Physical and Morphological Responses to Land Reclamation Projects in a Wave-Dominated Bay
Land reclamation from the ocean has considerably increased over past decades to support worldwide rapid urban growth. Reshaping the coastline, however, inevitably affects coastal systems. One of the main challenges for coastal oceanographers is to predict the physical and morphological responses for nearshore systems to man-made changes over multiple time-scales. Fully-coupled numerical models are powerful tools for simulating the wide range of interactions between flow field and bedform morphology. Restricted and inconsistent measurements, combined with limited computational resources, typically make this exercise complex and uncertain. In the present study, we investigate the impact of proposed land reclamation within a wave-dominated bay in New Zealand. For this purpose, we first calibrated our morphological model based on the long-term evolution of the bay resulting from land reclamation carried out in the 1950s. This included the application of sedimentological spin-up and reduction techniques based on historical bathymetry datasets. The updated bathymetry, including the proposed modifications of the bay, was then used to predict the effect of the proposed land reclamation on the wave climate and morphology of the bay after one decade. We show that reshaping the bay induces a distinct symmetrical response of the shoreline which likely will modify the nearshore wave patterns and consequently recreational activities in the area.
A Critical Interdisciplinary Perspective on Urban Form Theory and Praxes: Assembly, Disassembly, and Reassembly
This paper offers an interdisciplinary critical perspective on the history and theory of urban form. It juxtaposes numerous theoretical constructs of crucial significance to understanding urban social and spatial structures. The paper extends a framework that deconstructs the rather complex urban evolution process into the three stages of assembly, disassembly, and reassembly. Actual developments and theoretical constructs are discussed with an eye on identifying figure heads, events, and movements that accompanied the rise of built forms. The urban form is explained in terms of the dialectical interrelations between social and physical patterns. Discussions have underlined that land use regulations and public policies are inextricably linked with transportation, home ownership, gender, racial, and class conflicts within cities. As well, revived traditional cores and high-density mixed use developments happening today are not mere incarnations of historic urban models. Though responding to some real market demands for livable and vibrant urban environments, these quasi-traditional developments are facilitated by technological advancements and globalization forces. The paper demonstrates the complexity and multi-dimensionality of urban form and development processes that negate the possibility of confining urban form theory to a discipline or field of study. Urban form theory draws on multi-dimensional interdisciplinary visions that encompass physical, socioeconomic, and environmental concerns.
Sustainable Affordable Housing Development in Indonesia
The housing sector in Indonesia is in critical condition where majority of low-income citizens live in substandard dwellings, and the number housing backlog is increasing every year. The housing problem becomes more urgent when the term 'sustainability' is considered, and sustainable affordable housing is yet to gain its successful implementation. Global urbanization develops fastest in developing countries like Indonesia where informal settlements are rapidly escalating, hence, making sustainable affordable housing strategies very critical in this context. The problem in developing countries like Indonesia lies on the institutional capacity of newly-established local governments having greater power to determine a development policy but apparently still lacking institutional capability and coordination with the central government and collaborative governance are still not established yet. The concept of upgrading informal settlements are seen changed over time and inconsistent. Despite much research on theme such as sustainable housing concept within Indonesian context, there has been a dearth of research examining the role of collaborative governance, as the current approach still shows fragmented approach between the stakeholders and the lack of community participation as the end user, and thus this research attempts to fill the gap on the aforementioned problems. By using case study with multi-methods conducted in Jakarta, this research has an overall aim to critically assess the role of collaborative governance in addressing sustainable affordable housing in Indonesia and to understand informal settlements and interventions in Indonesia rather than imposing a framework from western perspectives.
Experiencing an Unknown City: Environmental Features as Pedestrian Wayfinding Clues through the City of Swansea, UK
In today’s globally-driven modern cities diverse groups of new visitors face various challenges when attempting to find their desired location if culture and language are barriers. The most common way-showing tools such as directional and identificational signs are the most problematic and their usefulness can be limited or even non-existent. It is argued new methods should be implemented that could support or replace such conventional literacy and language dependent way-finding aids. It has been concluded in recent research studies that local urban features in complex pedestrian spaces are worthy of further study in order to reveal if they do function as way-showing clues. Some researchers propose a more comprehensive approach to the complex perception of buildings, façade design and surface patterns, while some have been questioning whether we necessarily need directional signs or can other methods deliver the same message but in a clearer manner for a wider range of users. This study aimed to test to what extent do existent environmental and urban features through the city center area of Swansea in the UK facilitate the way-finding process of a first time visitor. The three-hour experiment was set to attempt to find 11 visitor attractions ranging from recreational, historical, educational and religious locations. The challenge was attempting to find as many as possible when no prior geographical knowledge of their whereabouts was established. The only clues were 11 pictures representing each of the locations that had been acquired from the city of Swansea official website. An iPhone and a heart-rate tracker wristwatch were used to record the route was taken and stress levels, and take record photographs of destinations or decision-making points throughout the journey. This paper addresses: current limitations in understanding the ways that the physical environment can be intentionally deployed to facilitate pedestrians while finding their way around, without or with a reduction in language dependent signage; investigates visitor perceptions of their surroundings by indicating what urban elements manifested an impact on the way-finding process. The initial findings support the view that building facades and street features, such as width, could facilitate the decision-making process if strategically employed. However, more importantly, the anticipated features of a specific place construed from a promotional picture can also be misleading and create confusion that may lead to getting lost.
