Analysis of the Fair Distribution of Urban Facilities in Kabul City by Population Modeling
In this study, we investigated how much of the urban facilities are fairly distributing in the city of Kabul based on the factor of population. To find the answer to this question we simulated a fair model for the distribution of investigated facilities in the city which is proposed based on the consideration of two factors; the number of users for each facility and the average distance of reach of each facility. Then the model was evaluated to make sure about its efficiency. And finally, the two—the existing pattern and the simulation model—were compared to find the degree of bias in the existing pattern of distribution of facilities in the city. The result of the study clearly clarified that the facilities are not fairly distributed in Kabul city based on the factor of population. Our analysis also revealed that the education services and the parks are the most and the worst fair distributed facilities in this regard.
Analysis and the Fair Distribution Modeling of Urban Facilities in Kabul City
Our world is fast heading toward being a predominantly urban planet. This can be a double-edged sword reality where it is as much frightening as it seems interesting. Moreover, a look to the current predictions and taking into the consideration the fact that about 90 percent of the coming urbanization is going to be absorbed by the towns and the cities of the developing countries of Asia and Africa, directly provide us the clues to assume a much more tragic ending to this story than to the happy one. Likewise, in a situation wherein most of these countries are still severely struggling to find the proper answer to their very first initial questions of urbanization—e.g. how to provide the essential structure for their cities, define the regulation, or even design the proper pattern on how the cities should be expanded—thus it is not weird to claim that most of the coming urbanization of the world is going to happen informally. This reality could not only bring the feature, landscape or the picture of the cities of the future under the doubt but at the same time provide the ground for the rise of a bunch of other essential questions of how the facilities would be distributed in these cities, or how fair will this pattern of distribution be. Kabul the capital of Afghanistan, as a city located in the developing world that its process of urbanization has been starting since 2001 and currently hold the position to be the fifth fastest growing city in the world, contained to a considerable slum ratio of 0.7—that means about 70 percent of its population is living in the informal areas—subsequently could be a very good case study to put this questions into the research and find out how the informal development of a city can lead to the unfair and unbalanced distribution of its facilities. Likewise, in this study we tried our best to first propose the ideal model for the fair distribution of the facilities in the Kabul city—where all the citizens have the same equal chance of access to the facilities—and then evaluate the situation of the city based on how fair the facilities are currently distributed therein. We subsequently did it by the comparative analysis between the existing facility rate in the formal and informal areas of the city to the one that was proposed as the fair ideal model.
Community’s Role in Slum Development: A Case Study of the Kabul Old City
Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, has witnessed a major population growth in the last decades which caused a significant increase in the number of informal settlements. The residents are suffering from many problems such as poor infrastructure, shortage of public facilities, depriving of the sense of ownership and facing much environmental degradation. Even though majority of the residents are living in such condition, the government response has been quite weak. The government’s main planning strategy has been upgrading in the form of provision of facilities and improving elements of physical infrastructure, unfortunately most of the projects which had not community’s support, faced with lots of challenges such as people’s resistance or even in some cases the project rather than solving the problem, compounded them to a worse condition. A major reason as to why many projects have not been effective in achieving certain objectives in the past is the results of local people were not being involved. Community participation plays an important role in slum development projects. The development of an integrated urban development concept these days without the mobilization of participants and community seems difficult and impossible. Therefore this paper looks into factors and methods which can help in creating a participatory approach for developing the slums in Kabul city. Furthermore, it describes the result of a questionnaire which was conducted on a part of the Kabul Old City due to hear resident’s problem related to the slum upgrading and collect their opinions on this regard. The research also points out some factors which can severely hamper the successful implementation of a slum upgrading project if not adequately addressed.
The Investigation and Analysis of Village Remains in Jinzhong Prefecture of Shanxi Province, China
Shanxi Province is a province with a long history in China. The historical characteristics of Jinzhong Prefecture in Shaanxi Province are very prominent. This research has done a lot of field research and analysis, and has analyzed a large number of documents. The formation and characteristics of villages in Jinzhong Prefecture are summarized. But the remains of many areas have not been systematically discovered and analyzed. This study found that the reasons for the formation of villages are natural, cultural, traffic and economic reasons. It mainly includes water, mountain, and developed business culture during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. By analyzing the evolution characteristics of each period, the characteristics and remains of the existing villages are explained in detail. These types of relics mainly include courtyards, fortresses, and Exchange shops. This study can provide systematic guidance on the protection of future village remains.
