) and hybrid forms. In this paper, a methodological decision-making framework based on the evaluation of the financial viability of transportation infrastructure for different financial schemes is presented. The framework leads to an assessment of the financial viability which can be achieved by performing various financing scenarios analyses. To illustrate the application of the proposed methodology, a case study of rail transport infrastructure financing scenario analysis in Greece is developed.
The Feasibility Study of a New Tourist Railway Line in Italy
Recently, the Italian government has approved new law for public contract and has been laying the groundwork for restarting a planning phase. The government has adopted the indications given by the European Commission regarding the estimation of external costs of transport for Cost-Benefit Analysis, and has been decreed the ‘Guidelines for assessment of Investment Projects’. In according with the new Italian law, in this research it has been proposed the feasibility study of a new tourist railway line in Italy through a Cost-Benefit Analysis. Starting from the estimation of potential demand attracted by the new rail services, it has been estimated the benefits due to the external costs reduction. The external costs considered are the variations of: climate change, air pollution, noises, congestion and accident. Estimations results has been proposed in term of Measure Of Effectiveness (MOE) underlying a positive Net Present Value equal to about 27 M€, an Internal Rate of Return much greater in the discount rate (9% vs. 3%), a benefit / cost ratio equal to 2 and a PayBack Period of 15 years. The average amount (in monetary value) of external costs saved is about 360 thousand €/year (2016 prices) with a cumulative value for all the life period considered (30 years) equal to 11 M€.
Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin Bangkok Mass Transit System Station
Thailand facing the transportation issue because of the rapid economic development. The big issue is the traffic jam, especially in Bangkok. However, recently years Bangkok has operated urban mass transit system for solved transportation problem. The Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) skytrain is being operated by the BTS Company Limited under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The passenger satisfaction is a major cause for concern due to the commercial nature. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the passenger satisfaction at the mass transit node by questionnaires survey. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes. The result shows several important factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and the passenger’s opinion.
Study on Spatial Structure and Evolvement Process of Traditional Villages’ Courtyard Based on Clanism
The origination and development of Chinese traditional villages have a strong link with clan society. Thousands of traditional villages are constituted by one big family who have the same surname. Villages’ basic social relationships are built on the basis of family kinship. Clan power controls family courtyards’ spatial structure and influences their evolvement process. Compared with other countries, research from perspective of clanism is a particular and universally applicable manner to recognize Chinese traditional villages’ space features. This paper takes traditional villages in astern Zhejiang province as examples, especially a single-clan village named Zoumatang. Through combining rural sociology with architecture, it clarifies the coupling relationship between clan structure and village space, reveals spatial composition and evolvement logic of family courtyards. Clan society pays much attention to the patrilineal kinship and genealogy. In astern Zhejiang province, clan is usually divided to ‘clan-branches-families’ three levels. Its structural relationship looks like pyramid, which results in ‘center-margin’ structure when projecting to villages’ space. Due to the cultural tradition of ancestor worship, family courtyards’ space exist similar ‘center-margin’ structure. Ancestor hall and family temple are respectively the space core of village and courtyard. Other parts of courtyard also shows order of superiority and inferiority. Elder and men must be the first. However, along with the disintegration of clan society, family courtyard gradually appears fragmentation trend. Its spatial structure becomes more and more flexible and its scale becomes smaller and smaller. Living conditions rather than ancestor worship turn out to be primary consideration. As a result, there are different courtyard historical prototype in different historic period. To some extent, Chinese present traditional villages’ conservation ignore the impact of clan society. This paper discovers the social significance of courtyard’s spatial texture and rebuilds the connection between society and space. It is expected to promote Chinese traditional villages’ conservation paying more attention to authenticity which defined in the historical process and integrity which built on the basis of social meaning.
Topology and Shape Optimization of Macpherson Control Arm under Fatigue Loading
In this research, the topology and shape optimization of a Macpherson control arm has been accomplished to achieve lighter weight. Present automotive market demands low cost and light weight component to meet the need of fuel efficient and cost effective vehicle. This in turn gives the rise to more effective use of materials for automotive parts which can reduce the mass of vehicle. Since automotive components are under dynamic loads which cause fatigue damage, considering fatigue criteria seems to be essential in designing automotive components. At first, in order to create severe loading condition for control arm, some rough roads are generated through power spectral density. Then, the most critical loading conditions are obtained through multibody dynamics analysis of a full vehicle model. Then, the topology optimization is performed based on fatigue life criterion using HyperMesh software, which resulted to 50 percent mass reduction. In the next step a CAD model is created using CATIA software and shape optimization is performed to achieve accurate dimensions with less mass.
Onboard Heat, Pressure and Boil-off Gas Treatment for Stacked Ngh Tank Containers
Despite numerous studies on the reserves and availability of natural gas hydrates, the technology of transporting natural gas hydrates in large quantities to sea has not been put into practical use. Several natural gas hydrate transport technologies presented by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are under preparation for commercialization. Among them, NGH tank container concept modularized transportation unit to prevent sintering effect during sea transportation. The natural gas hydrate can be vaporized in a certain part during the transportation. Unprocessed BOG increases the pressure inside the tank. Also, there is a risk of fire if you export the BOG out of the tank without proper handling. Therefore, in this study, we have studied the concept of technology to properly process BOG to modularize natural gas hydrate and to transport it to sea for long distance. The study is expected to contribute to the practical use of NGH tank container, which is a modular transport concept proposed to solve the sintering problem that occurs when transporting natural gas hydrate in the form of bulk cargo.
