Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 57481

Fungi Isolated from House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on Penned Cattle in South Texas
Musca domestica L. were collected from cattle diagnosed with bovine ringworm to evaluate the potential of the house fly to disseminate Trichophyton verrucosum E. Bodin, a fungal dermatophyte that is the causative agent for ringworm in cattle. Fungal isolates were cultured from 45 individual flies on supplemented Sabouraud dextrose agar, and isolates were identified using morphological and microscopic approaches. Each isolate was further identified by PCR amplification of the ribosomal DNA locus with fungal specific primers and subsequent amplicon sequencing. No T. verrucosum were identified using these approaches. However, 36 different fungal species representing 17 genera were cultured from these flies, including several allergenic and pathogenic species. Several species within the fungal orders Hypocreales, Microascales, Onygenales, Saccharomycetales, Xylaniales, and Agaricales were observed for the first time on house flies. The most frequent fungus recovered was Cladosporium cladosporoides, which is known to be a ubiquitous, airborne allergen.
Anti-Tyrosinase and Antibacterial Activities of Marine Fungal Extracts
A variety of genetic and environmental factors cause various cosmetics and dermatological problems. There are already claimed drugs available in market for treating these problems. However, the challenge remains in finding more potent, environmental friendly, causing minimal side effects and economical cosmeceuticals. This leads to an increased demand for natural cosmeceutical products in the last few decades. Plant derived ingredients are limited because plants either contain toxic metabolites, grow too slow or seasonal harvesting is a problem. The research work carried out in this project aims at isolation, characterization of marine fungal secondary metabolite and evaluating their potential use in future cosmetic skin care products. We have isolated and purified 35 morphologically different fungal isolates from various marine habitats of the India. These isolates have been functionally characterized for anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant and anti-acne activities. For molecular characterization, the Internal Transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 15 functionally active marine fungal isolates was amplified using universal primers, ITS1 and ITS4 and sequenced. Out of 15 marine fungal isolates crude extract of strains D4 (Aspergillus terreus) and P2 (Talaromyces stipitatus) showed 70% and 57% tyrosinase inhibition at 1mg/mL respectively. Strain D5 (Simplicillium lamellicola) has showed significant inhibition against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, all these strains also displayed DPPH- radical scavenging activity and may be utilized as skin cosmeceutical applications. Purification and characterization of crude extracts for identification of active lead molecule is under process.
Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment
In the vicinity of the red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54 %) and Penicillium commune (48 %) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has the capability of degradation and can be utilized for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.
Biodegradation of Cellulosic Materials by Marine Fungi Isolated from South Corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Twenty-eight fungal isolates belonging to 12 genera were derived from debris, sediment and water samples collected from Avicennia marina stands 25km south of Jeddah city on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Eight of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association cellulosic waste materials under in vitro conditions in the absence of any carbon source. Isolates were further tested for their potential to degrade paper and clothes wastes by co-cultivation under aeration on a rotary shaker. These fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced ligninolytic and cellulase enzymes, and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations indicated that the selected isolates were able to break down and consume the waste materials.
Unequal Contributions of Parental Isolates in Somatic Recombination of the Stripe Rust Fungus
The dikaryotic basidiomycete fungus, Puccinia striiformis, causes stripe rust, one of the most important diseases of wheat and barley worldwide. The pathogen is largely reproduced asexually, and asexual recombination has been hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms for the pathogen variations. To test the hypothesis and understand the genetic process of asexual recombination, somatic recombinant isolates were obtained under controlled conditions by inoculating susceptible host plants with a mixture of equal quantity of urediniospores of isolates with different virulence patterns and selecting through a series of inoculation on host plants with different genes for resistance to one of the parental isolates. The potential recombinant isolates were phenotypically characterized by virulence testing on the set of 18 wheat lines used to differentiate races of the wheat stripe rust pathogen, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), for the combinations of Pst isolates; or on both sets of the wheat differentials and 12 barley differentials for identifying races of the barley stripe rust pathogen, P. striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh) for combinations of a Pst isolate and a Psh isolate. The progeny and parental isolates were also genotypically characterized with 51 simple sequence repeat and 90 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. From nine combinations of parental isolates, 68 potential recombinant isolates were obtained, of which 33 (48.5%) had similar virulence patterns to one of the parental isolates, and 35 (51.5%) had virulence patterns distinct from either of the parental isolates. Of the 35 isolates of distinct virulence patterns, 11 were identified as races that had been previously detected from natural collections and 24 were identified as new races. The molecular marker data confirmed 66 of the 68 isolates as recombinants. The percentages of parental marker alleles ranged from 0.9% to 98.9% and were significantly different from equal proportions in the recombinant isolates. Except for a couple of combinations, the greater or less contribution was not specific to any particular parental isolates as the same parental isolates contributed more to some of the progeny isolates but less to the other progeny isolates in the same combination. The unequal contributions by parental isolates appear to be a general role in somatic recombination for the stripe rust fungus, which may be used to distinguish asexual recombination from sexual recombination in studying the evolutionary mechanisms of the highly variable fungal pathogen.
Genotyping and Phylogeny of Phaeomoniella Genus Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases in Algeria
Phaeomoniella is a fungus genus in the mitosporic ascomycota which includes Phaeomoniella chlamydospora specie associated with two declining diseases on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) namely Petri disease and esca. Recent studies have shown that several Phaeomoniella species also cause disease on many other woody crops, such as forest trees and woody ornamentals. Two new species, Phaeomoniella zymoides and Phaeomoniella pinifoliorum H.B. Lee, J.Y. Park, R.C. Summerbell et H.S. Jung, were isolated from the needle surface of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. in Korea. The identification of species in Phaeomoniella genus can be a difficult task if based solely on morphological and cultural characters. In this respect, the application of molecular methods, particularly PCR-based techniques, may provide an important contribution. MSP-PCR (microsatellite primed-PCR) fingerprinting has proven useful in the molecular typing of fungal strains. The high discriminatory potential of this method is particularly useful when dealing with closely related or cryptic species. In the present study, the application of PCR fingerprinting was performed using the micro satellite primer M13 for the purpose of species identification and strain typing of 84 Phaeomoniella -like isolates collected from grapevines with typical symptoms of dieback. The bands produced by MSP-PCR profiles divided the strains into 3 clusters and 5 singletons with a reproducibility level of 80%. Representative isolates from each group and, when possible, isolates from Eutypa dieback and esca symptoms were selected for sequencing of the ITS region. The ITS sequences for the 16 isolates selected from the MSP-PCR profiles were combined and aligned with sequences of 18 isolates retrieved from GenBank, representing a selection of all known Phaeomoniella species. DNA sequences were compared with those available in GenBank using Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum-parsimony (MP) analyses. The phylogenetic trees of the ITS region revealed that the Phaeomoniella isolates clustered with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora reference sequences with a bootstrap support of 100 %. The complexity of the pathosystems vine-trunk diseases shows clearly the need to identify unambiguously the fungal component in order to allow a better understanding of the etiology of these diseases and justify the establishment of control strategies against these fungal agents.
Impact of Calcium Carbide Waste Dumpsites on Soil Chemical and Microbial Characteristics
Disposal of industrial solid wastes in the environment is a major environmental challenge. This study investigated the effects of calcium carbide waste dumpsites on soil quality. Soil samples were collected with hand auger from three different dumpsites at varying depths and made into composite samples. Samples were subjected to standard analytical procedures. pH varied from 10.38 to 8.28, nitrate from 5.6mg/kg to 9.3mg/kg, phosphate from 8.8mg/kg to 12.3mg/kg, calcium carbide reduced from 10% to to 3%. Calcium carbide was absent in control soil samples. Bacterial counts from dumpsites ranged from 1.8 x 105cfu/g - 2.5 x 105cfu/g while fungal ranged from 0.8 x 103cfu/g - 1.4 x 103cfu/g. Bacterial isolates included Pseudomonas spp, Flavobacterium spp, and Achromobacter spp, while fungal isolates include Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, and Rhizopus stolonifer. No organism was isolated from the dumpsites at soil depth of 0-15 cm, while there were isolates from other soil depths. Toxicity might be due to alkaline condition of the dumpsite. Calcium carbide might be bactericidal and fungicidal leading to cellular physiology, growth retardation, death, general loss of biodiversity and reduction of ecosystem processes. Detoxification of calcium carbide waste before disposal on soil might be the best option in management.