The Use of Space Syntax in Urban Transportation Planning and Evaluation: Limits and Potentials
Transportation planning is an academic integration discipline combining research and practice with the aim of mobility and accessibility improvements at both strategic-level policy-making and operational dimensions of practical planning. Transportation planning could build the linkage between traffic and social development goals, for instance, economic benefits and environmental sustainability. The transportation planning analysis and evaluation tend to apply empirical quantitative approaches with the guidance of the fundamental principles, such as efficiency, equity, safety, and sustainability. Space syntax theory has been applied in the spatial distribution of pedestrian movement or vehicle flow analysis, however rare has been written about its application in transportation planning. The correlated relationship between the variables of space syntax analysis and authentic observations have declared that the urban configurations have a significant effect on urban dynamics, for instance, land value, building density, traffic, crime. This research aims to explore the potentials of applying Space Syntax methodology to evaluate urban transportation planning through studying the effects of urban configuration on cities transportation performance. By literature review, this paper aims to discuss the effects that urban configuration with different degrees of integration and accessibility have on three elementary components of transportation planning - transportation efficiency, transportation safety, and economic agglomeration development - via intensifying and stabilising the nature movements generated by the street network. And then the potential and limits of Space Syntax theory to study the performance of urban transportation and transportation planning would be discussed in the paper. In practical terms, this research will help future research explore the effects of urban design on transportation performance, and identify which patterns of urban street networks would allow for most efficient and safe transportation performance with higher economic benefits.
Urban Energy Demand Modelling: Spatial Analysis Approach
Energy consumption in the urban environment has attracted numerous researches in recent decades. However, it is comparatively rare to find literary works which investigated 3D spatial analysis of urban energy demand modelling. In order to analyze the spatial correlation between urban morphology and energy demand comprehensively, this paper investigates their relation by using the spatial regression tool. In addition, the spatial regression tool which is applied in this paper is ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and building volume are explainers of urban morphology, which act as independent variables of Energy-land use (E-L) model. NDBI and NDVI are used as the index to describe five types of land use: urban area (U), open space (O), artificial green area (G), natural green area (V), and water body (W). Accordingly, annual electricity, gas demand and energy demand are dependent variables of the E-L model. Based on the analytical result of E-L model relation, it revealed that energy demand and urban morphology are closely connected and the possible causes and practical use are discussed. Besides, the spatial analysis methods of OLS and GWR are compared.
Assessment of Vehicular Accidents and Possible Mitigation Measures: A Case of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
Rapid urbanization is one of the consequences of rapid population explosion, which has also led to massive increase in number of motorized vehicles essential for carrying out all activities needed for sustaining urban livelihood. With this increased use of motorized vehicles over the time there has also been an increase in number of accidents. Study of road network and geometric features are essential to tackle problems of road accidents in any district or town. The increase in road accidents is one of the burning issues in the present society. Records show that there is one death at every 3.7 minutes because of road accident. It has been found from the research that, accidents occur due to, mistakes of the driver (86%) followed by bad street condition (5%), mistake of pedestrian (4%), as well as technical and maintenance defects (1%). Here, case study of Ahmedabad, Gujarat is taken up where first road safety level is assessed considering various parameters. The study confined to accident characteristics of all types of vehicles. For deeper analysis, road safety index for various stretches in Ahmedabad was found out. Crash rate for same stretches was found out. Based on various parameters priority was decided so that which stretch should be look out first to minimize road accidents on that stretch and which stretch should look out last. The major findings of the study are that accident severity of Ahmedabad has increased, but accident fatality risk has decreased; thus there is need to undertake some traffic engineering measures or make some traffic rules that are strictly followed by traffic. From the above study and literature studied it is found that Ahmedabad is suffering from similar problem of accidents and injuries and deaths caused by them, after properly investigating the issue short-term and long-term solutions to minimize road accidents have been presented in this paper.
Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: The Case Study of El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt
Conservation and urban investment are a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze the existing situation of an historic street named El Sheikh Kandil, to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users and visitors. Then, it concludes with recommendations to improve quality of life through the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthening of the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta city can benefit from these development proposals by preserving and revitalizing its unique character which leads to tourism development and benefits from the new investments.
Research on the Performance Management of Social Organizations Participating in Home-Based Care
Community home-based care service system, which is based on the family pension, supported by community pension and supplied by institutions pension, is an effective pension system to solve the current situation of China's accelerated aging. However, due to the fundamental realities of our country, the government is not able to bear the unilateral supply of the old-age service of the community. Therefore, based on the theory of welfare pluralism, the participation of social organizations in the home-based care service center has become an important part of the diversified supply of the old-age service for the elderly. Meanwhile, the home-based care service industry is still in the early stage, the management is relatively rough, which resulted in a large number of social resources waste. Thus, scientific, objective and long-term implementation is needed for social organizations to participate in home-based care services to guide its performance management. In order to realize the design of the performance management system, the author has done a research work that clarifies the research status of social organization's participation in home-based care service. Relevant theories such as welfare pluralism, community care theory, and performance management theory have been used to demonstrate the feasibility of data envelopment analysis method in social organization performance research. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the operation mode of the home-based care service center, and hackles the national as well as local documents, standards and norms related to the development of the home-based care industry, particularly studies those documents in Nanjing. Based on this, the paper designed a set of performance management PDCA system for home-based care service center in Nanjing and clarified each step of the system in detail. Subsequently, the research methods of performance evaluation and performance management and feedback, which are two core steps of performance management have been compared and screened in order to establish the overall framework of the performance management system of the home-based care service center. Through a large number of research, the paper summarized and analyzed the characteristics of the home-based care service center. Based on the research results, combined with the practice of the industry development in Nanjing, the paper puts forward a targeted performance evaluation index system of home-based care service center in Nanjing. Finally, the paper evaluated and sub-filed the performance of 186 home-based care service centers in Nanjing and then designed the performance optimization direction and performance improvement path based on the results. This study constructs the index system of performance evaluation of home-based care service and makes the index detailed to the implementation level, and constructs the evaluation index system which can be applied directly. Meanwhile, the quantitative evaluation of social organizations participating in the home-based care service changed the subjective impression in the previous practice of evaluation.
