Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50278

Urban and Civil Engineering

122
84347
A System Dynamic Based Decision Support System for Ecological Urban Management in Alexandria, Egypt
Abstract:
The concept of urban metabolism has increasingly been employed in a diverse range of disciplines as a mean to analyze and theorize the city. Urban ecology has a particular focus on the implications of applying the metabolism concept to the urban realm. This approach has been developed by a few researchers, though it has rarely if ever been used in policy development for city planning. The aim of this research is to use ecologically informed urban planning interventions to increase the sustainability of urban metabolism; with special focus on land stock as a most important city resource by developing a system dynamic based DSS. This model identifies two critical management strategy variables for the Strategic Urban Plan Alexandria SUP 2032. As a result, this comprehensive and precise quantitative approach is needed to monitor, measure, evaluate and observe dynamic urban changes working as a decision support system (DSS) for policy making.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
121
83171
Spatial Design Transformation of Mount Merapi's Dwellings Using Diachronic Approach
Abstract:
In concern for human safety, living in disaster-prone areas is twofold: it is profoundly cataclysmic yet perceptibly contributive. This paradox could be identified in Kalitengah Lor Sub-village community who inhabit Mount Merapi’s most hazardous area, putting them to the highest exposure to eruptions’ cataclysmic impacts. After the devastating incident in 2010, through the Action Plan for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction, the National Government with immediate aid from humanitarian agencies initiated a relocation program by establishing nearly 2,613 temporary shelters throughout the mountain’s region. The problem arose as some of the most affected communities including those in Kalitengah Lor Sub-village, persistently refused to relocate. The obnoxious experience of those living in temporary shelters resulted from the program’s failure to support a long-term living was assumed to instigate the rejection. From the psychological standpoint, this phenomenon reflects the emotional bond between the affected communities with their former dwellings. Regarding this, the paper aims to reveal the factors influencing the emotional attachment of Kalitengah Lor community to their former dwellings including the dwellings’ spatial design transformation prior and post the eruption in 2010. The research adopted Likert five scale-questionnaire comprising a wide range of responses from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The responses were then statistically measured, leading to consensus that provides bases for further interpretations toward the local’s characteristics. Using purposive unit sampling technique, 50 respondents from 217 local households were randomly selected. Questions in the questionnaire were developed with concerns on the aspects of place attachment concept: affection, cognitive, behavior, and perception. Combined with quantitative method, the research adopted diachronic method which was aimed to analyze the spatial design transformation of each dwelling in relation to the inhabitant’s daily activities and personal preferences. The research found that access to natural resources like sand mining, agricultural farms and wood forests, social relationship and physical proximity from house to personal asset like cattle shed, are the dominant factors encouraging the locals to emotionally attached to their former dwellings. Consequently, each dwelling’s spatial design is suffered from changes in which the current house is typically larger in dimension and the bathroom is replaced by public toilet located outside the house’s backyard. Relatively unchanged, the cattle shed is still located in front of the house, the continuous visual relationship, particularly between the living and family room, is maintained, as well as the main orientation of the house towards the local street.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
120
81778
Micro-Oculi Facades as a Sustainable Urban Facade
Abstract:
We live in an era that faces global challenges of climate changes and resource depletion. With the rapid urbanization and growing energy consumption in the built environment, building facades become ever more important in architectural practice and environmental stewardship. Furthermore, building facade undergoes complex dynamics of social, cultural, environmental and technological changes. Kinetic facades have drawn attention of architects, designers, and engineers in the field of adaptable, responsive and interactive architecture since 1980’s. Materials and building technologies have gradually evolved to address the technical implications of kinetic facades. The kinetic façade is becoming an independent system of the building, transforming the design methodology to sustainable building solutions. Accordingly, there is a need for a new design methodology to guide the design of a kinetic façade and evaluate its sustainable performance. The research objectives are two-fold: First, to establish a new design methodology for kinetic facades and second, to develop a micro-oculi façade system and assess its performance using the established design method. The design approach to the micro-oculi facade is comprised of 1) façade geometry optimization and 2) dynamic building energy simulation. The façade geometry optimization utilizes multi-objective optimization process, aiming to balance the quantitative and qualitative performances to address the sustainability of the built environment. The dynamic building energy simulation was carried out using EnergyPlus and Radiance simulation engines with scripted interfaces. The micro-oculi office was compared with an office tower with a glass façade in accordance with ASHRAE 90.1 2013 to understand its energy efficiency. The micro-oculi facade is constructed with an array of circular frames attached to a pair of micro-shades called a micro-oculus. The micro-oculi are encapsulated between two glass panes to protect kinetic mechanisms with longevity. The micro-oculus incorporates rotating gears that transmit the power to adjacent micro-oculi to minimize the number of mechanical parts. The micro-oculus rotates around its center axis with a step size of 15deg depending on the sun’s position while maximizing daylighting potentials and view-outs. A 2 ft by 2ft prototyping was undertaken to identify operational challenges and material implications of the micro-oculi facade. In this research, a systematic design methodology was proposed, that integrates multi-objectives of kinetic façade design criteria and whole building energy performance simulation within a holistic design process. This design methodology is expected to encourage multidisciplinary collaborations between designers and engineers to collaborate issues of the energy efficiency, daylighting performance and user experience during design phases. The preliminary energy simulation indicated that compared to a glass façade, the micro-oculi façade showed energy savings due to its improved thermal properties, daylighting attributes, and dynamic solar performance across the day and seasons. It is expected that the micro oculi façade provides a cost-effective, environmentally-friendly, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing alternative to glass facades. Recommendations for future studies include lab testing to validate the simulated data of energy and optical properties of the micro-oculi façade. A 1:1 performance mock-up of the micro-oculi façade can suggest in-depth understanding of long-term operability and new development opportunities applicable for urban façade applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
119
80108