Study of Conservation Process Adopted for Mughal Garden and Monuments in Hasan Abdal, Pakistan
Conservation, preservation and restoration of heritage monuments and areas are considered as to promote the region at international level. Pakistan has many such attractions which need appropriate attention by the authorities regarding their conservation. Hasan Abdal is a historic town, of Northern Punjab, Pakistan and was once, a desired place for many Mughal emperors for their stopovers. They constructed many monumental structures such as Makbara-e- Hakeeman, Lalazar Garden and Shahjehani Serai. These monuments are now under the supervision of Department of Archeology and Museums, Pakistan. Some of these monuments exists, and others deteriorated with the passage of time. The paper aims to study the conservation process of Mughal Monuments situated in Hasan Abdal town to highlight their existing condition and to save them from further decay. The international conservation practices were studied, and the selected Mughal monuments were analyzed. Surveys, interviews with official and previous conservation work analysis enabled the study to conclude the features affecting the conservation of these monuments. The research would be helpful for the authorities to re-evaluate the conservation practice and to implement it in more appropriate way.
A Case Study on Impact of Climate Adaptation in Kabul Metropolitan Area
The aim of this paper is to study the behavior or influence of climate adaptation and change in Kabul Metropolitan Area (KMA). The Kabul Metropolitan Area (KMA) in Afghanistan includes Kabul existing city and Kabul New City (KNC). Kabul Metropolitan Area has admitted the challenges due to climate change, which includes, natural climate change, social transformations, city landscape, economic and political issues, etc. KMA will withhold a large population within its boundaries. The main problems competed in KMA were the temperature changes over the years, especially in Hindukush and Central Highland of Afghanistan from 1950 up to 2010, 1°C and 1.71°C raised respectively and reduction of water table in existing Kabul city due to the use of more water from underground water resources. Moreover, the cause of temperature rise, the precipitation in spring season and melting of snow early or melting in compressed time as well as the water source is directly related to the capacity of the mountains snow and precipitation. In addition, the temperature increased, and precipitation declined in spring period. It is directly related to separation of dissertation, migration to the cities and other challenges that we will discuss in this paper.
A Proposal of a Strategic Framework for the Development of Smart Cities: The Argentinian Case
The world’s rapid urbanisation represents an excellent opportunity to implement initiatives that are oriented towards a country’s general development. However, this phenomenon has created considerable pressure on current urban models, pushing them nearer to a crisis. As a result, several factors usually associated with underdevelopment have been steadily rising. Moreover, actions taken by public authorities have not been able to keep up with the speed of urbanisation, which has impeded them from meeting the demands of society, responding with reactionary policies instead of with coordinated, organised efforts. In contrast, the concept of a Smart City which emerged around two decades ago, in principle, represents a city that utilises innovative technologies to remedy the everyday issues of the citizen, empowering them with the newest available technology and information. This concept has come to adopt a wider meaning, including human and social capital, as well as productivity, economic growth, quality of life, environment and participative governance. These developments have also disrupted the management of institutions such as academia, which have become key in generating scientific advancements that can solve pressing problems, and in forming a specialised class that is able to follow up on these breakthroughs. In this light, the Ministry of Modernisation of the Argentinian Nation has created a model that is rooted in the concept of a ‘Smart City’. This effort considered all the dimensions that are at play in an urban environment, with careful monitoring of each sub-dimensions in order to establish the government’s priorities and improving the effectiveness of its operations. In an attempt to ameliorate the overall efficiency of the country’s economic and social development, these focused initiatives have also encouraged citizen participation and the cooperation of the private sector: replacing short-sighted policies with some that are coherent and organised. This process was developed gradually. The first stage consisted in building the model’s structure; the second, at applying the method created on specific case studies and verifying that the mechanisms used respected the desired technical and social aspects. Finally, the third stage consists in the repetition and subsequent comparison of this experiment in order to measure the effects on the ‘treatment group’ over time. The first trial was conducted on 717 municipalities and evaluated the dimension of Governance. Results showed that levels of governmental maturity varied sharply with relation to size: cities with less than 150.000 people had a strikingly lower level of governmental maturity than cities with more than 150.000 people. With the help of this analysis, some important trends and target population were made apparent, which enabled the public administration to focus its efforts and increase its probability of being successful. It also permitted to cut costs, time, and create a dynamic framework in tune with the population’s demands, improving quality of life with sustained efforts to develop social and economic conditions within the territorial structure.