Water Demand Modelling Using Artificial Neural Network in Ramallah
Water scarcity and increasing water demand especially for residential use are major challenges facing Palestine. The need to accurately forecast water consumption is useful for the planning and management of this natural resource. The main objective of this paper is to (i) study the major factors influencing the water consumption in Palestine, (ii) understand the general pattern of Household water consumption, (iii) assess the possible changes in household water consumption and suggest appropriate remedies and (iv) develop prediction model based on the Artificial Neural Network to the water consumption in Palestinian cities. The paper is organized in four parts. The first part includes literature review of household water consumption studies. The second part concerns data collection methodology, conceptual frame work for the household water consumption surveys, survey descriptions and data processing methods. The third part presents descriptive statistics, multiple regression and analysis of the water consumption in the two Palestinian cities. The final part develops the use of Artificial Neural Network for modeling the water consumption in Palestinian cities.
Horizontal Development of Built-up Area and Its Impacts on the Agricultural Land of Peshawar City District (1991-2014)
Peshawar City is experiencing a rapid spatial urban growth primarily as a result of high rate of urbanization along with economic development. This paper was designed to understand the impacts of urbanization on agriculture land use change by particularly focusing on land use change trajectories from the past (1991-2014). We used Landsat imageries (30 meters) for1991along with Spot images (2.5 meters) for year 2014. . The ground truthing of the satellite data was performed by collecting information from Peshawar Development Authority, revenue department, real estate agents and interviews with the officials of city administration. The temporal satellite images were processed by applying supervised maximum likelihood classification technique in ArcGIS 9.3. The procedure resulted into five main classes of land use i.e. built-up area, farmland, barren land, cultivable-wasteland and water bodies. The analysis revealed that, in Peshawar City the built-up environment has been doubled from 8.1 percent in 1991 to over 18.2 percent in 2014 by predominantly encroaching land producing food. Furthermore, the CA-Markov Model predicted that the area under impervious surfaces would continue to flourish during the next three decades. This rapid increase in built-up area is accredited to the lack of proper land use planning and management, which has caused chaotic urban sprawl with detrimental social and environmental consequences.
On Figuring the City Characteristics and Landscape in Overall Urban Design: A Case Study in Xiangyang Central City, China
Chinese overall urban design faces a large number of problems such as the neglect of urban characteristics, generalization of content, and difficulty in implementation. Focusing on these issues, this paper proposes the main points of shaping urban characteristics in overall urban design: focuses on core problems in city function and scale, landscape pattern, historical culture, social resources and modern city style and digs the urban characteristic genes. Then, we put forward "core problem location and characteristic gene enhancement" as a kind of overall urban design technical method. Firstly, based on the main problems in urban space as a whole, for the operability goal, the method extracts the key genes and integrates into the multi-dimension system in a targeted manner. Secondly, hierarchical management and guidance system is established which may be in line with administrative management. Finally, by converting the results, action plan is drawn up that can be dynamically implemented. Based on the above idea and method, a practical exploration has been performed in the case of Xiangyang central city.
Implementation-Oriented Discussion for Historical and Cultural Villages Conservation Planning
Since the State Council of China issued the regulations on the conservation of historical, cultural towns and villages in 2008, formulation of conservation planning has been carried out in national, provincial and municipal historical and cultural villages for protection needs, which provides a legal basis for inheritance of historical culture and protection of historical resources. Although the quantity and content of the conservation planning are continually increasing, the implementation and application are still ambiguous. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper explores methods to enhance the implementation of conservation planning from the perspective of planning formulation. Specifically, the technical framework of ‘overall objectives planning - sub-objectives planning - zoning guidelines - implementation by stages’ is proposed to implement the planning objectives in different classifications and stages. Then combined with details of the Qiqiao historical and cultural village conservation planning project in Ningbo, five sub-objectives are set, which are implemented through the village zoning guidelines. At the same time, the key points and specific projects in the near-term, medium-term and long-term work are clarified, and the spatial planning is transformed into the action plan with time scale. The proposed framework and method provide a reference for the implementation and management of the conservation planning of historical and cultural villages in the future.
