Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Urban and Civil Engineering

147
86446
Sustainable Mitigation of Urban Stormwater Runoff: The Applicability of Green Infrastructure Approach in Finnish Climate
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of the research project in Geography is to evaluate the applicability of urban green infrastructure approach in Finnish climate. The key focus will be on the operation and efficiency of green infrastructure on urban stormwater management. Green infrastructure approach refers to the employment of sufficient green covers as a modern and smart environmental solution to improve the quality of urban environments. Green infrastructure provides a wide variety of micro-scale ecosystem services, such as stormwater runoff management, regulation of extreme air temperatures, reduction of energy consumption, plus a variety of social benefits and human health and wellbeing. However, the cold climate of Finland with seasonal ground frost, snow cover and relatively short growing season bring about questions of whether green infrastructure works as efficiently as expected. To tackle this question, green infrastructure solutions will be studied and analyzed with manifold methods: stakeholder perspectives regarding existing and planned GI solutions will be collected by web based questionnaires, semi structured interviews and group discussions, and analyzed in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Targeted empirical field campaigns will be conducted on selected sites. A systematic literature review with global perspective will support the analyses. The findings will be collected, compiled and analyzed using geographic information systems (GIS). The findings of the research will improve our understanding of the functioning of green infrastructure in the Finnish environment in urban stormwater management, as a landscape element for citizens’ wellbeing, and in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The acquired information will be shared with stakeholders in interactive co-design workshops. As green covers have great demand and potential globally, the conclusions will have relevance in other cool climate regions and may support Finnish business in green infrastructure sector.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
146
86227
Thermite Welding
Abstract:
Thermite welding is a set of processes in which the welding formed from a molten metal that has been created by a strong chemical action. This type of welding is more similar to casting and a template is located around the two pieces that need to be welded which the molten metal resulting from this chemical reaction is directed to this template and after cooling, the molten metal formed into the welding template. Chemical reaction or thermite are usually done between a metal oxide (usually iron or copper) and a reduction metal such as aluminum. To react, a rapidly burned powder is used as a detonator that provided the required heat for initiating the reaction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
145
85923
Comparison of Petrophysical Relationship for Soil Water Content Estimation at Peat Soil Area Using GPR Common-Offset Measurements
Abstract:
The appropriate petrophysical relationship is needed for Soil Water Content (SWC) estimation especially when using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Ground penetrating radar is a geophysical tool that provides indirectly the parameter of SWC. This paper examines the performance of few published petrophysical relationships to obtain SWC estimates from in-situ GPR common- offset survey measurements with gravimetric measurements at peat soil area. Gravimetric measurements were conducted to support of GPR measurements for the accuracy assessment. Further, GPR with dual frequencies (250MHhz and 700MHz) were used in the survey measurements to obtain the dielectric permittivity. Three empirical equations (i.e., Roth’s equation, Schaap’s equation and Idi’s equation) were selected for the study, used to compute the soil water content from dielectric permittivity of the GPR profile. The results indicate that Schaap’s equation provides strong correlation with SWC as measured by GPR data sets and gravimetric measurements.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
144
84380
Stepping in Sustainability: Walkability an Upcoming Design Parameter for Transit Based Communities in Lahore, Pakistan
Authors:
Abstract:
The consideration of walkability as an urban design parameter in conjunction with transit-oriented development is an established trend in the developed countries but an upcoming trend in developing countries. In Pakistan, the first Bus Rapid Transit (locally called as Metro Bus) has been introduced in the city of Lahore in 2013 where around 40 percent of the riders access to transit stations by walking. To what extent the aspect of walkability has been considered in the local scenario? To address this question, this paper presents an account of urban design parameters regarding pedestrian provisions and quality of walking environment between Metro Bus stations and users’ destination in the transit neighbourhoods (areas up to 500-meter radius). The primary and secondary data for objective and subjective walkability measurements has been used for neighbourhoods of five selected transit stations ranked against the predefined critical assessed factors (CAF). The multi-criteria approach including visual and geospatially-based parameters at street level, along with walkability index score at selected sites linked with CAF evaluation were the selected methods for this study. The acceptability of walkability as an urban design parameter for transit planning in terms of connectivity and social implications of the concept has also been analysed in the local context. The paper highlights that the aspect of walkability in Lahore is being derelict owing to the focus of government on other initiatives such as park and ride and feeder bus services for mobility of passengers. However, the pedestrian-friendly design parameters as a part of future transit planning can enhance social, liveable and interactive walking environment within transit neighbourhoods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
143
84347
A System Dynamic Based Decision Support System for Ecological Urban Management in Alexandria, Egypt
Abstract:
The concept of urban metabolism has increasingly been employed in a diverse range of disciplines as a mean to analyze and theorize the city. Urban ecology has a particular focus on the implications of applying the metabolism concept to the urban realm. This approach has been developed by a few researchers, though it has rarely if ever been used in policy development for city planning. The aim of this research is to use ecologically informed urban planning interventions to increase the sustainability of urban metabolism; with special focus on land stock as a most important city resource by developing a system dynamic based DSS. This model identifies two critical management strategy variables for the Strategic Urban Plan Alexandria SUP 2032. As a result, this comprehensive and precise quantitative approach is needed to monitor, measure, evaluate and observe dynamic urban changes working as a decision support system (DSS) for policy making.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