System Devices to Reduce Particulate Matter Concentrations in Railway Metro Systems
Within the design of sustainable transportation engineering, the problem of reducing particulate matter (PM) concentrations in railways metro system was not much discussed. It is well known that PM levels in railways metro system are mainly produced by mechanical friction at the rail-wheel-brake interactions and by the PM re-suspension caused by the turbulence generated by the train passage, which causes dangerous problems for passenger health. Starting from these considerations, the aim of this research was twofold: i) to investigate the particulate matter concentrations in a ‘traditional’ railways metro system; ii) to investigate the particulate matter concentrations of a ‘high quality’ metro system equipped with design devices useful for reducing PM concentrations: platform screen doors, rubber-tyred and an advanced ventilation system. Two measurement surveys were performed: one in the ‘traditional’ metro system of Naples (Italy) and onother in the ‘high quality’ rubber-tyred metro system of Turin (Italy). Experimental results regarding the ‘traditional’ metro system of Naples, show that the average PM10 concentrations measured in the underground station platforms are very high and range between 172 and 262 µg/m3 whilst the average PM2,5 concentrations range between 45 and 60 µg/m3, with dangerous problems for passenger health. By contrast the measurements results regarding the ‘high quality’ metro system of Turin show that: i) the average PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations measured in the underground station platform is 22.7 µg/m3 (16.0 µg/m3) with a standard deviation of 9.6 µg/m3 (7.6 µg/m3); ii) the indoor concentrations (both for PM10 and for PM2.5) are statistically lower from those measured in outdoors (with a ratio equal to 0.9-0.8), meaning that the indoor air quality is greater than those in urban ambient; iii) that PM concentrations in underground stations are correlated to the trains passage; iv) the inside trains concentrations (both for PM10 and for PM2.5) are statistically lower from those measured at station platform (with a ratio equal to 0.7-0.8), meaning that inside trains the use of air conditioning system could promote a greater circulation that clean the air. The comparison among the two case studies allow to conclude that the metro system designed with PM reduction devices allow to reduce PM concentration up to 11 times against a ‘traditional’ one. From these results, it is possible to conclude that PM concentrations measured in a ‘high quality’ metro system are significantly lower than the ones measured in a ‘traditional’ railway metro systems. This result allows possessing the bases for the design of useful devices for retrofitting metro systems all around the world.
Review of the Road Crash Data Availability in Iraq
Iraq is classified as one of the middle-income countries which there is no historical road crash database according to the latest World Health Organization Report. To control the road risk issue which is considered one of the leading causes of deaths in Iraq, the Iraqi Ministry of Planning, General Statistical Organization, started to organise a collection system of traffic accidents data with details related to their causes and severity. These data are published as an annual report. In this paper, a review of the available crash data will be presented. The available data represents the rate of accidents according to their types, road users’ details, crash severity, type of vehicles, causes and number of causalities. It is concluded that this data may be used in exploratory analysis, evaluation the overall state of traffic safety, and addressing the main factors of increasing the traffic accidents rate in Iraq. However, there are some missing details such as the location of the accidents which is essential in ranking the roads according to their level of safety, and name the most dangerous roads in Iraq which requires tactic plan to control this issue. This dataset required to be collected for the next years with more details to be sufficient for inferential, mechanistic and predictive analysis. In the last part of the paper, it is recommended to improve the crash data collection system to provide the missing details which are essential in the road safety assessment and suggested the countermeasures to avoid the risk status. According to the conclusion of this paper, it is recommended to use assessment programs which does not need a historical traffic crash database to be used quantifying the road safety level and suggesting the countermeasures. iRAP (The International Road Assessment Program) is one of the programs designed for countries lacking crash data set and based on the road attributes to assess the road risk level.
Economic Effects of Maritime Environmental Legislation in the North and Baltic Sea Area: An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Approach
Environmental legislation to protect North and Baltic Sea areas from harmful vessel-source emissions has received increased political attention in recent years. Legislative measures are expected to show positive effects on the health of the marine environment and society. At the same time, compliance might increase the costs to industry and have effects on freight rates and volumes shipped with potential negative repercussions on the environment. Building on an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach, this research project will study the economic effects of maritime environmental legislation in two phases. In Phase I exploratory in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 experts from various stakeholder groups aimed at identifying variables influencing the relationship between environmental legislation, freight rates and volumes shipped. Influencing factors like compliance, enforcement, and modal shift were identified and studied. Phase II will comprise of a quantitative study conducted with the aim of verifying the theory build in Phase I and quantifying economic effects of rules on shipping pollution. Research in this field might inform policy-makers about determinants of behaviour of ship operators in the face of the law and might further the development of a comprehensive legal system for marine environmental protection. At the present stage of research first tentative results from the qualitative phase may be examined and open research questions to be addressed in the quantitative phase as well as possible research designs for phase II may be discussed. Input from other researchers will be highly valuable at this point.