Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 39602

Urban and Civil Engineering

The Extent of Land Use Externalities in the Fringe of Jakarta Metropolitan: An Application of Spatial Panel Dynamic Land Value Model
In a fast growing region, conversion of agricultural land which are surrounded by some new development sites will occur sooner than expected. This phenomenon has been experienced by many regions in Indonesia, especially the fringe of Jakarta (BoDeTaBek). As Indonesia’s capital city, rapid conversion of land is an unavoidable process. The land conversion expands spatially into the fringe regions, which were initially dominated by agricultural land or conservation sites. Without a proper control or growth management, this activity will invite greater costs than benefits. The current land use is the use which maximizes its value. In order to maintain land for agricultural activity or conservation, some efforts to keep the land value of this activity as high as possible. In this case, the knowledge regarding the functional relationship between land value and its driving forces is necessary. In a fast growing region, development externalities are the assumed dominant driving force. Land value is the product of past decision of its use leading to its value. It is also affected by the local characteristics and the observed surrounded land use (externalities) from the previous period. The effect of each factor on land value has dynamic and spatial virtues. An empirical spatial dynamic land value model will be more useful to capture them. The model will be useful to test and to estimate the extent of land use externalities on land value in the short run as well as in the long run. It serves as a basis to formulate an effective urban growth management’s policy. This study will apply the model to the case of land value in the fringe of Jakarta Metropolitan. The model will be used further to predict the effect of externalities on land value, in the form of prediction map. For the case of Jakarta’s fringe, there is some evidence about the significance of neighborhood urban activity – negative externalities, the previous land value and local accessibility on land value. The effects are accumulated dynamically over the years, but they will fully affect the land value after 5 until 6 years.
Research Approaches for Identifying Images of the Past in the Built Environment
Development of research approaches for identifying images of the past in the built environment is at a beginning stage, and a review of the current literature reveals a limited body of research in this area. This study seeks to make a contribution to fill this void. It investigates the theoretical and empirical studies that examine the built environment as a medium for communicating the past in order to understand how images of the past are operationalized in these studies. Findings revealed that image could be operationalized in several ways depending on the focus of the study. Three concerns were addressed in this study when defining the image of the past: (a) to investigate an 'everyday' popular image of the past; (b) to look at the building's image as an integrated part of a larger image for the city; and (c) to find patterns within residents' images of the past. This study concludes that a future study is needed to address the effects of different scales (size and depth of history) of cities and of different cultural backgrounds of images of the past.
Using Urban Conversion to Green Public Space as a Tool to Generate Urban Change: Case of Seoul
The world’s population is increasing with unprecedented speed, leading to fast growing urbanization pace. Cities since the Industrial revolution had evolved to fit the growing demand on infrastructure, roads, transportation, and housing. Through this evolution, cities had grown into grey, polluted, and vehicle-oriented urban areas with a significant lack of green spaces. Consequently, we ended up with low quality of life for citizens. Therefore, many cities, nowadays, are revising the way we think urbanism and try to grow into more livable and citizen-friendly, by creating change from the inside out. Thus, cities are trying to bring back nature in its crowded grey centers and regenerate many urban areas as green public spaces not only as a way to give new breath to the city, but also as a way to create change either in the environmental, social and economic levels. The city of Seoul is one of the fast growing global cities. Its population is over 12 million and it is expected to continue to grow to a point where the quality of life may seriously deteriorate. As most green areas in Seoul are located in the suburbs in form of mountains, the city’s urban areas suffer from lack of accessible green spaces in a walking distance. Understanding the gravity and consequences of this issue, Seoul city is undergoing major changes. Many of its projects are oriented to be green public spaces where citizens can enjoy the public life in healthy outdoors. The aim of this paper is to explore the results of urban conversions into green public spaces. Starting with different locations, nature, size, and scale, these conversions can lead to significant change in the surrounding areas, thus can be used as an efficient tool of regeneration for urban areas. Through a comparative analysis of three different types of urban conversions projects in the city of Seoul, we try to show the positive urban influence of the outcomes, in order to encourage cities to use green spaces as a strategic tool for urban regeneration and redevelopment.