Tensile Test of Corroded Strand and Maintenance of Corroded Prestressed Concrete Girders
Abstract:
National bridge inventory in Korea shows that the number of old prestressed concrete (PSC) bridgeover 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issues in the maintenance of PSC bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded strands, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the equations to express the mechanical behavior of corroded strand were derived and compared to existing equation. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Considerations on analysis of PSC girders were introduced, and decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
118
79697
An Approach towards Intelligent Urbanism in New Communities
Abstract:
Technology is a quoted keyword nowadays in all fields; it has been recently thought of and integrated into urban development. This research explains the role of technology in establishing intelligent urbanism to create a convivial and sustainable environment for people to live in. Cities are downgrading socially, economically and environmentally. A framework is to be developed where these three pillars are involved in the planning, design, and spreading of technology to create convivial environments. The aim of this research is achieved by highlighting the importance and approaches of intelligent urbanism, it’s characteristics and principles, then analyzing some relevant examples to achieve a set of guidelines.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
117
78970
A Study of the Adaptive Reuse for School Land Use Strategy: An Application of the Analytic Network Process and Big Data
Authors:
Abstract:
In today's popularity and progress of information technology, the big data set and its analysis are no longer a major conundrum. Now, we could not only use the relevant big data to analyze and emulate the possible status of urban development in the near future but also provide more comprehensive and reasonable policy implementation basis for government units or decision-makers via the analysis and emulation results as mentioned above. In this research, we set Taipei City as the research scope, and use the relevant big data variables (e.g., population, facility utilization and related social policy ratings) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach to implement of in-depth research and discussion for the possible reduction of land use in primary and secondary schools of Taipei City. In addition, to increase the urban public land area to meet the increasingly prosperous urban activities, the final results of this research could improve the efficiency of urban land use. Furthermore, the assessment model and research framework established in this research also provide a good reference for schools or other public facilities land use and adaptive reuse strategies in the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
116
78190
Assessment of Low Income Housing Delivery, Accessibility and Affordability Problem in Nigeria
Abstract:
Housing is a basic necessity of life. Housing plays a central role in the life of living organisms as it provides the basic platform for the life support systems in human settlements. It is considered a social service and a basic right. Despite the importance of housing, Nigeria as a nation is faced with the problem of quantitative and qualitative shortfall in the number of housing units required to accommodate the citizens. This study examined the accessibility and affordability problems of low-income housing in Nigeria. It relied on secondary data obtained for the records of government ministries and agencies. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis, and the information was presented in simple tables and charts. The findings show that over the years the government has provided serviced plots of land, owner occupier houses and mortgage loans for the people. As at 2016, the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) has completed a total of 23,038 housing units while another 14, 488 units were on-going under the Public Private Partnership scheme across the country. The study revealed that a total of 910, 671 housing units were proposed by the Government under the various low-income housing programmes between 1960 and 2017, but only 156, 336 units were delivered within the period, representing 17.17% success rate. Amongst others, the low-income group faced the problems of low access to and unaffordability of the few low-income housing delivered in Nigeria. The study recommended that all abandoned housing projects should be reviewed, rationalized, completed and made available to the targeted low-income people. Investment in micro housing finance, design and implementation of pro-poor housing programme and massive investment in innovative slum upgrading programmes by both the government and private sector are also recommended to ameliorate the housing problems of the low-income group in Nigeria.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
115
78136
Post-Soviet LULC Analysis of Tbilisi, Batumi and Kutaisi Using of Remote Sensing and Geo Information System
Abstract:
Human is a part of the urban landscape and responsible for it. Urbanization of cities includes the longest phase; thus none of the environment ever undergoes such anthropogenic impact as the area of large cities. The post-Soviet period is very interesting in terms of scientific research. The changes that have occurred in the cities since the collapse of the Soviet Union have not yet been analyzed best to our knowledge. In this context, the aim of this paper is to analyze the changes in the land use of the three large cities of Georgia (Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi). Tbilisi as a capital city, Batumi as a port city, and Kutaisi as a former industrial center. Data used during the research process are conventionally divided into satellite and supporting materials. For this purpose, the largest topographic maps (1:10 000) of all three cities were analyzed, Tbilisi General Plans (1896, 1924), Tbilisi and Kutaisi historical maps. The main emphasis was placed on the classification of Landsat images. In this case, we have classified the images LULC (LandUse / LandCover) of all three cities taken in 1987 and 2016 using the supervised and unsupervised methods. All the procedures were performed in the programs: Arc GIS 10.3.1 and ENVI 5.0. In each classification we have singled out the following classes: built-up area, water bodies, agricultural lands, green cover and bare soil, and calculated the areas occupied by them. In order to check the validity of the obtained results, additionally we used the higher resolution images of CORONA and Sentinel. Ultimately we identified the changes that took place in the land use in the post-Soviet period in the above cities. According to the results, a large wave of changes touched Tbilisi and Batumi, though in different periods. It turned out that in the case of Tbilisi, the area of developed territory has increased by 13.9% compared to the 1987 data, which is certainly happening at the expense of agricultural land and green cover, in particular, the area of agricultural lands has decreased by 4.97%; and the green cover by 5.67%. It should be noted that Batumi has obviously overtaken the country's capital in terms of development. With the unaided eye it is clear that in comparison with other regions of Georgia, everything is different in Batumi. In fact, Batumi is an unofficial summer capital of Georgia. Undoubtedly, Batumi’s development is very important both in economic and social terms. However, there is a danger that in the uneven conditions of urban development, we will eventually get a developed center - Batumi, and multiple underdeveloped peripheries around it. Analysis of the changes in the land use is of utmost importance not only for quantitative evaluation of the changes already implemented, but for future modeling and prognosis of urban development. Raster data containing the classes of land use is an integral part of the city's prognostic models.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