Shaping of World-Class Delhi: Politics of Marginalization and Inclusion
In the context of the government's vision of turning Delhi into a green, privatized and slum free city, giving it a world-class image at par with the global cities of the world, this paper investigates into the various processes and politics of things that went behind defining spaces in the city and attributing an aesthetic image to it. The paper will explore two cases that were forged primarily through the forces of one particular type of power relation. One would be to look at the modernist movement adopted by the Nehruvian government post-independence and the next case will look at special periods like Emergency and Commonwealth games. The study of these cases will help understand the ambivalence embedded in the different rationales of the Government and different powerful agencies adopted in order to build world-classness. Through the study, it will be easier to discern how city spaces were reconfigured in the name of 'good governance'. In this process, it also became important to analyze the double nature of law, both as a protector of people’s rights and as a threat to people. What was interesting to note through the study was that in the process of nation building and creating an image for the city, the government’s policies and programs were mostly aimed at the richer sections of the society and the poorer sections and people from lower income groups kept getting marginalized, subdued, and pushed further away (These marginalized people were pushed away even geographically!). The reconfiguration of city space and attributing an aesthetic character to it, led to an alteration not only in the way in which citizens perceived and engaged with these spaces, but also brought about changes in the way they envisioned their place in the city. Ironically, it was found that every attempt to build any kind of facility for the city’s elite in turn led to an inevitable removal of the marginalized sections of the society as a necessary step to achieve a clean, green and world-class city. The paper questions the claim made by the government for creating a just, equitable city and granting rights to all. An argument is put forth that in the politics of redistribution of space, the city that has been designed is meant for the aspirational middle-class and elite only, who are ideally primed to live in world-class cities. Thus, the aim is to study city spaces, urban form, the associated politics and power plays involved within and understand whether segmented cities are being built in the name of creating sensible, inclusive cities.
Resolving Increased Water-Cut in South and East Kuwait Areas through Water Knock-Out Facility Project
The Water Knock-Out (WKO) facility project is to handle the undesirable impact of the increasing water production rate in South and East Kuwait (S&EK) areas and break the emulsions and ensure sufficient separation of water at the new upstream facility, to reduce the load on the existing separation equipment in the Gathering Centers (GC). As the existing separation equipment in the Gathering Centers are not efficient to separate the emulsions, the Compact Electrostatic Coalescer (CEC) and Vessel Internal Electrostatic Coalescer (VIEC) technologies have been selected for enhancing the liquid-liquid separation by using the alternating voltage/frequency on electrical fields, to handle the increasing water-cut in S&EK. In the Compact Electrostatic Coalescer (CEC) technology method, the CEC equipment is installed downstream of the inlet separator externally, whereas in the Vessel Internal Electrostatic Coalescer (VIEC) technology method, the VIEC is built inside the treater vessel, downstream of the inlet separator with advanced internals for implementing electrocoalescence of water particles and hence enhancing liquids separation. The CEC and VIEC technologies used in the Water Knockout Facility project has the ability to resolve the increasing water cut in the S&EK area and able to enhance the liquid-liquid separation in the WKO facility separation equipment. In addition, the WKO facility is minimizing the load on the existing Gathering Center’s separation equipment, by tackling the high water-cut wells, upstream of each GC. The required performances at the outlet of the WKO facility are Oil in Water 100ppmv, Water in Oil 15% volume, liquid carryover in gas 0.1 US gal/MMSCFD, for the water cut ranging from 37.5 to 75% volume. The WKO facility project is used to sustain, support and maintain Greater Burgan production at 1.7 Million Barrels of Oil Per Day (MMBOPD), by handling the increasing water production rate.
A Comparative Study of Innovative Regions in the World Based on the Theory of Innovation Ecosystem: Cases of the Silicon Valley, Cambridge, Tsukuba and Zhongguancun
With the rapid development of technology and urbanization, innovation has become an important driving force for urban development. Since the late 20th Century, a number of cities and regions have emerged in the world with innovation as the main driving force, and many of them are still the most important innovation centers in the world. Based on the perspective of innovation ecosystem theory, this paper compares Silicon Valley in the United States, Cambridge in the United Kingdom, Tsukuba in Japan and Zhongguancun in China to explore the reasons for the success of innovative regions and their respective characteristics, hoping to provide a reference for the development of other innovative cities. The main conclusions of this study are the following; firstly, different countries have different social backgrounds. The development model of innovative regions is closely related to the regional backgrounds. Secondly, the market force and the government power have important significance for the development of the innovation regions. The influence of the government power in the early stage of development is great, and in the latter stage, development is dominated by the market force. In addition, the self-organizing ability of the region has a great impact on the innovation ability of the region. Strong self-organizing ability is conducive to the development of innovation economy.
Effect of Site Amplification on Seismic Safety Evaluation of Flyover Pier
Bangladesh is a developing country in which a lot of multi-span simply/continuous supported flyovers are being constructed in its major cities. Being situated in a seismically active region, seismic safety evaluation of flyovers is essential for seismic risk reduction. Effects of site amplification on seismic safety evaluation of flyover piers are the main concern of this study. In this regard, failure mode, lateral strength and displacement ductility of piers of a typical multi-span simply supported flyover have been evaluated by Japan Road Association (JRA) recommended guidelines, with and without considering site amplification. Ultimate flexural strengths of piers have been computed using the pushover analysis results. Shear capacity of piers has been calculated using the guidelines of JRA. Lateral strengths have been determined depending on the failure modes of the piers. Displacement ductility of piers has been computed using yield and ultimate displacements of the piers obtained from the pushover analysis results. Selected earthquake time history is used in seismic safety evaluation of the flyover piers. Finally, the ductility design method is used to conduct the seismic safety evaluation of the piers with and without considering site amplification. From the numerical results, it has been revealed that the effects of site amplification on seismic safety evaluation of bridge structures should be carefully taken into account.
