Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48522

Urban and Civil Engineering

169
84347
A System Dynamic Based Decision Support System for Ecological Urban Management in Alexandria, Egypt
Abstract:
The concept of urban metabolism has increasingly been employed in a diverse range of disciplines as a mean to analyze and theorize the city. Urban ecology has a particular focus on the implications of applying the metabolism concept to the urban realm. This approach has been developed by a few researchers, though it has rarely if ever been used in policy development for city planning. The aim of this research is to use ecologically informed urban planning interventions to increase the sustainability of urban metabolism; with special focus on land stock as a most important city resource by developing a system dynamic based DSS. This model identifies two critical management strategy variables for the Strategic Urban Plan Alexandria SUP 2032. As a result, this comprehensive and precise quantitative approach is needed to monitor, measure, evaluate and observe dynamic urban changes working as a decision support system (DSS) for policy making.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
168
83777
Evaluation of the Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders Modified with Biochars Obtained from Various Biomasses by Pyrolysis Method
Abstract:
Bituminous binders, one of the two main elements that constitute flexible pavement layers, are obtained through refining of petroleum. Depending on the economic growth and population increase, new highways constructed due to constantly increasing transportation demand and maintenance of current roads result in an increase of the amount of required bituminous binders. Economic and environmental problems caused by using fossil-based materials revealed the need for miscellaneous alternative materials and additives to be considered in terms of sustainability in the highway industry. Hot mix asphalts are subjected deteriorations due to resisting rutting, fatigue and moisture damages and deteriorations are closely related to the properties of bitumen and aggregate. By preventing or delaying the possible deteriorations of the pavement without causing an adverse effect on the various performance parameters, additive substances are used to extend the service life of pavements. Alternative substances that can be used as bitumen additives are investigated at an increasing rate each passing day. The desired properties of the additives are affordability, environment-friendliness, harmlessness, and sustainability, which are called the green technology. Biomass, which is one of the largest and renewable energy sources of the world, has the potential to be used as a bitumen additive after it is subjected to various thermochemical methods. The most common way to obtain products of high economic value from biomasses is pyrolysis. The process of thermochemical degradation of organic matter (carbonization) in anaerobic environments and under high temperatures is called pyrolysis. As a result of this degradation, substances in solid, liquid and gas phases are obtained. The liquid substance obtained as a result of pyrolysis is called bio-oil while the solid substance is called biochar. In the conducted study, apricot seed shell, walnut shell, and sawdust were chosen as biomass sources. In the study, three different biomass sources were used in only one size. The materials were sorted by using a sieve No. 50, and the sieved materials were subjected to pyrolysis process at three different temperatures (400, 500 and 600 degrees), resulting in nine different biochar products. The resulting biochar products were added to the bitumen at three different rates (5%, 10%, and 15%), producing modified bitumen. Penetration, softening point, rotation viscometer and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were conducted on modified binders. Thus the modified bitumen, which was obtained by using additives at 3 different rates obtained from biochar produced at 3 different temperatures of 3 different biomass sources were compared, and the effects of pyrolysis temperature and additive rates were evaluated. As a result of the conducted tests, it was determined that the rheology of the pure bitumen improved significantly as a result of the modification of the bitumen with the biochar. Additionally, with biochar additive, it was determined that the rutting parameter values obtained from softening point, viscometer and DSR tests were increased while the values in terms of penetration and phase angle decreased. It was also observed that the most effective biomass is sawdust while the least effective was ground apricot seed shell.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
167
83447
In Search of Seaplanes in Andhra Pradesh: In View of UDAN
Abstract:
The present situation in India envisages that because of the surge in population and the economy, cities are expected to spill over to hinterland areas. The consumption-led factors such as land, labor, etc. will be boosted. Hence, the need for regional connectivity becomes obligatory. But, there is enormous pressure upon the land; proving itself through rising traffic congestion, roads, and railway accidents. Air transport is practical, but due to decreasing availability of land, this will not be a wise solution. What with the introduction of seaplanes in the country which was once the vital asset in the world prior to Second World War. Maldives has proved it. Seaplanes offer natural landing site and are time and cost-efficient. Seaplanes in accordance with UDAN can prove to be the solution in linking various regions with other states. This research paper aims to offer the feasibility analysis along with site justification of the potential areas in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India; for the operation of seaplanes. The standards are taken from the US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration for the analysis. The conflation of Seaplanes with UDAN will offer an alternate mode of air connectivity, strengthen the transport network by simulation of connectivity to unserved and under-served areas and boost the nation's economy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
166
83225
Cars in a Neighborhood: A Case of Sustainable Living in Sector 22 Chandigarh
Abstract:
The Chandigarh city is under the strain of exponential growth of car density across various neighborhood. The consumerist nature of society today is to be blamed for this menace because everyone wants to own and ride a car. Car manufacturers are busy selling two or more cars per household. The Regional Transport Offices are busy issuing as many licenses to new vehicles as they can in order to generate revenue in the form of Road Tax. The car traffic in the neighborhoods of Chandigarh has reached a tipping point. There needs to be a more empirical and sustainable model of cars per household, which should be based on specific parameters of livable neighborhoods. Sector 22 in Chandigarh is one of the first residential sectors to be established in the city. There is scope to think, reflect, and work out a method to know how many cars we need to sell our citizens before we lose the argument to traffic problems, parking problems, and road rage. This is where the true challenge of a planner or a designer of the city lies. Currently, in Chandigarh city, there are no clear visible answers to this problem. The way forward is to look at spatial mapping, planning, and design of car parking units to address the problem, rather than suggesting extreme measures of banning cars (short-term) or promoting plans for citywide transport (very long-term). This is a chance to resolve the problem with a pragmatic approach from a citizen’s perspective, instead of an orthodox development planner’s methodology. Since citizens are at the center of how the problem is to be addressed, acceptable solutions are more likely to emerge from the car and traffic problem as defined by the citizens. Thus, the idea and its implementation would be interesting in comparison to the known academic methodologies. The novel and innovative process would lead to a more acceptable and sustainable approach to the issue of number of car parks in the neighborhood of Chandigarh city.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