Evaluation of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures Using Naturally Available Fibers
Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) is gap graded hot mix asphalt (HMA) with higher proportion of coarse aggregates and binder to increase the strength and durability of the mix. Due to higher binder content in SMA mixtures, stabilizing additives such as cellulose fibers, mineral fibers, or polymers is added to prevent drain down of the mastics. This paper presents the findings of performance of SMA mixtures made using naturally available fibers. Marshall mix design properties, drain down characteristics, resistance to rutting and moisture-induced damage of the SMA mixtures was evaluated and statistically analyzed. Three types of fibers (Sisal fiber, coir fiber and Banana fiber), one nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) 13.0 mm and an unmodified asphalt binder (VG-30) were used in the study. Results indicate that the addition of natural fibers controls binder drain down of SMA mixtures and mix design properties of the mixtures satisfies the MoRTH requirements. Further, the addition of fibers resulted in 3% increase in the stability and flow values. Resistance to rutting and moisture-induce damage of SMA mixture without fibers were significantly lower when compared with SMA mixture with fibers.
Evaluation of Moisture-Induced Damage Properties of Non-Foaming Warm Mix Asphalt Mixtures
Moisture-induced damage is one of the major concerns in Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology due to varying physical and chemical properties and incomplete drying of aggregates since it is produced by lower mixing and compaction temperature. This paper presents the evaluation of moisture-induced damage properties of asphalts and its mixtures modified with three non-foaming WMA additives, Rediset LQ, Sasobit, and Zycotherm. Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), penetration, softening point, and viscosity tests were performed. In addition, the contact angles were tested to investigate the modification mechanism of WMA additives on asphalt binder. Modified Lottman test (AASHTO T283), Marshall Stability Ratio (MSR), and boiling water (image processing) tests were performed on conventional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and WMA mixtures incorporating dry and surface saturated dry aggregates. The laboratory tests on asphalts indicate that the WMA additives make the asphalt binder softer, more temperature susceptible, stiffer, reduce viscosity and increases wetting ability. Results on asphalt mixtures indicate that WMA mixtures exhibited lower Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) and MSR values compared to HMA mixtures but fulfilled the minimum Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) requirement. Both TSR and MSR indicates that WMA additives had a significant effect on moisture-induced damage properties of surface saturated dry aggregates but has a negligible effect on dry aggregates. Boiling water (image processing) test indicate that addition of WMA additives diminished the main parts of the white pixels meaning that it act as an anti-stripping agent. However, percent reduction of white pixels in WMA mixtures made with surface saturated dry aggregates is more than that of dry aggregates.
Variation of Quality of Roller-Compacted Concrete Based on Consistency
Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) has been used for decades in many pavement applications due to its economical cost and high construction speed. However, due to the lack of deep researches and experiences, this material has not been widely employed. A RCC mixture with appropriate consistency can induce high compacted density while high density can induce good aggregate interlock and high strength. Consistency of RCC is mainly known to define its constructability. However, it was not well specified how this property may affect other properties of a constructed roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP). This study suggested the possibility of an ideal range of consistency that may provide adequate quality of RCCP. In this research, five sections of RCCP consisted of both 13 mm and 19 mm aggregate sections were investigated. The effects of consistency on compacted depth, strength, international roughness index (IRI), skid resistance are examined. From this study, a new range of consistency is suggested for RCCP application.
Post Flood Resettlement: First Step toward Climate Smart Development in Pakistan
Climate change is the core of natural disasters such as floods, which is the most frequently occurring natural disaster throughout the world. Pakistan is also at a risk of natural disasters including floods. In 2010, Pakistan faced the first hit of climate change in the form of devastating floods that resulted from the lengthiest monsoon season in the country’s history. Post-flood resettlement process offers opportunity for development of climate compatible and sustainable communities. Resettlement efforts in the aftermath of the floods in Pakistan resulted in Model Village (MV) initiative aimed at the development of planned, resilient and sustainable rural settlements with various amenities. For addressing climate compatibility and sustainability concerns, elements of community participation, livelihood provision and training, cleaner technologies and renewable energy were incorporated. The aim of the rehabilitation was to overcome the deficiencies that existed in the ongoing projects and provide for development of resilient and sustainable communities.