Seismic Performance of Nuclear Power Plant Structures Subjected to Korean Earthquakes
Currently, the design response spectrum (i.e., Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC 1.60 spectrum) with the peak ground acceleration (PGA) 0.3g (for Safe Shutdown Earthquake level) is specified for designing the new nuclear power plant (NPP) structures in Korea. However, the recent earthquakes in the region such as the 2016 Gyeongju and the 2017 Pohang earthquake showed that the possible PGA of ground motions can be larger than 0.3g. Therefore, there is a need to analyze the seismic performance of the existing NPP structures under these earthquakes. An NPP model, APR-1400, which is designed and built in Korea was selected for a case study. The NPP structure is numerically modeled in terms of lumped-mass stick elements using OpenSees framework. The floor acceleration and displacement of components are measured to quantify the responses of components. The numerical results show that the floor spectral accelerations are significantly amplified in the components subjected to Korean earthquakes. A comparison between floor response spectra of Korean earthquakes and the NRC design motion highlights that the seismic design level of NPP components under an earthquake should be thoroughly reconsidered. Additionally, a seismic safety assessment of the equipment and relays attached to main structures is also required.
Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Properties of Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mix
Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEMs) are generally produced by mixing unheated aggregate, binder and filler at ambient temperature. Cold bituminous emulsion mixtures have several environmental and cost-effective benefits. But CBEMs offer poor early life properties too and they require long curing time to achieve maximum strength. The main focus of this study is to overcome inferiority of CBEMs by incorporating Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In this study, RHA and OPC are substituted for conventional mineral filler in an increased percentage from 0 to 3% with an increment of 1%. Marshall stability, retained stability and tensile strength tests were conducted to evaluate the enhancement in performance of CBEMs. The experimental results have shown that Marshall stability and tensile strength of CBEMs increased significantly by replacing the conventional mineral filler with RHA and OPC. The addition of RHA and OPC in CBEMs result in a reduction in moisture induced damages. However, stability and tensile strength values of RHA modified CBEMs are higher than that of OPC modified CBEMs.
Causes of Deteriorations of Flexible Pavement, Its Condition Rating and Maintenance
There are various causes for asphalt pavement distresses which can develop prematurely or with aging in services. These causes are not limited to aging of bitumen binder but include poor quality materials and construction, inadequate mix design, inadequate pavement structure design considering the traffic and lack of preventive maintenance. There is physical evidence available for each type of pavement distress. Distress in asphalt pavements can be categorized in different distress modes like fracture (cracking and spalling), distortion (permanent deformation and slippage), and disintegration (raveling and potholes). This study shows the importance of severity determination of distresses for the selection of appropriate preventive maintenance treatment. Distress analysis of the deteriorated roads was carried out. Four roads of urban flexible pavements from Pune city was selected as a case study. The roads were surveyed to detect the types, to measure the severity and extent of the distresses. Causes of distresses were investigated. The pavement condition rating values of the roads were calculated. These ranges of ratings were as follows; 1 for poor condition road, 1.1 to 2 for fair condition road and 2.1 to 3 for good condition road. Out of the four roads, two roads were found to be in fair condition and the other two were found in good condition. From the various preventive maintenance treatments like crack seal, fog seal, slurry seal, microsurfacing, surface dressing and thin hot mix/cold mix bituminous overlays, the effective maintenance treatments with respect to the surface condition and severity levels of the existing pavement were recommended.
A Needs-Based Top-Down Approach for a Tailor-Made Smart City Roadmap
All megacities are not only under the pressure of common urbanization and growth problems but also dealing with different challenges according to their specific circumstances. However, the majority of cities focuses mainly on popular smart city projects, which are usually driven by strong private sector, regardless of their characteristics, each city needs to develop customized projects within a tailor-made smart city roadmap to be able to solve its own challenges. Smart city manifest, helps citizens to feel the action better than good reading smart city vision statements, which consists of five elements; namely purpose, values, mission, vision, and strategy. This study designs a methodology for smart city roadmap based on a top-down approach, breaking down of smart city manifest to feasible projects for a systematic smart city transformation. This methodology was implemented in Istanbul smart city transformation program which includes smart city literature review, current state analysis, roadmap, and architecture projects, respectively. Istanbul smart city roadmap project followed an extensive literature review of certain leading smart cities around the world and benchmarking of the city’s current state using well known smart city indices. In the project, needs of citizens and service providers of the city were identified via stakeholder, persona and social media analysis. The project aimed to develop smart city projects targeting fulfilling related needs by implementing a gap analysis between current state and foreseen plans. As a result, in 11 smart city domains and enablers; 24 strategic objectives, 50 programs, and 101 projects were developed with the support of 183 smart city stakeholder entities and based on 125 citizen persona profiles and last one-year social media analysis. In conclusion, the followed methodology helps cities to identify and prioritize their needs and plan for long-term sustainable development, despite limited resources.