165
83206
The Importance of Zenithal Lighting Systems for Natural Light Gains and for Local Energy Generation in Brazil
Abstract:
This paper presents an approach on the advantages of using adequate coverage in the zenithal lighting typology in various areas of architectural production, while at the same time to encourage to the design concerns inherent in this choice of roofing in Brazil. Understanding that sustainability needs to cover several aspects, a roofing system such as zenithal lighting system can contribute to the provision of better quality natural light for the interior of the building, which is related to the good health and welfare; it will also be able to contribute for the sustainable aspects and environmental needs, when it allows the generation of energy in semitransparent or opacity photovoltaic solutions and economize the artificial lightning. When the energy balance in the building is positive, that is, when the building generates more energy than it consumes, it may fit into the Net Zero Energy Building concept. The zenithal lighting systems could be an important ally in Brazil, when solved the burden of heat gains, participate in the set of pro-efficiency actions in search of ‘zero energy buildings’. The paper presents comparative three cases of buildings that have used this feature in search of better environmental performance, both in light comfort and sustainability as a whole. Two of these buildings are examples in Europe: the Notley Green school in the UK and the Isofóton factory in Spain. The third building with this principles of shed´s roof is located in Brazil: the Ipel´s factory in São Paulo.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
164
83193
Evaluation of Air Movement, Humidity and Temperature Perceptions with the Occupant Satisfaction in Office Buildings in Hot and Humid Climate Regions by Means of Field Surveys
Abstract:
The energy consumption in non-residential buildings in Brazil has a great impact on the national infrastructure. The growth of the energy consumption has a special role over the building cooling systems, supported by the increased people's requirements on hygrothermal comfort. This paper presents how the occupants of office buildings notice and evaluate the hygrothermic comfort regarding temperature, humidity, and air movement, considering the cooling systems presented at the buildings studied, analyzed by real occupants in areas of hot and humid climate. The paper presents results collected over a long time from 3 office buildings in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Niteroi (Brazil) in 2015 and 2016, from daily questionnaires with eight questions answered by 114 people between 3 to 5 weeks per building, twice a day (10 a.m. and 3 p.m.). The paper analyses 6 out of 8 questions, emphasizing on the perception of temperature, humidity, and air movement. Statistics analyses were made crossing participant answers and humidity and temperature data related to time high time resolution time. Analyses were made from regressions comparing: internal and external temperature, and then compared with the answers of the participants. The results were put in graphics combining statistic graphics related to temperature and air humidity with the answers of the real occupants. Analysis related to the perception of the participants to humidity and air movements were also analyzed. The hygrothermal comfort statistic model of the European standard DIN EN 15251 and that from the Brazilian standard NBR 16401 were compared taking into account the perceptions of the hygrothermal comfort of the participants, with emphasis on air humidity, taking basis on prior studies published on this same research. The studies point out a relative tolerance for higher temperatures than the ones determined by the standards, besides a variation on the participants' perception concerning air humidity. The paper presents a group of detailed information that permits to improve the quality of the buildings based on the perception of occupants of the office buildings, contributing to the energy reduction without health damages and demands of necessary hygrothermal comfort, reducing the consumption of electricity on cooling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
163
83171
Spatial Design Transformation of Mount Merapi's Dwellings Using Diachronic Approach
Abstract:
In concern for human safety, living in disaster-prone areas is twofold: it is profoundly cataclysmic yet perceptibly contributive. This paradox could be identified in Kalitengah Lor Sub-village community who inhabit Mount Merapi’s most hazardous area, putting them to the highest exposure to eruptions’ cataclysmic impacts. After the devastating incident in 2010, through the Action Plan for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction, the National Government with immediate aid from humanitarian agencies initiated a relocation program by establishing nearly 2,613 temporary shelters throughout the mountain’s region. The problem arose as some of the most affected communities including those in Kalitengah Lor Sub-village, persistently refused to relocate. The obnoxious experience of those living in temporary shelters resulted from the program’s failure to support a long-term living was assumed to instigate the rejection. From the psychological standpoint, this phenomenon reflects the emotional bond between the affected communities with their former dwellings. Regarding this, the paper aims to reveal the factors influencing the emotional attachment of Kalitengah Lor community to their former dwellings including the dwellings’ spatial design transformation prior and post the eruption in 2010. The research adopted Likert five scale-questionnaire comprising a wide range of responses from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The responses were then statistically measured, leading to consensus that provides bases for further interpretations toward the local’s characteristics. Using purposive unit sampling technique, 50 respondents from 217 local households were randomly selected. Questions in the questionnaire were developed with concerns on the aspects of place attachment concept: affection, cognitive, behavior, and perception. Combined with quantitative method, the research adopted diachronic method which was aimed to analyze the spatial design transformation of each dwelling in relation to the inhabitant’s daily activities and personal preferences. The research found that access to natural resources like sand mining, agricultural farms and wood forests, social relationship and physical proximity from house to personal asset like cattle shed, are the dominant factors encouraging the locals to emotionally attached to their former dwellings. Consequently, each dwelling’s spatial design is suffered from changes in which the current house is typically larger in dimension and the bathroom is replaced by public toilet located outside the house’s backyard. Relatively unchanged, the cattle shed is still located in front of the house, the continuous visual relationship, particularly between the living and family room, is maintained, as well as the main orientation of the house towards the local street.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
162
83078
Communicating Energy Efficient Refurbishment: Challenges and Approaches regarding Homeowners Associations
Abstract:
Homeowners associations (HOA) are technically and economically an important target group within the context of energy efficient refurbishment. Nevertheless, HOAs are often neglected within the implementation of renewable energies and corresponding research. Within a HOA, decisions for refurbishment (whether energetic or standard) must be taken under special conditions: homeowners are bound to make their decisions based on a majority consensus. Thus, a communication strategy with a strong focus on participation is necessary in order to reach this consensus. For this target group, the paper aims to suggest tried and tested solutions taken from an ongoing project and a HOA living in Ludwigsburg/Germany. The houses were built in 1970 and consist of 24 residential units with a total floor area of 2,000 m². The heating demand of the HOA is around 288 kWh/a and the electricity demand around 47 kWh/a. A specially developed framework, the ‘Communication Model for Participation Projects’, is employed in order to establish a participatory process within the context of (energy efficient) refurbishment. It aims to link the phases of citizen participation within the decision-making process with adequate communicative measures and tools. First, in order to align communication at the homeowners, all relevant stakeholders were analyzed in detail. In principle, the more homogenous the group of residents is (regarding attitude and behavior, their social and cultural background, their demographic characteristics), the more expedient are communication measures and the resulting majority decision. In terms of an iterative approach to address the needs and desires of the ‘customer’ (design thinking), it is thus possible to develop suitable (technical and financial) solutions. In the first place, personal interviews on previous rehabilitation experiences were conducted in order to gain a deeper understanding of the target group. Additionally, a survey was set up asking the owners about their attitude towards energy efficient refurbishment. Based on this evaluation, customized technical options and refurbishment strategies were developed in order to be discussed with the homeowners. A range of four different scenarios was set up. These scenarios included firstly the insulation of the roof combined with an 18 kWpeak photovoltaic system. Secondly, a new oil condensing central heating boiler together with a solar thermal system (48 m² collector surface) to provide hot water was included. Finally, a gas-fired combined heat and power unit (CHP, 14 kWthermal and 5.5 kWelectrical) with a new gas condensing central heating boiler served as a backup system. An ecological view on those refurbishment scenarios showed that CO₂ savings from 12 t/a up to 47 t/a were achievable. In the next step, the simulation models were specified, particularly the building model as well as the energy supply systems. Besides, in a second survey wave, these suggestions were evaluated and rated by the homeowners. In the further course of the project, it will be shown whether this approach can contribute to the acceptance of energy efficient refurbishment and the evaluation of the decision process as 'fair'.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
161
82872
Improvement of Pavement Asphalt Mixture under Different Laboratory Mix Design Mixtures in Hot Arid Weather
Abstract:
Most developing countries use volumetric analysis in designing asphalt mixtures, which can also be upgraded in hot arid weather. However, in order to be effective, it should include many important aspects which are materials, environment, and method of construction. The overall intent of the work reported in this study is to test different asphalt mixtures while taking into consideration the environment, type and source of material, tools, equipment, and the construction method. In this study, several tests were conducted on many samples that were carefully prepared under the expected traffic loads and temperatures in a dry hot climate. Several asphalt concrete mixtures were designed using two different binders. These mixtures were analyzed under two types of tests - Complex Modulus and Rutting test - to evaluate the hot mix asphalt properties under the represented temperatures and traffic load in Libya. These factors play an important role to improve the pavement performances in a hot climate weather based on the properties of the asphalt mixture, climate, and traffic load. This research summarized some recommendations for making asphalt mixtures used in hot dry areas. Such asphalt mixtures should use asphalt binder which is less affected by pavement temperature change and traffic load. The properties of the mixture, such as durability, deformation, air voids and performance, largely depend on the type of materials, environment, and mixing method. These properties, in turn, affect the pavement performance. Therefore, this study is aimed to develop a method for designing an asphalt mixture that takes into account field loading, various stresses, and temperature spectrums.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
160
82830
Idealization of Pavement Construction under Different Certain Condition in Libya
Abstract:
Libya uses a volumetric analysis in designing asphalt mixtures, which can also be upgraded in hot, arid weather. However, in order to be effective, it should include many important aspects which are materials, environment, and method of construction. However, the quality of some roads was below a satisfactory level. This paper examines the factors that contribute to low quality of road performance in Libya. To evaluate these factors, a questionnaire survey and a laboratory comparative study were performed for a few mixes under-represented of temperature and traffic load. In laboratory, rutting test conducted on two different asphalt mixture, these mixes included, an asphalt concrete mix using local aggregate and asphalt binder B(60/70) at the optimum Marshall asphalt content, another mixes designed using Superpave design procedure with the same materials and performance asphalt binder grade PG (70-10). In the survey, the questionnaire was distributed to 55 engineers and specialists in this field. The interview was conducted to a few others, and the factors that were leading to poor performance of asphalt roads were listed as; 1) Owner Experience and technical staff 2) Asphalt characteristics 3) Updating and development of Asphalt Mix Design methods 4) Lack of data collection by authorization Agency 5) Construction and compaction process 6) Mentoring and controlling mixing procedure. Considering and improving these factors will play an important role to improve the pavement performances, longer service life, and lower maintenance costs. This research summarized some recommendations for making asphalt mixtures used in hot, dry areas. Such asphalt mixtures should use asphalt binder which is less affected by pavement temperature change and traffic load. The properties of the mixture, such as durability, deformation, air voids, and performance, largely depend on the type of materials, environment, and mixing method. These properties, in turn, affect the pavement performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
159
82793
Criteria Analysis of Residential Location Preferences: An Urban Dweller's Perspective
Abstract:
Preferences for residential location are of diverse nature. Primarily they are based on socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-demographic characteristics of the household. It also depends on character, growth potential of different areas in a city. In the present study, various criteria affecting residential location preferences from Urban Dwellers’ perspective have been analyzed. The household survey has been conducted in two parts viz. Existing Buyers’ survey and Future Buyers’ survey. The analysis reveals that workplace location is the most governing criterion in deciding residential location from majority of the urban dwellers perspective. For analyzing the importance of varied criteria Analytical Hierarchy Process approach has been explored. The suggested approach will be helpful for urban planner, decision makers, and developers while designating a new residential area or redeveloping an existing one.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