114
78114
A Method for Allocation of Smart Intersections Using Traffic Information
Abstract:
This study aims is to suggest the basic factors by considering the priority of intersection in the diffusion project of Smart intersection. Busan Metropolitan City is conducting a smart intersection project for efficient traffic management. The smart intersection project aims to make breakthrough improvement of the intersection congestion by optimizing the signal system using CCTV (closed-circuit television camera) image analysis technology. This study investigated trends of existing researches and analyzed by setting three things of traffic volume, characteristics of intersection road, and whether or not to conduct the main arterial road as factors for selecting new intersection when spreading smart intersection. Using this, we presented the priority of the newly installed intersection through the present situation and analysis for the Busan Metropolitan City which is the main destination of the spreading project of the smart intersection. The results of this study can be used as a consideration in the implementation of smart intersection business.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
113
77714
Combined Effect of Heat Stimulation and Delayed Addition of Superplasticizer with Slag on Fresh and Hardened Property of Mortar
Abstract:
To obtain the high quality and essential workability of mortar, different types of superplasticizers are used. The superplasticizers are the chemical admixture used in the mix to improve the fluidity of mortar. Many factors influenced the superplasticizer to disperse the cement particle in the mortar. Nature and amount of replaced cement by slag, mixing procedure, delayed addition time, and heat stimulation technique of superplasticizer cause the varied effect on the fluidity of the cementitious material. In this experiment, the superplasticizers were heated for 1 hour under 60 °C in a thermostatic chamber. Furthermore, the effect of delayed addition time of heat stimulated superplasticizers (SP) was also analyzed. This method was applied to two types of polycarboxylic acid based ether SP (precast type superplasticizer (SP2) and ready-mix type superplasticizer (SP1)) in combination with a partial replacement of normal Portland cement with blast furnace slag (BFS) with 30% w/c ratio. On the other hands, the fluidity, air content, fresh density, and compressive strength for 7 and 28 days were studied. The results indicate that the addition time and heat stimulation technique improved the flow and air content, decreased the density, and slightly decreased the compressive strength of mortar. Moreover, the slag improved the flow of mortar by increasing the amount of slag, and the effect of external temperature of SP on the flow of mortar was decreased. In comparison, the flow of mortar was improved on 5-minute delay for both kinds of SP, but SP1 has improved the flow in all conditions. Most importantly, the transition points in both types of SP appear to be the same, at about 5±1 min.  In addition, the optimum addition time of SP to mortar should be in this period.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
112
77635
Assessment of Urban Infrastructure and Health Using Principal Component Analysis and Geographic Information System: A Case of Ahmedabad, India
Abstract:
Across the globe, there is a steady increase in people residing in urban areas. Due to this increase in urban population, urban health is affecting. The major issues identified like overcrowding, air pollution, unhealthy diet, inadequate infrastructure, poor solid waste management systems and insufficient access to health facilities, these issues are gradually clearly observed in health statistics of diseases and deaths rapidly increase in urban areas. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the health statistics and infrastructure services at urban areas to know the cause and effect between Infrastructure, its management and diseases (water borne). Most of the Indian cities have the municipal boundaries, which authorized by their respective municipal corporations and development authorities. Generally, cities have various zones under which municipal wards exist. The paper focuses on the city Ahmedabad, at Gujarat state. Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) is divided into six zones namely Central zone, West zone, New-West zone, East zone, North zone, and South zone. Each zone includes various wards within it. Incidence of diseases in Ahmadabad which are linked to infrastructure was identified such as water-borne diseases. Later on, the occurrence of water-borne diseases at urban area was examined at each zone level. The study methodology follows four steps i.e. 1) Pre-Field literature study: Study on Sewerage system in urban areas and its best practices and public health status globally and Indian scenario; 2) Field study: Data collection and interviews of stakeholders regarding heal status and issues at each zone and ward level; 3) Post field: Data analysis with qualitative description of each ward of zones, followed by correlation coefficient analysis between sewerage coverage, diseases and density of each ward using geographic information system mapping (GIS); 4) Identification of reasons: Affected health on each of zone and wards followed by correlation analysis on each reason. The results reveal that the health conditions in Ahmedabad municipal zones or boundaries are effected due to the slums created by the migrated people from various rural and urban areas. It is also observed that due to increase in population water supply and sewerage management is affecting. The overall effect on infrastructure is creating the health diseases which detailed in the paper using geographical information system in Indian city.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
111
77185
Permeable Asphalt Pavement as a Measure of Urban Green Infrastructure in the Extreme Events Mitigation
Abstract:
Population growth in cities has led to an increase in the infrastructures construction, including buildings and roadways. This aspect leads directly to the soils waterproofing. In turn, changes in precipitation patterns are developing into higher and more frequent intensities. Thus, these two conjugated aspects decrease the rainwater infiltration into soils and increase the volume of surface runoff. The practice of green and sustainable urban solutions has encouraged research in these areas. The porous asphalt pavement, as a green infrastructure, is part of practical solutions set to address urban challenges related to land use and adaptation to climate change. In this field, permeable pavements with porous asphalt mixtures (PA) have several advantages in terms of reducing the runoff generated by the floods. The porous structure of these pavements, compared to a conventional asphalt pavement, allows the rainwater infiltration in the subsoil, and consequently, the water quality improvement. This green infrastructure solution can be applied in cities, particularly in streets or parking lots to mitigate the floods effects. Over the years, the pores of these pavements can be filled by sediment, reducing their function in the rainwater infiltration. Thus, double layer porous asphalt (DLPA) was developed to mitigate the clogging effect and facilitate the water infiltration into the lower layers. This study intends to deepen the knowledge of the performance of DLPA when subjected to clogging. The experimental methodology consisted on four evaluation phases of the DLPA infiltration capacity submitted to three precipitation events (100, 200 and 300 mm/h) in each phase. The evaluation first phase determined the behavior after DLPA construction. In phases two and three, two 500 g/m2 clogging cycles were performed, totaling a 1000 