Potential of Lead Tolerant and Mobilizing Fungus for Plant Growth Promotion through Plant Growth Promoting Activity; A Promising Approach for Enhance Phytoremediation
The potential of fungal isolates to be used in phytoremediation of widespread lead contaminated soil has been evaluated in this study. Five different fungal isolates (Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Mucor spp.) were obtained and tested for their tolerance to increasing concentration of lead (Pb) i.e. 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mgL-1 on PDA and PDB culture experiment. All strains were tolerant up to 500 mgL-1 following sequence; A. flavus > A. niger > Mucor spp. > P. simplicissimum > T. harzianum. Further the isolates were then monitored for possible effect on Pb solubility/mobility through soil incubation experiments and characterized for essays including pathogenicity, germination and root elongation and plant growth promoting activities including IAA (indole acetic acid), phosphorus solubilization and gibberellic acid (GA3) production. Results revealed that fungal isolates have positive effect on Pb mobility in soil and plant biomass production. Pb solubility was significantly (P> 0.05) increased in soil upon application of Mucor spp. P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum. when compared to control. Among different strains three isolates (Mucor spp., P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum) were nonpathogenic because no inhibitory effect of fungus was observed to plant growth when exposed to these strains in root shoot elongation essay. Particularly T. harzianum and P. simplicissimum showed great ability to increase root length by 1.1 and 1.3 folds and shoot length by 1.47 and 1.5 folds respectively under Pb stress (500 mgL-1). Significantly high production of IAA was observed in A. niger (26.7 μg/ml), Phosphorus solubilization was observed in T. harzianum (9.15 μg/ml) and GA3 production was observed in P. simplicissimum (11.02 μg/ml). From results it is concluded that Mucor spp., P. simplicissimum and T. harzianum have potential to increase Pb mobility and improving plant growth under highy Pb contamination, therefore can be used in microbially assisted phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.
Ceratocystis manginecans Causal Agent of a Destructive Mangoes in Pakistan
Mango sudden death is an emerging problem in Pakistan. As its prevalence is observed in almost all mango growing areas and severity varied from 2-5% in Punjab and 5-10% in Sindh. Symptoms on affected trees include bark splitting, discoloration of the vascular tissue, wilting, gummosis and at the end rapid death. Total of n= 45 isolates were isolated from different mango growing areas of Punjab and Sindh. Pathogenicity of these fungal isolates was tested through artificial inoculation method on different hosts (potato tubers, detached mango leaves, detached mango twigs and mango plants) under controlled conditions and all were proved pathogenic with varying degree of aggressiveness in reference to control. The findings of the present study proved that out of these four methods, potato tubers inoculation method was the most ideal as this fix the inoculums on the target site. Increased fungal growth and spore numbers may be due to soft tissues of potato tubers from which Ceratocystis isolates can easily pass. Lesion area on potato tubers was in the range of 7.09-0.14 cm2 followed by detached mango twigs which were ranged from 0.48-0.09 cm2). All pathological results were proved highly significant at P< 0.05 through ANOVA but isolate to isolate showed non-significant behaviour but they have the positive effect on lesion area. Re-isolation of respective fungi was achieved with 100 percent success which results in the verification of Koch’s postulates. DNA of fungal pathogens was successfully extracted through phenol chloroform method. Amplification was done through ITS, b-tubulin gene, and Transcription Elongation Factor (EF1-a) gene primers and the amplified amplicons were sequenced and compared from NCBI which showed 99-100 % similarity with Ceratocystis manginecans. Fungus Ceratocystis manginecans formed one of strongly supported sub-clades through phylogenetic tree. Results obtained through this work would be supportive in establishment of relation of isolates with their region and will give information about pathogenicity level of isolates that would be useful to develop the management policies to reduce the afflictions in orchards caused by mango sudden death.
Characterization of Fungal Endophytes in Leaves, Stems and Roots of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich Harms)
African yam bean (AYB), (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is a leguminous crop that provides nutritionally rich seeds, tubers and leaves for human consumption. AYB potentials as an important food security crop is yet to be realized and thus classified as underutilized crop. Underutilization of the crop has been partly associated with scarce information on the incidence and characterization of fungal endophytes infecting vascular parts of AYB. Accurate and robust detection of these endophytic fungi is essential for diagnosis, modeling, surveillance and protection of germplasm (seed) health. This work aimed at isolating and identifying fungal endophytes associated with leaves, stems and roots of AYB in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study investigated both cultural and molecular properties of endophytic fungi in AYB for its characterization and diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated and culturally identified. DNA extraction, PCR amplification using ITS primers and analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA fragments were conducted on selected isolates. BLAST analysis was conducted on consensus nucleotide sequences of 28 out of 30 isolates and results showed similar homology with genera of Rhizopus, Cunninghamella, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, Purpureocillium, Corynespora, Magnaporthe, Macrophomina, Curvularia, Acrocalymma, Talaromyces and Simplicillium. Slight similarity was found with endophytes associated with soybean. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method showed high diversity among the general. These organisms have high economic importance in crop improvement. For an instance, Purpureocillium lilacinum showed high potential in control of root rot caused by nematodes in tomatoes. Though some can be pathogens, but many of the fungal endophytes have beneficial attributes to plant in host health, uptake of nutrients, disease suppression, and host immunity.
Pathogenic Candida Biofilms Producers Involved in Healthcare Associated Infections
The establishment of intravenous catheters in hospitalized patient is an act common in many clinical situations. These therapeutic tools, from their insertion in the body, represent gateways including fungal germs prone. The latter can generate the growth of biofilms, which can be the cause of fungal infection. Faced with this problem, we conducted a study at the University Hospital of Tlemcen in the neurosurgery unit and aims to isolate and identify Candida yeasts from intravenous catheters. Then test their ability to form biofilms. Materials and methods: 256 patient hospitalized in surgery of the hospital in west Algeria were submitted to this study. All samples were taken from peripheral venous catheters implanted for 72 hours or more days. A total of 31 isolates of Candida species were isolated. MIC and SMIC are determined at 80% inhibition by the test XTT tetrazolium measured at 490 nm. The final concentrations of antifungal agent being between 0.03 and 16 mg / ml for amphotericin B and from 0.015 to 8 mg / mL caspofungin. Results: 31 Candida species isolates from catheters including 14 Candida albicans and 17 Candida non albicans . 21 strains of all the isolates were able to form biofilms. In their form of Planktonic cells, all isolates are 100% susceptible to antifungal agents tested. However, in their state of biofilms, more isolates have become tolerant to the tested antifungals. Conclusion: Candida yeasts isolated from intravascular catheters are considered an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infections. Their involvement in catheter-related infections can be disastrous for their potential to generate biofilms. They survive high concentrations of antifungal where treatment failure. Pending the development of a therapeutic approach antibiofilm related to catheters, their mastery is going through: -The risk of infection prevention based on the training and awareness of medical staff, -Strict hygiene and maximum asepsis, and -The choice of material limiting microbial colonization.
Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strain against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance
The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis, and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as a bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.
Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Hospital Wastewater in Enugu Urban, Nigeria
An important hydrogeologic problem in areas of high faults formations is high environmental health hazard occasioned by microbial and heavy metals contamination of ground waters. Consequently, we examined the microbial load and heavy metals concentration of hospital wastewater discharged into the environment at Park Lane General Hospital Enugu Urban, Nigeria. The microbial counts, characteristics and frequency of occurrences of the isolated microorganisms were determined by cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics using established procedure while the varying concentrations of the identified heavy metals were determined using the spectrophotometric method. The microbiological analyses showed a mean total aerobic bacteria counts from 13.7 ± 0.65 × 107 to 22.8 ± 1.14 ×1010 CFU/ml, mean total anaerobic bacteria counts from 6.0 ± 1.6 × 103 to 1.7 ± 0.41 ×104 CFU/ml and mean total fungal counts from 0 ± 0 to 2.3 ± 0.16 × 105 CFU/ml. The isolated micro-organisms which included both pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Klesbsiella pneumonia and bacteriodes sp. The only fungal isolate was Candida albican. The heavy metals identified in the leachate were Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury and Chromium and their concentrations ranged from 0.003 ± 0.00082 to 0.14 ± 0.0082 mg/l. These values were above WHO permissible limits while others fall within the limits. Therefore, hospital waste water can pose the environmental health risk when not properly treated before discharge, especially in geologic formations with high fault formations.
Effect of Biostimulants on Downstream Processing of Endophytic Fungi Hosted in Aromatic Plant, Ocimum basicilium
Endophytic microbes are hosted inside plants in a symbiotic and hugely benefitting relationship. Exploring agriculturally beneficial endophytes is quite a prospective field of research. In the present work fungal endophytes associated with aromatic plant Ocimum basicilium L. were investigated for biocontrol potential. The anti-plant pathogenic activity of fungal endophytes was tested against causal agent of stem rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. 75 endophytic fungi were recovered through culture-dependent approach. Fungal identification was performed both microscopically and by rDNA ITS sequencing. Curvuaria lunata (Sb-6) and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sb-8) inhibited 86% and 72% mycelia growth of S. sclerotinia on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium at 7.4 pH. Small-scale fermentation was carried out on sterilised oatmeal grain medium. In another set of experiment, fungi were grown in oatmeal grain medium amended with certain biostimulants such as aqueous seaweed extract (10% v/w); methanolic seaweed extract (5% v/w); cow urine (20% v/w); biochar (10% w/w) in triplicate along with control of each to ascertain the degree of metabolic difference and anti-plant pathogenic activity induced. Phytochemically extracts of both the fungal isolates showed the presence of flavanoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethylacetate extract of C. lunata and C. lindemuthianum suppressed S. sclerotinia conidial germination at IC50 values of 0.514± 0.02 and 0.913± 0.04 mg/ml. Therefore, fungal endophytes of O. basicilium are highly promising bio-resource agent, which can be developed further for sustainable agriculture.