158
82775
The Relationship between Elderly People with Depression and Built Environment Factors
Abstract:
As the population aging has become an inevitable trend globally, issues of improving the well-being of elderly people in urban areas have been a challenging task for urban planners. Recent studies of ageing trend have also expended to explore the relationship between the built environment and mental condition of elderly people. These studies have proved that even though the built environment may not necessarily play the decisive role in affecting mental health, it can have positive impacts on individual mental health by promoting social linkages and social networks among older adults. There has been a great amount of relevant research examined the impact of the built environment attributes on depression in the elderly; however, most were conducted in the Western countries. Little attention has been paid in Asian cities with contrarily high density and mix-use urban contexts such as Taiwan regarding how the built environment attributes related to depression in elderly people. Hence, more empirical cross-principle studies are needed to explore the possible impacts of Asia urban characteristics on older residents’ mental condition. This paper intends to focus on Tainan city, the fourth biggest metropolis in Taiwan. We first analyze with data from National Health Insurance Research Database to pinpoint the empirical study area where residing most elderly patients, aged over 65, with depressive disorders. Secondly, we explore the relationship between specific attributes of the built environment collected from previous studies and elderly individuals who suffer from depression, under different socio-cultural and networking circumstances. To achieve the results, the research methods adopted in this study include questionnaire and database analysis, and the results will be proceeded by correlation analysis. In addition, through literature review, by generalizing the built environment factors that have been used in Western research to evaluate the relationship between built environment and older individuals with depressive disorders, a set of local evaluative indicators of the built environment for future studies will be proposed as well. In order to move closer to develop age-friendly cities and improve the well-being for the elderly in Taiwan, the findings of this paper can provide empirical results to grab planners’ attention for how built environment makes the elderly feel and to reconsider the relationship between them. Furthermore, with an interdisciplinary topic, the research results are expected to make suggestions for amending the procedures of drawing up an urban plan or a city plan from a different point of view.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
157
82763
Component-Based Approach in Assessing Sewer Manholes
Abstract:
Sewer networks are constructed to protect the communities and the environment from any contact with the sewer mediums. Pipelines, being laterals or sewer mains, and manholes form the huge underground infrastructure in every urban city. Due to the sewer networks importance, the infrastructure asset management field has extensive advancement in condition assessment and rehabilitation decision models. However, most of the focus was devoted to pipelines giving little attention toward manholes condition assessment. In fact, recent studies started to emerge in this area to preserve manholes from any malfunction. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to propose a condition assessment model for sewer manholes. The model divides the manhole into several components and determines the relative importance weight of each component using the Analytic Network Process (ANP) decision-making method. Later, the condition of the manhole is computed by aggregating the condition of each component with its corresponding weight. Accordingly, the proposed assessment model will enable decision-makers to have a final index suggesting the overall condition of the manhole and a backward analysis to check the condition of each component. Consequently, better decisions are made pertinent to maintenance, rehabilitation, and replacement actions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
156
82610
Temporal Estimation of Hydrodynamic Parameter Variability in Constructed Wetlands
Abstract:
The calibration of hydrodynamic parameters for subsurface constructed wetlands (CWs) is a sensitive process since highly non-linear equations are involved in unsaturated flow modeling. CW systems are engineered systems designed to favour natural treatment processes involving wetland vegetation, soil, and their microbial flora. Their significant efficiency at reducing the ecological impact of urban runoff has been recently proved in the field. Numerical flow modeling in a vertical variably saturated CW is here carried out by implementing the Richards model by means of a mixed hybrid finite element method (MHFEM), particularly well adapted to the simulation of heterogeneous media, and the van Genuchten-Mualem parametrization. For validation purposes, MHFEM results were compared to those of HYDRUS (a software based on a finite element discretization). As van Genuchten-Mualem soil hydrodynamic parameters depend on water content, their estimation is subject to considerable experimental and numerical studies. In particular, the sensitivity analysis performed with respect to the van Genuchten-Mualem parameters reveals a predominant influence of the shape parameters α, n and the saturated conductivity of the filter on the piezometric heads, during saturation and desaturation. Modeling issues arise when the soil reaches oven-dry conditions. A particular attention should also be brought to boundary condition modeling (surface ponding or evaporation) to be able to tackle different sequences of rainfall-runoff events. For proper parameter identification, large field datasets would be needed. As these are usually not available, notably due to the randomness of the storm events, we thus propose a simple, robust and low-cost numerical method for the inverse modeling of the soil hydrodynamic properties. Among the methods, the variational data assimilation technique introduced by Le Dimet and Talagrand is applied. To that end, a variational data assimilation technique is implemented by applying automatic differentiation (AD) to augment computer codes with derivative computations. Note that very little effort is needed to obtain the differentiated code using the on-line Tapenade AD engine. Field data are collected for a three-layered CW located in Strasbourg (Alsace, France) at the water edge of the urban water stream Ostwaldergraben, during several months. Identification experiments are conducted by comparing measured and computed piezometric head by means of the least square objective function. The temporal variability of hydrodynamic parameter is then assessed and analyzed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
155
82340
Comparison of On-Site Stormwater Detention Real Performance and Theoretical Simulations
Abstract:
The purpose of On-site Stormwater Detention (OSD) system is to promote the detention of addition stormwater runoff caused by impervious areas, in order to maintain the peak flow the same as the pre-urbanization condition. In recent decades, these systems have been built in many cities around the world. However, its real efficiency continues to be unknown due to the lack of research, especially with regard to monitoring its real performance. Thus, this study aims to compare the water level monitoring data of an OSD built in Belo Horizonte/Brazil with the results of theoretical methods simulations, usually adopted in OSD design. There were made two theoretical simulations, one using the Rational Method and Modified Puls method and another using the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method and Modified Puls method. The monitoring data were obtained with a water level sensor, installed inside the reservoir and connected to a data logger. The comparison of OSD performance was made for 48 rainfall events recorded from April/2015 to March/2017. The comparison of maximum water levels in the OSD showed that the results of the simulations with Rational/Puls and SCS/Puls methods were, on average 33% and 73%, respectively, lower than those monitored. The Rational/Puls results were significantly higher than the SCS/Puls results, only in the events with greater frequency. In the events with average recurrence interval of 5, 10 and 200 years, the maximum water heights were similar in both simulations. Also, the results showed that the duration of rainfall events was close to the duration of monitored hydrograph. The rising time and recession time of the hydrographs calculated with the Rational Method represented better the monitored hydrograph than SCS Method. The comparison indicates that the real discharge coefficient value could be higher than 0.61, adopted in Puls simulations. New researches evaluating OSD real performance should be developed. In order to verify the peak flow damping efficiency and the value of the discharge coefficient is necessary to monitor the inflow and outflow of an OSD, in addition to monitor the water level inside it.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
154
82293
Relationship between Creative Market Actor and Traditional Market Vendor toward a Sustainable Market Model in Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract:
In Indonesia, the rise of the middle class and consumer purchasing power has created a trend of shifting the traditional into a modern retail market. Development of the creative economy as an impact of the global economy has invaded the traditional market, due to low rents and minimum innovation, raising the issue of sustainability and urban resilience for survival of the traditional market. The study aims to understand the current market conditions by examining the challenges, resiliency, and identify the relationship between the traditional market and creative market. Using a single-case study approach as the research methodology, Santa Market has been chosen as the case study. It is a pilot project of collaboration between a traditional market and creative economy in Jakarta, Indonesia. The research was conducted as a qualitative study through in-depth interviews with the market vendors and the market management, besides a desk-based study of the leasing data and spatial analysis. The findings indicate traffic fluctuation as the main challenge. It is related to the tenant’s presence, rental fluctuation, gentrification, infrastructure, and market competition. Thus, the findings on resilience show a different response for creative and traditional markets. The traditional market’s response remained stable with minimum innovation, whereas the creative market relies on technological development. Regarding the relationship, supply and demand have become the main relationship occurring in Santa Market. It is then developed into the context of society and regulation. The conclusion provides recommendations for more solid regulation to protect the market tenants from stakeholder interests that can disrupt market viability, and a critical discussion on the concept of collaboration between traditional and creative markets. There is also a suggestion for further study on relation with the surroundings, to create a holistic study on how the collaboration can work well in the traditional market.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
153
82243
Influence of Urban Microclimates on Human Perceptions and Behavioral Patterns: A Relational Context of Human Parameters in Urban Design
Authors:
Abstract:
Our cities are known to have significant modifying effects on the local climate. The nature of the modifications depends on a range of physical variables, usually assessed at a wide range of spatial scales. Physical spatial dimensions, such as measured parameters of microclimates and their significant influence on human sensations, are known to have far-reaching effects on human thermal comfort and by corollary a force that influences human perception. Less scholarship has thrown light on the subjective dimension and insufficiently demonstrates a relational approach between human behavior and how it is affected by the phenomenon of urban microclimates. Other than identifying gaps in the most recent scholarship and providing future research opportunities, the scope of this study will help improve urban design guidelines and raise framework standards of socially responsive urban design. This study will help equip future professionals to ameliorate the effects of urban microclimates on participant’s perceptions enabling more frequent usage of the outdoor urban spaces. However, it is informed that the physical parameters of an outdoor open space determine psychological human adaptations and is a measure of the degree to which people are willing to adapt to their surroundings. A large amount of research is available related to urban microclimates. However, very few studies are focused on the elucidation of the critical factors influencing human perceptions of the microclimates in urban spatial configurations. Based on the most recent scholarship, this study has evaluated the role urban microclimatic conditions have in the formation of human perceptions and, by extension, behavioral patterns formulating in outdoor open spaces. Furthermore, this study also defines, in the backdrop of the current scholarly literature, the socio-spatial interdependence of behavioral patterns with relationship to the built urban fabric and its resultant correlation with human perception. A comprehensive review and analysis of the recent research conducted within the scope of the study will help frame gaps, issues, current research methods and future research opportunities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
152
82075
Assessing the Gap between the Policies and Existing Living Conditions of Migrant Construction Workers: A Case Study of Vijayawada
Authors:
Abstract:
Migrant construction workers or construction labors are one of the majority of the working population in our urban and rural areas. Even after being the majority, their involvement in the upbringing of the economy is hardly ever documented or recognized. Non-permanent or migrant workers face loads of exploitations and susceptibilities than other informal sector workers in India which in turn has affected the productivity of the labors. The relation of their employment and migration and the links of these dynamics to their housing and other basic needs in the city are mostly unstated. Even the urban planning and housing policies do not make thoughtful provision for them, they forcing them to live in extremely wretched conditions. And even if the policies are made, it frequently happens that they are not implemented. As the issue is very much prevalent in today’s time in India with so many large-scale and labor extensive projects going on, this study focuses on the assessment of the gap between the existing government policies and the current scenario of the construction workers in ongoing projects of Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh. A few of the policies for construction workers conditions a lot of things, out of which only a few are functional which makes this study to assess the reason behind the unorganized living condition and poor physical, the social and mental health of construction workers of Vijayawada. In present, the dignity of construction labors is compromised every day on construction sites, in terms of work and basic rights which leads to many other problems in future. So to work for the betterment of this community, knowledge on the differences is very much required and hence this study is a little effort to replenish the difference and compare the policies with the existing conditions of construction labors in Vijayawada.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