142
84111
The Preliminary Study of the Possible Relationship between Urban Open Space System and Residents' Health Outcome
Abstract:
It is generally accepted that community residents with abundant open space have better health status on average, and thus more and more cities around the world began their pursuit of the greatest possible amount of green space within urban areas through urban planning approach. Nevertheless, only a few studies managed to provide empirical evidence regarding the actual relationship between 'providing' green space and 'improving' human health at city level. There is also lack of evidence of direct positive improvement of health by increasing the amount of green space. For urban planning professional, it is important to understand citizens’ usage behaviour towards green space as a critical evidence for future planning and design strategies. There is a research need to further investigate the amount of green space, user behaviour of green spaces and the health outcome of urban dwellers. To this end, we would like to find out other important factors for urban dwellers’ usage behaviours of green spaces. 'Average green spaces per person' is one of the National well-being Indicators in Taiwan as in many other countries. Through our preliminary research, we collected and analyzed the official data of planned open space coverages, average life expectancy, exercise frequency and obesity ratio in all cities of Taiwan. The study result indicates an interesting finding that Kaohsiung city, the second largest city in Taiwan, tells a completely different story. Citizens in Kaosiung city have more open spaces than any other city through urban planning, yet have relatively unhealthy condition in contrary. Whether it pointed out that the amount of the open spaces per person has would not direct to the health outcome. Therefore, the pre-established view which states that open spaces must have positive effects on human health should be examined more prudently. Hence, this paper intends to explore the relationship between user behaviour of open spaces and citizens’ health conditions by critically analyzing past related literature and collecting selective data from government health database in 2015. We also take Kaohsiung city, as a case study area to conduct statistical analysis first followed by questionnaire survey to gain a better understanding. Finally, we aim to feedback our findings to the current planning system in Taiwan for better health promotion urbanized areas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
141
83225
Cars in a Neighborhood: A Case of Sustainable Living in Sector 22 Chandigarh
Abstract:
The Chandigarh city is under the strain of exponential growth of car density across various neighborhood. The consumerist nature of society today is to be blamed for this menace because everyone wants to own and ride a car. Car manufacturers are busy selling two or more cars per household. The Regional Transport Offices are busy issuing as many licenses to new vehicles as they can in order to generate revenue in the form of Road Tax. The car traffic in the neighborhoods of Chandigarh has reached a tipping point. There needs to be a more empirical and sustainable model of cars per household, which should be based on specific parameters of livable neighborhoods. Sector 22 in Chandigarh is one of the first residential sectors to be established in the city. There is scope to think, reflect, and work out a method to know how many cars we need to sell our citizens before we lose the argument to traffic problems, parking problems, and road rage. This is where the true challenge of a planner or a designer of the city lies. Currently, in Chandigarh city, there are no clear visible answers to this problem. The way forward is to look at spatial mapping, planning, and design of car parking units to address the problem, rather than suggesting extreme measures of banning cars (short-term) or promoting plans for citywide transport (very long-term). This is a chance to resolve the problem with a pragmatic approach from a citizen’s perspective, instead of an orthodox development planner’s methodology. Since citizens are at the center of how the problem is to be addressed, acceptable solutions are more likely to emerge from the car and traffic problem as defined by the citizens. Thus, the idea and its implementation would be interesting in comparison to the known academic methodologies. The novel and innovative process would lead to a more acceptable and sustainable approach to the issue of number of car parks in the neighborhood of Chandigarh city.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
140
83171
Spatial Design Transformation of Mount Merapi's Dwellings Using Diachronic Approach
Abstract:
In concern for human safety, living in disaster-prone areas is twofold: it is profoundly cataclysmic yet perceptibly contributive. This paradox could be identified in Kalitengah Lor Sub-village community who inhabit Mount Merapi’s most hazardous area, putting them to the highest exposure to eruptions’ cataclysmic impacts. After the devastating incident in 2010, through the Action Plan for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction, the National Government with immediate aid from humanitarian agencies initiated a relocation program by establishing nearly 2,613 temporary shelters throughout the mountain’s region. The problem arose as some of the most affected communities including those in Kalitengah Lor Sub-village, persistently refused to relocate. The obnoxious experience of those living in temporary shelters resulted from the program’s failure to support a long-term living was assumed to instigate the rejection. From the psychological standpoint, this phenomenon reflects the emotional bond between the affected communities with their former dwellings. Regarding this, the paper aims to reveal the factors influencing the emotional attachment of Kalitengah Lor community to their former dwellings including the dwellings’ spatial design transformation prior and post the eruption in 2010. The research adopted Likert five scale-questionnaire comprising a wide range of responses from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The responses were then statistically measured, leading to consensus that provides bases for further interpretations toward the local’s characteristics. Using purposive unit sampling technique, 50 respondents from 217 local households were randomly selected. Questions in the questionnaire were developed with concerns on the aspects of place attachment concept: affection, cognitive, behavior, and perception. Combined with quantitative method, the research adopted diachronic method which was aimed to analyze the spatial design transformation of each dwelling in relation to the inhabitant’s daily activities and personal preferences. The research found that access to natural resources like sand mining, agricultural farms and wood forests, social relationship and physical proximity from house to personal asset like cattle shed, are the dominant factors encouraging the locals to emotionally attached to their former dwellings. Consequently, each dwelling’s spatial design is suffered from changes in which the current house is typically larger in dimension and the bathroom is replaced by public toilet located outside the house’s backyard. Relatively unchanged, the cattle shed is still located in front of the house, the continuous visual relationship, particularly between the living and family room, is maintained, as well as the main orientation of the house towards the local street.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