Reliability Based Analysis of Multi-Lane Reinforced Concrete Slab Bridges
Empirical expressions for estimating the wheel load distribution and live-load bending moment are typically specified in highway bridge codes such as the AASHTO procedures. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the reliability levels that are inherent in reinforced concrete slab bridges that are designed based on the simplified empirical live load equations in the AASHTO LRFD procedures. To achieve this objective, bridges with multi-lanes (three and four lanes) and different spans are modeled using finite-element analysis (FEA) subjected to HS20 truck loading, tandem loading, and standard lane loading per AASHTO LRFD procedures. The FEA results are compared with the AASHTO LRFD moments in order to quantify the biases that might result from the simplifying assumptions adopted in AASHTO. A reliability analysis is conducted to quantify the reliability index for bridges designed using AASHTO procedures. To reach a consistent level of safety for three- and four-lane bridges, following a previous study restricted to one- and two-lane bridges, the live load factor in the design equation proposed by AASHTO LRFD will be assessed and revised if needed by alternating the live load factor for these lanes. The results will provide structural engineers with more consistent provisions to design concrete slab bridges or evaluate the load-carrying capacity of existing bridges.
Evaluation of Strength and Ductility Reduction of Prestressed Concrete-Girders Due to Tendon Corrosion
National bridge inventory in Korea shows the number of old PSC bridges over 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issue in the maintenance of prestressed concrete bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded tendons, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the tendons which were corroded over 5% of section loss showed remarkable decrease in strength and ductility. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Prestressed concrete girders were analyzed considering different section loss of tendons by corrosion. The mechanical properties of corroded section were adopted from test result. The procedure of the decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed based on the analysis results.
Research on Land Use Pattern and Employment-Housing Space of Coastal Industrial Town Based on the Investigation of Liaoning Province, China
During the Twelve Five period, China promulgated industrial policies promoting the relocation of energy-intensive industries to coastal areas in order to utilize marine shipping resources. Consequently, some major state-owned steel and gas enterprises have relocated and resulted in a large-scale coastal area development. However, some land may have been over-exploited with seamless coastline projects. To balance between employment and housing, new industrial coastal towns were constructed to support the industrial-led development. In this paper, we adopt a case-study approach to closely examine the development of several new industrial coastal towns of Liaoning Province situated in the Bohai Bay area, which is currently under rapid economic growth. Our investigations reflect the common phenomenon of long distance commuting and a massive amount of vacant residences. More specifically, large plant relocation caused hundreds of kilometers of daily commute and enterprises had to provide housing subsidies and education incentives to motivate employees to relocate to coastal areas. Nonetheless, many employees still refuse to relocate due to job stability, diverse needs of family members and access to convenient services. These employees averaged 4 hours of commute daily and some who lived further had to reside in temporary industrial housing units and subject to long-term family separation. As a result, only a small portion of employees purchase new coastal residences but mostly for investment and retirement purposes, leading to massive vacancy and ghost-town phenomenon. In contrast to the low demand, coastal areas tend to develop large amount of residences prior to industrial relocation, which may be directly related to local government finances. Some local governments have sold residential land to developers to general revenue to support the subsequent industrial development. Subject to the strong preference of ocean-view, residential housing developers tend to select coast-line land to construct new residential towns, which further reduces the access of marine resources for major industrial enterprises. This violates the original intent of developing industrial coastal towns and drastically limits the availability of marine resources. Lastly, we analyze the co-existence of over-exploiting residential areas and massive vacancies in reference to the demand and supply of land, as well as the demand of residential housing units with the choice criteria of enterprise employees.
