Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53145

Urban and Civil Engineering

196
94400
Reimagining the Potential of Street Lighting Infrastructure in Nairobi City
Abstract:
Cities worldwide and most notably those in the global south, including Nairobi City are experiencing accelerated population growth and urban sprawl, accompanied with multiple socioeconomic challenges’ which in turn increase the pressure on already limited infrastructure such as public lighting and on limited financial resources. Based on this premise, through reimaging the value of street lighting infrastructure, the study attempts to highlight the affordance and affordability of streetlights and suggests them as a tool to optimally address limited financial resources that characterize cities in the global south. As a methodology, the paper reviews and analyzes literature available online including Nairobi city budgets; reports from Kenya Power, World Health Organization and United Nations; and articles on enterprise level Internet of Things (IoT) solutions. In conclusion, this study illustrates that streetlights can go well beyond their traditional roles of illuminating cities at night. They can be as suggested in this paper charging stations, communication network terminals and disease prevention nodes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
195
94274
Communal Shipping Container Home Design for Reducing Homelessness in Glasgow
Authors:
Abstract:
Lack of affordable housing for individuals has the potential to create gaps in society, which result in thousands of people facing homelessness every year in some of the worlds most affluent cities. This paper examines strategies for providing a more economic living environment for single occupants. Focusing on comparisons of successful examples reducing homeless populations around the world, with an emphasis on social inclusion and community living. Practically exploring the architectural considerations of ensuring a suitable living environment for multiple single occupancy residents, as well as selecting the appropriate materials to ensure costs are kept to manageable level for investment from local governments. The aim of this paper is to make some practical recommendations for low cost communal living space, with particular reference to recycled shipping container homes on a potential unused site on the River Clyde in Glasgow. Ideally, the suggestions and recommendations put forward in this paper can be replicable or used for reference in other similar situations. The proposal explored in this paper is sensitive towards addressing people's standard of living and adapting homes to match may be one solution to reducing the number of people being evicted from unaffordable homes as the generally upward global trend for urbanization continues.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
194
93059
A Wireless Feedback Control System as a Base of Bio-Inspired Structure System to Mitigate Vibration in Structures
Abstract:
This paper attempts to develop a wireless feedback control system as a primary step eventually toward a bio-inspired structure system where inanimate structure behaves like a life form autonomously. It is a standalone wireless control system which is supposed to measure externally caused structural responses, analyze structural state from acquired data, and take its own action on the basis of the analysis with an embedded logic. For an experimental examination of its effectiveness, we authors applied it on a model of two-span bridge and performed a wireless control test. Experimental tests have been conducted for comparison on both the wireless and the wired system under the conditions of Un-control, Passive-off, Passive-on, and Lyapunov Control Algorithm. By proving the congruence of the test result of the wireless feedback control system with the wired control system, its control performance was proven effective. Besides, it was found economical in energy consumption and also autonomous by means of a command algorithm embedded into it, which proves its basic capacity as a bio-inspired system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
193
92979
Urban Resilience and Planning in the Perspective of Community
Abstract:
Urban community is constitute the entire city and its management ‘cell’, let ‘cells’ with growth and self-regeneration capacity and persistence, to allow the city with infinite vigor and vitality of the source; with toughness community mankind's adaptation to the basic unit of social risk, toughness of the city from the community to create a point of building is urban toughness of top-down construction mode of supplement, is of positive significance on the toughness of the urban construction. Based on the basic concept of resilience, this paper reviews the research on the four main areas of the study of urban resilience (i.e., the engineering toughness, ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience, etc.). Studies and comments and summarizes the basic characteristic and main content of the four kind of toughness. Based on, from the city - community level and community level for building community resilience, including the level of urban community and create a Unicom, inclusiveness and openness of the community; community-level lifted from the four angles of the engineering community toughness, ecological toughness, resilience, social resilience, mainly including enhanced the toughness of the infrastructure, green infrastructure of toughness, resilience, social network and social relations, building with a sense of belonging, inclusive, multicultural community. Finally, summarize and prospect the resilience of the community.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
192
92957
Construction of a Low Carbon Eco-City Index System Based on CAS Theory: A Case of Hexi Newtown in Nanjing, China
Abstract:
The practice of urban planning and construction based on the concept of the "low carbon eco-city" has been universally accepted by the academic community in response to urban issues such as population, resources, environment, and social development. Based on this, the current article first analyzes the concepts of low carbon eco-city, then builds a complex adaptive system (CAS) theory based on Chinese traditional philosophical thinking, and analyzes the adaptive relationship between material and non-material elements. A three-dimensional evaluation model of natural ecology, economic low carbon, and social harmony was constructed. Finally, the construction of a low carbon eco-city index system in Hexi Newtown of Nanjing was used as an example to verify the effectiveness of the research results; this paradigm provides a new way to achieve a low carbon eco-city system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
191
92815
The Relationship between Land Use Factors and Feeling of Happiness at the Neighbourhood Level
Abstract:
Happiness can be related to everything that can provide a feeling of satisfaction or pleasure. This study tries to consider the relationship between land use factors and feeling of happiness at the neighbourhood level. Land use variables (beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, availability and quality of shopping centres, sufficient recreational spaces and facilities, and sufficient daily service centres) are used as independent variables, and the happiness score is used as the dependent variable in this study. In addition to the land use variables, socio-economic factors (gender, race, marital status, employment status, education, and income) are also considered as independent variables. This study uses the Oxford happiness questionnaire to estimate happiness score of more than 300 people living in six neighbourhoods. The neighbourhoods are selected randomly from Skudai neighbourhoods in Johor, Malaysia. The land use data were obtained by adding related questions to the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The strength of the relationship in this study is found using generalised linear modelling (GLM). The findings of this research indicate that increase in happiness feeling is correlated with an increasing income, more beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, sufficient shopping centres, recreational spaces, and daily service centres. The results show that all land use factors in this study have a significant relationship with happiness but only income, among socioeconomic factors, can affect happiness significantly. Therefore, land use factors can affect happiness in Skudai more than socio-economic factors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
190
92772
Developing an Integrated Seismic Risk Model for Existing Buildings in Northern Algeria
Abstract:
Large scale seismic risk assessment has become increasingly popular to evaluate the physical vulnerability of a given region to seismic events, by putting together hazard, exposure and vulnerability components. This study, developed within the scope of the EU-funded project ITERATE (Improved Tools for Disaster Risk Mitigation in Algeria), explains the steps and expected results for the development of an integrated seismic risk model for assessment of the vulnerability of residential buildings in Northern Algeria. For this purpose, the model foresees the consideration of an updated seismic hazard model, as well as ad-hoc exposure and physical vulnerability models for local residential buildings. The first results of this endeavor, such as the hazard model and a specific taxonomy to be used for the exposure and fragility components of the model are presented, using as starting point the province of Blida, in Algeria. Specific remarks and conclusions regarding the characteristics of the Northern Algerian in-built are then made based on these results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
189
92278
Energy Efficient Building Design in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Effect of the Sun on Energy Consumption in Residential Buildings
Abstract:
The effect of the sun and its path on thermal comfort and energy consumption in residential buildings in tropical climates constitute a serious concern for designers, building owners, and users. Passive design approaches based on the sun and its path have been identified as a means of reducing energy consumption as well as enhancing thermal comfort in buildings worldwide. Hence, a thorough understanding regarding the sun path is key to achieving this. This is necessary due to energy need, poor energy supply, and distribution, energy poverty, and over-dependence on electric generators for power supply in Nigeria. These challenges call for a change in the approach to energy-related issues, especially in terms of buildings. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of building orientation, glazing and the use of shading devices on residential buildings in Nigeria. This is intended to provide data that will guide designers in the design of energy-efficient residential buildings. The paper used EnergyPlus to analyze a typical semi-detached residential building in Lokoja, Nigeria using hourly weather data for a period of 10 years. Building performance was studied as well as possible improvement regarding different orientations, glazing types and shading devices. The simulation results show some reductions in energy consumption in response to changes in building orientation, types of glazing and the use of shading devices. The results indicate 29.45% reduction in solar gains and 1.90% in annual operative temperature using natural ventilation only. This shows a huge potential to reduce energy consumption and improve people’s well-being through the use of proper building orientation, glazing and appropriate shading devices on building envelope. The study concludes that for a significant reduction in total energy consumption by residential buildings, the design should focus on multiple design options rather than concentrating on one or few building elements. Moreover, the investigation confirms that energy performance modeling can be used by building designers to take advantage of the sun and to evaluate various design options.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
188
92212
Meeting Places in the Urban Strategy to Build a Happy City: A Mixed Research Approach
Abstract:
The happy city, as the desired effect of changes implemented by cities, involves the deliberate and purposeful evolution of material and spiritual space in which residents pursue happiness, as it is perceived collectively and individually. The quality of life (QoL) has, for many years, been researched as one of the dimensions of happiness. Both literature studies and the observation of how cities function lead to the conclusion that the happy city is the city of meetings. The importance of meeting spaces in cities for the quality of life has been confirmed also for Polish cities and, as a result, the conclusions may be drawn that public space should be planned in such a manner so as to tailor it – to the greatest possible degree – to the needs of the residents of Polish cities. The study embraced both Polish and foreign data concerning both the dimension of the quality of life in cities and the issues related to the existence of common spaces where meetings take place. Both quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques have been used to analyze and interpret the data collected. We sought the answers to the questions on the significance of the factors, identified by the respondents, which affect the QoL in a city. We identified 9 mega factors: being, work, education, recreation, health and safety, mobility, neighborhood, acceptance, agora. We established the preferences of the QoL in relation to the size of a city and the public spaces, that seem to be the cornerstone of the happy city.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
187
92033
Study on the Characteristics of Chinese Urban Network Space from the Perspective of Innovative Collaboration
Authors:
Abstract:
With the development of knowledge economy era, deepening the mechanism of cooperation and adhering to sharing and win-win cooperation has become new direction of urban development nowadays. In recent years, innovative collaborations between cities are becoming more and more frequent, whose influence on urban network space has aroused many scholars' attention. Taking 46 cities in China as the research object, the paper builds the connectivity of innovative network between cities and the linkages of urban external innovation using patent cooperation data among cities, and explores urban network space in China by the application of GIS, which is a beneficial exploration to the study of social network space in China in the era of information network. The result shows that the urban innovative network space and geographical entity space exist differences, and the linkages of external innovation are not entirely related to the city innovative capacity and the level of economy development. However, urban innovative network space and geographical entity space are similar in hierarchical clustering. They have both formed Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta three metropolitan areas and Beijing-Shenzhen-Shanghai-Hangzhou four core cities, which lead the development of innovative network space in China.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