g/m2 final simulation. Sand with gradation accented in fine particles was used as clogging material. In the last phase, the DLPA was subjected to simple sweeping and vacuuming maintenance. A precipitation simulator, type sprinkler, capable of simulating the real precipitation was developed for this purpose. The main conclusions show that the DLPA has the capacity to drain the water, even after two clogging cycles. The infiltration results of flows lead to an efficient performance of the DPLA in the surface runoff attenuation, since this was not observed in any of the evaluation phases, even at intensities of 200 and 300 mm/h, simulating intense precipitation events. The infiltration capacity under clogging conditions decreased about 7% on average in the three intensities relative to the initial performance that is after construction. However, this was restored when subjected to simple maintenance, recovering the DLPA hydraulic functionality. In summary, the study proved the efficacy of using a DLPA when it retains thicker surface sediments and limits the fine sediments entry to the remaining layers. At the same time, it is guaranteed the rainwater infiltration and the surface runoff reduction and is therefore a viable solution to put into practice in permeable pavements.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
110
77180
Use of Cellulosic Fibres in Double Layer Porous Asphalt
Abstract:
Climate change, namely precipitation patterns alteration, has led to extreme conditions such as floods and droughts. In turn, excessive construction has led to the waterproofing of the soil, increasing the surface runoff and decreasing the groundwater recharge capacity. The permeable pavements use in areas with low traffic leads to a decrease in the probability of floods peaks occurrence and the sediments reduction and pollutant transport, ensuring rainwater quality improvement. This study aims to evaluate the porous asphalt performance, developed in the laboratory, with addition of cellulosic fibres. One of the main objectives of cellulosic fibres' use is to stop binder drainage preventing its loss during storage and transport. Comparing to the conventional porous asphalt the cellulosic fibres' addition improved the performance of porous asphalt. The cellulosic fibres allowed the bitumen content increase, enabling retention and better aggregates coating and, consequently, a greater mixture durability. With this solution, it is intended to develop better practices of resilience and adaptation to the extreme climate changes increase and respond to the sustainability current demands, through the eco-friendly materials use. The mix design was performed for different size aggregates (with fine aggregates-PA1 and with coarse aggregates–PA2). It was studied the percentage influence of the fibres to be used. It was observed that overall, the binder drainage decreases as the percentage of cellulose fibres' increases. It was found that the PA2 mixture obtained most binder drainage relative to PA1 mixture, irrespective of the fibres percentage used. Subsequently, the performance was evaluated through laboratory tests of indirect tensile stiffness modulus, water sensitivity, permeability and permanent deformation. The stiffness modulus for the two mixtures groups (with and without cellulosic fibres) presented very similar values between them. For the water sensitivity test, it was observed that porous asphalt containing more fine aggregates are more susceptible to the water presence than mixtures with coarse aggregates. The porous asphalt with coarse aggregates has more air voids which allow water to pass easily leading to ITSR higher values. For the permeability test, it was observed that asphalt porous without cellulosic fibres presented had lower permeability than asphalt porous with cellulosic fibres. The resistance to permanent deformation results indicates better behaviour of porous asphalt with cellulosic fibres, verifying a bigger rut depth to porous asphalt without cellulosic fibres. In this study, it was observed that porous asphalt with bitumen higher percentages improves the performance to permanent deformation. This fact was only possible due to the bitumen retention by the cellulosic fibres.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
109
76750
Geo-Spatial Methods to Better Understand Urban Food Deserts
Abstract:
Food deserts are a reality in some cities. These deserts can be described as a shortage of healthy food options within close proximity of consumers. The shortage in this case is typically facilitated by a lack of stores in an urban area that provide adequate fruit and vegetable choices. This study explores new avenues to better understand food deserts by examining modes of transportation that are available to shoppers or consumers, e.g. walking, automobile, or public transit. Further, this study is unique in that it not only explores the location of large grocery stores, but small grocery and convenience stores too. In this study, the relationship between some socio-economic indicators, such as personal income, are also explored to determine any possible association with food deserts. In addition, to help facilitate our understanding of food deserts, complex network spatial models that are built on adequate algorithms are used to investigate the possibility of food deserts in the city of Hamilton, Canada. It is found that Hamilton, Canada is adequate serviced by retailers who provide healthy food choices and that the food desert phenomena is almost absent.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
108
76642
The Relationship between Land Use Factors and Feeling of Happiness at the Neighbourhood Level
Abstract:
Happiness can be related to everything that can provide a feeling of satisfaction or pleasure. Although previous studies have identified different indicators such as social, economic, and environmental factors to increase the feeling of happiness in human life, there have been limited studies that examine the relationship between land use factors and feeling of happiness at the neighbourhood level. Therefore, this study focuses on this relationship by introducing some land use variables, such as beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, availability and quality of shopping centres, sufficient recreational spaces and facilities, and sufficient daily service centres (banks, educational centres, etc.) in addition to the socio-economic factors (gender, race, marital status, employment status, education, and income) as independent variables and the happiness score as the dependent variable. This study uses the Oxford happiness questionnaire to estimate happiness score of more than 300 people living in six neighbourhoods. The neighbourhoods are selected randomly from Skudai neighbourhoods in Johor, Malaysia. The land use data were obtained by adding related questions to the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The strength of the relationship in this study is found using generalised linear modelling (GLM). The findings of this research indicate that increase in happiness feeling is correlated with an increasing income, more beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, sufficient shopping centres, recreational spaces, and daily service centres. The results show that all land use factors in this study have significant relationship with happiness but only income, among socio-economic factors, can affect happiness significantly. Therefore, land use factors can affect happiness in Skudai more than socio-economic factors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
107
76102
Modeling of Foundation-Soil Interaction Problem by Using Reduced Soil Shear Modulus
Abstract:
In order to simulate the infinite soil medium for soil-foundation interaction problem, the essential geotechnical parameter on which the foundation stiffness depends, is the value of soil shear modulus. This parameter directly affects the site and structural response of the considered model under earthquake ground motions. Strain-dependent shear modulus under cycling loads makes difficult to estimate the accurate value in computation of foundation stiffness for the successful dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. The aim of this study is to discuss in detail how to use the appropriate value of soil shear modulus in the computational analyses and to evaluate the effect of the variation in shear modulus with strain on the impedance functions used in the sub-structure method for idealizing the soil-foundation interaction problem. Herein, the impedance functions compose of springs and dashpots to represent the frequency-dependent stiffness and damping characteristics at the soil-foundation interface. Earthquake-induced vibration energy is dissipated into soil by both radiation and hysteretic damping. Therefore, flexible-base system damping, as well as the variability in shear strengths, should be considered in the calculation of impedance functions for achievement a more realistic dynamic soil-foundation interaction model. In this study, it has been written a Matlab code for addressing these purposes. The case-study example chosen for the analysis is considered as a 4-story reinforced concrete building structure located in Istanbul consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames with a total height of 12m from the basement level. The foundation system composes of two different sized strip footings on clayey soil with different plasticity (Herein, PI=13 and 16). In the first stage of this study, the shear modulus reduction factor was not considered in the MATLAB algorithm. The static stiffness, dynamic stiffness modifiers and embedment correction factors of two rigid rectangular foundations measuring 2m wide by 17m long below the moment frames and 7m wide by 17m long below the shear walls are obtained for translation and rocking vibrational modes. Afterwards, the dynamic impedance functions of those have been calculated for reduced shear modulus through the developed Matlab code. The embedment effect of the foundation is also considered in these analyses. It can easy to see from the analysis results that the strain induced in soil will depend on the extent of the earthquake demand. It is clearly observed that when the strain range increases, the dynamic stiffness of the foundation medium decreases dramatically. The overall response of the structure can be affected considerably because of the degradation in soil stiffness even for a moderate earthquake. Therefore, it is very important to arrive at the corrected dynamic shear modulus for earthquake analysis including soil-structure interaction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
106
76085
The Desirable Construction of Urbanity in Spaces for Public Use
Abstract:
In recent years, there has been a great discussion about urbanism, the right to the city, the search for the public space and the occupation and appropriation of people in the spaces of the city. This movement happens all over the world and also in the great Brazilian metropolises. The more human-friendly city - the desirable construction of urbanity - as well as the encouragement of walking or bicycling to the detriment of cars is one of the major issues addressed by urban planners and challenges in the process of reviewing regulatory frameworks. The fact is that even if there are public spaces or space for public use in private areas - it is essential that there be, besides a project focused on the people and the use of space, a good management not to generate excess of control and consequently the segregation between different ethnicities, classes or creed. With the insertion of the Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014), there is great incentive for them to implement - in the private spaces - of mixed uses and active facades (Services and commerce in the basement of buildings), these incentives will generate a city for people in the medium and long term. This research seeks to discuss the extent to which these spaces are democratic, what their perceptions are in relation to the space of public use in private areas and why this perception may be the one that was originally idealized. For this study, we carried out bibliographic reviews where applied research were carried out in three case studies listed in Sao Paulo. Questionnaires were also applied to the actors who gave answers regarding their perceptions and how they were approached in the places analyzed. After analyzing the material, it was verified that in the three case studies analyzed, sitting on the floor is prohibited. In the two places in Paulista Avenue (Cetenco Plaza and Square of Mall Cidade Sao Paulo) there was no problem whatsoever in relation to the clothes or attitudes of the actors in the streets of Paulista Avenue in Sao Paulo city. Different from what happened in the Itaim neighborhood (Brascan Century Plaza), with more conservative characteristics, where the actors were heavily watched by security and observed by others due to their clothes and attitudes in that area. The city of Sao Paulo is slowly changing, people are increasingly looking for places of quality in public use in their daily lives. The Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014) and the Legislation approved in 2016 envision a city more humane and people-oriented in the future. It is up to the private sector, the public, and society to work together so that this glimpse becomes an abundant reality in every city, generating quality of life and urbanity for all.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
105
76020
Emerging Identities: A Transformative ‘Green Zone’
Abstract:
There exists an on-going geographical scar creating a division through the Island of Cyprus and its capital, Nicosia. The currently amputated city center is accessed legally by the United Nations convoys, infiltrated only by Turkish and Greek Cypriot army scouts and illegal traders and scavengers. On Christmas day 1963 in Nicosia, Captain M. Hobden of the British Army took a green chinagraph pencil and on a large scale Joint Army-RAF map ‘marked’ the division. From then on this ‘buffer zone’ was called the ‘green line.' This once dividing form, separating the main communities of Greek and Turkish Cypriots from one another, has now been fully reclaimed by an autonomous intruder. It's currently most captivating inhabitant is nature. She keeps taking over, for the past fifty years indigenous and introduced fauna and flora thrive; trees emerge from rooftops and plants, bushes and flowers grow randomly through the once bustling market streets, allowing this ‘no man’s land’ to teem with wildlife. And where are its limits? The idea of fluidity is ever present; it encroaches into the urban and built environment that surrounds it, and notions of ownership and permanence are questioned. Its qualities have contributed significantly in the search for new ‘identities,' expressed in the emergence of new living conditions, be they real or surreal. Without being physically reachable, it can be glimpsed at through punctured peepholes, military bunker windows that act as enticing portals into an emotional and conceptual level of inhabitation. The zone is mystical and simultaneously suspended in time, it triggers people’s imagination, not just that of the two prevailing communities but also of immigrants, refugees, and visitors; it mesmerizes all who come within its proximity. The paper opens a discussion on the issues and the binary questions raised. What is natural and artificial; what is private and public; what is ephemeral and permanent? The ‘green line’ exists in a central fringe condition and can serve in mixing generations and groups of people; mingling functions of living with work and social interaction; merging nature and the human being in a new-found synergy of human hope and survival, allowing thus for new notions of place to be introduced. Questions seek to be answered, such as, “Is the impossibility of dwelling made possible, by interweaving these ‘in-between conditions’ into eloquently traced spaces?” The methodologies pursued are developed through academic research, professional practice projects, and students’ research/design work. Realized projects, case studies and other examples cited both nationally and internationally hold global and local applications. Both paths of the research deal with the explorative understanding of the impossibility of dwelling, testing the limits of its autonomy. The expected outcome of the experience evokes in the user a sense of a new urban landscape, created from human topographies that echo the voice of an emerging identity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