Truck-Bicycle Safety: An Exploratory Literature Review
The continuous growth of freight and bicycle traffic is evident in many cities worldwide. Trucks and cyclists are sharing already constrained urban infrastructure and their encounters can occasionally result in accidents. These usually have very severe consequences, compared to other types of bicycle accidents. Typically, cyclists are physically injured, while truck drivers suffer emotionally. The growing numbers of cyclists killed and injured in those accidents have been recognised as a safety problem since 1980s in several European cities and thus a range of safety measures has been implemented. The countermeasures relate to vehicles (e.g. legislation on compulsory types of blind spot mirrors on trucks), road users (e.g. awareness campaigns), and infrastructure (e.g. efforts to segregate cyclists from trucks). Nevertheless, the risk still persists and in some countries, the cyclists killed in accidents with trucks represent around 30% of all cyclists’ fatalities. Whilst increasing attention has been devoted to this topic by road safety researchers and a large amount of articles and reports have been published, a review of the existing literature is still missing. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present an explorative review of the relevant literature and to provide a comprehensive summary of the truck-bicycle safety phenomenon. Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for journal articles using several keywords and their combinations for a title. The timespan was set for period 1990-2017. As result, 917 articles were identified. After checking their relevance by evaluating the title and the abstract, 41 were selected. These were read through; the references were checked and after ‘snowballing’, the final dataset consisted from 61 documents. The presented review summarises the safety characteristics of encounters between trucks and bicycles, the relevant risk factors and implemented countermeasures. Additionally, it provides suggestions for further research. From the review it is evident, that the current knowledge about the risk involved in bicycle-truck encounters is based on data obtained from accident analysis, both of police databases and in-depth fatal accidents investigations reports. Risk factors are commonly identified within basic components of road transport system (road users, vehicles, and infrastructure), while more systematic approach is lacking. The countermeasures are focusing on reducing the visibility problems and on the technological solutions for cyclists’ detection in trucks’ proximity within the complex urban environment. The future research should especially reflect the complexity of the road transport system and freight urban transport.
Towards Green(er) Cities: The Role of Spatial Planning in Realising the Green Agenda
The green hype is becoming stronger within various disciplines, modern practices and academic thinking, enforced by concepts such as eco-health, eco-tourism, eco-cities, and eco-engineering. There is currently also an expanded scientific understanding regarding the value and benefits relating to green infrastructure, for both communities and their host cities, linked to broader sustainability and resilience thinking. The integration and implementation of green infrastructure as part of spatial planning approaches and municipal planning, are, however, more complex, especially in South Africa, inflated by limitations of budgets and human resources, development pressures, inequities in terms of green space availability and political legacies of the past. The prevailing approach to spatial planning is further contributing to complexity, linked to misguided perceptions of the function and value of green infrastructure. As such, green spaces are often considered a luxury, and green infrastructure a costly alternative, resulting in green networks being susceptible to land-use changes and under-prioritized in local authority decision-making. Spatial planning, in this sense, may well be a valuable tool to realise the green agenda, encapsulating various initiatives of sustainability as provided by a range of disciplines. This paper aims to clarify the importance and value of green infrastructure planning as a component of spatial planning approaches, in order to inform and encourage local authorities to embed sustainability thinking into city planning and decision-making approaches. It reflects on the decisive role of land-use management to guide the green agenda and refers to some recent planning initiatives. Lastly, it calls for trans-disciplinary planning approaches to build a case towards green(er) cities.
Renewable Energy Integration in Cities of Developing Countries: The Case Study of Tema City, Ghana
Global electricity demand of households in 2005 is estimated to double by 2025 and nearly double again in 2030. The residential sector promises considerable demand growth through infrastructural and equipment investments, the majority of which is projected to occur in developing countries. This lays bare the urgency for enhanced efficiency in all energy systems combined with exploitation of local potential for renewable energy systems. This study explores options for reducing energy consumption, particularly in residential buildings and providing robust, decentralized and renewable energy supply for African cities. The potential of energy efficiency measures and the potential of harnessing local resources for renewable energy supply are quantitatively assessed. The scale of research specifically addresses the city level, which is regulated by local authorities. Local authorities can actively promote the transition to a renewable-based energy supply system by promoting energy efficiency and the use of alternative renewable fuels in existing buildings, and particularly in planning and development of new settlement areas through the use of incentives, regulations, and demonstration projects. They can also support a more sustainable development by shaping local land use and development patterns in such ways that reduce per capita energy consumption and are benign to the environment. The subject of the current case study, Tema, is Ghana´s main industrial hub, a port city and home to 77,000 families. Residential buildings in Tema consumed 112 GWh of electricity in 2013 or 1.45 MWh per household. If average household electricity demand were to decline at an annual rate of just 2 %, by 2035 Tema would consume only 134 GWh of electricity despite an expected increase in the number of households by 84 %. The work is based on a ground survey of the city’s residential sector. The results show that efficient technologies and decentralized renewable energy systems have great potential for meeting the rapidly growing energy demand of cities in developing countries.