186
91845
Introduction of an Approach of Complex Virtual Devices to Achieve Device Interoperability in Smart Building Systems
Authors:
Abstract:
One of the major challenges for sustainable smart building systems is to support device interoperability, i.e. connecting sensor or actuator devices from different vendors, and present their functionality to the external applications. Furthermore, smart building systems are supposed to connect with devices that are not available yet, i.e. devices that become available on the market sometime later. It is of vital importance that a sustainable smart building platform provides an appropriate external interface that can be leveraged by external applications and smart services. An external platform interface must be stable and independent of specific devices and should support flexible and scalable usage scenarios. A typical approach applied in smart home systems is based on a generic device interface used within the smart building platform. Device functions, even of rather complex devices, are mapped to that generic base type interface by means of specific device drivers. Our new approach, presented in this work, extends that approach by using the smart building system’s rule engine to create complex virtual devices that can represent the most diverse properties of real devices. We examined and evaluated both approaches by means of a practical case study using a smart building system that we have developed. We show that the solution we present allows the highest degree of flexibility without affecting external application interface stability and scalability. In contrast to other systems our approach supports complex virtual device configuration on application layer (e.g. by administration users) instead of device configuration at platform layer (e.g. platform operators). Based on our work, we can show that our approach supports almost arbitrarily flexible use case scenarios without affecting the external application interface stability. However, the cost of this approach is additional appropriate configuration overhead and additional resource consumption at the IoT platform level that must be considered by platform operators. We conclude that the concept of complex virtual devices presented in this work can be applied to improve the usability and device interoperability of sustainable intelligent building systems significantly.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
185
91409
The Quantitative Analysis of the Influence of the Superficial Abrasion on the Lifetime of the Frog Rail
Authors:
Abstract:
Turnout is the essential equipment on the railway, which also belongs to one of the strongest demanded infrastructural facilities of railway on account of the more seriously frog rail failures. In cooperation with Germany Company (DB Systemtechnik AG), our research team focuses on the quantitative analysis about the frog rails to predict their lifetimes. Moreover, the suggestions for the timely and effective maintenances are made to improve the economy of the frog rails. The lifetime of the frog rail depends strongly on the internal damage of the running surface until the breakages occur. On the basis of Hertzian theory of the contact mechanics, the dynamic loads of the running surface are calculated in form of the contact pressures on the running surface and the equivalent tensile stress inside the running surface. According to material mechanics, the strength of the frog rail is determined quantitatively in form of the Stress-cycle (S-N) curve. Under the interaction between the dynamic loads and the strength, the internal damage of the running surface is calculated by means of the linear damage hypothesis of the Miner’s rule. The emergence of the first Breakage on the running surface is to be defined as the failure criterion that the damage degree equals 1.0. From the microscopic perspective, the running surface of the frog rail is divided into numerous segments for the detailed analysis. The internal damage of the segment grows slowly in the beginning and disproportionately quickly in the end until the emergence of the breakage. From the macroscopic perspective, the internal damage of the running surface develops simply always linear along the lifetime. With this linear growth of the internal damages, the lifetime of the frog rail could be predicted simply through the immediate introduction of the slope of the linearity. However, the superficial abrasion plays an essential role in the results of the internal damages from the both perspectives. The influences of the superficial abrasion on the lifetime are described in form of the abrasion rate. It has two contradictory effects. On the one hand, the insufficient abrasion rate causes the concentration of the damage accumulation on the same position below the running surface to accelerate the rail failure. On the other hand, the excessive abrasion rate advances the disappearance of the head hardened surface of the frog rail to result in the untimely breakage on the surface. Thus, the relationship between the abrasion rate and the lifetime is subdivided into an initial phase of the increased lifetime and a subsequent phase of the more rapid decreasing lifetime with the continuous growth of the abrasion rate. Through the compensation of these two effects, the critical abrasion rate is discussed to reach the optimal lifetime.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
184
90259
Roof Integrated Photo Voltaic with Air Collection on Glasgow School of Art Campus Building: A Feasibility Study
Abstract:
Building integrated photovoltaic systems with air collectors (hybrid PV-T) have proved successful however there are few examples of their application in the UK. The opportunity to pull heat from behind the PV system to contribute to a building’s heating system is an efficient use of waste energy and its potential to improve the performance of the PV array is well documented. As part of Glasgow School of Art’s estate expansion, the purchase and redevelopment of an existing 1950’s college building was used as a testing vehicle for the hybrid PV-T system as an integrated element of the upper floor and roof. The primary objective of the feasibility study was to determine if hybrid PV-T was technically and financially suitable for the refurbished building. The key consideration was whether the heat recovered from the PV panels (to increase the electrical efficiency) can be usefully deployed as a heat source within the building. Dynamic thermal modelling (IES) and RetScreen Software were used to carry out the feasibility study not only to simulate overshadowing and optimise the PV-T locations but also to predict the atrium temperature profile; predict the air load for the proposed new 4 No. roof mounted air handling units and to predict the dynamic electrical efficiency of the PV element. The feasibility study demonstrates that there is an energy reduction and carbon saving to be achieved with each hybrid PV-T option however the systems are subject to lengthy payback periods and highlights the need for enhanced government subsidy schemes to reward innovation with this technology in the UK.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
183
89833
Developing Curricula for Signaling and Communication Course at Malaysia Railway Academy (MyRA) through Industrial Collaboration Program
Abstract:
This paper presents the propose knowledge transfer program on railway signaling and communication by Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Thales Portugal. The fundamental issue is that there is no rail related course offered by local universities and colleges in Malaysia which could be an option to pursue student career path. Currently, dedicated trainings related to the rail technology are provided by in-house training academies established by the respective rail operators such as Malaysia Railway Academy (MyRA) and Rapid Rail Training Centre. In this matter, the content of training and facilities need to be strengthened to keep up-to-date with the dynamic evolvement of the rail technology. This is because rail products have evolved to be more sophisticated and embedded with high technology components which no longer exist in the mechanical form alone but combined with electronics, information technology and others. These demand for a workforce imbued with knowledge, multi-skills and competency to deal with specialized technical areas. Talent is needed to support sustainability in Southeast Asia. Keeping the above factors in mind, an Industrial Collaboration Program (ICP) was carried out to transfer knowledge on curricula of railway signaling and communication to a selected railway operators and tertiary educational institution in Malaysia. In order to achieve the aim, a partnership was formed between Technical Depository Agency (TDA), Thales Portugal and MyRA for two years with three main stages of program implementation comprising of: i) training on basic railway signaling and communication for 1 month with Thales in Malaysia; ii) training on advance railway signaling and communication for 4 months with Thales in Portugal and; iii) a series of workshop. Two workshops were convened to develop and harmonize curricula of railway signaling and communication course and were followed by one training for installation equipment of railway signaling and Controlled Train Centre (CTC) system from Thales Portugal. With active involvement from Technical Depository Agency (TDA), railway operators, universities, and colleges, in planning, executing, monitoring, control and closure, the program module of railway signaling and communication course with a lab railway signaling field equipment and CTC simulator were developed. Through this program, contributions from various parties help to build committed societies to engage important issues in relation to railway signaling and communication towards creating a sustainable future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
182
89718
Using Passive Cooling Strategies to Reduce Thermal Cooling Load for Coastal High-Rise Buildings of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Authors:
Abstract:
With the development of the economy in recent years, Saudi Arabia has been maintaining high economic growth. Therefore, its energy consumption has increased dramatically. This economic growth reflected on the expansion of high-rise tower's construction. Jeddah coastal strip (cornice) has many high-rise buildings planned to start next few years. These projects required a massive amount of electricity that was not planned to be supplied by the old infrastructure. This research studies the effect of the building envelope on its thermal performance. It follows a parametric simulation methodology using Ecotect software to analyze the effect of the building envelope design on its cooling energy load for an office high-rise building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which includes building geometrical form, massing treatments, orientation and glazing type effect. The research describes an integrated passive design approach to reduce the cooling requirement for high-rise building through an improved building envelope design. The research used Ecotect to make four simulation studies; the first simulation compares the thermal performance of five high-rise buildings, presenting the basic shape of the plan. All the buildings have the same plan area and same floor height. The goal of this simulation is to find out the best shape for the thermal performance. The second simulation studies the effect of orientation on the thermal performance by rotating the same building model to find out the best and the worst angle for the building thermal performance. The third simulation studies the effect of the massing treatment on the total cooling load. It compared five models with different massing treatment, but with the same total built up area. The last simulation studied the effect of the glazing type by comparing the total cooling load of the same building using five different glass type and also studies the feasibility of using these glass types by studying the glass cost effect. The results indicate that using the circle shape as building plan could reduce the thermal cooling load by 40%. Also, using shading devices could reduce the cooling loads by 5%. The study states that using any of the massing grooving, recess or any treatment that could increase the outer exposed surface is not preferred and will decrease the building thermal performance. Also, the result shows that the best direction for glazing and openings from thermal performance viewpoint in Jeddah is the North direction while the worst direction is the East one. The best direction angle for openings - regarding the thermal performance in Jeddah- is 15 deg West and the worst is 250 deg West (110 deg East). Regarding the glass type effect, comparing to the double glass with air fill type as a reference case, the double glass with Air-Low-E will save 14% from the required amount of the thermal cooling load annually. Argon fill and triple glass will save 16% and 17% from the total thermal cooling load respectively, but for the glass cost purpose, using the Argon fill and triple glass is not feasible.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
181
89608
Investigating the Impacts on Cyclist Casualty Severity at Roundabouts: A UK Case Study
Abstract:
Cycling has gained a great attention with comparable speeds, low cost, health benefits and reducing the impact on the environment. The main challenge associated with cycling is the provision of safety for the people choosing to cycle as their main means of transport. From the road safety point of view, cyclists are considered as vulnerable road users because they are at higher risk of serious casualty in the urban network but more specifically at roundabouts. This research addresses the development of an enhanced mathematical model by including a broad spectrum of casualty related variables. These variables were geometric design measures (approach number of lanes and entry path radius), speed limit, meteorological condition variables (light, weather, road surface) and socio-demographic characteristics (age and gender), as well as contributory factors. Contributory factors included driver’s behavior related variables such as failed to look properly, sudden braking, a vehicle passing too close to a cyclist, junction overshot, failed to judge other person’s path, restart moving off at the junction, poor turn or manoeuvre and disobeyed give-way. Tyne and Wear in the UK were selected as a case study area. The cyclist casualty data was obtained from UK STATS19 National dataset. The reference categories for the regression model were set to slight and serious cyclist casualties. Therefore, binary logistic regression was applied. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that approach number of lanes was statistically significant at the 95% level of confidence. A higher number of approach lanes increased the probability of severity of cyclist casualty occurrence. In addition, sudden braking statistically significantly increased the cyclist casualty severity at the 95% level of confidence. The result concluded that cyclist casualty severity was highly related to approach a number of lanes and sudden braking. Further research should be carried out an in-depth analysis to explore connectivity of sudden braking and approach number of lanes in order to investigate the driver’s behavior at approach locations. The output of this research will inform investment in measure to improve the safety of cyclists at roundabouts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