139
82872
Measurement of Asphalt Pavement Temperature to Find out the Proper Asphalt Binder Performance Grade to the Asphalt Mixtures in Southern Desert of Libya
Abstract:
Most developing countries use volumetric analysis in designing asphalt mixtures, which can also be upgraded in hot arid weather. However, in order to be effective, it should include many important aspects which are materials, environment, and method of construction. The overall intent of the work reported in this study is to test different asphalt mixtures while taking into consideration the environment, type and source of material, tools, equipment, and the construction method. In this study, several tests were conducted on many samples that were carefully prepared under the expected traffic loads and temperatures in a dry hot climate. Several asphalt concrete mixtures were designed using two different binders. These mixtures were analyzed under two types of tests - Complex Modulus and Rutting test - to evaluate the hot mix asphalt properties under the represented temperatures and traffic load in Libya. These factors play an important role to improve the pavement performances in a hot climate weather based on the properties of the asphalt mixture, climate, and traffic load. This research summarized some recommendations for making asphalt mixtures used in hot dry areas. Such asphalt mixtures should use asphalt binder which is less affected by pavement temperature change and traffic load. The properties of the mixture, such as durability, deformation, air voids and performance, largely depend on the type of materials, environment, and mixing method. These properties, in turn, affect the pavement performance. Therefore, this study is aimed to develop a method for designing an asphalt mixture that takes into account field loading, various stresses, and temperature spectrums.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
138
82830
Optimizing Pavement Construction Procedures in the Southern Desert of Libya
Abstract:
Libya uses a volumetric analysis in designing asphalt mixtures, which can also be upgraded in hot, arid weather. However, in order to be effective, it should include many important aspects which are materials, environment, and method of construction. However, the quality of some roads was below a satisfactory level. This paper examines the factors that contribute to low quality of road performance in Libya. To evaluate these factors, a questionnaire survey and a laboratory comparative study were performed for a few mixes under-represented of temperature and traffic load. In laboratory, rutting test conducted on two different asphalt mixture, these mixes included, an asphalt concrete mix using local aggregate and asphalt binder B(60/70) at the optimum Marshall asphalt content, another mixes designed using Superpave design procedure with the same materials and performance asphalt binder grade PG (70-10). In the survey, the questionnaire was distributed to 55 engineers and specialists in this field. The interview was conducted to a few others, and the factors that were leading to poor performance of asphalt roads were listed as; 1) Owner Experience and technical staff 2) Asphalt characteristics 3) Updating and development of Asphalt Mix Design methods 4) Lack of data collection by authorization Agency 5) Construction and compaction process 6) Mentoring and controlling mixing procedure. Considering and improving these factors will play an important role to improve the pavement performances, longer service life, and lower maintenance costs. This research summarized some recommendations for making asphalt mixtures used in hot, dry areas. Such asphalt mixtures should use asphalt binder which is less affected by pavement temperature change and traffic load. The properties of the mixture, such as durability, deformation, air voids, and performance, largely depend on the type of materials, environment, and mixing method. These properties, in turn, affect the pavement performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
137
82793
Criteria Analysis of Residential Location Preferences: An Urban Dwellers’ Perspective
Abstract:
Preferences for residential location are of a diverse nature. Primarily they are based on the socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-demographic characteristics of the household. It also depends on character, and the growth potential of different areas in a city. In the present study, various criteria affecting residential location preferences from the Urban Dwellers’ perspective have been analyzed. The household survey has been conducted in two parts: Existing Buyers’ survey and Future Buyers’ survey. The analysis reveals that workplace location is the most governing criterion in deciding residential location from the majority of the urban dwellers perspective. For analyzing the importance of varied criteria, Analytical Hierarchy Process approach has been explored. The suggested approach will be helpful for urban planners, decision makers and developers, while designating a new residential area or redeveloping an existing one.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
136
82775
The Relationship between Elderly People with Depression and Built Environment Factors
Abstract:
As the population aging has become an inevitable trend globally, issues of improving the well-being of elderly people in urban areas have been a challenging task for urban planners. Recent studies of ageing trend have also expended to explore the relationship between the built environment and mental condition of elderly people. These studies have proved that even though the built environment may not necessarily play the decisive role in affecting mental health, it can have positive impacts on individual mental health by promoting social linkages and social networks among older adults. There has been a great amount of relevant research examined the impact of the built environment attributes on depression in the elderly; however, most were conducted in the Western countries. Little attention has been paid in Asian cities with contrarily high density and mix-use urban contexts such as Taiwan regarding how the built environment attributes related to depression in elderly people. Hence, more empirical cross-principle studies are needed to explore the possible impacts of Asia urban characteristics on older