Applying Renowned Energy Simulation Engines to Neural Control System of Double Skin Façade
This paper is an overview of simulation tools used to model specific thermal dynamics that occurs while controlling double skin façade. Research has been conducted on simplified construction with single zone where one side is glazed. Heat flow and temperature responses are simulated in three different simulation tools: IDA-ICE, EnergyPlus and HAMBASE. The excitation of observed system, used in all simulations, was a temperature step of exterior environment. Air infiltration, insulation and other disturbances are excluded from this research. Although such isolated behaviour is not possible in reality, experiments are carried out to gain novel information about heat flow transients which are not observable under regular conditions. Results revealed new possibilities for adapting the parameters of the neural network regulator. Along numerical simulations, the same set-up has been also tested in a real-time experiment with a 1:18 scaled model and thermal chamber. The comparison analysis brings out interesting conclusion about simulation accuracy in this particular case.
Building Information Modelling Based Value for Money Assessment in Public-Private Partnership
Over the past 40 years, urban development has undergone large-scale, high-speed expansion, beyond what was previously considered normal and in a manner not proportionally related to population growth or physical considerations. With more scientific and refined decision-making in the urban construction process, new urbanization approaches, aligned with public-private partnerships (PPPs) which evolved in the early 1990s, have become acceptable and, in some situations, even better solutions to outstanding urban municipal construction projects, especially in developing countries. However, as the main driving force to deal with urban public services, PPPs are still problematic regarding value for money (VFM) process in most large-scale construction projects. This paper therefore reviews recent PPP articles in popular project management journals and relevant toolkits, published in the last 10 years, to identify the indicators that influence VFM within PPPs across regions. With increasing concerns about profitability and environmental and social impacts, the current PPP structure requires a more integrated platform to manage multi-performance project life cycles. Building information modelling (BIM), a popular approach to the procurement process in AEC sectors, provides the potential to ensure VFM while also working in tandem with the semantic approach to holistically measure life cycle costs (LCC) and achieve better sustainability. This paper suggests that BIM applied to the entire PPP life cycle could support holistic decision-making regarding VFM processes and thus meet service targets.
Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Recycled Fillers
Increasingly accumulation of the solid waste materials has become a major environmental problem of communities. In addition to the protection of environment, the recycling and reusing of the waste materials are financially beneficial. Waste materials can be used in highway construction. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of recycled concrete, asphalt and steel slag powder, as a replacement of the primary mineral filler in asphalt concrete has been investigated. The primary natural siliceous aggregate filler, as control, has been replaced with the secondary recycled concrete, asphalt and steel slag powders, and some engineering properties of the mixtures have been evaluated. Marshal Stability, flow, indirect tensile strength, moisture damage, static creep and volumetric properties of the mixtures have been evaluated. The results show that, the Marshal Stability of the mixtures containing recycled powders is higher than that of the control mixture. The flow of the mixtures containing recycled steel slag is lower, and that of the mixtures containing recycled asphalt and cement concrete powder is found to be higher than that of the control mixture. It is also found that the resistance against moisture damage and permanent deformation of the mixture can be improved by replacing the natural filler with the recycled powders. The volumetric properties of the mixtures are not significantly influenced by replacing the natural filler with the recycled powders.
Resilient Environments vs. Resilient Architects: Creativity, Practice and Education
Within the paradigm of 'Resilient Built-environments,' in order for architecture to be resilient, 'Resilience' should be identified as an essential component of the architect’s notion of creativity. In much simpler terms, 'Resilient Built-Environment' should necessarily be a by-product of the 'Resilient Architect.' The inherent influence of individualistic notions of creativity upon the practice had intensified the dichotomy between theory and practice unless the notion of 'Resilience' is identified as an integral component of the architect’s notion of creativity. Analysing the architectural position is an ideal way of understanding the architect’s notion of creativity, therefore, in exploring the notion of 'Resilience' and the 'Resilient Architect' within the Sri Lankan platform, the architectural positions of two renowned architects; Geoffrey Bawa and Valentine Gunasekara were explored and analysed. The architectural positions of both the architects asserted specific rules and methodologies adopted within the process of problem solving that had subsequently led to a traceable language / pattern within their architecture. The dominance of such rules within the practice could be detrimental to adaptation of theories / notions, such as 'Resilience' and the formation of the 'Resilient Architect', unless methodologies itself are flexible, robust, despite rigidity, or else the notion of 'Resilience' exist in the form of a methodological rule.