Chongqing, a Megalopolis Disconnected with Its Rivers: An Assessment of Urban-Waterside Disconnect in a Chinese Megacity and Proposed Improvement Strategies, Chongqing City as a Case Study
Chongqing is located in southwest China and is becoming one of the most significant cities in the world. Its urban territories and metropolitan-related areas have one of the largest urban populations in China and are partitioned and shaped by two of the biggest and longest rivers on Earth, the Yangtze and Jialing Rivers, making Chongqing a megalopolis intersected by rivers. Historically, Chongqing City enjoyed fundamental connections with its rivers; however, current urban development of Chongqing City has lost effective integration of the riverbanks within the urban space and structural dynamics of the city. Therefore, there exists a critical lack of physical and urban space conjoined with the rivers, which diminishes the economic, tourist, and environmental development of Chongqing. Using multi-scale satellite-map site verification the study confirmed the hypothesis and urban-waterside disconnect. Collected data demonstrated that the Chongqing urban zone, an area of 5292 square-kilometers and a water front of 203.4 kilometers, has only 23.49 kilometers of extension (just 11.5%) with high-quality physical and spatial urban-waterside connection. Compared with other metropolises around the world, this figure represents a significant lack of spatial development along the rivers, an issue that has not been successfully addressed in the last 10 years of urban development. On a macro scale, the study categorized the different kinds of relationships between the city and its riverbanks. This data was then utilized in the creation of an urban-waterfront relationship map that can be a tool for future city planning decisions and real estate development. On a micro scale, we discovered there are three primary elements that are causing the urban-waterside disconnect: extensive highways along the most dense areas and city center, large private real estate developments that do not provide adequate riverside access, and large industrial complexes that almost completely lack riverside utilization. Finally, as part of the suggested strategies, the study concludes that the most efficient and practical way to improve this situation is to follow the historic master-planning of Chongqing and create connective nodes in critical urban locations along the river, a strategy that has been used for centuries to handle the same urban-waterside relationship. Reviewing and implementing this strategy will allow the city to better connect with the rivers, reducing the various impacts of disconnect and urban transformation.
Applying Big Data to Understand Urban Design Quality: The Correlation between Social Activities and Automated Pedestrian Counts in Dilworth Park, Philadelphia
Presence of people and intensity of activities have been widely accepted as an indicator for successful public spaces in urban design literature. This study attempts to predict the qualitative indicators, presence of people and intensity of activities, with the quantitative measurements of pedestrian counting. We conducted participant observation in Dilworth Park, Philadelphia to collect the total number of people and activities in the park. Then, the participant observation data is compared with detailed pedestrian counts at 10 exit locations to estimate the number of park users. The study found that there is a clear correlation between the intensity of social activities and automated pedestrian counts.
Critical Vision Innovation and Creativity in the Architecture and Urbanism of the Land in Islam between Traditionalism and Positivism: An Empirical Study of the Emergence of the Birth Festival (Al Refaee) as a Simulation Vision of Formation and Innov
In the era of globalization and openness informational. Anyone who thinks about innovation in the earth population in Islam in our contemporary reality, he will find that it is not destined to its civilized extension to last. The purpose of the research is a trial to reach a realistic vision for creative, innovative and intellectual thought for the earth population in Islam as an instrument to Confrontation and observe the changes that have affected in the architecture of the land during different eras. Through knowing the controls of the ruling legitimacy(that served as definitions and laws which formulate its features) and using customs, traditions, and conventions as a telescope for the earth population in Islam, It explained the impact of them on features of creative formation for the architecture of the land in our contemporary reality. The study shows a modern vision to identify innovation in the earth population in Islam. As well as reformulating its mental image and monitoring its changes in Islamic heritage cities. This will be done through a two main branches: firstly, set forth a theory represented in studying creative concepts which formulate the population of the earth in Islam. Such as initiative and responsibility for reviving the dead land, the lane [alley] as formation unit and social solidarity,… Etc.. The second branch is preparing a practical, critical vision for innovative conceptual thought for the architecture of the land of Islam, through studying the development of a traditional Islamic city., The conceptual thought of making the birth festival ["Al-Refaee"] and its emulation for governing roles in the traditional city building. The research concludes The necessity of forming the suggested a creative vision for identifying how to re-form the conceptual for our contemporary population of the earth. It poses an important question which is how to return to creativity in the architecture of the land of Islam in our built environments.