180
89579
Analyzing the Street Pattern Characteristics on Young People’s Choice to Walk or Not: A Study Based on Accelerometer and Global Positioning Systems Data
Abstract:
Obesity and overweight cause serious health problems. Public and private organizations aim to encourage walking in various ways in order to cope with the problem of obesity and overweight. This study aims to understand how the spatial characteristics of urban street pattern, connectivity and complexity influence young people’s choice to walk or not. 185 public university students in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey, participated in the study. Each participant had worn an accelerometer and a global positioning (GPS) device for a week. The accelerometer device records data on the intensity of the participant’s activity at a specified time interval, and the GPS device on the activities’ locations. Combining the two datasets, activity maps are derived. These maps are then used to differentiate the participants’ walk trips and motor vehicle trips. Given that, the frequency of walk and motor vehicle trips are calculated at the street segment level, and the street segments are then categorized into two as ‘preferred by pedestrians’ and ‘preferred by motor vehicles’. Graph Theory-based accessibility indices are calculated to quantify the spatial characteristics of the streets in the sample. Six different indices are used: (I) edge density, (II) edge sinuosity, (III) eta index, (IV) node density, (V) order of a node, and (VI) beta index. T-tests show that the index values for the ‘preferred by pedestrians’ and ‘preferred by motor vehicles’ are significantly different. The findings indicate that the spatial characteristics of the street network have a measurable effect on young people’s choice to walk or not. Policy implications are discussed. This study is funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Project No: 116K358.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
179
89441
Energy Refurbishment of University Building in Cold Italian Climate: Energy Audit and Performance Optimization
Abstract:
The Directive 2010/31/EC 'Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 may 2010 on the energy performance of buildings' moved the targets of the previous version toward more ambitious targets, for instance by establishing that, by 31 December 2020, all new buildings should demand nearly zero-energy. Moreover, the demonstrative role of public buildings is strongly affirmed so that also the target nearly zero-energy buildings is anticipated, in January 2019. On the other hand, given the very low turn-over rate of buildings (in Europe, it ranges between 1-3%/yearly), each policy that does not consider the renovation of the existing building stock cannot be effective in the short and medium periods. According to this proposal, the study provides a novel, holistic approach to design the refurbishment of educational buildings in colder cities of Mediterranean regions enabling stakeholders to understand the uncertainty to use numerical modelling and the real environmental and economic impacts of adopting some energy efficiency technologies. The case study is a university building of Molise region in the centre of Italy. The proposed approach is based on the application of the cost-optimal methodology as it is shown in the Delegate Regulation 244/2012 and Guidelines of the European Commission, for evaluating the cost-optimal level of energy performance with a macroeconomic approach. This means that the refurbishment scenario should correspond to the configuration that leads to lowest global cost during the estimated economic life-cycle, taking into account not only the investment cost but also the operational costs, linked to energy consumption and polluting emissions. The definition of the reference building has been supported by various in-situ surveys, investigations, evaluations of the indoor comfort. Data collection can be divided into five categories: 1) geometrical features; 2) building envelope audit; 3) technical system and equipment characterization; 4) building use and thermal zones definition; 5) energy building data. For each category, the required measures have been indicated with some suggestions for the identifications of spatial distribution and timing of the measurements. With reference to the case study, the collected data, together with a comparison with energy bills, allowed a proper calibration of a numerical model suitable for the hourly energy simulation by means of EnergyPlus. Around 30 measures/packages of energy, efficiency measure has been taken into account both on the envelope than regarding plant systems. Starting from results, two-point will be examined exhaustively: (i) the importance to use validated models to simulate the present performance of building under investigation; (ii) the environmental benefits and the economic implications of a deep energy refurbishment of the educational building in cold climates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
178
89436
University Building: Discussion about the Effect of Numerical Modelling Assumptions for Occupant Behavior
Abstract:
The refurbishment of public buildings is one of the key factors of energy efficiency policy of European States. Educational buildings account for the largest share of the oldest edifice with interesting potentialities for demonstrating best practice with regards to high performance and low and zero-carbon design and for becoming exemplar cases within the community. In this context, this paper discusses the critical issue of dealing the energy refurbishment of a university building in heating dominated climate of South Italy. More in detail, the importance of using validated models will be examined exhaustively by proposing an analysis on uncertainties due to modelling assumptions mainly referring to the adoption of stochastic schedules for occupant behavior and equipment or lighting usage. Indeed, today, the great part of commercial tools provides to designers a library of possible schedules with which thermal zones can be described. Very often, the users do not pay close attention to diversify thermal zones and to modify or to adapt predefined profiles, and results of designing are affected positively or negatively without any alarm about it. Data such as occupancy schedules, internal loads and the interaction between people and windows or plant systems, represent some of the largest variables during the energy modelling and to understand calibration results. This is mainly due to the adoption of discrete standardized and conventional schedules with important consequences on the prevision of the energy consumptions. The problem is surely difficult to examine and to solve. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is presented, to understand what is the order of magnitude of error that is committed by varying the deterministic schedules used for occupation, internal load, and lighting system. This could be a typical uncertainty for a case study as the presented one where there is not a regulation system for the HVAC system thus the occupant cannot interact with it. More in detail, starting from adopted schedules, created according to questioner’ s responses and that has allowed a good calibration of energy simulation model, several different scenarios are tested. Two type of analysis are presented: the reference building is compared with these scenarios in term of percentage difference on the projected total electric energy need and natural gas request. Then the different entries of consumption are analyzed and for more interesting cases also the comparison between calibration indexes. Moreover, for the optimal refurbishment solution, the same simulations are done. The variation on the provision of energy saving and global cost reduction is evidenced. This parametric study wants to underline the effect on performance indexes evaluation of the modelling assumptions during the description of thermal zones.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
177
89279
Adopting New Knowledge and Approaches to Sustainable Urban Drainage in Saudi Arabia
Authors:
Abstract:
Urban drainage in Saudi Arabia is an increasingly challenging issue due to factors such as climate change and rapid urban expansion. The existing infrastructure, based on traditional drainage systems, is not always able to cope with the increased precipitation, sometimes leading to rainwater runoff and floods causing disturbances and damage to property. Therefore, there is a need to find new ways of managing drainage, such as Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). The research has highlighted the main driving forces behind the need for change, revealed by the participants, to the need to adopt new ideas and approaches for urban drainage. However, while moving towards this, certain factors that may hinder the aim of using the experiences of other countries and taking advantage of innovative solutions. The research illustrates an initial conceptual model for these factors emerging from the analysis. It identifies some of the fundamental issues affecting the resistance to change towards the adoption of the concept of sustainability in Saudi Arabia, with Riyadh city as a case study. This was by using a qualitative approach, whereby, through two phases of fieldwork during 2013 and 2014, twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted with a number of representative officials and professionals from key government departments and organisations related to urban drainage management. Grounded Theory approach was followed to analyse the qualitative data obtained. Resistance to change was classified to: firstly: individual inertia (e.g. familiarity with the conventional solutions and approaches, lack of awareness, and considering sustainability as a marginal matter in urban planning). This resulted in not paying the desired attention, and impact on planning and setting priorities for development. Secondly: institutionalised inertia (e.g. lack of technical and design specifications for other unconventional drainage solutions, lack of consideration by decision makers in other disciplines such as contributions from environmental and geographical studies, and routine work and bureaucracy). This contributes to the weakness of decision-making, weakness in the role of research, and a lack of human resources. It seems that attitudes towards change may have reduced the ability to move forward towards sustainable development, in addition to contributing towards difficulties in some aspects of the decision-making process. Thus, the chapter provides insights into the current situation in Saudi Arabia and contributes to understanding the decisions that are made regarding change.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
176
89220
The Emergence of Smart Growth in Developed and Developing Countries and Its Possible Application in Kabul City, Afghanistan
Abstract:
The global trend indicates that more and more people live and will continue to live in urban areas. Today cities are expanding both in physical size and number due to the rapid population growth along with sprawl development, which caused the cities to expand beyond the growth boundary and exerting intense pressure on environmental resources specially farmlands to accommodate new housing and urban facilities. Also noticeable is the increase in urban decay along with the increase of slum dwellers present another challenge that most cities in developed and developing countries have to deal with. Today urban practitioners, researchers, planners, and decision-makers are seeking for alternative development and growth management policies to house the rising urban population and also cure the urban decay and slum issues turn to Smart Growth to achieve their goals. Many cities across the globe have adopted smart growth as an alternative growth management tool to deal with patterns and forms of development and to cure the rising urban and environmental problems. The method used in this study is a literature analysis method through reviewing various resources to highlight the potential benefits of Smart Growth in both developed and developing countries and analyze, to what extent it can be a strategic alternative for Afghanistan’s cities, especially the capital city. Hence a comparative analysis is carried on three countries, namely the USA, China, and India to identify the potential benefits of smart growth likely to serve as an achievable broad base for recommendations in different urban contexts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
175
89166
Impact of Fischer-Tropsch Wax on Ethylene Vinyl Acetate/Waste Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen: An Energy-Sustainability Nexus
Abstract:
In an energy-intensive world, minimizing energy consumption is paramount to cost saving and reducing the carbon footprint. Improving mixture procedures utilizing warm mix additive Fischer-Tropsch (FT) wax in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and modified bitumen highlights a greener and sustainable approach to modified bitumen. In this study, the impact of FT wax on optimized EVA/waste crumb rubber modified bitumen is assayed with a maximum loading of 2.5%. The rationale of the FT wax loading is to maintain the original maximum loading of EVA in the optimized mixture. The phase change abilities of FT wax enable EVA co-crystallization with the support of the elastomeric backbone of crumb rubber. Less than 1% loading of FT wax worked in the EVA/crumb rubber modified bitumen energy-sustainability nexus. Response surface methodology approach to the mixture design is implemented amongst the different loadings of FT wax, EVA for a consistent amount of crumb rubber and bitumen. Rheological parameters (complex shear modulus, phase angle and rutting parameter) were the factors used as performance indicators of the different optimized mixtures. The low temperature chemistry of the optimized mixtures is analyzed using elementary beam theory and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. Master curves and black space diagrams are developed and used to predict age-induced cracking of the different long term aged mixtures. Modified binder rheology reveals that the strain response is not linear and that there is substantial re-arrangement of polymer chains as stress is increased, this is based on the age state of the mixture and the FT wax and EVA loadings. Dominance of individual effects is evident over effects of synergy in co-interaction of EVA and FT wax. All-inclusive FT wax and EVA formulations were best optimized in mixture 4 with mixture 7 reflecting increase in ease of workability. Findings show that interaction chemistry of bitumen, crumb rubber EVA, and FT wax is first and second order in all cases involving individual contributions and co-interaction amongst the components of the mixture.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