Development Strategies for Building Smart Cities: The Case of Kalampaka, Greece
Nowadays, the technological evolution has brought changes and new requirements not only on human’s life but also on the environment in which they live. Cities have begun to be organized in new ways which comply with contemporary living standards. The aim of this paper was to present the characteristics and to introduce good construction strategies of smart cities around the world. Also, a case study of the city of Kalampaka and its residents was surveyed. More specifically, residents’ knowledge about smart cities and their opinion for future progress was examined. Statistical analysis showed that residents’ knowledge about smart cities was fairly good (48% knew the phrase 'smart city'). However, respondents believe that the appearance of the city of Kalampaka needs improvement in many areas (the 75% are disappointed with the current appearance of the city). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the value of the environmental sustainability is greatly influenced by the energy saving, as well as, innovation has an impact on the level of quality of life, while older people seem satisfied with administration’s efforts for development.
'3D City Model' through Quantum Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Gujarat International Finance Tec-City, Gujarat, India
Planning and drawing are the important aspects of civil engineering. For testing theories about spatial location and interaction between land uses and related activities the computer based solution of urban models are used. The planner’s primary interest is in creation of 3D models of building and to obtain the terrain surface so that he can do urban morphological mappings, virtual reality, disaster management, fly through generation, visualization etc. 3D city models have a variety of applications in urban studies. Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT) is an ongoing construction site between Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. It will be built on 3590000 m2 having a geographical coordinates of North Latitude 23°9’5’’N to 23°10’55’’ and East Longitude 72°42’2’’E to 72°42’16’’E. Therefore to develop 3D city models of GIFT city, the base map of the city is collected from GIFT office. Differential Geographical Positioning System (DGPS) is used to collect the Ground Control Points (GCP) from the field. The GCP points are used for the registration of base map in QGIS. The registered map is projected in WGS 84/UTM zone 43N grid and digitized with the help of various shapefile tools in QGIS. The approximate height of the buildings that are going to build is collected from the GIFT office and placed on the attribute table of each layer created using shapefile tools. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 Arc-Second Global (30 m X 30 m) grid data is used to generate the terrain of GIFT city. The Google Satellite Map is used to place on the background to get the exact location of the GIFT city. Various plugins and tools in QGIS are used to convert the raster layer of the base map of GIFT city into 3D model. The fly through tool is used for capturing and viewing the entire area in 3D of the city. This paper discusses all techniques and their usefulness in 3D city model creation from the GCP, base map, SRTM and QGIS.
Comparison between Pushover Analysis Techniques and Validation of the Simplified Modal Pushover Analysis
One of the main drawbacks of the Modal Pushover Analysis (MPA) is the need to perform nonlinear time-history analysis, which complicates the analysis method and time. A simplified version of the MPA has been proposed based on the concept of the inelastic deformation ratio. Furthermore, the effect of the higher modes of vibration is considered by assuming linearly-elastic responses, which enables the use of standard elastic response spectrum analysis. In this thesis, the simplified MPA method is applied to determine the target global drift and the interstory drifts of steel frame building. The effect of the higher vibration modes is considered within the framework of the simplified MPA. A comprehensive survey about the inelastic deformation ratio is presented. After that, a suitable expression from literature is selected for the inelastic
deformation ratio and then implemented in the simplified MPA. The estimated seismic demands using the simplified MPA, such as target drift, base shear, and the interstory drifts, are compared with the seismic responses determined by applying the standard MPA. The accuracy of the estimated seismic demands is validated by comparing with the results obtained by the nonlinear time-history analysis using real earthquake records.
Modeling a Sustainable City in the Twenty-First Century: A Case Study of Ibadan Oyo State Nigeria
The challenges facing government at all levels in the area of urban development are two folds, first is how to provide basic services for urban dwellers especially the urban poor and second, how to make cities and towns as model of good places for economic development. The key ingredients and catalysts for achieving these goals are strong and virile institutional capacity, urban infrastructure and a supportive urban policy framework. The government at all levels have been upgrading and expanding city infrastructure and services in Ibadan, the state capital to support sustainable economic development of the city, particularly in the areas of electricity, neighbourhood, solid waste management, transport, water supply, education, health facilities and markets developments to discourage street trading. This paper attempts to present Ibadan in the millennium as 'a model of a sustainable city'. A planned development strategy that had sustained the growth of the city from a war camp in the 19th century to a cosmopolitan city in the 21st century with the potential to become a megacity. The presentation examines, among others, the physical structure and population density of Ibadan city, the challenges of economic development, the development of urban infrastructure and services in Ibadan metropolitan area. The paper submitted by mapping out a strategy to achieve sustainable development of Ibadan city.