Lean Airport Infrastructure Development: A Sustainable Solution for Integration of Remote Regions
In the remote Indian region of Gulbarga a case study of lean airport infrastructure development is getting ‘cast in stone’; In April the first turbo-props will land, and the optimized terminal building will process its first passengers, using minimal square meters in a facility that is based on a complete dress-down of the core operational processes. Yet the solution that resulted from this case study has such elegance in its simplicity that it has emboldened the local administration to invest in its construction and thus secure this remote region’s connectivity to India’s growth story. This paper aims to provide further background to the Gulbarga case study and its relevance to remote region connectivity, covering the demand that was identified, its practical application and its regulatory context and relevance for today’s airport manager and local administrators. This embodies the scope of the paper. In summary, the paper will give airport managers and regional authorities an overview and background to innovative case studies of lean airport infrastructure developments which combine both optimized CAPEX and running costs/OPEX without losing sight of the aspirational nature of up and coming remote regions; a truly sustainable model.
Potential of Visualization and Imaged-Based Information Modeling on Productivity Improvement and Cost Saving: A Case Study of a Multi-Residential Construction Project
Construction sites are information saturated. Digitalization is hitting construction sites to meet the incredible demand of knowledge sharing and information documentations. From flying drones, 3D Lasers scanners, pocket mobile applications, to augmented reality glasses and smart helmet, visualization technologies help real-time information imposed straight onto construction professional’s field of vision. Although these technologies are very applicable and can have the direct impact on project cost and productivity, experience shows that only a minority of construction professionals quickly adapt themselves to benefit from them in practice. The majority of construction managers still tend to apply traditional construction management methods. This paper investigates a) current applications of visualization technologies in construction projects management, b) the direct effect of these technologies on productivity improvement and cost saving of a multi-residential building project via a case study on Mac Taggart Senior Care project located in Edmonton, Alberta. The research shows the imaged based technologies have a direct impact on improving project productivity and cost savings.
Optimizing the Window Geometry Using Fractals
In an internal building space, daylight becomes a powerful source of illumination. The challenge therefore, is to develop means of utilizing both direct and diffuse natural light in buildings while maintaining and improving occupant's visual comfort, particularly at greater distances from the windows throwing daylight. The geometrical features of windows in a building have significant effect in providing daylight. The main goal of this research is to develop an innovative window geometry, which will effectively provide the daylight component adequately together with internal reflected component(IRC) and also the external reflected component(ERC), if any. This involves exploration of a light redirecting system using fractal geometry for windows, in order to penetrate and distribute daylight more uniformly to greater depths, minimizing heat gain and glare, and also to reduce building energy use substantially. Of late the creation of fractal geometrical window and the occurrence of daylight illuminance due to such windows is becoming an interesting study. The amount of daylight can change significantly based on the window geometry and sky conditions. This leads to the (i) exploration of various fractal patterns suitable for window designs, and (ii) quantification of the effect of chosen fractal window based on the relationship between the fractal pattern, size, orientation and glazing properties for optimizing daylighting. There are a lot of natural lighting applications able to predict the behaviour of a light in a room through a traditional opening - a regular window. The conventional prediction methodology involves the evaluation of the daylight factor, the internal reflected component and the external reflected component. Having evaluated the daylight illuminance level for a conventional window, the technical performance of a fractal window for an optimal daylighting is to be studied and compared with that of a regular window. The methodologies involved are highlighted in this paper.