Evaluation of Negative Air Ions in Bioaerosol Removal: Indoor Concentration of Airborne Bacterial and Fungal in Residential Building in Qom City, Iran
The present investigation was conducted to detect the type and concentrations of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in one room (bedroom) of each selected residential building located in different regions of Qom during February 2015 (n=9) to July 2016 (n=11). Moreover, we evaluated the efficiency of negative air ions (NAIs) in bioaerosol reduction in indoor air in residential buildings. In the first step, the mean concentrations of bacterial and fungal in nine sampling sites evaluated in winter were 744 and 579 colony forming units (CFU)/m3, while these values were 1628.6 and 231 CFU/m3 in the 11 sampling sites evaluated in summer, respectively. The most predominant genera between bacterial and fungal in all sampling sites were detected as Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. and also, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., respectively. The 95% and 45% of sampling sites have bacterial and fungal concentrations over the recommended levels, respectively. In the removal step, we achieved a reduction with a range of 38% to 93% for bacterial genera and 25% to 100% for fungal genera by using NAIs. The results suggested that NAI is a highly effective, simple and efficient technique in reducing the bacterial and fungal concentration in the indoor air of residential buildings.
Endophytic Fungi Recovered from Lycium arabicum as an Eco-Friendly Alternative for Fusarium Crown and Root Rot Disease Control and Tomato Growth Enhancement
Seven endophytic fungi were isolated from the wild Solanaceous species Lycium arabicum growing in the Tunisian Centre-East and were assessed for their ability to suppress Fusarium Crown and Root Rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) and to enhance plant growth. Fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato cv. Rio Grande roots, crowns, and stems. A significant promotion in all studied growth parameters (root length, shoot height, and roots and shoots fresh weight) was recorded in tomato plants treated with fungal conidial suspensions or their cell-free culture filtrates compared to FORL-inoculated or pathogen-free controls. I15 and I18 isolates were shown to be the most effective leading to 85.7-87.5 and 93.6-98.4% decrease in leaf and root damage index and the vascular discoloration extent, respectively, over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. These two bioactive and growth-promoting isolates (I15 and I18) were morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as being Alternaria alternata (MF693801) and Fusarium fujikuroi (MF693802). These fungi significantly suppressed FORL mycelial growth and showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities whereas only F. fujikuroi displayed a lipolytic activity. This study clearly demonstrated the potential use of fungi naturally associated with L. arabicum as biocontrol and bio-fertilizing agents.
Characteristics of Phytophthora infestans: The Causal Fungus of Potato Late Blight Disease
Eighty six isolates of Phytophthora infestans dating back to 2006 were recovered from potato tubers that were on sale in Alexandria markets, Egypt. The isolates were characterized for mating type and colony morphology. Both A1 and A2 mating types were detected in the isolate collection, however, the A2 constituted 5.8% of the total isolates made while the A1 mating type isolates constituted 91.9%. The self-fertile phenotype was also detected but at a lower percentage of 2.3% of the total isolates. This indicated that Mexico, the probable origin of the disease, is no longer the only place where A2 mating type ever exists. The lumpy phenotype was the only trait observed linked to the A2 mating type isolates on rye A agar medium. The self-fertile isolates, however, exhibited colonies of a waxy appearance with little aerial hyphae and the culture were backed full with oospores. The A1 mating colonies were of smooth white abundant aerial hyphae. The metalaxyl resistant isolates were also detected among the analyzed isolates and constituted 4.6% of the total (86) isolates investigated. The appearance of the A2 mating type outside Mexico and the variation revealed in the population of Phytophthora infestans investigated supported the hypothesis of a second worldwide migration of the fungus from its origin which could constitute a threat to potato cultivation around the world.
Molecular Characterization of Two Thermoplastic Biopolymer-Degrading Fungi Utilizing rRNA-Based Technology
Out of 30 fungal isolates, 2 new isolates were proven to degrade poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Enzyme assay for these isolates indicated the optimal environmental conditions required for depolymerase enzyme to induce the highest level of biopolymer degradation. The two isolates were basically characterized at the morphological level as Trichoderma asperellum (isolate S1), and Aspergillus fumigates (isolate S2) using standard approaches. The aim of the present study was to characterize these two isolates at the molecular level based on the highly diverged rRNA gene(s). Within this gene, two domains of the ribosome large subunit (LSU) namely internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 26S were utilized in the analysis. The first domain comprises the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 regions ( > 500 bp), while the second domain comprises the D1/D2/D3 regions ( > 1200 bp). Sanger sequencing was conducted at Macrogen (Inc.) for the two isolates using primers ITS1/ITS4 for the first domain, while primers LROR/LR7 for the second domain. Sizes of the first domain ranged between 594-602 bp for S1 isolate and 581-594 bp for S2 isolate, while those of the second domain ranged between 1228-1238 bp for S1 isolate and 1156-1291 for S2 isolate. BLAST analysis indicated 99% identities of the first domain of S1 isolate with T. asperellum isolates XP22 (ID: KX664456.1), CTCCSJ-G-HB40564 (ID: KY750349.1), CTCCSJ-F-ZY40590 (ID: KY750362.1) and TV (ID: KU341015.1). BLAST of the first domain of S2 isolate indicated 100% identities with A. fumigatus isolate YNCA0338 (ID: KP068684.1) and strain MEF-Cr-6 (ID: KU597198.1), while 99% identities with A. fumigatus isolate CCA101 (ID: KT877346.1) and strain CD1621 (ID: JX092088.1). Large numbers of other T. asperellum and A. fumigatus isolates and strains showed high level of identities with S1 and S2 isolates, respectively, based on the diversity of the first domain. BLAST of the second domain of S1 isolate indicated 99 and 100% identities with only two strains of T. asperellum namely TR 3 (ID: HM466685.1) and G (ID: KF723005.1), respectively. However, other T. species (ex., atroviride, hamatum, deliquescens, harzianum, etc.) also showed high level of identities. BLAST of the second domain of S2 isolate indicated 100% identities with A. fumigatus isolate YNCA0338 (ID: KP068684.1) and strain MEF-Cr-6 (ID: KU597198.1), while 99% identities with A. fumigatus isolate CCA101 (ID: KT877346.1) and strain CD1621 (ID: JX092088.1). Large numbers of other A. fumigatus isolates and strains showed high level of identities with S2 isolate. Overall, the results of molecular characterization based on rRNA diversity for the two isolates of T. asperellum and A. fumigatus matched those obtained by morphological characterization. In addition, ITS domain proved to be more sensitive than 26S domain in diversity profiling of fungi at the species level.
Characterisation of Pasteurella multocida from Asymptomatic Animals
The study was aimed to understand the distribution of various serogroups of Pasteurella multocida in bovines, small ruminants, pig, rabbit, and poultry from Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir and to characterize the isolates with respect to LPS synthesizing genes, dermonecrotic toxin gene (toxA) gene and antibiotic resistance. For isolation, the nasopharyngeal swab procedure appeared to be better than nasal swab procedure, particularly in ovine and swine. Out of 200 samples from different animals, isolation of P. multocida could be achieved from pig and sheep (5 each) and from poultry and buffalo (2 each) samples only, which accounted for 14 isolates. Upon molecular serogrouping, 3 isolates from sheep and 2 isolates from poultry were found as serogroup A, 2 isolates from buffalo were confirmed as serogroup B and 5 isolates from pig were found to belong to serogroup D. However, 2 isolates from sheep could not be typed, hence, untypable. All the 14 isolates were subjected to mPCR genotyping. A total of 10 isolates, 5 each from pig and sheep, generated an amplicon specific to genotype L6 and L6 indicates Heddleston serovars 10, 11, 12 and 15. Similarly, 2 isolates from bovines generated an amplicon of genotype L2 which indicates Heddleston serovar 2/5. However, 2 isolates from poultry generated specific amplicon with L1 signifying Heddleston serovar 1, but these isolates also produced multiple bands with primer L5. Only, one isolate of capsular type A from sheep possessed the structural gene, toxA for dermonecrotoxin. There was variability in the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in sheep isolates, but overall the rate of tetracycline resistance was relatively high (64.28%) in our strains while all the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin. Except for the swine isolates and one toxigenic sheep isolate, the P. multocida isolates from this study were sensitive to quinolones. Although the level of resistance to commercial antibiotics was generally low, the use of tetracycline and erythromycin was not recommended.
Microbiological Examination and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Salt Mining Site in Ebonyi State
The microbial examination and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of microorganism isolated from the salt mining site in Ebonyi state were evaluated in the present study using a standard microbiological technique. A total of 300 samples were randomly collected in three sample groups (A, B, and C) of 100 each. Isolation, Identification and characterization of organization present on the soil samples were determined by culturing, gram-staining and biochemical technique. The result showed the following organisms were isolated with their frequency as follow: Bacillus species (37.3%) and Staphylococcus species(23.5%) had the highest frequency in the whole Sample group A and B while Klebsiella specie (15.7%), Pseudomonas species(13.7%), and Erwinia species (9.8%) had the least. Rhizopus species (42.0%) and Aspergillus species (26.0%) were the highest fungi isolated, followed by Penicillum species (20.0%) while Mucor species (4.0%), and Fusarium species (8.0%) recorded the least. Sample group C showed high microbial population of all the microbial isolates when compared to sample group A and B. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of isolated bacteria to various antibiotics (oxfloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprorex, augumentin, gentamycin, ciproflox, septrin, ampicillin), while agar well diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of isolated fungi to some antifungal drugs (metronidazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole fluconazole). The antibacterial activity of the antibiotics used showed that ciproflux has the best inhibitory effect on all the test bacteria. Ketoconazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on the fungal isolates, followed by itraconazole, while metronidazole and fluconazole showed the least inhibitory effect on the entire test fungal isolates. Hence, the multiple drug resistance of most isolates to appropriate drugs of choice are of great public health concern and cells for periodic monitoring of antibiograms to detect possible changing patterns. Microbes isolated in the salt mining site can also be used as a source of gene(s) that can increase salt tolerance in different crop species through genetic engineering.