151
81972
Neighborhood-Scape as a Methodology for Enhancing Gulf Region Cities' Quality of Life: Case of Doha, Qatar
Abstract:
Sustainability is increasingly being considered as a critical aspect in shaping the urban environment. It works as an invention development basis for global urban growth. Currently, different models and structures impact the means of interpreting the criteria that would be included in defining a sustainable city. There is a collective need to improve the growth path to an extremely durable path by presenting different suggestions regarding multi-scale initiatives. The global rise in urbanization has led to increased demand and pressure for better urban planning choice and scenarios for a better sustainable urban alternative. The need for an assessment tool at the urban scale was prompted due to the trend of developing increasingly sustainable urban development (SUD). The neighborhood scale is being managed by a growing research committee since it seems to be a pertinent scale through which economic, environmental, and social impacts could be addressed. Although neighborhood design is a comparatively old practice, it is in the initial years of the 21st century when environmentalists and planners started developing sustainable assessment at the neighborhood level. Through this, urban reality can be considered at a larger scale whereby themes which are beyond the size of a single building can be addressed, while it still stays small enough that concrete measures could be analyzed. The neighborhood assessment tool has a crucial role in helping neighborhood sustainability to perform approach and fulfill objectives through a set of themes and criteria. These devices are also known as neighborhood assessment tool, district assessment tool, and sustainable community rating tool. The primary focus of research has been on sustainability from the economic and environmental aspect, whereas the social, cultural issue is rarely focused. Therefore, this research is based on Doha, Qatar, the current urban conditions of the neighborhoods is discussed in this study. The research problem focuses on the spatial features in relation to the socio-cultural aspects. This study is outlined in three parts; the first section comprises of review of the latest use of wellbeing assessment methods to enhance decision process of retrofitting physical features of the neighborhood. The second section discusses the urban settlement development, regulations and the process of decision-making rule. An analysis of urban development policy with reference to neighborhood development is also discussed in this section. Moreover, it includes a historical review of the urban growth of the neighborhoods as an atom of the city system present in Doha. Last part involves developing quantified indicators regarding subjective well-being through a participatory approach. Additionally, applying GIS will be utilized as a visualizing tool for the apparent Quality of Life (QoL) that need to develop in the neighborhood area as an assessment approach. Envisaging the present QoL situation in Doha neighborhoods is a process to improve current condition neighborhood function involves many days to day activities of the residents, due to which areas are considered dynamic.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
150
81778
Micro-Oculi Facades as a Sustainable Urban Facade
Abstract:
We live in an era that faces global challenges of climate changes and resource depletion. With the rapid urbanization and growing energy consumption in the built environment, building facades become ever more important in architectural practice and environmental stewardship. Furthermore, building facade undergoes complex dynamics of social, cultural, environmental and technological changes. Kinetic facades have drawn attention of architects, designers, and engineers in the field of adaptable, responsive and interactive architecture since 1980’s. Materials and building technologies have gradually evolved to address the technical implications of kinetic facades. The kinetic façade is becoming an independent system of the building, transforming the design methodology to sustainable building solutions. Accordingly, there is a need for a new design methodology to guide the design of a kinetic façade and evaluate its sustainable performance. The research objectives are two-fold: First, to establish a new design methodology for kinetic facades and second, to develop a micro-oculi façade system and assess its performance using the established design method. The design approach to the micro-oculi facade is comprised of 1) façade geometry optimization and 2) dynamic building energy simulation. The façade geometry optimization utilizes multi-objective optimization process, aiming to balance the quantitative and qualitative performances to address the sustainability of the built environment. The dynamic building energy simulation was carried out using EnergyPlus and Radiance simulation engines with scripted interfaces. The micro-oculi office was compared with an office tower with a glass façade in accordance with ASHRAE 90.1 2013 to understand its energy efficiency. The micro-oculi facade is constructed with an array of circular frames attached to a pair of micro-shades called a micro-oculus. The micro-oculi are encapsulated between two glass panes to protect kinetic mechanisms with longevity. The micro-oculus incorporates rotating gears that transmit the power to adjacent micro-oculi to minimize the number of mechanical parts. The micro-oculus rotates around its center axis with a step size of 15deg depending on the sun’s position while maximizing daylighting potentials and view-outs. A 2 ft by 2ft prototyping was undertaken to identify operational challenges and material implications of the micro-oculi facade. In this research, a systematic design methodology was proposed, that integrates multi-objectives of kinetic façade design criteria and whole building energy performance simulation within a holistic design process. This design methodology is expected to encourage multidisciplinary collaborations between designers and engineers to collaborate issues of the energy efficiency, daylighting performance and user experience during design phases. The preliminary energy simulation indicated that compared to a glass façade, the micro-oculi façade showed energy savings due to its improved thermal properties, daylighting attributes, and dynamic solar performance across the day and seasons. It is expected that the micro oculi façade provides a cost-effective, environmentally-friendly, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing alternative to glass facades. Recommendations for future studies include lab testing to validate the simulated data of energy and optical properties of the micro-oculi façade. A 1:1 performance mock-up of the micro-oculi façade can suggest in-depth understanding of long-term operability and new development opportunities applicable for urban façade applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
149
81421
Monitoring Peri-Urban Growth and Land Use Dynamics with GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques: A Case Study of Burdwan City, India
Abstract:
The peri-urban interface is an area of transition where the urban and rural areas meet and interact. So the peri-urban areas, which is characterized by strong urban influence, easy access to markets, services and other inputs, are ready supplies of labour but distant from the land paucity and pollution related to urban growth. Hence, the present study is primarily aimed at quantifying the spatio-temporal pattern of land use/land cover change during the last three decades (i.e., 1987 to 2016) in the peri-urban area of Burdwan city. In the recent past, the morphology of the study region has rapid change due to high growth of population and establishment of industries. The change has predominantly taken place along the State and National Highway 2 (NH-2) and around the Burdwan Municipality for meeting both residential and commercial purposes. To ascertain the degree of change in land use and land cover, over the specified time, satellite imageries and topographical sheets are employed. The data is processed through appropriate software packages to arrive at a deduction that most of the land use changes have occurred by obliterating agricultural land & water bodies and substituting them by built area and industrial spaces. Geospatial analysis of study area showed that this area has experienced a steep increase (30%) of built-up areas and excessive decrease (15%) in croplands between 1987 and 2016. Increase in built-up areas is attributed to the increase of out-migration during this period from the core city. This study also examined social, economic and institutional factors that lead to this rapid land use change in peri-urban areas of the Burdwan city by carrying out a field survey of 250 households in peri-urban areas. The research concludes with an urgency for regulating land subdivisions in peri-urban areas to prevent haphazard land use development. It is expected that the findings of the study would go a long way in facilitating better policy making.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
148
81338
Design and Modeling of a Green Building Energy Efficient System
Abstract:
Conventional commericial buildings are among the highest unwisely consumes enormous amount of energy and as consequence produce significant amount Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Traditional/conventional buildings have been built for years without consideration being given to their impact on the global warming issues as well as their CO2 contributions. Since 1973, simulation of Green Building (GB) for Energy Efficiency started and many countries in particular the US showed a positive response to minimize the usage of energy in respect to reducing the CO2 emission. As a consequence many software companies developed their own unique building energy efficiency simulation software, interfacing interoperability with Building Information Modeling (BIM). The last decade has witnessed very rapid growing number of researches on GB energy efficiency system. However, the study also indicates that the results of current GB simulation are not yet satisfactory to meet the objectives of GB. In addition most of these previous studies are unlikely excluded the studies of ultimate building energy efficiencies simulation. The aim of this project is to meet the objectives of GB by design, modeling and simulation of building ultimate energy efficiencies system. This research project presents multi-level, L-shape office building in which every particular part of the building materials has been tested for energy efficiency. An overall of 78.62% energy is saved, approaching to NetZero energy saving. Furthermore, the building is implements with distributed energy resources like renewable energies and integrating with Smart Building Automation System (SBAS) for controlling and monitoring energy usage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
147
81090
Factors Influencing Walking in Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia
Authors:
Abstract:
Walking is known as the most common type of physical activity that helps mental and physical health of people. In the recent years, promoting walking activity in neighborhood areas and cities become as one of the important issues in terms of sustainable cities. Therefore the study aimed to investigate the influence of fear of crime and personal barriers as social and personal factor respectively on neighborhood walking. 464 questionnaires in Bandar Baru Bangi in Malaysia was distributed to collect data, and finally, 424 questionnaires were qualified to be used in the study. The Smart-PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that individual barriers and fear of crime both have significant influence on the level of walking behavior in the neighborhood area. It was found that fear of crime has higher influence on walking behavior in comparison to individual factors. The finding of this study can help urban researcher and planner to know the significant influence of crime safety and individual attitudes on the level of walking activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
146
80977
GIS Model for Sanitary Landfill Site Selection Based on Geotechnical Parameters
Abstract:
Landfill site selection in an urban area is a critical issue in the planning process. With the growth of the urbanization, it has a mammoth impact on the economy, ecology, and environmental health of the region. Outsized amount of wastes are produced and the problem gets soared every day. Hence, selection of ideal site for sanitary landfill is a challenge for urban planners and solid waste managers. Disposal site is a function of many parameters. Among all, Geotechnical parameters are very vital as the same is related to surrounding open land. Moreover, the accessible safe and acceptable land is also scarce. Therefore, in this paper geotechnical parameters are used to develop a GIS model to identify an ideal location for landfill purpose. Metropolitan city of Surat is highly populated and fastest growing urban area in India. The research objectives are to conduct field experiments to collect data and to transfer the facts in GIS platform to evolve a model, to find ideal location. Planners’ preferences were obtained to use analytical hierarchical process (AHP) to find weights of each parameter. Integration of GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques are applied to improve decision-making. It augments an environment for transformation and combination of geographical data and planners’ preferences. GIS performs deterministic overlay and buffer operations. MCDA methods evaluate alternatives based on the decision makers’ subjective values and priorities. Research results have shown many alternative locations. Economic analysis of selected site from actual operations point of view is not included in this research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
145
80890
Personal and Social Factors as Barriers to Leisure Walking in Residential Neighborhoods
Abstract:
Leisure walking is known as one of the most common types of physical activity that perform in purpose of recreation or health, which in turn may affect resident’s health. In the recent years, promoting leisure walking activity in neighborhood areas become as one of the important issues regarding promoting mental and physical health, however; the level of physical inactivity is rising in many societies including Iran. As it was proven that the tendency to walk out of choice is not encouraging among Iranian people. Hence; understanding the main concern of residents regarding walking activity in their neighborhoods can help in increasing the tendency to do leisure activity among residents. Built environment, social and individual factors are known as the main factors that affect decision to walk, in this regard, the study aimed to investigate the influence of personal and social factors that prevent residents to walk for recreation or exercise in their neighborhoods. Hence the fear of crime and personal barriers were examined in the current research as social and personal factors respectively. To collect the required data, 500 questionnaires by using systematic sampling were distributed from March to May 2016 in four residential neighborhoods of Bandar Abbas in Iran out which 411 questionnaire turned out to be qualified to be used in the study. The Smart-PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that personal and fear of crime both have significant influence on the level of recreation and exercise walking in the neighborhood areas. The study found that fear of crime has the higher influence on exercise and recreational walking behavior in comparison to individual factors. It was revealed that social factors such as fear of crime in the neighborhoods might be more important than the personal reason for walking optionally in the surrounding environment. The finding of this study can help urban and health researcher to know the significant influence of fear of crime and individual attitudes on the level of leisure walking activity, in addition, the findings of the study suggest that urban planners and designers, as well as public health promoters, need to highly consider the contribution of neighborhoods' social environment variables as well as individual variables to promote walking behavior changes among adult population.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