residents’ mental condition. This paper intends to focus on Tainan city, the fourth biggest metropolis in Taiwan. We first analyze with data from National Health Insurance Research Database to pinpoint the empirical study area where residing most elderly patients, aged over 65, with depressive disorders. Secondly, we explore the relationship between specific attributes of the built environment collected from previous studies and elderly individuals who suffer from depression, under different socio-cultural and networking circumstances. To achieve the results, the research methods adopted in this study include questionnaire and database analysis, and the results will be proceeded by correlation analysis. In addition, through literature review, by generalizing the built environment factors that have been used in Western research to evaluate the relationship between built environment and older individuals with depressive disorders, a set of local evaluative indicators of the built environment for future studies will be proposed as well. In order to move closer to develop age-friendly cities and improve the well-being for the elderly in Taiwan, the findings of this paper can provide empirical results to grab planners’ attention for how built environment makes the elderly feel and to reconsider the relationship between them. Furthermore, with an interdisciplinary topic, the research results are expected to make suggestions for amending the procedures of drawing up an urban plan or a city plan from a different point of view.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
135
82610
Temporal Estimation of Hydrodynamic Parameter Variability in Constructed Wetlands
Abstract:
The calibration of hydrodynamic parameters for subsurface constructed wetlands (CWs) is a sensitive process since highly non-linear equations are involved in unsaturated flow modeling. CW systems are engineered systems designed to favour natural treatment processes involving wetland vegetation, soil, and their microbial flora. Their significant efficiency at reducing the ecological impact of urban runoff has been recently proved in the field. Numerical flow modeling in a vertical variably saturated CW is here carried out by implementing the Richards model by means of a mixed hybrid finite element method (MHFEM), particularly well adapted to the simulation of heterogeneous media, and the van Genuchten-Mualem parametrization. For validation purposes, MHFEM results were compared to those of HYDRUS (a software based on a finite element discretization). As van Genuchten-Mualem soil hydrodynamic parameters depend on water content, their estimation is subject to considerable experimental and numerical studies. In particular, the sensitivity analysis performed with respect to the van Genuchten-Mualem parameters reveals a predominant influence of the shape parameters α, n and the saturated conductivity of the filter on the piezometric heads, during saturation and desaturation. Modeling issues arise when the soil reaches oven-dry conditions. A particular attention should also be brought to boundary condition modeling (surface ponding or evaporation) to be able to tackle different sequences of rainfall-runoff events. For proper parameter identification, large field datasets would be needed. As these are usually not available, notably due to the randomness of the storm events, we thus propose a simple, robust and low-cost numerical method for the inverse modeling of the soil hydrodynamic properties. Among the methods, the variational data assimilation technique introduced by Le Dimet and Talagrand is applied. To that end, a variational data assimilation technique is implemented by applying automatic differentiation (AD) to augment computer codes with derivative computations. Note that very little effort is needed to obtain the differentiated code using the on-line Tapenade AD engine. Field data are collected for a three-layered CW located in Strasbourg (Alsace, France) at the water edge of the urban water stream Ostwaldergraben, during several months. Identification experiments are conducted by comparing measured and computed piezometric head by means of the least square objective function. The temporal variability of hydrodynamic parameter is then assessed and analyzed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
134
82293
Relationship between Creative Market Actor and Traditional Market Vendor toward a Sustainable Market Model in Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract:
In Indonesia, the rise of the middle class and consumer purchasing power has created a trend of shifting the traditional into a modern retail market. Development of the creative economy as an impact of the global economy has invaded the traditional market, due to low rents and minimum innovation, raising the issue of sustainability and urban resilience for survival of the traditional market. The study aims to understand the current market conditions by examining the challenges, resiliency, and identify the relationship between the traditional market and creative market. Using a single-case study approach as the research methodology, Santa Market has been chosen as the case study. It is a pilot project of collaboration between a traditional market and creative economy in Jakarta, Indonesia. The research was conducted as a qualitative study through in-depth interviews with the market vendors and the market management, besides a desk-based study of the leasing data and spatial analysis. The findings indicate traffic fluctuation as the main challenge. It is related to the tenant’s presence, rental fluctuation, gentrification, infrastructure, and market competition. Thus, the findings on resilience show a different response for creative and traditional markets. The traditional market’s response remained stable with minimum innovation, whereas the creative market relies on technological development. Regarding the relationship, supply and demand have become the main relationship occurring in Santa Market. It is then developed into the context of society and regulation. The conclusion provides recommendations for more solid regulation to protect the market tenants from stakeholder interests that can disrupt market viability, and a critical discussion on the concept of collaboration between traditional and creative markets. There is also a suggestion for further study on relation with the surroundings, to create a holistic study on how the collaboration can work well in the traditional market.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
133
82243
Influence of Urban Microclimates on Human Perceptions and Behavioral Patterns: A Relational Context of Human Parameters in Urban Design
Authors:
Abstract:
Our cities are known to have significant modifying effects on the local climate. The nature of the modifications depends on a range of physical variables, usually assessed at a wide range of spatial scales. Physical spatial dimensions, such as measured parameters of microclimates and their significant influence on human sensations, are known to have far-reaching effects on human thermal comfort and by corollary a force that influences human perception. Less scholarship has thrown light on the subjective dimension and insufficiently demonstrates a relational approach between human behavior and how it is affected by the phenomenon of urban microclimates. Other than identifying gaps in the most recent scholarship and providing future research opportunities, the scope of this study will help improve urban design guidelines and raise framework standards of socially responsive urban design. This study will help equip future professionals to ameliorate the effects of urban microclimates on participant’s perceptions enabling more frequent usage of the outdoor urban spaces. However, it is informed that the physical parameters of an outdoor open space determine psychological human adaptations and is a measure of the degree to which people are willing to adapt to their surroundings. A large amount of research is available related to urban microclimates. However, very few studies are focused on the elucidation of the critical factors influencing human perceptions of the microclimates in urban spatial configurations. Based on the most recent scholarship, this study has evaluated the role urban microclimatic conditions have in the formation of human perceptions and, by extension, behavioral patterns formulating in outdoor open spaces. Furthermore, this study also defines, in the backdrop of the current scholarly literature, the socio-spatial interdependence of behavioral patterns with relationship to the built urban fabric and its resultant correlation with human perception. A comprehensive review and analysis of the recent research conducted within the scope of the study will help frame gaps, issues, current research methods and future research opportunities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
132
81778
Micro-Oculi Facades as a Sustainable Urban Facade
Abstract:
We live in an era that faces global challenges of climate changes and resource depletion. With the rapid urbanization and growing energy consumption in the built environment, building facades become ever more important in architectural practice and environmental stewardship. Furthermore, building facade undergoes complex dynamics of social, cultural, environmental and technological changes. Kinetic facades have drawn attention of architects, designers, and engineers in the field of adaptable, responsive and interactive architecture since 1980’s. Materials and building technologies have gradually evolved to address the technical implications of kinetic facades. The kinetic façade is becoming an independent system of the building, transforming the design methodology to sustainable building solutions. Accordingly, there is a need for a new design methodology to guide the design of a kinetic façade and evaluate its sustainable performance. The research objectives are two-fold: First, to establish a new design methodology for kinetic facades and second, to develop a micro-oculi façade system and assess its performance using the established design method. The design approach to the micro-oculi facade is comprised of 1) façade geometry optimization and 2) dynamic building energy simulation. The façade geometry optimization utilizes multi-objective optimization process, aiming to balance the quantitative and qualitative performances to address the sustainability of the built environment. The dynamic building energy simulation was carried out using EnergyPlus and Radiance simulation engines with scripted interfaces. The micro-oculi office was compared with an office tower with a glass façade in accordance with ASHRAE 90.1 2013 to understand its energy efficiency. The micro-oculi facade is constructed with an array of circular frames attached to a pair of micro-shades called a micro-oculus. The micro-oculi are encapsulated between two glass panes to protect kinetic mechanisms with longevity. The micro-oculus incorporates rotating gears that transmit the power to adjacent micro-oculi to minimize the number of mechanical parts. The micro-oculus rotates around its center axis with a step size of 15deg depending on the sun’s position while maximizing daylighting potentials and view-outs. A 2 ft by 2ft prototyping was undertaken to identify operational challenges and material implications of the micro-oculi facade. In this research, a systematic design methodology was proposed, that integrates multi-objectives of kinetic façade design criteria and whole building energy performance simulation within a holistic design process. This design methodology is expected to encourage multidisciplinary collaborations between designers and engineers to collaborate issues of the energy efficiency, daylighting performance and user experience during design phases. The preliminary energy simulation indicated that compared to a glass façade, the micro-oculi façade showed energy savings due to its improved thermal properties, daylighting attributes, and dynamic solar performance across the day and seasons. It is expected that the micro oculi façade provides a cost-effective, environmentally-friendly, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing alternative to glass facades. Recommendations for future studies include lab testing to validate the simulated data of energy and optical properties of the micro-oculi façade. A 1:1 performance mock-up of the micro-oculi façade can suggest in-depth understanding of long-term operability and new development opportunities applicable for urban façade applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
131
80977
GIS Model for Sanitary Landfill Site Selection Based on Geotechnical Parameters
Abstract:
Landfill site selection in an urban area is a critical issue in the planning process. With the growth of the urbanization, it has a mammoth impact on the economy, ecology, and environmental health of the region. Outsized amount of wastes are produced and the problem gets soared every day. Hence, selection of ideal site for sanitary landfill is a challenge for urban planners and solid waste managers. Disposal site is a function of many parameters. Among all, Geotechnical parameters are very vital as the same is related to surrounding open land. Moreover, the accessible safe and acceptable land is also scarce. Therefore, in this paper geotechnical parameters are used to develop a GIS model to identify an ideal location for landfill purpose. Metropolitan city of Surat is highly populated and fastest growing urban area in India. The research objectives are to conduct field experiments to collect data and to transfer the facts in GIS platform to evolve a model, to find ideal location. Planners’ preferences were obtained to use analytical hierarchical process (AHP) to find weights of each parameter. Integration of GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques are applied to improve decision-making. It augments an environment for transformation and combination of geographical data and planners’ preferences. GIS performs deterministic overlay and buffer operations. MCDA methods evaluate alternatives based on the decision makers’ subjective values and priorities. Research results have shown many alternative locations. Economic analysis of selected site from actual operations point of view is not included in this research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