Diversity of Dermatophytes and Keratinophilic Fungi from Inernational Tourist Spots, City of Taj Mahal
The present investigation deals with diversity of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi from different tourist spots such as Agra Fort, Akbar tomb, It-Mat-Ud-Daulah, Mariam tomb, Radha Swami Bagh, and Taj Mahal of Agra City. These fungi are medically important which causes various infections and diseases in humans and animals. The main reservoir of these pathogens are the keratinous substances that increases due to birds and animal activities in the vicinity of monuments, where thousands (5413266) annual visitors from all over the world are visiting. The soil samples were subjected to isolate the pathogenic fungi through bait technique (buffalo skin, chicken feathers, human hair and goat tail hair). Baits were spread over the soil samples and incubated at room temperature for 30-35 days and pure culture isolates were maintained in SDA medium, stored at 4°C. Highest number of visitors were (3906453) from Taj Mahal, minimum 10785 at Mariam tomb annually, the total 271 isolates were encountered from soil samples out of these 18 genera and 38 species were found in different season. Highest incidence was 4.79% frequency shown by Chrysosporium keratinophilum while least 738% frequency occurrence by Trichophyton simii in soil samples. From the present study it was concluded that the incidence of pathogenic fungal isolates were the common in tourists soil that are etiological agents of superficial mycosis. Thus, both human and animal activity seemed to play an important role in occurrence and distribution of keratinophilic and related dermatophytes at various tourist places of Agra city.
Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strains against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance
The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.
Study of Pathogenicity and Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis by Isozymes Systemes
The characteristics of Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. albedinis (Foa) isolates were investigated using electrophoretic studies of isozymes systems (esterase and phosphatase). All the (F.o.a) isolates were pathogenic to the date palm seedlings cultivar Deglet Nour, but they did not induce any disease symptoms on control plants. Fusarium sp. isolated from soil did not show aggression against these seedlings. The isoenzymes profiles revealed polymorphic bands. The data were subjected to analysis with the JMP method. The isolates were delineated into two main groups A and B which were divided into sub-groups. 19 isolates create the group A, and four isolates (E1, E2, E3 and M15A) formed the group B. Analysis of isozyme banding patterns was found to be a reliable marker technology, efficient, and effective tools to find the genetic variability among isolates isolated in different geographical areas.
Characterization of Screening Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Harboring mecA Genes among Intensive Care Unit Patients from Tertiary Care Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring mecA genes from screening isolates among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. All MRSA screening isolates from ICU&rsquo;s patients of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital during 2011 and 2014 were included in this study. Identification and susceptibility test was performed using Vitek2 system (Biomereux&reg;). PCR was conducted to characterize the SCCmec of S. aureus harboring the mecA gene on each isolate. Patient&rsquo;s history of illness was traced through medical record. 24 isolates from 327 screening isolates were MRSA positive (7.3%). From PCR, we found 17 (70.8%) isolates carrying SCCmec type I, 3 (12.5%) isolates carrying SCCmec type III, and 2 (8.3%) isolates carrying SCCmec type IV. In conclusion, SCCmec type I is the most prevalent MRSA colonization among ICU patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital.
Post Harvest Fungi Diversity and Level of Aflatoxin Contamination in Stored Maize: Cases of Kitui, Nakuru and Trans-Nzoia Counties in Kenya
Aflatoxin contamination of maize in Africa poses a major threat to food security and the health of many African people. In Kenya, aflatoxin contamination of maize is high due to the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic factors. Many studies have been conducted to understand the scope of the problem, especially at pre-harvest level. This research was carried out to gather scientific information on the fungi population, diversity and aflatoxin level during the post-harvest period. The study was conducted in three geographical locations of; Kitui, Kitale and Nakuru. Samples were collected from storage structures of farmers and transported to the Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA), International Livestock and Research Institute (ILRI) hub laboratories. Mycoflora was recovered using the direct plating method. A total of five fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Bssyochlamys spp.) were isolated from the stored maize samples. The most common fungal species that were isolated from the three study sites included A. flavus at 82.03% followed by A.niger and F.solani at 49% and 26% respectively. The aflatoxin producing fungi A. flavus was recovered in 82.03% of the samples. Aflatoxin levels were analysed on both the maize samples and in vitro. Most of the A. flavus isolates recorded a high level of aflatoxin when they were analysed for presence of aflatoxin B1 using ELISA. In Kitui, all the samples (100%) had aflatoxin levels above 10ppb with a total aflatoxin mean of 219.2ppb. In Kitale, only 3 samples (n=39) had their aflatoxin levels less than 10ppb while in Nakuru, the total aflatoxin mean level of this region was 239.7ppb. When individual samples were analysed using Vicam fluorometer method, aflatoxin analysis revealed that most of the samples (58.4%) had been contaminated. The means were significantly different (p=0.00< 0.05) in all the three locations. Genetic relationships of A. flavus isolates were determined using 13 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) markers. The results were used to generate a phylogenetic tree using DARwin5 software program. A total of 5 distinct clusters were revealed among the genotypes. The isolates appeared to cluster separately according to the geographical locations. Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) of the genetic distances among the 91 A. flavus isolates explained over 50.3% of the total variation when two coordinates were used to cluster the isolates. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) showed a high variation of 87% within populations and 13% among populations. This research has shown that A. flavus is the main fungal species infecting maize grains in Kenya. The influence of aflatoxins on human populations in Kenya demonstrates a clear need for tools to manage contamination of locally produced maize. Food basket surveys for aflatoxin contamination should be conducted on a regular basis. This would assist in obtaining reliable data on aflatoxin incidence in different food crops. This would go a long way in defining control strategies for this menace.
Growth of Albizia in vitro: Endophytic Fungi as Plant Growth Promote of Albizia
Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) is a woody plant species that has a high economic value and multifunctional. Albizia is important timber, medicinal plants and can also be used as a plant to rehabilitate critical lands. The demand value of Albizia is increased so that the large quantities and high quality of seeds are required. In vitro propagation techniques are seed propagation that can produce more seeds and quality in a short time. In vitro cultures require growth regulators that can be obtained from biological agents such as endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi are micro fungi that colonize live plant tissue without producing symptoms or other negative effects on host plants and increase plant growth. The purposes of this research were to isolate and identify endophytic fungi isolated from the root of Albizia and to study the effect of endophytic fungus on the growth of Albizia in vitro. The methods were root isolation, endophytic fungal identification, and inoculation of endophytic fungi to Albizia plants in vitro. Endophytic fungus isolates were grown on PDA media before being inoculated with Albizia sprouts. Incubation is done for 4 (four) weeks. The observed growth parameters were live explant percentage, percentage of explant shoot, and percentage of explant rooted. The results of the research showed that 6 (six) endophytic fungal isolates obtained from the root of Albizia, namely Aspergillus sp., Verticillium sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., and Acremonium sp. Statistical analysis found that Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium sp. affect in vitro growth of Albizia. Endophytic fungi from the results of this research were potential as plant growth promoting. It can be applied to increase productivity either through increased plant growth and increased endurance of Albizia seedlings to pests and diseases.
Analyzing Antimicrobial Power of Cotula cinerea Essential Oil: Case of Western Algeria
The essential oils of many plants have become popular in recent years and their bioactive principles have recently won several industry sectors, however their use as antibacterial and anti fungal agents has been reported. This study focuses on the physico chemical and phyto chemical with a study of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plant of southwest Algeria, this essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation of aerial parts of Cotula cinerea, belonging to the Asteraceae family, it is very extensive in the spring season in a region called Kenadza road, located 12km from Bechar. Variable anti fungal activity of the essential oil of Cotula cinerea (yield 2%) were revealed about four fungal strains, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of essential oils were determined by the method of dilution in agar. Significant fungal sensitivity of Penicillium sp with an inhibition of 32.3 mm area.
Antimicrobial Peptide Produced by Lactococcus garvieae with a Broad Inhibition Spectrum
By using a panel of multiple indicator strains of different bacterial species and genera, we screened a large collection of bacterial isolates (over 1800 isolates) derived from raw milk, for bacteriocin producers with broad inhibition spectra (BIS). Fourteen isolates with BIS were identified, and by 16S rDNA sequencing they were found to belong to Lactococcus garvieae (10 isolates) and Enterococcus feacalis (4 isolates). Further analysis of the ten L. garvieae isolates revealed that they were very similar, if not identical, to each other in metabolic and genetic terms: they had the same fermentation profile on different types of sugars, repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) DNA pattern as well as they all had the same inhibition profile towards over 50 isolates of different species. The bacteriocin activity from one of the L. garvieae isolates was assessed further. The bacteriocin which was termed garvicin KS, was found to be heatstable and proteinase-labile and its inhibition spectrum contained many distantly related genera of Firmicutes, comprising most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as well as problematic species of Bacillus, Listeria, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and their antibiotic resistant derivatives (e.g. VRE, MRSA). Taken together, the results indicate that this is a potent bacteriocin from L. garvieae and that its very broad inhibition spectrum can be a very useful property for use in food preservation as well as in infection treatments caused by gram-positive pathogens and their antibiotic-derivatives.