Evaluating Urban City Indices: A Study for Investigating Functional Domains, Indicators and Integration Methods
Nowadays many cities around the world are investing their efforts and resources for the purpose of facilitating their citizen’s life and making cities more livable and sustainable by implementing newly emerged phenomena of smart city. For this purpose, related research institutions prepare and publish smart city indices or benchmarking reports aiming to measure the city’s current ‘smartness’ status. Several functional domains, various indicators along different selection and calculation methods are found within such indices and reports. The selection criteria varied for each institution resulting in inconsistency in the ranking and evaluating. This research aims to evaluate the impact of selecting such functional domains, indicators and calculation methods which may cause change in the rank. For that, six functional domains, i.e. Environment, Mobility, Economy, People, Living and governance, were selected covering 19 focus areas and 41 sub-focus (variable) areas. 60 out of 191 indicators were also selected according to several criteria. These were identified as a result of extensive literature review for 13 well known global indices and research and the ISO 37120 standards of sustainable development of communities. The values of the identified indicators were obtained from reliable sources for ten cities. The values of each indicator for the selected cities were normalized and standardized to objectively investigate the impact of the chosen indicators. Moreover, the effect of choosing an integration method to represent the values of indicators for each city is investigated by comparing the results of two of the most used methods i.e. geometric aggregation and fuzzy logic. The essence of these methods is assigning a weight to each indicator its relative significance. However, both methods resulted in different weights for the same indicator. As a result of this study, the alternation in city ranking resulting from each method was investigated and discussed separately. Generally, each method illustrated different ranking for the selected cities. However, it was observed that within certain functional areas the rank remained unchanged in both integration method. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended utilizing a common platform and method to objectively evaluate cities around the world. The common method should provide policymakers proper tools to evaluate their decisions and investments relative to other cities. Moreover, for smart cities indices, at least 481 different indicators were found, which is an immense number of indicators to be considered, especially for a smart city index. Further works should be devoted to finding mutual indicators representing the index purpose globally and objectively.
Site Selection in Adaptive Reuse Architecture for Social Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa
South Africa’s need for the provision of housing within its major city centres, specifically Gauteng Province (GP), is a major concern. Initiatives for converting misused/ unused buildings to suitable housing for residents who work in the city as well as prospective citizens are currently underway, one aspect that is needed currently, is the re-possession of these buildings repurposing, into housing communities for quality low cost mixed density housing and for this process to have minimal strain on existing infrastructure like energy, emission reduction etc. Unfortunately, there are instances in Johannesburg, the country’s economic capital, with 2017 estimates claiming that 700 buildings lay unused or misused due to issues that will be discussed in this paper, these then become hubs for illegal activity and are an unacceptable form of shelter. It can be argued that the provision of inner-city social housing is lacking, but not due to the unavailability of funding or usable land and buildings, but that these assets are not being used appropriately nor to their full potential. Currently the GP government has mandated the re-purposing of all buildings that meet their criteria (structural stability, feasibility, adaptability, etc.) with the intention of inviting interested parties to propose conversions of the buildings into densified social housing. Going forward, the proposed focus is creation of social housing communities within existing buildings which may be retrofitted with sustainable technologies, green design strategies and principles, aiming for the finished buildings to achieve ‘Net-Zero/Positive’ status. A Net-Zero building, according to The Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA) is a building which manages to produce resources it needs to function, and reduces wastage, emissions and demand of these resources during its lifespan. The categories which GBCSA includes are carbon, water, waste and ecology, this may include material selection, construction methods, etc.
The Effects of T-Walls on Urban Landscape and Quality of Life and Anti-Terror Design Concept in Kabul, Afghanistan
Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan with a population of 4.2 million inhabitants. The city has suffered a lot in 40 years of conflict of civil war and “The war on terror”. After the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 by The United States of America, the terrorists were defeated on the field. Hence the terrorist mostly the Taliban started a new way of fighting, which is the suicide attack and bombing the important areas to create terror. Hence most of the Afghan government institution, international organisation and even important government employees surrounded their offices and homes with blast-resistant concrete walls, which is also called as T-Walls, because of resemblance an inverted letter “T”. It created a bad landscape for the city and creating traffic congestions. The research contains; questionnaire, it was asked from Kabul citizens to find out the feeling of people on exposure to T-Walls and what is the phycological effect of this T-Walls. “The T-Walls pull down commission” documents were reviewed to find out what caused the failure? A literature review has been done to compare Kabul with Washington D.C on how they designed the city against terrorism threat without turning the cities in to lock down. Bogota city of Columbia urban happiness movement is reviewed and compared with Kabul. The finding of research revealed that citizens of Kabul want security but not at the expense of public realm and creating the architecture of fear, it also indicates that increasing the T-walls do not give secure feeling but instead, it increases terror, hatred and killing people’s optimism. eecurity plan. At the end, a series of recommendation is suggested on the issue.