130
80461
Korean Smart Cities: Strategic Foci, Characteristics and Effects
Abstract:
This paper reviews Korean cases of smart cities through the analysis framework of strategic foci, characteristics and effects. Firstly, national strategies including c(cyber), e(electronic), u(ubiquitous) and s(smart) Korea strategies were considered from strategic angles. Secondly, the characteristics of smart cities in Korea were looked through the smart cities examples such as Seoul, Busan, Songdo and Sejong cities etc. from the views on the by STIM (Service, Technology, Infrastructure and Management) analysis. Finally, the effects of smart cities on socio-economies were investigated from industrial perspective using the input-output model and structural path analysis. Korean smart city strategies revealed that there were different kinds of strategic foci. c-Korea strategy focused on information and communications network building and user IT literacy. e-Korea strategy encouraged e-government and e-business through utilizing high-speed information and communications network. u-Korea strategy made ubiquitous service as well as integrated information and communication operations center. s-Korea strategy is propelling 4th industrial platform. Smart cities in Korea showed their own features and trends such as eco-intelligence, high efficiency and low cost oriented IoT, citizen sensored city, big data city. Smart city progress made new production chains fostering ICTs (Information Communication Technologies) and knowledge intermediate inputs to industries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
129
80422
Community Empowerment: The Contribution of Network Urbanism on Urban Poverty Reduction
Abstract:
This research analyzes the application of a model of settlements management based on networks of territorial integration that advocates planning as a cyclical and participatory process that engages early on with civic society, the private sector and the state. Through qualitative methods such as participant observation, interviews with snowball technique and an active research on territories, concrete results of community empowerment are obtained from the promotion of productive enterprises and community spaces of encounter and exchange. Studying the cultural and organizational dimensions of empowerment allows building indicators such as increase of capacities or community cohesion that can lead to support local governments in achieving sustainable urban development for a reduction of urban poverty.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
128
80233
A Study of Tactics in the Dissident Urban Form
Abstract:
The infiltration of key elements to the civil structure is foraying its way to reclaim, what is its own. The reclamation of lives and spaces, once challenged, becomes a consistent process of ingress, disguised as parallels to the moving city, disperses into discourses often unheard of and conveniently forgotten. In this age of 'hyper'-urbanization, there are solutions suggested to a plethora of issues faced by citizens, in improving their standards of living. Problems are ancillary to proposals that emerge out of the underlying disorders of the townscape. These interventions result in the formulation of urban policies, to consolidate and optimize, to regularize and to streamline resources. Policy and practice are processes where the politics in policies define the way in which urban solutions are prescribed. Social constraints, that formulate the various cycles of order and disorders within the urban realm, are the stigmas for such interventions. There is often a direct relation of policy to place, no matter how people-centric it may seem to be projected. How we live our lives depends on where we live our lives - a relative statement for urban problems, varies from city to city. Communal compositions, welfare, crisis, socio-economic balance, need for management are the generic roots for urban policy formulation. However, in reality, the gentry administering its environmentalism is the criterion, that shapes and defines the values and expanse of such policies. In relation to the psycho-spatial characteristic of urban spheres with respect to the other side of this game, there have been instances, where the associational values have been reshaped by interests. The public domain reclaimed for exclusivity, thus creating fortified neighborhoods. Here, the citizen cumulative is often drifted by proposals that would over time deplete such landscapes of the city. It is the organized rebellion that in turn formulates further inward looking enclaves of latent aggression. In recent times, it has been observed that the unbalanced division of power and the implied processes of regulating the weak, stem the rebellion who respond in kits and parts. This is a phenomenon that mimics the guerilla warfare tactics, in order to have systems straightened out, either by manipulations or by force. This is the form of the city determined by the various forms insinuated by the state of city wide decisions. This study is an attempt at understanding the way in which development is interpreted by the state and the civil society and the role that community driven processes undertake to reinstate their claims to the city. This is a charter of consolidated patterns of negotiations that tend to counter policies. The research encompasses a study of various contested settlements in two cities of India- Mumbai and Kolkata, tackling dissent through spatial order. The study has been carried out to identify systems - formal and informal, catering to the most challenged interests of the people with respect to their habitat, a model to counter the top-down authoritative framework challenging the legitimacy of such settlements.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
127
80150
The Role of Sustainable Development in the Design and Planning of Smart Cities Using GIS Techniques: Models of Arab Cities
Abstract:
The paper presents the concept of sustainable development, and the role of geographic techniques in the design, planning and presentation of maps of smart cities with geographical vision, and the identification of programs and tools, and models of maps of Arab cities, is the problem of research in how to apply, process and experience these programs? What is the role of geographic techniques in planning and mapping the optimal place for these cities? The paper proposes an addition to the designs of Iraqi cities, as it can be developed in the future to serve as a model for interactive smart cities by developing its services. The importance of this paper stems from the concept of sustainable development dynamic which has become a method of development imposed by the present era in rapid development to achieve social balance and specialized programs in draw paper argues that ensuring sustainable development is achieved through the use of information technology. The paper will follow the theoretical presentation of the importance of the concept of development, design tools and programs. The paper follows the method of analysis of modern systems (System Analysis Approach) through the latest programs will provide results can be said that the new Iraqi cities can be developed with smart technologies, like some of the Arab and European cities that were newly created through the introduction of international investment, and therefore Plans can be made to select the best programs in manufacturing and producing maps and smart cities in the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