Comparative Study of Mutations Associated with Second Line Drug Resistance and Genetic Background of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains
Background: Performance of Genotype MTBDRsl (Hain Life science GmbH Germany) for detection of mutations associated with second-line drug resistance is well known. However, less evidence regarding the association of mutations and genetic background of strains is known which, in the future, is essential for clinical management of anti-tuberculosis drugs in those settings where the probability of particular genotype is predominant. Material and Methods: During this retrospective study, a total of 259 MDR-TB isolates obtained from pulmonary TB patients were tested for second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) using Genotype MTBDRsl VER 1.0 and compared with BACTEC MGIT-960 as a reference standard. All isolates were further characterized using spoligotyping. The spoligo patterns obtained were compared and analyzed using SITVIT_WEB. Results: Of total 259 MDR-TB isolates which were screened for second-line DST by Genotype MTBDRsl, mutations were found to be associated with gyrA, rrs and emb genes in 82 (31.6%), 2 (0.8%) and 90 (34.7%) isolates respectively. 16 (6.1%) isolates detected mutations associated with both FQ as well as to AG/CP drugs (XDR-TB). No mutations were detected in 159 (61.4%) isolates for corresponding gyrA and rrs genes. Genotype MTBDRsl showed a concordance of 96.4% for detection of sensitive isolates in comparison with second-line DST by BACTEC MGIT-960 and 94.1%, 93.5%, 60.5% and 50% for detection of XDR-TB, FQ, EMB, and AMK/CAP respectively. D94G was the most prevalent mutation found among (38 (46.4%)) OFXR isolates (37 FQ mono-resistant and 1 XDR-TB) followed by A90V (23 (28.1%)) (17 FQ mono-resistant and 6 XDR-TB). Among AG/CP resistant isolates A1401G was the most frequent mutation observed among (11 (61.1%)) isolates (2 AG/CP mono-resistant isolates and 9 XDR-TB isolates) followed by WT+A1401G (6 (33.3%)) and G1484T (1 (5.5%)) respectively. On spoligotyping analysis, Beijing strain (46%) was found to be the most predominant strain among pre-XDR and XDR TB isolates followed by CAS (30%), X (6%), Unique (5%), EAI and T each of 4%, Manu (3%) and Ural (2%) respectively. Beijing strain was found to be strongly associated with D94G (47.3%) and A90V mutations by (47.3%) and 34.8% followed by CAS strain by (31.6%) and 30.4% respectively. However, among AG/CP resistant isolates, only Beijing strain was found to be strongly associated with A1401G and WT+A1401G mutations by 54.5% and 50% respectively. Conclusion: Beijing strain was found to be strongly associated with the most prevalent mutations among pre-XDR and XDR TB isolates. Acknowledgments: Study was supported with Grant by All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi reference No. P-2012/12452.
Mycoflora and Aflatoxin Contamination of Kokoro: A Nigerian Maize Snack
Kokoro is maize snack which is very popular among poor masses in Nigeria who consume it along with gari(a cassava product) as lunch on a regular basis. In this study, fungal contaminants of kokoro were characterized and its aflatoxin content determined. A total of 30 fungal isolates were obtained from kokoro samples and they belong to 3 different species. Aspergillus flavus had the highest frequency of occurrence of 73.33% while Penicillium species had the lowest (6.66%). Different concentration of aflatoxin B1 was detected in some of the kokoro samples analyzed. Sample D had the highest concentration of 7.25 parts per billion (ppb). The lowest concentration detected was 0.06 ppb in sample P. No aflatoxin G1 and G2 was detected in all the kokoro samples with exception of sample P which contained 2.54 ppb aflatoxin G1.According to international standards some of the kokoro samples are not suitable for human consumption because of high-level aflatoxin which was above the recommended level. Therefore, production of kokoro should be standardized and appropriate packaging materials utilized to prevent the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. This is to safeguard the health of many poor Nigerians who consume it on a regular basis.
Genomic Diversity of Clostridium perfringens Strains in Food and Human Sources
Clostridium perfringens is a serious pathogen which causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. Spores can survive cooking processes and play an important role in the possible onset of disease. In this study RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were used to examine the genetic diversity of 49isolates ofC. Perfringens type A from 3 different sources. The results of RAPD-PCR revealed the most genetic diversity among poultry isolates, while human isolates showed the least genetic diversity. Cluster analysis obtained from RAPD_PCR and based on the genetic distances split the 49 strains into five distinct major clusters (A, B, C, D, and E). Cluster A and C were composed of isolates from poultry meat, cluster B was composed of isolates from human feces, cluster D was composed of isolates from minced meat, poultry meat and human feces and cluster E was composed of isolates from minced meat. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG) 5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis did not show further differentiation between various types of strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolates from different types of meats and human feces has been investigated.
Multidrug Resistance Mechanisms among Gram Negative Clinical Isolates from Egypt
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a significant public health threat. The prevalence rates, of Gram negative MDR bacteria, are in continuous increase. However, few data are available about these resistant strains. Since, third generation cephalosporins are one of the most commonly used antimicrobials, we set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance among third generation resistant Gram negative clinical isolates. A total of 114 Gram negative clinical isolates, previously characterized as being resistant to at least one of 3rd generation cephalosporins, were included in this study. Each isolate was tested, using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method, against its assigned categories of antimicrobials. The role of efflux pump in resistance development was tested by the efflux pump inhibitor-based microplate assay using chloropromazine as an inhibitor. Detecting different aminoglycosides, β-lactams and quinolones resistance genes was done using polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of MDR isolates was investigated using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA technique. MDR phenotype was detected in 101 isolates (89%). Efflux pump mediated resistance was detected in 49/101 isolates. Aminoglycosides resistance genes; armA and aac(6)-Ib were detected in one and 53 isolates, respectively. The aac(6)-Ib-cr allele, that also confers resistance to floroquinolones, was detected in 28/53 isolates. β-lactam resistance genes; blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M group 1 and group 9 were detected in 52, 29, 61 and 35 isolates, respectively. Quinolone resistance genes; qnrA, qnrB and qnrS were detectable in 2, 14, 8 isolates respectively, while qepA was not detectable at all. High diversity was observed among tested MDR isolates. MDR is common among 3rd generation cephalosporins resistant Gram negative bacteria, in Egypt. In most cases, resistance was caused by different mechanisms. Therefore, new treatment strategies should be implemented.
Isolation and Screening of Fungal Strains for β-Galactosidase Production
Enzymes are the biocatalysts which catalyze the biochemical processes and thus have a wide variety of applications in the industrial sector. &beta;-Galactosidase (E.C. also known as lactase, is one of the prime enzymes, which has significant potential in the dairy and food processing industries. It has the capability to catalyze both the hydrolytic reaction for the production of lactose hydrolyzed milk and transgalactosylation reaction for the synthesis of prebiotics such as lactulose and galactooligosaccharides. These prebiotics have various nutritional and technological benefits. Although, the enzyme is naturally present in almonds, peaches, apricots and other variety of fruits and animals, the extraction of enzyme from these sources increases the cost of enzyme. Therefore, focus has been shifted towards the production of low cost enzyme from the microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. As compared to yeast and bacteria, fungal &beta;-galactosidase is generally preferred as being extracellular and thermostable in nature. Keeping the above in view, the present study was carried out for the isolation of the &beta;-galactosidase producing fungal strain from the food as well as the agricultural wastes. A total of more than 100 fungal cultures were examined for their potential in enzyme production. All the fungal strains were screened using X-gal and IPTG as inducers in the modified Czapek Dox Agar medium. Among the various isolated fungal strains, the strain exhibiting the highest enzyme activity was chosen for further phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The strain was identified as Rhizomucor pusillus on the basis of 5.8s RNA gene sequencing data.
Lifestyle Switching Phenomenon of Plant Associated Fungi
Fungi are closely associated with the plants in various types of interactions such as mycorrhizal, parasitic or endophytic. Some of these interactions are beneficial and a few are harmful to the host plants. It has been suggested that these plant-associated fungi are able to change their lifestyle abd this means endophyte may become parasite or vice versa. This phenomenon may have profound effect on plant-fungal interactions and various ecological niches. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that trigger the change in fungal lifestyle and understand whether these different lifestyles are interconnected at some points either by physiological, biochemical or molecular routes. This review summarizes the factors affecting plant fungal interactions and discusses the possible mechanisms for lifestyles switching of fungi based on available experimental evidences. Research should be boosted in this direction to fetch more advantages in future and to avoid the severe consequences in agriculture and other related fields.