A Study on Marble Based Geopolymer Mortar / Concrete
The purpose of this study is trying to use marble wastes as the raw material to fabricate geopolymer green mortar / concrete. Experiment results show that using marble to make geopolymer mortar and concrete, the compressive strength after 28 days curing can reach 35 MPa and 25 MPa, respectively. The characteristics of marble-based geopolymer green mortar and concrete will keep testing for a long term in order to understand the effect parameters.
The study is based on resource recovery and recycling. Its basic characteristics are low consumption, low carbon dioxide emission and high efficiency that meet the international tendency 'Circular Economy.' By comparing with Portland cement mortar and concrete, production 1 ton of marble-based geopolymer mortar and concrete, they can be saved around 50.3% and 49.6% carbon dioxide emission, respectively. Production 1 m3 of marble-based geopolymer concrete costs about 62 USD that cheaper than that of traditional Portland concrete. It is proved that the marble-based geopolymer concrete has great potential for further engineering development.
Disabilities in Railways: Proposed Changes to the Design of Railway Compartments for the Inclusion of Differently Abled Persons
As much as railway station infrastructure designs and ticket-booking norms have been changed to facilitate use by differently abled persons, the railway train compartments themselves have not been made user-friendly for differently abled persons. Owing to safety concerns, dependency on others for their travel, and fear of isolation, differently abled people do not prefer travelling by train. Rather than including a dedicated compartment open only to the differently abled, including the latter with others in the normal compartment (with the proposed modifications discussed here) will make them feel secure and make for an enhanced travel experience for them. This approach also represents the most practical way to include a particular category of people in the mainstream society. Lowering the height of the compartment doors and providing a wider entrance with a ramp will provide easy entry for those using wheelchairs. As well, removing the first two alternate rows and the first two side seats will not only widen the passage and increase seating space but also improve wheelchair turning radius. This will help them travel without having to depend on others. Seating arrangements may be done to accommodate their family members near them instead of isolating the differently abled in a separate compartment. According to present ticket-booking regulations of the Indian Railways, three to four disabled persons may travel without their family or one to two along with their family, and the numbers may be added or reduced. To help visually challenged and hearing-impaired persons, in addition to the provision of special instruments, railings, and textured footpaths and flooring, the seat numbers above the seats may be set in metal or plastic as an outward projection so the visually impaired can touch and feel the numbers. Braille boards may be included at the entrance to the compartment along with seat numbers in the aforementioned projected manner. These seat numbers may be designed as buttons, which when pressed results in an announcement of the seat number in the applicable local language as well as English. Emergency buttons, rather than emergency chains, within the easy reach of disabled passengers will also help them.
Effects of Viscoelastic and Viscous Links on Seismic Pounding Mitigation in Buildings
This paper examines the effects of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an efficient technique for seismic pounding mitigation. To aim that, 15 steel frame models with different numbers of stories and bays and also with different types of ductility were analyzed under 10 different earthquake records for assigned values of link damping and stiffness and the most suitable values of damper parameters (damping and stiffness) are presented. Moreover, it is demonstrated that viscous dampers can perform as efficiently as viscoelastic alternative with a more economical aspect for pounding mitigation purposes.
The Urbanistic Initiative of Architecture Students to Intensify the Socio-Economic and Spatial Development of Small Settlements in Tatarstan
In 2016, the ‘Beautiful Country’ innovative project was implemented in the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia). This project started at the initiative of architecture students majoring in city planning during their summer internship. As a part of the internship, the students had to study the layout and the lifestyle of Tatarstan towns. All the projects were presented to the Ministry of Construction of Tatarstan, which allowed the settlement authorities to receive the government funding for their implementation. This initiative, from the public discussion of the projects to their implementation, was welcomed by the local communities, evoked local patriotism, created new jobs as a part of the projects' implementation, and improved the architectural environment of the settlements. The projects initiated by the students became the ‘Big Projects’ for these small settlements.