Migration, Labour Market, Capital Formation, and Social Security: A Study of Livelihoods of the Urban Poor in Two Different Cities of West Bengal in India
Most of the cities in the developing countries like Siliguri Municipal Corporation Area (SMCA) and Raiganj Municipality (RM) in West Bengal, India are changing typically in terms of demographic, economic and social relationship due to rapid pace of urbanization. The mushrooming growth of slums in SMCA and RM is the direct consequence of urbanization and migration due to regional imbalance, unbalanced growth process which is posing a serious threat to sustainable development of the country. Almost all the slums happen to be a breeding ground for poverty, negligence, and disease. Unpredictable growth of slums and poverty alleviation has now become a serious challenge to the global and national policy makers for the development of the slum dwellers. The ethical dimension of the poor in the cities like SMCA and RM stands on equal opportunities, inclusive and harmonious living without discrimination of any kind. But, the migrant slum dwellers in SMCA and RM do not possess high skill or education to enable them to find well paid employment in the formal sector and the surplus urban labour force is compelled to generate its own means of employment and survival in the informal sector. The survey data of the households has been analysedin terms of percentage, descriptive statistics which includes mean, Standard Deviation (SD), ANOVA (Mean Difference) etc., to analyse the socio economic variables of the households. The study shows that the migrant labour forces living in the slums are derived from the social security measures in both the municipal areas of SMCA and RM. The urban poor in the cities of SMCA and RM rely heavily on social capital amongst all the capital assets to help them ‘get by’ and ‘get ahead’. Despite, the slum dwellers in the study areas are vulnerable with respect to other determinants of capital assets. It is noteworthy that Indian plans of anti-poverty programmes was in a proper place even after the neo-liberal regime, where the basic idea behind the massive shift of various welfare and service oriented strategy to poverty reduction strategy for the benefit of the urban poor with the trickle down effects. But, the overall impact of the trickledown effect was unsatisfactory. The objective of the Paper is to assess the magnitude of migration and absorption in the urban labour market. Issues relating to capital formation, social security measures and the support of the Welfare State in order to meet 'Sustainable Development Goals'. This study also highlights the quality of life of urban poor migrants in terms of capital formation and livelihoods.
A Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach for the Decision of Maintenance Priorities of Building Entities: A Case Study in a Facilities Management Company
Building entities are valuable assets of a society, however, all of them are suffered from the ravages of weather and time. Facilitating onerous maintenance activities is the only way to either maintain or enhance the value and contemporary standard of the premises. By the way, maintenance budget is always bounded by the corresponding threshold limit. In order to optimize the limited resources allocation in carrying out maintenance, there is a substantial need to prioritize maintenance work. This paper reveals the application of Fuzzy AHP in a Facilities Management Company determining the maintenance priorities on the basis of predetermined criteria, viz., Building Status (BS), Effects on Fabrics (EF), Effects on Sustainability (ES), Effects on Users (EU), Importance of Usage (IU) and Physical Condition (PC) in dealing with categorized 8 predominant building components maintenance aspects for building premises. From the case study, it is found that ‘building exterior repainting or re-tiling’, ‘spalling concrete repair works among exterior area’ and ‘lobby renovation’ are the top three maintenance priorities from facilities manager and maintenance expertise personnel. Through the application of the Fuzzy AHP for maintenance priorities decision algorithm, a more systemic and easier comparing scalar linearity factors being explored even in considering other multiple criteria decision scenarios of building maintenance issue.
Effects of Moisture on Fatigue Behavior of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Four-Point Bending Test
Moisture damage is the continuous deterioration of asphalt concrete mixtures by the loss of adhesive bond between the asphalt binder and aggregates, or loss of cohesive bonds within the asphalt binder in the presence of moisture. Moisture has been known to either cause or exacerbates distresses in asphalt concrete pavements. Since moisture would often retain for a relatively long duration at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer, the movement of traffic loading in this saturated condition would cause excess stresses or strains within the mixture. This would accelerate the degradation of the adhesion and cohesion within the mixture and likely to contribute the development of fatigue cracking in asphalt concrete pavements. In view of this, it is important to investigate the effect of moisture on the fatigue behavior of asphalt concrete mixtures. In this study, changes in fatigue characteristics after moisture conditioning were evaluated by conducting four-point beam fatigue tests on dry and moisture conditioned specimens. For this purpose, mixtures with two different types of binders were prepared and saturated with moisture using 700 mm Hg vacuum. Beam specimens, in this way, were taken to a saturation level of 65-75 percent. After preconditioning specimens in this degree of saturation and 60°C for a period of 24 hours, they were subjected to four point beam fatigue tests in strain-controlled mode with a strain amplitude of 400 microstrain. The results were then compared with the fatigue test results obtained with beam specimens that were not subjected to moisture conditioning. Test results show that the conditioning reduces both fatigue life and initial flexural stiffness of specimen significantly. The moisture conditioning was also found to increase the rate of reduction of flexural stiffness. Moreover, it was observed that the fatigue life ratio (FLR), the ratio of the fatigue life of the moisture conditioned sample to that of the dry sample, is significantly lower than the flexural stiffness ratio (FSR). The study indicates that four-point bending test is an appropriate tool with FLR and FSR as the potential parameters for moisture-sensitivity evaluation.