A Genetic Identification of Candida Species Causing Intravenous Catheter-Associated Candidemia in Heart Failure Patients
Introduction: Intravenous catheter-associated fungal infection as nosocomial infection continue to be a deep problem among hospitalized patients, decreasing quality of life and adding healthcare costs. The capacity of catheters in the spread of candidemia in heart failure patients is obvious. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and genetic identification of Candida species in heart disorder patients. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Tehran Hospital of Cardiology Center (Tehran, Iran, 2014) during 1.5 years on the patients hospitalized for at least 7 days and who had central or peripheral vein catheter. Culture of catheters, blood and skin of the location of catheter insertion were applied for detecting Candida colonies in 223 patients. Identification of Candida species was made on the basis of a combination of various phenotypic methods and confirmed by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplified from the genomic DNA using PCR and the NCBI BLAST. Results: Of the 223 patients samples tested, we identified totally 15 Candida isolates obtained from 9 (4.04%) catheter cultures, 3 (1.35%) blood cultures and 2 (0.90%) skin cultures of the catheter insertion areas. On the base of ITS region sequencing, out of nine Candida isolates from catheter, 5(55.6%) C. albicans, 2(22.2%) C. glabrata, 1(11.1%) C. membranifiaciens and 1 (11.1%) C. tropicalis were identified. Among three Candida isolates from blood culture, C. tropicalis, C. carpophila and C. membranifiaciens were identified. Non-candida yeast isolated from one blood culture was Cryptococcus albidus. One case of C. glabrata and one case of Candida albicans were isolated from skin culture of the catheter insertion areas in patients with positive catheter culture. In these patients, ITS region of rDNA sequence showed a similarity between Candida isolated from the skin and catheter. However, the blood samples of these patients were negative for fungal growth. We report two cases of catheter-related candidemia caused by C. membranifiaciens and C. tropicalis on the base of genetic similarity of species isolated from blood and catheter which were treated successfully with intravenous fluconazole and catheter removal. In phenotypic identification methods, we could only identify C. albicans and C. tropicalis and other yeast isolates were diagnosed as Candida sp. Discussion: Although more than 200 species of Candida have been identified, only a few cause diseases in humans. There is some evidence that non-albicans infections are increasing. Many risk factors, including prior antibiotic therapy, use of a central venous catheter, surgery, and parenteral nutrition are considered to be associated with candidemia in hospitalized heart failure patients. Identifying the route of infection in candidemia is difficult. Non-albicans candida as the cause of candidemia is increasing dramatically. By using conventional method, many non-albicans isolates remain unidentified. So, using more sensitive and specific molecular genetic sequencing to clarify the aspects of epidemiology of the unknown candida species infections is essential. The positive blood and catheter cultures for candida isolates and high percentage of similarity of their ITS region of rDNA sequence in these two patients confirmed the diagnosis of intravenous catheter-associated candidemia.
An Image Processing Scheme for Skin Fungal Disease Identification
Nowadays, skin fungal diseases are mostly found in people of tropical countries like Sri Lanka. A skin fungal disease is a particular kind of illness caused by fungus. These diseases have various dangerous effects on the skin and keep on spreading over time. It becomes important to identify these diseases at their initial stage to control it from spreading. This paper presents an automated skin fungal disease identification system implemented to speed up the diagnosis process by identifying skin fungal infections in digital images. An image of the diseased skin lesion is acquired and a comprehensive computer vision and image processing scheme is used to process the image for the disease identification. This includes colour analysis using RGB and HSV colour models, texture classification using Grey Level Run Length Matrix, Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and Local Binary Pattern, Object detection, Shape Identification and many more. This paper presents the approach and its outcome for identification of four most common skin fungal infections, namely, Tinea Corporis, Sporotrichosis, Malassezia and Onychomycosis. The main intention of this research is to provide an automated skin fungal disease identification system that increase the diagnostic quality, shorten the time-to-diagnosis and improve the efficiency of detection and successful treatment for skin fungal diseases.
Prospects in Development of Ecofriendly Biopesticides in Management of Postharvest Fungal Deterioration of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and cash crop that provide cheap source of carbohydrate for food, feed and raw material for industries hence a commodity for feature economic development of developing countries. Despite the importance, its production potentials is undermined by disease agents that greatly reduce yield and render it unfit for human consumption and industrial use. Pathogenicity tests on fungal isolates from infected cassava revealed Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Trichodderma viride as rot-causing organisms. Water and ethanol extracts of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Cassia alata, and Tagetes erecta at 50% concentration significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogens in vitro and their development and spread in vivo. Low cassava rot incidence and severity was recorded when the extracts were applied before than after spray inoculating with spore suspension (1x105 spores/ml of distilled water) of the pathogenic organisms. The plant materials are readily available, and their extracts are biodegradable and cost effective. The fungitoxic potentials of extracts of these plant materials could be exploited as potent biopesticides in the management of postharvest fungal deterioration of cassava especially in developing countries where synthetic fungicides are not only scarce but also expensive for resource poor farmers who produce over 95% of the food consumed.
Investigation of Carbapenem-Resistant Genes in Acinetobacter spp. Isolated from Patients at Tertiary Health Care Center, Northeastern Thailand
Acinetobacter spp. is a gram negative bacterium causing the high incidence of multi-drug resistance in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. A hundred isolates of Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from patients admitted at tertiary health care center, Northeastern region, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, were subjected to modified Hodge test and combined disc test in order to evaluate the production of carbapenemases. The results revealed that about 35% of isolates were found to be carbapenemases producers. In addition, multiplex polymerase chain reactions were performed to detect blaOXA-like genes. It showed that 92% of isolates possess blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-23-like genes. However, blaOXA-58-like gene was detected in only 8 isolates. No detection of blaOXA-24-like gene was observed in all isolates. In conclusion, an ability to produce carbepenemases would be an important mechanism of multi-drug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. at tertiary health care center, Northeastern region, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. Furthermore, it was likely that the class D carbapenemases genes, blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-23-like, might contribute to imipenem-resistance exhibiting among isolates.
Clinical, Bacteriological and Histopathological Aspects of First-Time Pyoderma in a Population of Iranian Domestic Dogs: A Retrospective Study (2012-2017)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility and ERIC-PCR typing of staphylococci species from dogs with pyoderma. The study animals were 61 clinical cases of Iranian domestic dogs with the first-time pyoderma. The prevalence of pyoderma was significantly higher amongst adult (odds Ratio: 0.21; p=0.001) large breed (odds Ratio: 2.42; p=0.002)dogs. There was no difference in prevalence of pyoderma in male and females (odds Ratio: 1.27; p= 0.337). The 'head, face and pinna' and 'trunk' were the most affected lesion regions, each with 19 cases (26.76%). An identifiable underlying disease was present in 52 (85.24%) of the dogs. Bacterial species were recovered from 43 of the 61 (70.49%) studied animals. No isolates were recovered from 18 studied dogs. The most frequently recovered bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (32/43 isolates, 74.41%) including S. epidermidis (22/43 isolates, 51.16%), S. aureus (7/43 isolates, 16.27%) and S. pseudintermedius (3/43 isolates, 6.97%). Staphylococci species resistance was most commonly seen against amoxicillin (94.11%), penicillin (83.35%), and ampicillin (76.47%). Resistant to cephalexin and cefoxitin was 5.88% and 2.94%, respectively. A total of 27 of the staphylococci isolated (84.37 %) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 19 isolates (59.37%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial drugs. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of resistance between the staphylococci isolated from cases of superficial and deep pyoderma. ERIC-PCR results revealed 19 different patterns among 22 isolates of S. epidermidis and 7 isolates of S. aureus.
Parasitic and Fungal Identification Bamboo Lobster Panulirus versicolour and Ornate Lobster P. ornatus Cultures
Lobster cultures have failed because of mortalities associated with parasitic and fungal infections. Monitoring of spawned eggs and larva of bamboo lobsters, Panulirus versicolour, and ornate lobsters, P. ornatus, in a hatchery, was conducted in order to characterize fungal and parasitic diseases of eggs and larva. One species of protozoan parasite (Vorticella sp.) was identified from larvae while two species of fungi (Lagenidium sp. and Haliphthoros sp.) were found on eggs. Furthermore, adult lobsters cultured in floating net cage had burning-like diseases on their pleopod, uropod, and telson. Histopathological samples were collected for parasite and tissue changes. There were two parasites found to infect lobsters on external body and gill which are Octolasmis sp. and Oodinium sp. Histopathology showed tissue changes which are necrosis on hepatopancreas, necrosis in the gills and around the uropods and telson.
Efficacy of Bio-Control Agents against Colletotrichum falcatum Causing Red Rot Disease of Sugarcane
Sugarcane is one of the major commercial crop playing roles in agriculture and industrial economy of India. Globally sugarcane is affected by approximately 240 diseases caused by various plant pathogenic organisms. Among them, red rot disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum, is one of the most important diseases. In the present investigation, one fungal bioagent of Trichoderma harzianum, Pant Bioagent 1 and one bacterial bioagent Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pant Bioagent 2 (PBAT 1 and PBAT 2, respectively) were tested by dual culture method against the pathogen under laboratory conditions. The effectiveness of biocontrol agents was observed against four isolates of C. falcatum. In the case of PBAT1 maximum percent inhibition of pathogen was recorded in isolated Cf 0238 (61.05%), followed by Cf 09 (60.62%) whereas, minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 3220 (48.55%) and in case of PBAT2 maximum mycelial growth inhibition percent was recorded in Cf 767 (50.50%) followed by Cf 088230(48.83%), whereas minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 08 (40.16%) followed by Cf 0238 (41.83%). The present study showed that these biocontrol agents have the potential of controlling the pathogen and can further be used for the management of red rot disease in field.