144
80611
Relationship between Visual Exposure and Crime Occurrence in Urban Space
Abstract:
Crime prevention is important to promote a safer living environment. Although various attempts have been made, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) has been attracting attention, which can prevent the crime through the manipulating the built environment. CPTED relies upon the proper design and effective use of the spatial physical environment. The main strategies are ‘natural surveillance’, ‘natural access control’, ‘natural territorial reinforcement’. Among these, natural surveillance is effective by improving the visibility of potential offenders. However, there were limitations in the previous studies because quantifying the degree of natural surveillance was not so easy. This study used Weighted and Layered Visual Access and Exposure (WLVAE) which is one of the quantitative spatial analysis models that are used to predict human behavior patterns. The case study was conducted for J city in Korea and predicted the crime risk area based on physical condition such as building shape, road width, and vacant lot, etc. Next, based on 10,002 actual crime cases for three years, the relationship between visual perception and crime was examined by type of five crimes (rape, robbery, theft, violence, murder). The analysis used visual access (VE), which means visual exposure, quantifying the spatial extent of being observed on a certain spot from other points. As a result, theft was found to occur mostly in the alley which has the lowest VE value. This means that theft among the five crimes is most affected by natural surveillance. Therefore, in order to prevent theft crime, a spatial design capable of natural surveillance is needed. This could provide a useful guideline to be applied to urban spatial design and to proactive and predictive police activities against the risk of theft crime.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
143
80516
Practical Design Procedures of 3D Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall-Frame Structure Based on Structural Optimization Method
Abstract:
In this paper, the design procedure is applied for 3D reinforced concrete shear wall-frame structure. Cross sections of beam, column and shear wall are defined based on structural optimization method. Loadings are based on ASCE7-05, and linear static analysis is performed. Formulation for optimal cross-sections are proposed, and design steps are performed to check and obtain the constraints such as axial force, shear force, bending moment and reinforcement of each section based on ACI 318-14 design criteria. The solution of design problem for 15 storied reinforced concrete shear wall-frame is obtained based on structural optimization method. The research outcome of this method will be a useful reference for designing of RC shear wall-frame structures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
142
80461
Korean Smart Cities: Strategic Foci, Characteristics and Effects
Abstract:
This paper reviews Korean cases of smart cities through the analysis framework of strategic foci, characteristics and effects. Firstly, national strategies including c(cyber), e(electronic), u(ubiquitous) and s(smart) Korea strategies were considered from strategic angles. Secondly, the characteristics of smart cities in Korea were looked through the smart cities examples such as Seoul, Busan, Songdo and Sejong cities etc. from the views on the by STIM (Service, Technology, Infrastructure and Management) analysis. Finally, the effects of smart cities on socio-economies were investigated from industrial perspective using the input-output model and structural path analysis. Korean smart city strategies revealed that there were different kinds of strategic foci. c-Korea strategy focused on information and communications network building and user IT literacy. e-Korea strategy encouraged e-government and e-business through utilizing high-speed information and communications network. u-Korea strategy made ubiquitous service as well as integrated information and communication operations center. s-Korea strategy is propelling 4th industrial platform. Smart cities in Korea showed their own features and trends such as eco-intelligence, high efficiency and low cost oriented IoT, citizen sensored city, big data city. Smart city progress made new production chains fostering ICTs (Information Communication Technologies) and knowledge intermediate inputs to industries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
141
80447
Different Goals and Strategies of Smart Cities: Comparative Study between European and Asian Countries
Abstract:
In this paper, different goals and the ways to reach smart cities shown in many countries during planning and implementation processes will be discussed. Each country dealt with technologies which have been embedded into space as development of ICTs (information and communication technologies) for their own purposes and in their own ways. For example, European countries tried to adapt technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission to overcome global warming while US based global companies focused on the way of life using ICTs such as EasyLiving of Microsoftᵀᴹ and CoolTown of Hewlett-Packardᵀᴹ during last decade of 20th century. In the North-East Asian countries, urban space with ICTs was developed in large scale on the viewpoint of capitalism. Ubiquitous city, first introduced in Korea which named after Marc Weiser’s concept of ubiquitous computing pursued new urban development with advanced technologies and high-tech infrastructure including wired and wireless network. Japan has developed smart cities as comprehensive and technology intensive cities which will lead other industries of the nation in the future. Not only the goals and strategies but also new directions in which smart cities are oriented also suggested at the end of the paper. Like a Finnish smart community whose slogan is ‘one more hour a day for citizens,’ recent trend is forwarding everyday lives and cultures of human beings, neither capital gains nor physical urban spaces.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
140
80422
Community Empowerment: The Contribution of Network Urbanism on Urban Poverty Reduction
Abstract:
This research analyzes the application of a model of settlements management based on networks of territorial integration that advocates planning as a cyclical and participatory process that engages early on with civic society, the private sector and the state. Through qualitative methods such as participant observation, interviews with snowball technique and an active research on territories, concrete results of community empowerment are obtained from the promotion of productive enterprises and community spaces of encounter and exchange. Studying the cultural and organizational dimensions of empowerment allows building indicators such as increase of capacities or community cohesion that can lead to support local governments in achieving sustainable urban development for a reduction of urban poverty.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):