Experiences and Challenges of Community Participation in Urban Renewal Projects: A Case Study of Bhendi Bazzar, Mumbai, India
Urban redevelopment planning initiatives in developing countries have been largely criticised due to top-down planning approach and lack of involvement of the targeted beneficiaries which have led to a challenging situation which is contrary to the perceived needs of beneficiaries. Urban renewal projects improve the lives of people and meaningful participation of community plays a pivotal role. Public perceptions on satisfaction and participation have been given less priority in the investigation, which hinders effective planning and implementation of urban renewal projects. Moreover, challenges of community participation in urban renewal projects are less documented, particularly in relation to public participation and satisfaction. There is a need for new paradigm shift focusing on community participatory approach in urban renewal projects. The over 125-year-old Bhendi Bazar in Mumbai, India is the country’s first ever cluster redevelopment project, popularly known as Bhendi Bazaar redevelopment and it will be one of the largest projects for urban rejuvenation of one of Mumbai’s oldest and dying inner city areas. The project is led by the community trust, inputs were taken from various stakeholders, including residents, commercial tenants and expert consultants to shape the master plan and design of the project. The project started in 2016 but there is a significant delay in implementing the project. The study aimed at studying and assessing public perceptions on satisfaction and the relationship between community participation and community satisfaction in Bhendi Bazaar of Mumbai, India. Furthermore, the study will outline the challenges and problems of community participation in urban renewal projects and it suggests recommendations for the future. The qualitative and quantitative methods such as reconnaissance survey, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, walking interviews, a narrative inquiry is used for analysis of data. Preliminary findings revealed that all tenants are satisfied for the redevelopment of an area but the willingness of residential tenants to move in transit accommodation has made the projects successful and reductant of some residential and commercial tenants, regulatory provisions rising to face challenges in implementation. Experiences from the case study can help to understand dynamics behind public participation and government. At the same time, they serve as an inspiration and learning opportunity for future projects to ensure that they are sustainable not only from an economic standpoint but also, a social perspective.
Integration of Building Information Modeling Framework for 4D Constructability Review and Clash Detection Management of a Sewage Treatment Plant
Global AEC (architecture, engineering, and construction) industry has been coined as one of the most resistive domains in embracing technology. Although this digital era has been inundated with software tools like CAD, STADD, CANDY, Microsoft Project, Primavera etc. the key stakeholders have been working in siloes and processes remain fragmented. Unlike the yesteryears’ simpler project delivery methods, the current projects are of fast-track, complex, risky, multidisciplinary, stakeholder’s influential, statutorily regulative etc. pose extensive bottlenecks in preventing timely completion of projects. At this juncture, a paradigm shift surfaced in construction industry, and Building Information Modeling, aka BIM, has been a panacea to bolster the multidisciplinary teams’ cooperative and collaborative work leading to productive, sustainable and leaner project outcome. Building information modeling has been integrative, stakeholder engaging and centralized approach in providing a common platform of communication. A common misconception that BIM can be used for building/high rise projects in Indian Construction Industry, while this paper discusses of the implementation of BIM processes/methodologies in water and waste water industry. It elucidates about BIM 4D planning and constructability reviews of a Sewage Treatment Plant in India. Conventional construction planning and logistics management involves a blend of experience coupled with imagination. Even though the excerpts or judgments or lessons learnt gained from veterans might be predictive and helpful, but the uncertainty factor persists. This paper shall delve about the case study of real time implementation of BIM 4D planning protocols for one of the Sewage Treatment Plant of Dravyavati River Rejuvenation Project in India and develops a Time Liner to identify logistics planning and clash detection. With this BIM processes, we shall find that there will be significant reduction of duplication of tasks and reworks. Also another benefit achieved will be better visualization and workarounds during conception stage and enables for early involvement of the stakeholders in the Project Life cycle of Sewage Treatment Plant construction. Moreover, we have also taken an opinion poll of the benefits accrued utilizing BIM processes versus traditional paper based communication like 2D and 3D CAD tools. Thus this paper concludes with BIM framework for Sewage Treatment Plant construction which will achieve optimal construction co-ordination advantages like 4D construction sequencing, interference checking, clash detection checking and resolutions by primary engagement of all key stakeholders thereby identifying potential risks and subsequent creation of risk response strategies. However, certain hiccups like hesitancy in adoption of BIM technology by naïve users and availability of proficient BIM trainers in India poses a phenomenal impediment. Hence the nurture of BIM processes from conception, construction and till commissioning, operation and maintenance along with deconstruction of a project’s life cycle is highly essential for Indian Construction Industry in this digital era.
Reimagining the Potential of Street Lighting Infrastructure in Nairobi City
Cities worldwide and most notably those in the global south, including Nairobi City are experiencing accelerated population growth and urban sprawl, accompanied with multiple socioeconomic challenges’ which in turn increase the pressure on already limited infrastructure such as public lighting and on limited financial resources. Based on this premise, through reimaging the value of street lighting infrastructure, the study attempts to highlight the affordance and affordability of streetlights and suggests them as a tool to optimally address limited financial resources that characterize cities in the global south. As a methodology, the paper reviews and analyzes literature available online including Nairobi city budgets; reports from Kenya Power, World Health Organization and United Nations; and articles on enterprise level Internet of Things (IoT) solutions. In conclusion, this study illustrates that streetlights can go well beyond their traditional roles of illuminating cities at night. They can be as suggested in this paper charging stations, communication network terminals and disease prevention nodes.