126
80108
Tensile Test of Corroded Strand and Maintenance of Corroded Prestressed Concrete Girders
Abstract:
National bridge inventory in Korea shows that the number of old prestressed concrete (PSC) bridgeover 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issues in the maintenance of PSC bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded strands, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the equations to express the mechanical behavior of corroded strand were derived and compared to existing equation. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Considerations on analysis of PSC girders were introduced, and decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
125
80064
Urban Design as a Tool to Address Safety in a Crime Ridden Area: A Case Study of Malviya Nagar, New Delhi
Abstract:
As a city is growing in population, sprawl, and complexity, use of public spaces increases variably and thus ensuring safety for the people becomes an utmost priority. While active monitoring measures may be necessary in some places, urban design can play a major role in devising self-policing and encourage active public life. This paper aims to explore the various spatial and psychological reasons for the occurrence of crime and the role of ‘urban design’ to address this issue. In this research, the principles of urban design are examined, as well as projected on actual site by addressing the issue with urban design principles. In this review the sociological, psychological, typological and morphological factors are addressed which affect the safety of a space and the possible framing guidelines, controls and urban design strategies are explored to address a safe neighborhood. On the basis of statistical survey, the residential and street network of Malviya Nagar in Delhi is chosen as the area of demonstration. The programs inhibit a safe neighborhood and a movement network that are addressed based on the four principles of natural surveillance, territoriality, community building, and connectivity. The paper concludes with a discussion of the urban design as an effective tool by creating an intense active zone with mixed use feature to ensure throughout activity and also ensuring safe pedestrian zone by introducing sense of community feeling and territoriality thus achieving active, useful and public friendly space.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
124
79697
An Approach towards Intelligent Urbanism in New Communities
Abstract:
Technology is a quoted keyword nowadays in all fields; it has been recently thought of and integrated into urban development. This research explains the role of technology in establishing intelligent urbanism to create a convivial and sustainable environment for people to live in. Cities are downgrading socially, economically and environmentally. A framework is to be developed where these three pillars are involved in the planning, design, and spreading of technology to create convivial environments. The aim of this research is achieved by highlighting the importance and approaches of intelligent urbanism, it’s characteristics and principles, then analyzing some relevant examples to achieve a set of guidelines.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
123
79129
A Security Study for Smart Metering Systems
Abstract:
In modern societies, the smart cities concept raised simultaneously with the projection towards adopting smart devices. A smart grid is an essential part of any smart city as both consumers and power utility companies benefit from the features provided by the power grid. In addition to advanced features presented by smart grids, there may also be a risk when the grids are exposed to malicious acts such as security attacks performed by terrorists. Considering advanced security measures in the design of smart meters could reduce these risks. This paper presents a security study for smart metering systems with a prototype implementation of the user interfaces for future works.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
122
78970
A Study of the Adaptive Reuse for School Land Use Strategy: An Application of the Analytic Network Process and Big Data
Authors:
Abstract:
In today's popularity and progress of information technology, the big data set and its analysis are no longer a major conundrum. Now, we could not only use the relevant big data to analysis and emulate the possible status of urban development in the near future, but also provide more comprehensive and reasonable policy implementation basis for government units or decision-makers via the analysis and emulation results as mentioned above. In this research, we set Taipei City as the research scope, and use the relevant big data variables (e.g., population, facility utilization and related social policy ratings) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach to implement in-depth research and discussion for the possible reduction of land use in primary and secondary schools of Taipei City. In addition to enhance the prosperous urban activities for the urban public facility utilization, the final results of this research could help improve the efficiency of urban land use in the future. Furthermore, the assessment model and research framework established in this research also provide a good reference for schools or other public facilities land use and adaptive reuse strategies in the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
121
78190
Assessment of Low Income Housing Delivery, Accessibility and Affordability Problem in Nigeria
Abstract:
Housing is a basic necessity of life. Housing plays a central role in the life of living organisms as it provides the basic platform for the life support systems in human settlements. It is considered a social service and a basic right. Despite the importance of housing, Nigeria as a nation is faced with the problem of quantitative and qualitative shortfall in the number of housing units required to accommodate the citizens. This study examined the accessibility and affordability problems of low-income housing in Nigeria. It relied on secondary data obtained for the records of government ministries and agencies. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis, and the information was presented in simple tables and charts. The findings show that over the years the government has provided serviced plots of land, owner occupier houses and mortgage loans for the people. As at 2016, the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) has completed a total of 23,038 housing units while another 14, 488 units were on-going under the Public Private Partnership scheme across the country. The study revealed that a total of 910, 671 housing units were proposed by the Government under the various low-income housing programmes between 1960 and 2017, but only 156, 336 units were delivered within the period, representing 17.17% success rate. Amongst others, the low-income group faced the problems of low access to and unaffordability of the few low-income housing delivered in Nigeria. The study recommended that all abandoned housing projects should be reviewed, rationalized, completed and made available to the targeted low-income people. Investment in micro housing finance, design and implementation of pro-poor housing programme and massive investment in innovative slum upgrading programmes by both the government and private sector are also recommended to ameliorate the housing problems of the low-income group in Nigeria.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
120
78136
Post-Soviet LULC Analysis of Tbilisi, Batumi and Kutaisi Using of Remote Sensing and Geo Information System
Abstract:
Human is a part of the urban landscape and responsible for it. Urbanization of cities includes the longest phase; thus none of the environment ever undergoes such anthropogenic impact as the area of large cities. The post-Soviet period is very interesting in terms of scientific research. The changes that have occurred in the cities since the collapse of the Soviet Union have not yet been analyzed best to our knowledge. In this context, the aim of this paper is to analyze the changes in the land use of the three large cities of Georgia (Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi). Tbilisi as a capital city, Batumi as a port city, and Kutaisi as a former industrial center. Data used during the research process are conventionally divided into satellite and supporting materials. For this purpose, the largest topographic maps (1:10 000) of all three cities were analyzed, Tbilisi General Plans (1896, 1924), Tbilisi and Kutaisi historical maps. The main emphasis was placed on the classification of Landsat images. In this case, we have classified the images LULC (LandUse / LandCover) of all three cities taken in 1987 and 2016 using the supervised and unsupervised methods. All the procedures were performed in the programs: Arc GIS 10.3.1 and ENVI 5.0. In each classification we have singled out the following classes: built-up area, water bodies, agricultural lands, green cover and bare soil, and calculated the areas occupied by them. In order to check the validity of the obtained results, additionally we used the higher resolution images of CORONA and Sentinel. Ultimately we identified the changes that took place in the land use in the post-Soviet period in the above cities. According to the results, a large wave of changes touched Tbilisi and Batumi, though in different periods. It turned out that in the case of Tbilisi, the area of developed territory has increased by 13.9% compared to the 1987 data, which is certainly happening at the expense of agricultural land and green cover, in particular, the area of agricultural lands has decreased by 4.97%; and the green cover by 5.67%. It should be noted that Batumi has obviously overtaken the country's capital in terms of development. With the unaided eye it is clear that in comparison with other regions of Georgia, everything is different in Batumi. In fact, Batumi is an unofficial summer capital of Georgia. Undoubtedly, Batumi’s development is very important both in economic and social terms. However, there is a danger that in the uneven conditions of urban development, we will eventually get a developed center - Batumi, and multiple underdeveloped peripheries around it. Analysis of the changes in the land use is of utmost importance not only for quantitative evaluation of the changes already implemented, but for future modeling and prognosis of urban development. Raster data containing the classes of land use is an integral part of the city's prognostic models.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
119
78114
A Method for Allocation of Smart Intersections Using Traffic Information
Abstract:
This study aims is to suggest the basic factors by considering the priority of intersection in the diffusion project of Smart intersection. Busan Metropolitan City is conducting a smart intersection project for efficient traffic management. The smart intersection project aims to make breakthrough improvement of the intersection congestion by optimizing the signal system using CCTV (closed-circuit television camera) image analysis technology. This study investigated trends of existing researches and analyzed by setting three things of traffic volume, characteristics of intersection road, and whether or not to conduct the main arterial road as factors for selecting new intersection when spreading smart intersection. Using this, we presented the priority of the newly installed intersection through the present situation and analysis for the Busan Metropolitan City which is the main destination of the spreading project of the smart intersection. The results of this study can be used as a consideration in the implementation of smart intersection business.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
118
78042
3D Visualization for the Relationship of the Urban Rule and Building Form by Using CityEngine
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to visualize how the rule related to urban design influences the building form by 3D modeling software CityEngine. In order to make the goal of urban design clearly connect to urban form, urban planner or designer should understand how the rule affects the form, especially the building form. In Taiwan, the rule pertained to urban design includes traditional zoning, urban design review and building codes. However, zoning cannot precisely expect the outcome of building form and lack of thinking about public realm and 3D form. In addition to that, urban design review is based on case by case, do not have a comprehensive regulation plan and the building code is just for general regulation. Therefore, rule cannot make the urban form reach the vision or goal of the urban design. Consequently, another kind of zoning called Form-based code (FBC) has arisen. This study uses the component of FBC which pertained to urban fabric such as street width, block and plot size, etc., to be the variants of building form, and find out the relationship between the rule and building form. There are three stages of this research, it will start from a field survey of Taichung City in Taiwan to induce the rule-building form relationship by using cluster analysis and descriptive Statistics. Second, visualize the relationship through the parameterized and codified process in CityEngine which is the procedural modeling, and can analyze, monitor and visualize the 3D world. Last, compare the CityEngine result with real world to examine how extent do this model represent the real world appearance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):