Analysis of Population Spatial Disparities for Delicate Configuration of Public Service Facilities:Case of Gongshu District, Hangzhou, China
With the rapid growth of urbanization in China in recent years, public services are in short supply because of expanding population and limitation of financial support, which makes delicate configuration of public service facilities to become a trend in urban planning. Besides, the facility configuration standard implemented in China is equal to the whole the urban area without considering internal differences in it. Therefore, this article focuses on population Spatial disparities analysis in order to optimize facility configuration in communities of main city district. The used data, including population of 93 communities during 2010 to 2015, comes from GongShu district, Hangzhou city, PRC. Through the analysis of population data, especially the age structure of those communities, we finally divided them into 3 types: the aging communities, the stable communities and the growing communities. Obviously, urban public service facilities allocation situation directly affect the quality of residents common lives, which turns out that deferent kinds of communities with deferent groups of citizens will have divergences in facility demanding. So in the end of the article, we will propose strategy of facility configuration based on the population analysis in order to optimize the quantity and location of facilities with delicacy.
The Visualization of Hydrological and Hydraulic Models Based on the Platform of Autodesk Civil 3D
Cities in China today is faced with an increasingly serious river ecological crisis accompanying with the development of urbanization: waterlogging on account of the fragmented urban natural hydrological system; the limited ecological function of the hydrological system caused by a destruction of water system and waterfront ecological environment. Additionally, the eco-hydrological processes of rivers are affected by various environmental factors, which are more complex in the context of urban environment. Therefore, efficient hydrological monitoring and analysis tools, accurate and visual hydrological and hydraulic models are becoming more important basis for decision-makers and an important way for landscape architects to solve urban hydrological problems, formulating sustainable and forward-looking schemes. The study mainly introduces the river and flood analysis model based on the platform of Autodesk Civil 3D. Taking the Luanhe River in Qian'an City of Hebei Province as an example, the 3D models of the landform, river, embankment, shoal, pond, underground stream and other land features were initially built, with which the water transfer simulation analysis, river floodplain analysis, and river ecology analysis were carried out, ultimately the real-time visualized simulation and analysis of rivers in various hypothetical scenarios were realized. Through the establishment of digital hydrological and hydraulic model, the hydraulic data can be accurately and intuitively simulated, which provides basis for rational water system and benign urban ecological system design. Though, the hydrological and hydraulic model based on Autodesk Civil3D own its boundedness: the interaction between the model and other data and software is unfavorable; the huge amount of 3D data and the lack of basic data restrict the accuracy and application range. The hydrological and hydraulic model based on Autodesk Civil3D platform provides more possibility to access convenient and intelligent tool for urban planning and monitoring, a solid basis for further urban research and design.
Analyzing the Significance of Religion in Economic Development in East and Southeast Asia: Case Study of the City of Wenzhou in China
The aim is to increase understanding of the potential effects of religion and economy development in East and Southeast Asia. Religion developed in the east, and southeast Asia is connected with community intensively, especially the activities by women. It could facilitate spiritual awakening in the community and economic empowerment. The theories were assessed by using survey information for Wenzhou which is the legendary city of Chinese economic development, measuring attendance at formal religious services, religious beliefs, and self-identification as religious. Wenzhou’s chamber of commerce is all over the world. Apart from large and small processing factories, Wenzhou is dotted with temples and Taoist temples. In the survey four of the control variables (size of temples, profitability, multiple densities, type of industry and so on) were significant issues to find a relationship between local people and the culture of local religion. What’s more, women should be taken into account seriously. This study has social economy implications for Wenzhou as well as a number of other countries in the East and Southeast Asia.
The Comparison of Community Home-Based Care for the Aged in Kishiwada, Japan and Hangzhou, China
Hangzhou is one of the cities with the most serious aging in China. Community home-based care for the aged is an important solution to old-age care in aging society. In this aspect, Europe, the United States and Japan are on the top in the world. As an East Asian country, Japan has similar cultural traditions in pension with China. So, there is much enlightenment China can get from Japan in the mode of community home-based care for the aged. This paper introduces the mode of community home-based care for the aged in Kishiwada, Japan and Hangzhou, China. Then compare the two modes in the aspects of insurance system for the aged, community service and facilities, support system and so on. Thereby the success experience of Kishiwada and weaknesses of Hangzhou are summarized. At last, the improvement strategy of facility plan and service mode of community home-based care for the aged in China are also proposed.