Spatial Characters Adapted to Rainwater Natural Circulation in Residential Landscape
Urban housing in China is typified by residential districts that occupy 25 to 40 percentage of the urban land. In residential districts, squares, roads, and building facades, as well as plants, usually form a four-grade spatial structure: district entrances, central landscapes, housing cluster entrances, green spaces between dwellings. This spatial structure and its elements not only compose the visible residential landscape but also play a major role of carrying rain water. These elements, therefore, imply ecological significance to urban fitness. Based upon theories of landscape ecology, residential landscape can be understood as a pattern typified by minor soft patch of planted area and major hard patch of buildings and squares, as well as hard corridors of roads. Use five landscape districts in Hangzhou as examples; this paper finds that the size, shape and slope direction of soft patch, the bend of roads, and the form of the four-grade spatial structure are influential for adapting to natural rainwater circulation.
The Study of the Concept of Aesthetics in Architecture Derived from the Ideas of Jörg Kurt Greuther
As there are several styles and attitudes among the practitioners of the present time, it is difficult to achieve a definition of beauty for contemporary architecture and aesthetic concepts has different frameworks in various disciplines. Beauty can be regarded as one of the most important elements of architecture; therefore, having a clear understanding of beauty can help architects and audiences to create or analyze an architectural work. This paper investigates the assumption that we can have a clearer understanding of the concept of aesthetics in architecture by analyzing the ideas of the contemporary analyst of architectural aesthetics, Jörg Greuther. Thus, the question is how the concept of aesthetics in architecture will be analyzed in their thoughts. In general, the paper aims to examine aesthetic concepts in the contemporary era that are expressed relying on Greuther's views. The paper adopts a descriptive-analytic approach in terms of methodology. Finally, through the study of the viewpoints of various scholars and specifically considering Greuther's definition that focuses on the effect of psychological-social factors on human perception and formation of the schema, it could be said that aesthetics means to have a good knowledge of truth and understand it.
Research Approaches for Identifying Images of the Past in the Built Environment
Development of research approaches for identifying images of the past in the built environment is at a beginning stage, and a review of the current literature reveals a limited body of research in this area. This study seeks to make a contribution to fill this void. It investigates the theoretical and empirical studies that examine the built environment as a medium for communicating the past in order to understand how images of the past are operationalized in these studies. Findings revealed that image could be operationalized in several ways depending on the focus of the study. Three concerns were addressed in this study when defining the image of the past: (a) to investigate an 'everyday' popular image of the past; (b) to look at the building's image as an integrated part of a larger image for the city; and (c) to find patterns within residents' images of the past. This study concludes that a future study is needed to address the effects of different scales (size and depth of history) of cities and of different cultural backgrounds of images of the past.
Role of Machine Learning in Internet of Things Enabled Smart Cities
This paper presents the idea of Internet of Thing (IoT) for the infrastructure of smart cities. Internet of Thing has been visualized as a communication prototype that incorporates myriad of digital services. The various component of the smart cities shall be implemented using microprocessor, microcontroller, sensors for network communication and protocols. IoT enabled systems have been devised to support the smart city vision, of which aim is to exploit the currently available precocious communication technologies to support the value-added services for function of the city. Due to volume, variety, and velocity of data, it requires analysis using Big Data concept. This paper presented the various techniques used to analyze big data using machine learning.
Using Urban Conversion to Green Public Space as a Tool to Generate Urban Change: Case of Seoul
The world’s population is increasing with unprecedented speed, leading to fast growing urbanization pace. Cities since the Industrial revolution had evolved to fit the growing demand on infrastructure, roads, transportation, and housing. Through this evolution, cities had grown into grey, polluted, and vehicle-oriented urban areas with a significant lack of green spaces. Consequently, we ended up with low quality of life for citizens. Therefore, many cities, nowadays, are revising the way we think urbanism and try to grow into more livable and citizen-friendly, by creating change from the inside out. Thus, cities are trying to bring back nature in its crowded grey centers and regenerate many urban areas as green public spaces not only as a way to give new breath to the city, but also as a way to create change either in the environmental, social and economic levels. The city of Seoul is one of the fast growing global cities. Its population is over 12 million and it is expected to continue to grow to a point where the quality of life may seriously deteriorate. As most green areas in Seoul are located in the suburbs in form of mountains, the city’s urban areas suffer from lack of accessible green spaces in a walking distance. Understanding the gravity and consequences of this issue, Seoul city is undergoing major changes. Many of its projects are oriented to be green public spaces where citizens can enjoy the public life in healthy outdoors. The aim of this paper is to explore the results of urban conversions into green public spaces. Starting with different locations, nature, size, and scale, these conversions can lead to significant change in the surrounding areas, thus can be used as an efficient tool of regeneration for urban areas. Through a comparative analysis of three different types of urban conversions projects in the city of Seoul, we try to show the positive urban influence of the outcomes, in order to encourage cities to use green spaces as a strategic tool for urban regeneration and redevelopment.