104
75984
Planning Sustainable Urban Communities through Nature-Based Solutions: Perspectives from the Global South
Abstract:
In recent decades there has been an increasing strive towards broader sustainable planning practices. A wide range of literature suggests that nature-based solutions (including Green Infrastructure planning) may lead towards socio-economically and environmentally sustainable urban communities. Such research is however mainly based on practices from the Global North with very little reference to the Global South. This study argues that there is a need for Global North knowledge to be translated to Global South context, and interpreted within this unique environment, acknowledging historical and cultural differences between Global North and Global South, and ultimately providing unique solutions for the unique urban reality. This research primarily focuses on nature-based solutions for sustainable urban communities and considers a broad literature review on Global North knowledge regarding such, substantiated by an analysis of purposefully selected case studies. The investigation identifies best practices which could be translated and place such in the context of current Global South perspectives.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
103
75964
A Proposal to Integrate Spatially Explicit Ecosystem Services with Urban Metabolic Modelling
Abstract:
The integration of urban metabolism (UM) with spatially explicit ecosystem service (ES) stocks has the potential to advance sustainable urban development. It will correct the lack of spatially specificity of current urban metabolism models. Furthermore, it will include into UM not only the physical properties of material and energy stocks and flows, but also the implications to the natural capital that provides and maintains human well-being. This paper presents the first stages of a modelling framework by which urban planners can assess spatially the trade-offs of ES flows resulting from urban interventions of different character and scale. This framework allows for a multi-region assessment which takes into account sustainability burdens consequent to an urban planning event occurring elsewhere in the environment. The urban boundary is defined as the Functional Urban Audit (FUA) method to account for trans-administrative ES flows. ES are mapped using CORINE land use within the FUA. These stocks and flows are incorporated into a UM assessment method to demonstrate the transfer and flux of ES arising from different urban planning implementations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
102
75724
Tourism Development and Its Role in the Urban Expansion of Al-Khomse City, Libya
Abstract:
Tourism is one of the most important and fastest growing economic activities in the world, which has a prominent role in the growth and development of countries and has become increasingly important as business and trade after the World War II. The tourism development is one of the most important aspects of urban development, which aims to plan and develop tourist attractions and improve the urban environment within cities. Tourism development has become a priority for the urban development policy of cities, particularly those which have many tourist potentials. Complementary services, such as infrastructure, roads’ networks, transportation, and communications are needed for these potentials to function properly. In order to achieve these functionalities, also a new planning for the new areas as an expansion is required, or developing and renovating the existing urban areas according to pre-prepared plans to avoid random expansion of the urban structure of the city. This paper aims to determine the tourist attractions of Al-Khomse city, by reviewing the most important tourist attractions such as the Roman city (Leptis Magna), the geographical location on the Mediterranean coast, the temperate climate and diversity of the natural environment. The paper also examines the reality of the infrastructure and tourist services in the city and its suitability to serve the tourism sector. The paper also includes a proposed for tourism development in the city as one of the city's urban expansion trends, which can guide the development strategy in the future. The paper concludes with a vision for the tourism development areas as one of the trends for urban expansion in the future. The paper also concludes tourism development will have an effective role in the growth and development of urban, economic and social, in addition to preserving the natural environment. The paper recommended the need to emphasize the role of tourism development as one of the pillars and trends for the development policy and expansion of Al-Khomse city, preservation of tourist attractions and natural resources and developing infrastructure and tourist services such as accommodation, entertainment, mobility, and accessibility.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
101
75709
Research on the Spatial Evolution of Tourism-Oriented Rural Settlements: Take the Xiaochanfangyu Village, Dongshuichang Village, Maojiayu Village in Jixian County, Tianjin City as Examples
Abstract:
Rural tourism is the service industry which regards the agricultural production, rural life, rural nature and cultural landscape as the tourist attraction. It aims to meet the needs of the city tourists such as country sightseeing, vacation, and leisure. According to the difference of the tourist resources, the rural settlements can be divided into different types: The type of tourism resources, scenic spot, and peri-urban. In the past ten years, the rural tourism has promoted the industrial transformation and economic growth in rural areas of China. And it is conducive to the coordinated development of urban and rural areas and has greatly improved the ecological environment and the standard of living for farmers in rural areas. At the same time, a large number of buildings and sites are built in the countryside in order to enhance the tourist attraction and the ability of tourist reception and also to increase the travel comfort and convenience, which has significant influence on the spatial evolution of the village settlement. This article takes the XiangYing Subdistrict, which is in JinPu District of Dalian in China as the exemplification and uses the technology of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and the technology of Landscape Spatial Analysis to study the influence of the rural tourism development in the rural settlement spaces in four steps. First, acquiring the remote sensing image data at different times of 8 administrative villages in the XiangYing Subdistrict, by using the remote sensing application EDRAS8.6; second, vectoring basic maps of XiangYing Subdistrict including its land-use map with the application of ArcGIS 9.3, associating with social and economic attribute data of rural settlements and analyzing on the rural evolution visually; third, quantifying the comparison of these patches in rural settlements by using the landscape spatial calculation application Fragstats 3.3 and analyzing on the evolution of the spatial structure of settlement in macro and