Effect of Supplementing Different Sources and Levels of Phytase Enzyme to Diets on Productive Performance for Broiler Chickens
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplement sources of Phytase enzyme (bacterial, fungal, enzymes mixture) using levels (250, 500, 750) FTY/ kg feed to diets compared with control on the performance for one thousand fifty broiler chicks (Ross 308) from 1day old with initial weight 39.78 gm till 42 days. The study involved 10 treatments, three replicates per treatment (35 chicks/replicate). Treatments were as follows: T1: control diet (without any addition). T2: added bacterial phytase enzyme 250FTY/ kg feed. T3: added bacterial phytase enzyme 500FTY/ kg feed. T4: added bacterial phytase enzyme 750FTY/ kg feed. T5: added fungal phytase enzyme 250FTY/ kg feed. T6: added fungal phytase enzyme 500FTY/ kg feed. T7: added fungal phytase enzyme 750FTY/ kg feed. T8 added enzymes mixture 250U/ kg feed. T9: added enzymes mixture 500U/ kg feed. T10: added enzymes mixture 750U/ kg feed. The results revealed that supplementing 750 U from enzymes mixture to broiler diet increased significantly (p < 0.05) body weight compared with (250 FTY bacterial phytase/Kgfeed), (750 FTY bacterial phytase/Kg feed), (750FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) at 6 weeks, also supplemented different sources and levels from phytase enzyme improved a cumulative weight gain for (500 FTY bacterial phytase/Kgfeed), (250FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed), (500FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed), (250 Uenzymes mixture/Kgfeed), (500 Uenzymes mixture/Kgfeed) and (750 U enzymes mixture/Kgfeed) treatments compared with (750 FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed)treatment, about accumulative feed consumption (500 FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) and (250 Uenzymes mixture/Kgfeed) increased significantly compared with control group and (750FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) during 1-6 weeks. There were significantly improved in cumulative feed conversion for (500U enzymes mixture/Kgfeed) compared with the worse feed conversion ratio that recorded in (250 FTY bacterial phytase/Kgfeed). No significant differences between treatments in internal organs relative weights, carcass cuts, dressing percentage and production index. Mortality was increased in (750FTY fungal phytase/Kgfeed) compared with other treatments.
Clonal Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Kermanshah Hospitals, West of Iran
Background and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. One of the major concerns for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections is its resistant to a variety of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to assess the dissemination of p. aeruginosa isolates obtained from major hospitals in Kermanshah, west of Iran. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the minimal inhibitory concentrations. Mettalo-beta-lactamase was investigated using the double disk diffusion (DDST) test and PCR. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: The 60 P. aeruginosa isolates, 30 (50%) were resistant to gentamicin, 38 (63/3%) to piperacilin, 42 (70%) to ceftazidime, and 45 (75%) to cefepime. Twenty-nine (48/3%) isolates were MBLs producer based on the DDST test. Five (8/3%) isolates were positive for VIM gene and 4 of them were from burn specimens. PFGE analysis among MBLs producers revealed 12 distinct genotype patterns. A pattern covering the highest number of strains was determined as the dominant clone. Conclusions: Our study showed that P. aeruginosa strains can be spread between patients in hospitals or acquired from different environmental sources. P. aeruginosa isolates were highly resistant to antibiotics and, therefore, the susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics should be tested before treatment. Given the clinical significance of MBLs producing isolates, identification of these organisms is essential in the hospitals in order to get a better therapeutic response and control of bacterial dissemination.
Screening of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in the Rhizo- and Endosphere of Sunflower (Helianthus anus) and Their Role in Enhancing Growth and Yield Attriburing Trairs and Colonization Studies
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living soil bacteria that aggressively colonize the rhizosphere/plant roots, and enhance the growth and yield of plants when applied to seed or crops. Root associated (endophytic and rhizospheric) PGPR were isolated from Sunflower (Helianthus anus) grown in soils collected from 16 different sites of sub division Dhirkot, Poonch, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. A total of 150 bacterial isolates were isolated, purified, screened in vitro for their plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics. 11 most effective isolates were selected on the basis of biochemical assays (nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, growth hormone production, biocontrol assay, and carbon substrates utilization assay through gas chromatography (GCMS), spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC, fungal and bacterial dual plate assay and BIOLOG GN2/GP2 microplate assay respectively) and were tested on the crop under controlled and field conditions. From the inoculation assay, the most promising 4 strains (on the basis of increased root/shoot weight, root/shoot length, seed oil content, and seed yield) were than selected for colonization studies through confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscope. 16Sr RNA gene analysis showed that these bacterial isolates belong to Pseudononas, Enterobacter, Azospirrilum, and Citobacter genera. This study is the clear evident that such isolates have the potential for application as inoculants adapted to poor soils and local crops to minimize the chemical fertilizers harmful for soil and environment
Genetic Divergence and Morphogenic Analysis of Sugarcane Red Rot Pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum under South Gujarat Condition
In the present study, nine strains of C. falcatum obtained from different places and cultivars were characterized for sporulation, growth rate, and 18S rRNA gene sequence. All isolates had characteristic fast-growing sparse and fleecy aerial mycelia on potato dextrose agar with sickle shape conidia (length x width: varied from 20.0 X 3.89 to 25.52 X 5.34 μm) and blackish to orange acervuli with setae (length x width: varied from 112.37X 2.78 to 167.66 X 6.73 μm). They could be divided into two groups on the base of morphology; P1, dense mycelia with concentric growth and P2, sparse mycelia with uneven growth. Genomic DNA isolation followed by PCR amplification with ITS1 and ITS4 primer produced ~550bp amplicons for all isolates. Phylogeny generated by 18S rRNA gene sequence confirmed the variation in isolates and mainly grouped into two clusters; cluster 1 contained CoC671 isolates (cfNAV and cfPAR) and Co86002 isolate (cfTIM). Other isolates cfMAD, cfKAM, and cfMAR were grouped into cluster 2. Remaining isolates did not fall into any cluster. Isolate cfGAN, collected from Co86032 was found highly diverse of all the nine isolates. In a nutshell, we found considerable genetic divergence and morphological variation within C. falcatum accessions collected from different areas of south Gujarat, India and these can be used for the breeding program.
Genetic and Virulence Diversity among Alternaria carthami Isolates of India
Alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria carthami is one of the most devastating diseases of safflower. It has resulted in huge losses in crop production and cultivation leading to a fall out of India’s rank as the leading producer of safflower in the world. Understanding the diversity of any pathogen is essential for its management and for the development of disease control strategies. The diversity of A. carthami was therefore analysed on the basis of biochemical, pathogenicity and genetic lines using ISSR markers. Collections and isolations of 95 isolates of A. carthami were made from major safflower producing states of India. Virulence was analysed to evaluate the pathogenic potential of these isolates. The isolates from Bijapur, Dharwad districts (Karnataka), and Parbhani and Solapur districts (Maharashtra) were found to be highly virulent. The virulence assays showed low virulence levels (42%) for the largest part of the population. Biochemical characterization to assess aggressiveness of these isolates was done by estimating the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes where isolates from districts Dharwad, Bijapur of Karnataka and districts Parbhani and Latur of Maharashtra were found to be most aggressive. Genetic diversity among isolates of A. carthami was determined using eighteen ISSR markers. Distance analysis using neighbour joining method and PCoA analysis of the ISSR profiles divided the isolates into three sub-populations. The most virulent isolates clustered in one group in the dendrogram. The study provided no evidence for geographical clustering indicating that isolates are randomly spread across the states, signifying the high potential of the fungus to adapt to diverse regions. The study can, therefore, aid in the breeding and deployment of A. carthami resistant safflower varieties and in the management of Alternaria leaf spot disease.
Isolation and Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria against Wheat Pathogenic Fungus Tilletia indica
An economically important disease of wheat in North Western region of India is Karnal Bunt caused by smut fungus Tilletia indica. This fungal pathogen spreads by air, soil and seed borne sporodia at the time of flowering, which ultimately leads to partial bunting of wheat kernels with fishy odor and taste to wheat flour. It has very serious effects due to quarantine measures which have to be applied for grain exports. Chemical fungicides such as mercurial compounds and Propiconazole applied to the control of Karnal bunt have been only partially successful. Considering the harmful effects of chemical fungicides on man as well as environment, many countries are developing biological control as the superior substitute to chemical control. Repeated use of fungicides can be responsible for the development of resistance in fungal pathogens against certain chemical compounds. The present investigation is based on the isolation and evaluation of antifungal properties of some isolated (from natural manure) and commercial bacterial strains against Tilletia indica. Total 23 bacterial isolates were obtained and antagonistic activity of all isolates and commercial bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis MTCC8601, Bacillus pumilus MTCC 8743, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were tested against T. indica by dual culture plate assay (pour plate and streak plate). Test for the production of antifungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by antagonistic bacteria was done by sealed plate method. Amongst all s1, s3, s5, and B. subtilis showed more than 80% inhibition. Production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as protease, beta 1, 4 glucanase, HCN and ammonia was studied for confirmation of antifungal activity. s1, s3, s5 and B. subtilis were found to be the best for protease activity and s5 and B. subtilis for beta 1, 4 glucanase activity. Bacillus subtilis was significantly effective for HCN whereas s3, s5 and Bacillus subtilis for ammonia production. Isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (s1) and B. licheniformis (s3, s5) by various biochemical assays and confirmed by16s rRNA sequencing. Use of microorganisms or their secretions as biocontrol agents to avoid plant diseases is ecologically safe and may offer long term of protection to crop. The above study reports the promising effects of these strains in better pathogen free crop production and quality maintenance as well as prevention of the excessive use of synthetic fungicides.