The Development of Leisure and Endowment Characteristic Villages in the Perspective of Balancing the Dwellers and Aged Visitors:A Case Study of Villages in Hangzhou Metropolitan Area
Under the background of increasing aging population, the situation of city endowment resources shortage gradually revealed. And many villages in the metropolitan area with the good natural ecological environment and leisure tourism base, have become one of the main destinations of urban old people for the off-site pension. This paper is based on a survey of more than ten villages which are characterized by leisure and endowment in Hangzhou metropolitan area, China. The satisfaction degree of the two main groups in the villages, dwellers, and aged visitors, is researched using the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The statistics are obtained from 535 questionnaires and qualitative interview. According to the satisfaction scores, it could be determined whether the dwellers and aged visitors have reached the equilibrium state. The equilibrium state is the development target of the villages, and it`s defined by environmentally friendly, proper for employment and pension, facilities sharing and harmonious life for each other. Furthermore, this paper comes up with some planning countermeasures in order to avoid "imbalance between dwellers and aged visitors" and obtain sustainable development while maintaining the economic benefit.
Reducing the Urban Heat Island Effect by Urban Design Strategies: Case Study of Aksaray Square in Istanbul
Urban heat island term becomes one of the most important problem in urban areas as a reflection of global warming in local scale last years. Many communities and governments are taking action to reduce heat island effects on urban areas where the half of the world's population live today. At this point, urban design turned out to be an important practice and research area for providing an environmentally sensitive urban development. In this study, mitigating strategies of urban heat island effects by urban design are investigated in Aksaray Square and surroundings in Istanbul. Aksaray is an important historical and commercial center of Istanbul, which has an increasing density due to be the node of urban transportation. Also, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality prepared an urban design project to respond the needs of growing population in the area for 2018. The purpose of the study is emphasizing the importance of urban design objectives and strategies that are developed to reduce the heat island effects on urban areas. Depending on this, the urban heat island effect of the area was examined based on the albedo (reflectivity) parameter which is the most effective parameter in the formation of the heat island effect in urban areas. Albedo values were calculated by Albedo Viewer web application model that was developed by Energy and Environmental Engineering Department of Kyushu University in Japan. Albedo parameter had examined for the present situation and the planned situation with urban design project. The results show that, the current area has urban heat island potential. With the Aksaray Square Project, the heat island effect on the area can be reduced, but would not be completely prevented. Therefore, urban design strategies had been developed to reduce the island effect in addition to the urban design project of the area. This study proves that urban design objectives and strategies are quite effective to reduce the heat island effects, which negatively affect the social environment and quality of life in urban areas.
Artificial Neural Network Based Approach for Estimation of Individual Vehicle Speed under Mixed Traffic Condition
Developing speed model is a challenging task particularly under mixed traffic condition where the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining vehicular speed. The present research has been conducted to model individual vehicular speed in the context of mixed traffic on an urban arterial. Traffic speed and volume data have been collected from three midblock arterial road sections in New Delhi. Using the field data, a volume based speed prediction model has been developed adopting the methodology of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The model developed in this work is capable of estimating speed for individual vehicle category. Validation results show a great deal of agreement between the observed speeds and the predicted values by the model developed. Also, it has been observed that the ANN based model performs better compared to other existing models in terms of accuracy. Finally, the sensitivity analysis has been performed utilizing the model in order to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on individual speeds.