medium scale; finally, summarizing the evolution characteristics and internal reasons of tourism-oriented rural settlements. The main findings of this article include: first of all, there is difference in the evolution of the spatial structure between the developing rural settlements and undeveloped rural settlements among the eight administrative villages; secondly, the villages relying on the surrounding tourist attractions, the villages developing agricultural ecological garden and the villages with natural or historical and cultural resources have different laws of development; then, the rural settlements whose tourism development in germination period, development period and mature period have different characteristics of spatial evolution; finally, the different evolution modes of the tourism-oriented rural settlement space have different influences on the protection and inheritance of the village scene. The development of tourism has a significant impact on the spatial evolution of rural settlement. The intensive use of rural land and natural resources is the fundamental principle to protect the rural cultural landscape and ecological environment as well as the critical way to improve the attraction of rural tourism and promote the sustainable development of countryside.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
100
75708
Research on the Evolution of Public Space in Tourism-Oriented Traditional Rural Settlements
Abstract:
The hundreds of years of slow succession of living environment in rural area is a crucial carrier of China’s long history of culture and national wisdom. In recent years, the space evolution of traditional rural settlements has been promoted by the intervention of tourism development, among which the public architecture and outdoor activity areas together served as the major places for villagers, and tourists’ social activities are an important characterization for settlement spatial evolution. Traditional public space upgrade and layout study of new public space can effectively promote the tourism industry development of traditional rural settlements. This article takes Qi County, one China Traditional Culture Village as the exemplification and uses the technology of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Space Syntax, studies the evolution features of public space of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements in four steps. First, acquire the 2003 and 2016 image data of Qi County, using the remote sensing application EDRAS8.6. Second, vectorize the basic maps of Qi County including its land use map with the application of ArcGIS 9.3 meanwhile, associating with architectural and site information concluded from field research. Third, analyze the accessibility and connectivity of the inner space of settlements using space syntax; run cross-correlation with the public space data of 2003 and 2016. Finally, summarize the evolution law of the public space of settlements; study the upgrade pattern of traditional public space and location plan for new public space. Major findings of this paper including: first, location layout of traditional public space has a larger association with the calculation results of space syntax and further confirmed the objective value of space syntax in expressing the space and social relations. Second, the intervention of tourism development generates remarkable impact on public space location of tradition rural settlements. Third, traditional public space produces the symbols of both strengthening and decline and forms a diversified upgrade pattern for the purpose of meeting the different tourism functional needs. Finally, space syntax provides an objective basis for location plan of new public space that meets the needs of tourism service. Tourism development has a significant impact on the evolution of public space of traditional rural settlements. Two types of public space, architecture, and site are both with changes seen from the perspective of quantity, location, dimension and function after the intervention of tourism development. Function upgrade of traditional public space and scientific layout of new public space are two important ways in achieving the goal of sustainable development of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
99
75476
Triplet Shear Tests on Retrofitted Brickwork Masonry Walls
Abstract:
The main objective of this experimental study is to assess the shear strength and the crack behavior of the triplets built of perforated brickwork masonry elements. In order to observe the influence of shear resistance and energy dissipating before and after retrofitting applications by using the reinforcing system, static-cyclic shear tests were employed in the structural mechanics laboratory of Sakarya University. The reinforcing system is composed of hybrid multiaxial seismic fabric consisting of alkali resistant glass and polypropylene fibers. The plaster as bonding material used in the specimen’s retrofitting consists of expanded glass granular. In order to acquire exact measuring data about the failure behavior of the two mortar joints under shear stressing, vertical load-controlled cylinder having force capacity of 50 kN and loading rate of 1.5 mm/min. with an internal inductive displacement transducers is carried out perpendicular to the triplet specimens. In this study, a total of six triplet specimens with textile reinforcement were prepared for these shear bond tests. The three of them were produced as single-sided reinforced triplets with seismic fabric, while the others were strengthened on both sides. In addition, three triplet specimens without retrofitting and plaster were also tested as reference samples. The obtained test results were given in the manner of force-displacement relationships, ductility coefficients and shear strength parameters comparatively. It is concluded that two-side seismic textile applications on masonry elements with relevant plaster have considerably increased the sheer force resistance and the ductility capacity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
98
75336
Experimental and Analytical Study to Investigate the Effect of Tension Reinforcement on Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Short Beams
Abstract:
There are many factors that affect the behavior of reinforced concrete beams. These can be listed as concrete compressive and reinforcement yield strength, amount of tension, compression and confinement bars, and strain hardening of reinforcement. In the study, support condition of short beams is selected statically indeterminate to first degree. Experimental and numerical analysis are carried for reinforcement concrete (RC) short beams. Dimensions of cross sections are selected as 250mm width and 500 mm height. The length of RC short beams is designed as 2250 mm and these values are constant in all beams. After verifying accurately finite element model, a numerical parametric study is performed with varied diameter of tension reinforcement. Effect of change in diameter is investigated on behavior of RC short beams. As a result of the study, ductility ratios and failure modes are determined, and load-displacement graphs are obtained in order to understand the behavior of short beams. It is deduced that diameter of tension reinforcement plays very important role on the behavior of RC short beams in terms of ductility and brittleness.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
97
75335
Determining Moment-Curvature Relationship of Reinforced Concrete Rectangular Shear Walls
Abstract:
The behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members is quite important in RC structures. When evaluating the performance of structures, the nonlinear properties are defined according to the cross sectional behavior of RC members. To be able to determine the behavior of RC members, its cross sectional behavior should be known well. The moment-curvature (MC) relationship is used to represent cross sectional behavior. The MC relationship of RC cross section can be best determined both experimentally and numerically. But, experimental study on RC members is very difficult. The aim of the study is to obtain the MC relationship of RC shear walls. Additionally, it is aimed to determine the parameters which affect MC relationship. While obtaining MC relationship of RC members, XTRACT which can represent robustly the MC relationship is used. Concrete quality, longitudinal and transverse reinforcing ratios, are selected as parameters which affect MC relationship. As a result of the study, curvature ductility and effective flexural stiffness are determined using this parameter. Effective flexural stiffness is compared with the values defined in design codes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
96
75179
Crash and Injury Characteristics of Riders in Motorcycle-Passenger Vehicle Crashes
Abstract:
The motorcycle has become one of the most common type of vehicles used on the road, particularly in the Asia region, including Malaysia, due to its size-convenience and affordable price. This study focuses only on crashes involving motorcycles with passenger cars consisting 43 real world crashes obtained from in-depth crash investigation process from June 2016 till July 2017. The study collected and analyzed vehicle and site parameters obtained during crash investigation and injury information acquired from the patient-treating hospital. The investigation team, consisting of two personnel, is stationed at the Emergency Department of the treatment facility, and was dispatched to the crash scene once receiving notification of the related crashes. The injury information retrieved was coded according to the level of severity using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and classified into different body regions. The data revealed that weekend crashes were significantly higher for the night time period and the crash occurrence was the highest during morning hours (commuting to work period) for weekdays. Bad weather conditions play a minimal effect towards the occurrence of motorcycle – passenger vehicle crashes and nearly 90% involved motorcycles with single riders. Riders up to 25 years old are heavily involved in crashes with passenger vehicles (60%), followed by 26-55 year age group with 35%. Male riders were dominant in each of the age segments. The majority of the crashes involved side impacts, followed by rear impacts and cars outnumbered the rest of the passenger vehicle types in terms of crash involvement with motorcycles. The investigation data also revealed that passenger vehicles were the most at-fault counterpart (62%) when involved in crashes with motorcycles and most of the crashes involved situations whereby both of the vehicles are travelling in the same direction and one of the vehicles is in a turning maneuver. More than 80% of the involved motorcycle riders had sustained yellow severity level during triage process. The study also found that nearly 30% of the riders sustained injuries to the lower extremities, while MAIS level 3 injuries were recorded for all body regions except for thorax region. The result showed that crashes in which the motorcycles were found to be at fault were more likely to occur during night and raining conditions. These types of crashes were also found to be more likely to involve other types of passenger vehicles rather than cars and possess higher likelihood in resulting higher ISS (>6) value to the involved rider. To reduce motorcycle fatalities, it first has to understand the characteristics concerned and focus may be given on crashes involving passenger vehicles as the most dominant crash partner on Malaysian roads.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
95
75166
System Dynamics Projections of Environmental Issues for Domestic Water and Wastewater Scenarios in Urban Area of India
Abstract:
One of the environmental challenges in India is urban wastewater management as regulations and infrastructural development has not kept pace with the urbanization and growing population. The quality of life of people is also improving with the rapid growth of the gross domestic product. This has contributed to the enhancement in the per capita water requirement and consumption. More domestic water consumption generates more wastewater. The scarcity of potable water is making the situation quite serious, and water supply has to be regulated in most parts of the country during summer. This requires elaborate and concerted efforts to efficiently manage the water resources and supply systems. In this article, a system dynamics modelling approach is used for estimating the water demand and wastewater generation in a district headquarter city of North India. Projections are made till the year 2035. System dynamics is a software tool used for formulation of policies. On the basis of the estimates, policy scenarios are developed for sustainable development of water resources in conformity with the growing population. Mitigation option curtailing the water demand and wastewater generation include population stabilization, water reuse and recycle and water pricing. The model is validated quantitatively, and sensitivity analysis tests are carried out to examine the robustness of the model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
94
74653
Solutions for Comfort and Safety on Vibrations Resulting from the Action of the Wind on the Building in the Form of Portico with Four Floors
Abstract:
With the aim of increasing the levels of comfort and security structures, the study of dynamic loads on buildings has been one of the focuses in the area of control engineering, civil engineering and architecture. Thus, this work presents a study based on simulation of the dynamics of buildings in the form of portico subjected to wind action, besides presenting an action of passive control, using for this the dynamics of the structure, consequently representing a system appropriated on environmental issues. These control systems are named the dynamic vibration absorbers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
93
73813
Sustainable Affordable Housing Development in Indonesia
Abstract:
The housing sector in Indonesia is in critical condition where majority of low-income citizens live in substandard dwellings, and the number housing backlog is increasing every year. The housing problem becomes more urgent when the term 'sustainability' is considered, and sustainable affordable housing is yet to gain its successful implementation. Global urbanization develops fastest in developing countries like Indonesia where informal settlements are rapidly escalating, hence, making sustainable affordable housing strategies very critical in this context. The problem in developing countries like Indonesia lies on the institutional capacity of newly-established local governments having greater power to determine a development policy but apparently still lacking institutional capability and coordination with the central government and collaborative governance are still not established yet. The concept of upgrading informal settlements are seen changed over time and inconsistent. Despite much research on theme such as sustainable housing concept within Indonesian context, there has been a dearth of research examining the role of collaborative governance, as the current approach still shows fragmented approach between the stakeholders and the lack of community participation as the end user, and thus this research attempts to fill the gap on the aforementioned problems. By using case study with multi-methods conducted in Jakarta, this research has an overall aim to critically assess the role of collaborative governance in addressing sustainable affordable housing in Indonesia and to understand informal settlements and interventions in Indonesia rather than imposing a framework from western perspectives.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):