174
88364
Checking Energy Efficiency by Simulation Tools: The Case of Algerian Ksourian Models
Abstract:
Algeria is known for its rich heritage. It owns an immense historical heritage with a universal reputation. Unfortunately, this wealth is withered because of abundance. This research focuses on the Ksourian model, which constitutes a large portion of this wealth. In fact, the Ksourian model is not just a witness to a great part of history or a vernacular culture, but also it includes a panoply of assets in terms of energetic efficiency. In this context, the purpose of our work is to evaluate the performance of the old techniques which are derived from the Ksourian model , and that using the simulation tools. The proposed method is decomposed in two steps; the first consists of isolate and reintroduce each device into a basic model, then run a simulation series on acquired models. And this in order to test the contribution of each of these dialectal processes. In another scale of development, the second step consists of aggregating all these processes in an aboriginal model, then we restart the simulation, to see what it will give this mosaic on the environmental and energetic plan .The model chosen for this study is one of the ksar units of Knadsa city of Bechar (Algeria). This study does not only show the ingenuity of our ancestors in their know-how, and their adapting power to the aridity of the climate, but also proves that their conceptions subscribe in the current concerns of energy efficiency, and respond to the requirements of sustainable development.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
173
88042
Proposing an Adaptable Land Readjustment Model for Developing the Informal Settlements in Kabul City
Abstract:
Since 2006, Afghanistan is dealing with one of the most dramatic trend of urban movement in its history, cities and towns are expanding in size and number. Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan with the population around 4.8 million in 2012, is one of the fast growing cities in the Asia. The influx of the returnees from neighbor countries and other provinces of Afghanistan caused high rate of artificial growth which slums increased. As an unwanted consequence of this growth, now informal settlements have captured about 69% of Kabul. Land Readjustment (LR) has proved to be an important tool for developing informal settlements and reorganizing urban areas but its implementation always varies from country to country and region to region within the countries. Consequently, to successfully develop the informal settlements in Kabul, we need to define an Afghan model of LR specifically for Afghanistan which needs to incorporate all those factors related to the socio-economic condition of the country. For this purpose, a part of the old city of Kabul has selected as a study area which is located near the Central Business District (CBD). After the further analysis and incorporating all needed factors, the result shows a positive potential for the implementation of an adaptable Land Readjustment module for Kabul city which is more sustainable and socio-economically friendly. It will enhance quality of life and provide better urban services for the residents. Moreover, it will set a vision and criteria by which sustainable developments shall proceed in other similar informal settlements of Kabul.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
172
87826
The Study on the Overall Protection of the Ancient Villages
Authors:
Abstract:
The discussion about elements of cultural heritage and their relevance among the ancient villages is comparably insufficient. The protection work is strongly influenced by touristic development and cultural gimmick, resulting in low protection efficiency and many omissions. Historical villages as the cultural settlement patterns bear a large number of heritage relics. They were regionally scattered with a clear characteristic of gathering. First of all, this study proposes the association and similarities of the forming mechanism between four historic cultural villages in Mian Mountain. Secondly, the study reveals that these villages own the strategic pass, underground passage, and the mountain barrier. Thirdly, based on the differentiated characteristics of villages’ space, the study discusses about the integrated conservation from three levels: the regional heritage conservation, the cultural line shaping, and the featured brand building.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
171
87495
Estimating the Impact of Appliance Energy Efficiency Improvement on Residential Energy Demand in Tema City, Ghana
Abstract:
Ghana is experiencing rapid economic development and its cities command an increasingly dominant role as centers of both production and consumption. Cities run on energy and are extremely vulnerable to energy scarcity, energy price escalations and health impacts of very poor air quality. The overriding concern in Ghana and other West African states is bridging the gap between energy demand and supply. Energy efficiency presents a cost-effective solution for supply challenges by enabling more coverage with current power supply levels and reducing the need for investment in additional generation capacity and grid infrastructure. In Ghana, major issues for energy policy formulation in residential applications include lack of disaggregated electrical energy consumption data and lack of thorough understanding with regards to socio-economic influences on energy efficiency investment. This study uses a bottom up approach to estimate baseline electricity end-use as well as the energy consumption of best available technologies to enable estimation of energy-efficiency resource in terms of relative reduction in total energy use for Tema city, Ghana. A ground survey was conducted to assess the probable consumer behavior in response to energy efficiency initiatives to enable estimation of the amount of savings that would occur in response to specific policy interventions with regards to funding and incentives provision targeted at households. Results show that 16% - 54% reduction in annual electricity consumption is reasonably achievable depending on the level of incentives provision. The saved energy could supply 10000 - 34000 additional households if the added households use only best available technology. Political support and consumer awareness are necessary to translate energy efficiency resources into real energy savings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
170
87403
Transit Facility Planning in Fringe Areas of Kolkata Metropolitan Region
Abstract:
The perceived link between the city and the countryside is evolving rapidly and is getting shifted away from the assumptions of mainstream paradigms to new conceptual networks where rural-urban links are being redefined. In this conceptual field, the fringe interface is still considered as a transitional zone between city and countryside, and is defined as a diffused area rather than a discrete territory. In developing countries fringe areas are said to have both rural and urban characteristics but are devoid of basic municipal facilities. Again, when the urban core areas envelopes the fringe areas along with it the character of fringe changes but services are not well facilitated which in turn results to uneven growth, rapid and haphazard development. One of the major services present in fringe areas is inter-linkages in terms of transit corridors. Planning for the appropriate and sustainable future of fringe areas requires a sheer focus on these corridors pertaining to transit facility, for better accessibility and mobility. Inducing a transit facility plan enhances the various facilities and also increases their proximity for user groups. The study focuses on the western fringe region of Kolkata metropolis which is a major source of industrial hub and housing sector, thus converting the agricultural lands into non-agricultural use. The study emphasizes on providing transit facilities both physical (stops, sheds, terminals, etc.) and operational (ticketing system, route prioritization, integration of transit modes, etc.), to facilitate the region as well as accelerate the growth pattern systematically. Hence, the scope of this work is on the basis of prevailing conditions in fringe areas and attempts for an effective transit facility plan. The strategies and recommendations are in terms of road widening, service coverage, feeder route prioritization, bus stops facilitation, pedestrian facilities, etc, which in turn enhances the region’s growth pattern. Thus, this context of transit facility planning acts as a catalytic agent to avoid the future unplanned growth and accelerates it towards an integrated development.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
169
87209
Energy Efficiency Line Guides for School Buildings in Florence in a Postgraduate Master Course
Abstract:
The ABITA Master course of the University of Florence offered by the Department of Architecture covers nearly all the energy-relevant issues that can arise in public and private companies and sectors. The main purpose of the Master course, active since 2003, is to analyse the energy consumption of building technologies, components, and structures at the conceptual design stage, so it could be very helpful, for designers, when making decisions related to the selection of the most suitable design alternatives and for the materials choice that will be used in an energy-efficient building. The training course provides a solid basis for increasing the knowledge and skills of energy managers and is developed with an emphasis on practical experiences related to the knowledge through case studies, measurements, and verification of energy-efficient solutions in buildings, in the industry and in the cities. The main objectives are: i)To raise the professional standards of those engaged in energy auditing, ii) To improve the practice of energy auditors by encouraging energy auditing professionals in a continuing education program of professional development, iii) Implement in the use of instrumentations for the typical measurements, iv) To propose an integrated methodology that links energy analysis tools with green building certification systems. This methodology will be applied at the early design stage of a project’s life. The final output of the practical training is to achieve an elevated professionalism in the study of environmental design and Energy management in buildings. The results are the redaction of line guides instruction for the energy refurbishment of Public schools in Florence. The school heritage of the Municipality of Florence requires interventions for the control of energy performance, as old construction buildings are often made without taking into account the necessary envelope performance. For this reason, every year, the Master's course aims to study groups of public schools to enable the Municipality to carry out energy redevelopment interventions on the existing building heritage. The future challenges of the education and training program are related to follow-up activities, the development of interactive tools and the curriculum's customization to meet the constantly growing needs of energy experts from industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
168
86714
Management of Urban Watering: A Study of Appliance of Technologies and Legislation in Goiania, Brazil
Abstract:
The urban drainwatering remains a major challenge for most of the Brazilian cities. Not so different of the most part, Goiania, a state capital located in Midwest of the country has few legislations about the subject matter and only one registered solution of compensative techniques for drainwater. This paper clam to show some solutions which are adopted in other Brazilian cities with consolidated legislation, suggesting technics about detention tanks in a building sit. This study analyzed and compared the legislation of Curitiba, Porto Alegre e Sao Paulo, with the actual legislation and politics of Goiania. After this, were created models with adopted data for dimensioning the size of detention tanks using the envelope curve method considering synthetic series for intense precipitations and building sits between 250 m² and 600 m², with an impermeabilization tax of 50%. The results showed great differences between the legislation of Goiania and the documentation of the others cities analyzed, like the number of techniques for drainwatering applied to the reality of the cities, educational actions to awareness the population about care the water courses and political management by having a specified funds for drainwater subjects, for example. Besides, the use of detention tank showed itself practicable, have seen that the occupation of the tank is minor than 3% of the building sit, whatever the size of the terrain, granting the exit flow to pre-occupational taxes in extreme rainfall events. Also, was developed a linear equation to measure the detention tank based in the size of the building sit in Goiania, making simpler the calculation and implementation for non-specialized people.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
167
86699
Estimating Future Solar Potential in Evolving High-Density Urban Areas for the Mid-Latitude City of Mendoza, Argentina
Abstract:
The main goal of the project is to explore the evolution possibilities of the morphological indicators of the built environment, including those resulting from progressive soil occupation, due to the relentless growth of the city’s population and subsequent increase in building density and solar access reduction per built unit. Two alternative normative proposals, Conventional Proposal (CP) and Alternative Proposal (AP), are compared. In addition, temporal scenarios of the city’s evolution process are analyzed, starting from the reference situation of existing, high-density built-up areas, and simulating their possible morphological outcomes on theoretical medium (30 yr.) and long (60 yr.) terms, as a result of the massive implementation of either regulation in the long run. The results obtained demonstrate that the Alternative Proposal (AP) presents higher mean values of predicted solar potential expressed by the Volumetric Insolation Factor total (VIFtot) for both time periods and services. Regarding environmental aspects, the different impacts of either alternative on the urban landscape quality seem to favor the AP proposal. Its deserved detailed assessment is also presently being developed through a quanti-qualitative methodology.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):