Effect of Traffic Volume and Its Composition on Vehicular Speed under Mixed Traffic Conditions: A Kriging Based Approach
Use of speed prediction models sometimes appears as a feasible alternative to laborious field measurement particularly, in case when field data cannot fulfill designer’s requirements. However, developing speed models is a challenging task specifically in the context of developing countries like India where vehicles with diverse static and dynamic characteristics use the same right of way without any segregation. Here the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining the vehicular speed. The present research was carried out to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on vehicular speed under mixed traffic conditions. Classified traffic volume and speed data were collected from different geometrically identical six lane divided arterials in New Delhi. Based on these field data, speed prediction models were developed for individual vehicle category adopting Kriging approximation technique, an alternative for commonly used regression. These models are validated with the data set kept aside earlier for validation purpose. The predicted speeds showed a great deal of agreement with the observed values and also the model outperforms all other existing speed models. Finally, the proposed models were utilized to evaluate the effect of traffic volume and its composition on speed.
Effect of Traffic Composition on Delay and Saturation Flow at Signal Controlled Intersections
Level of service at a signal controlled intersection is directly measured from the delay. Similarly, saturation flow rate is a fundamental parameter to measure the intersection capacity. The present study calculates vehicle arrival rate, departure rate, and queue length for every five seconds interval in each cycle. Based on the queue lengths, the total delay of the cycle has been calculated using Simpson’s 1/3rd rule. Saturation flow has been estimated in terms of veh/hr of green/lane for every five seconds interval of the green period until at least three vehicles are left to cross the stop line. Vehicle composition shows an immense effect on total delay and saturation flow rate. The increase in two-wheeler proportion increases the saturation flow rate and reduces the total delay per vehicle significantly. Additionally, an increase in the heavy vehicle proportion reduces the saturation flow rate and increases the total delay for each vehicle.
Improvement of Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Using the Atrium Design for Traditional Folk Houses: Fujian Tulou
Fujian Tulou which was known as a classic for ecological buildings was listed on the world heritage in 2008 (UNESCO) in China. Its design strategy can be applied to modern architecture planning and design. This study chose 2 different cases (Round Atrium: Er-Yi Lou, Double Round Atrium: Zhen-Chen Lou) of Tulou in Fu-Jian to compare the ventilation effects of different Atrium forms. We adopt field measurements and CFD (computer fluid dynamic) simulation of temperature, humidity, and wind environment to identify the relationship between external environment and atrium about comfort and to confirm the relationship about atrium H/W (Height/Width). Results indicate that through the atrium convection effect, it makes the natural wind guides to each space surrounded and keeps indoor comfort. It illustrates that the smaller the ratio of the H/W which is the relationship between the height and the width of an atrium is, the greater the wind speed generated within the street valley. Moreover, the wind speed is very close to the reference wind speed. This field measurement verifies that the value of H / W has great influence of solar radiation heat and sunshine shadows. The ventilation efficiency is: Er-Yi Lou (H/W =0.2778) > Zhen-Chen Lou (H/W=0.3670). Comparing the cases with the same shape but with different H/W, through the different size patios, airflow revolves in the atriums and can be brought into each interior space. The atrium settings meet the need of building ventilation, and can adjust the humidity and temperature within the buildings. It also creates good ventilation effect.
A Proposal for U-City (Smart City) Service Method Using Realtime Digital Map
Recently, technologies based on three-dimensional (3D) space information are being developed and quality of life is improving as a result. Research on realtime digital map (RDM) is being conducted now to provide 3D space information. RDM is a service that creates and supplies 3D space information in real time based on location/shape detection. Research subjects on RDM include the construction of 3D space information with matching image data, complementing the weaknesses of image acquisition using multi-source data, and data collection methods using big data. Using RDM will be effective for space analysis using 3D space information in a U-City and for other space information utilization technologies.
Nuances of Urban Ecology in the Present Global Scenario: Scope, Issues, Challenges and Implications
The term, 'urban ecology' has often been misconstrued by the educational practitioners as well as the researchers as a study under a single discipline i.e., the environmental sciences. One who has done research extensively in this study would always argue that urban ecology is not a study under a single discipline, but it is a study across disciplines such as social sciences and other sciences like architecture, engineering, planning, ecology, geography, biology, economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology and health sciences. The aim of this paper is to discuss at length the scope of Urban Ecology as an interdisciplinary study. The paper highlights the nuances of urban ecology as a study across disciplines and the challenges and the implications it holds for future research by conducting a qualitative survey in the particular areas.
Liveability of the Urban Centre: Investigating the Key Performance Indicators [KPIs]
Rapid urbanization is arguably the most complex and important socio-economic phenomena of the 21st century. Majority of the world’s population live in the cities and that makes it relatively imperative to take a study that measures the built environment with focus on the urban centres. The centre chosen for this study is Ikeja, the capital of Lagos State which serves as the major commercial hub of the nation, Nigeria. Relevant data sprung from the secondary and primary sources with the latter adopting the survey method of data collection through the cluster and random sampling. Employing the frequency distribution and mean score, KPIs were ranked and the analysis revealed safety, environmental sustainability, physical, economic, functional, social and communication in descending order as the indicators that ensured liveability through the eyes of the respondents. Accordingly, having embarked on this research necessitate relevant conclusions and recommendations to policy makers and town planning authorities as it bothers on the dimensions of liveability issues to include some measure of advancement to the economic, functional, physical, social, safety and sustainability of the built environment.
From Vertigo to Verticality: An Example of Phenomenological Design in Architecture
Architects commonly attempt a depiction of organic forms when their works are inspired by nature, regardless of the building site. When aiming for affinity between structures and natural scenery, authors like Aravena, Holl, and Pallasmaa, among others, have conceived spatial operations by applying a phenomenological approach, in which they realise perceptions from nature through architectural aspects such as protection, views, and orientation. This method acknowledges a relationship between place and space, where intentions towards tangible facts then become design statements. Although spaces resulting from such a process may present an effective response to the environment, they can also offer further outcomes beyond the realm of form. The hypothesis is that, in addition to recognising a bond between architecture and nature, it is also plausible to associate such perceptions with the inner ambient of buildings, by analysing features such as daylight. The case study of a single-family house in a rainforest near Valdivia, Chilean Patagonia is presented, with the intention of addressing the above notions through a discussion of the actual effects of inhabiting a place, by way of a series of insights, including a revision of diagrams and photographs that assist in understanding the implications of this design practice. In addition, figures based on post-occupancy behaviour and daylighting performance relate both architectural and environmental issues to a decision-making process motivated by the observation of nature.
Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles
In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.
Effects of the Slope Embankment Variation on Influence Areas That Causes the Differential Settlement around of Embankment
On soft soil areas, high embankment as a preloading needed to improve the bearing capacity of the soil. For sustainable development, the construction of embankment must not disturb the area around of them. So, the influence area must be known before the contractor applied their embankment design. For several cases in Indonesia, the area around of embankment construction is housing resident and other building. So that, the influence area must be identified to avoid the differential settlement occurs on the buildings around of them. Differential settlement causes the building crack. Each building has a limited tolerance for the differential settlement. For concrete buildings, the tolerance is 0,002 – 0,003 m and for steel buildings, the tolerance is 0,006 – 0,008 m. If the differential settlement stands on the range of that value, building crack can be avoided. In fact, the settlement around of embankment is assumed as zero. Because of that, so many problems happen when high embankment applied on soft soil area. This research used the superposition method combined with plaxis analysis to know the influences area around of embankment in some location with the differential characteristic of the soft soil. The undisturbed soil samples take on 55 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some soft soils location in Indonesia. Based on this research, it was concluded that the effects of embankment variation are if more gentle the slope, the influence area will be greater and vice versa. The largest of the influence area with h initial embankment equal to 2 - 6 m with slopes 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 is 32 m from the edge of the embankment.
Comparative Settlement Analysis on the under of Embankment with Empirical Formulas and Settlement Plate Measurement for Reducing Building Crack around of Embankments
In road construction on the soft soil, we need a soil improvement method to improve the soil bearing capacity of the land base so that the soil can withstand the traffic loads. Most of the land in Indonesia has a soft soil, where soft soil is a type of clay that has the consistency of very soft to medium stiff, undrained shear strength, Cu < 0:25 kg/cm2, or the estimated value of NSPT