Study of the Genes Involved in the Resistance of Nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Fluoroquinolone
The major mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to fluoroquinolones is the alteration of target enzymes, type II and IV topoisomerases due to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the gyrA and parC genes coding A subunits of these enzymes. 37 isolates from patients with burn wounds and 20 isolates from blood, urine and sputum specimen were selected to evaluate mutations involved in antibiotic resistance and were subsequently verified for their resistance to ciprofloxacin. QRDRs regions of gyrA and parC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were subsequently sequenced. 90% of isolates with MIC≥8 µg/ml to ciprofloxacin had a mutation in gyrA gene in which threonine at position 83 changed to isoleucine. 87.5% of isolates had mutation in parC, Serine 87 changed. 75% had Ser87Leu and 12.5% possessed Serin87Trp. Various silent mutations were also detected such as Val103Val, Ala118Ala, Ala136Ala, His132His in gyrA and Ala115Ala in parC. The data indicates that the common mutation in gyrA is Thr83Ile and in parC is Ser87Leu/Trp. No individual parC mutation was observed while mutations in gyrA and parC occurred simultaneously and appears to be the main reason of high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in patients with burn wounds and urine infection. The vast majority of P.aeruginosa isolates had mutation in parC which can play a crucial role in increased resistance of these isolates. This is a report of parC mutations from resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from Iran, Tehran.
Evaluating Cyanide Biodegradation by Bacteria Isolated from Gold Mine Effluents in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
The release of cyanide-rich effluents from gold mines, and other industries, into the environment, is a global concern considering the well-known metabolic effects of cyanide in all forms of life. Such effluents need to be treated to remove cyanide, among other pollutants, before their disposal. This study aimed at investigating the possible use of bacteria in the biological removal of cyanide from cyanide-rich effluents. Firstly, cyanide-degrading bacteria were isolated from gold mine effluents and characterised. The isolates were then tested for their ability to grow in the presence of cyanide and their tolerance to increasing levels of the compound. To evaluate each isolate’s cyanide-degrading activities, isolates were grown in the simulated and actual effluent, and a titrimetric method was used to quantify residual cyanide over a number of days. Cyanide degradation efficiency (DE) was then calculated for each isolate. Identification of positive isolates involved 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequence analysis through BLAST. Six cyanide-utilising bacterial strains were isolated. Two of the isolates were identified as Klebsiella spp. while the other two were shown to be different strains of Clostridium bifermentans. All isolates showed normal growth in the presence of cyanide, with growth being inhibited at 700 mg/L cyanide and beyond. Cyanide degradation efficiency for all isolates in the simulated effluent ranged from 79% to 97%. All isolates were able to remove cyanide from actual gold mine effluent with very high DE values (90 – 94%) being recorded. Isolates obtained in this study were able to efficiently remove cyanide from both simulated and actual effluent. This observation clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the biological removal of cyanide from cyanide-rich gold mine effluents and should, therefore, motivate research towards the possible large-scale application of this technology.
Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma sp. against Macrophomina phaseolina
Forty two strains of Trichoderma sp. were isolated from cultivated lands around Bangalore and analyzed for their antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina. The potential of biocontrol agents ultimately lies in their capacity to control pathogens in vivo. Bioefficacy studies were hence conducted using chickpea (Cicer arientum c.v. Annigeri) as an experimental plant by the roll paper towel method. Overall the isolates T6, T35, T30, and T25 showed better antagonistic potential in addition to enhancing plant growth. The production of chitinases to break down the mycelial cell walls of fungal plant pathogens has been implicated as a major cause of biocontrol activity. In order to study the mechanism of biocontrol against Macrophomina phaseolina, ten better performing strains were plated on media, amended with colloidal chitin and Sclerotium rolfsii cell wall extract. All the isolates showed chitinolytic activity on day three as well as day five. Production of endochitinase and exochitinase were assayed in liquid media using colloidal chitin amended broth. Strains T35 and T6 displayed maximum endochitinase and exochitinase activity. Although all strains exhibited cellulase activity, the quantum of enzyme produced was higher in T35 and T6. The results also indicate a positive correlation between enzyme production and bioefficacy.
Isolation and Identification of Fungal Pathogens in Palm Groves of Oued Righ
Prospected palm groves of Oued Righ regions (Ouargla, Algeria) allowed us to observe sudden death of palm trees aged between 05 and 70 years. Field examinations revealed abnormal clinical signs with sometimes a quick death of affected trees. Entomologic investigations have confirmed the absence of phytophagous insects on dead trees. Further investigations by questioning farmers on the global management of palm groves visited (Irrigation, water quality used, soil type, etc.) did not establish any relationship between these aspects and the death of palm trees, which naturally pushed us to focus our investigations for research on fungal pathogens. Thus, laboratory studies were conducted to know the real causes of this phenomenon, 13 fungi were found on different parts of the dead palm trees. The flowing fungal types were identified: 1-Diplodia phoenicum, 2-Theilaviopsis paradoxa, 3-Phytophthora sp, 4-Helminthosporium sp, 5-Stemphylium botryosum, 6-Alternaria sp, 7-Aspergillus niger, 8-Aspergillus sp.
Coagulase Negative Staphylococci: Phenotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern
Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the normal commensal of human skin and mucous membranes. The study was carried out to study the prevalence of CoNS among clinical isolates, to characterize them up to species level and to compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation. Objectives: to characterize the clinically significant coagulase-negative staphylococci up to species level, to compare the three phenotypic methods for the detection of biofilm formation and to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Methods: CoNS isolates were obtained from various clinical samples during the period of 1 year. Characterization up to species level was done using biochemical test and study of biofilm formation was done by tube adherence, congo red agar, and tissue culture plate method. Results: Among 71 CoNS isolates, seven species were identified. S. epidermidis was the most common species followed by S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CoNS documented resistance of 90% to ampicillin. Resistance to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone was observed in 55% of the isolates. We detected biofilm formation in 71.8% of isolates. The sensitivity of tube adherence method was 82% while that of congo red agar method was 78%. Conclusion: Among 71 CoNS isolated, S. epidermidis was the most common isolates followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. Biofilm formation was detected in 71.8% of the isolates. All of the methods were effective at detecting biofilm-producing CoNS strains. Biofilm former strains are more resistant to antibiotics as compared to biofilm non-formers.
Prevalence and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Dodonaea viscosa Extract and Antibacterial Agents against Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry
A total of 200 samples (180 fecal materials and 20 organ samples) were collected from (5 different poultry farms, 10 local poultry shops, 5 houses poultry, 5 Eggs stores shops and 5 hand slaughters centers) in Ibb city, Yemen, 2014. According to morphological, cultural, as well as biochemical characterization and serological tests, 59 29.5% isolates were identified as Salmonella spp. and all Salmonella isolates were categorized by serotype, which comprised of, 37 62.71% Salmonella Typhimurium serovar, 21 35.59%. Salmonella Enteritidis serovar and 11.69% Salmonella Heidelberg serovar. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for bacterial isolates and the results showed there were clear differences in antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates varies as follows: Ofloxacin 79.66%, Ciprofloxacin 67.80%, Colistin 59.32% and Gentamycin 52.54%. All of isolates were resistant to Erythromycin, Penicillin and Lincomycin. Antibacterial activity was done for both aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dodonaea viscosa plant by using well and disc diffusion assay. The results indicated that well diffusion assay had best results than disc diffusion assay, the highest inhibition zone was 22 mm for well diffusion and 15 mm for disc diffusion assay, the results observed that ethanol extract had best antibacterial effect than aqueous extract which the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 71.19% comparing with aqueous extract 28.81% by using disc diffusion assay, while the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 88.13% comparing with aqueous extract 52.54% by using will diffusion assay.
Phylogenetic Analysis of Klebsiella Species from Clinical Specimens from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital in Mthatha, South Africa
Rapid and discriminative genotyping methods are useful for determining the clonality of the isolates in nosocomial or household outbreaks. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a nucleotide sequence-based approach for characterising bacterial isolates. The genetic diversity and the clinical relevance of the drug-resistant Klebsiella isolates from Mthatha are largely unknown. For this reason, prospective, experimental study of the molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella isolates from patients being treated in Mthatha over a three-year period was analysed. Methodology: PCR amplification and sequencing of the drug-resistance-associated genes, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using 7 housekeeping genes mdh, pgi, infB, FusAR, phoE, gapA and rpoB were conducted. A total of 32 isolates were analysed. Results: The percentages of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistance (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) isolates were; MDR 65.6 % (21) and XDR and PDR with 0 % each. In this study, K. pneumoniae was 19/32 (59.4 %). MLST results showed 22 sequence types (STs) were identified, which were further separated by Maximum Parsimony into 10 clonal complexes and 12 singletons. The most dominant group was Klebsiella pneumoniae with 23/32 (71.8 %) isolates, Klebsiella oxytoca as a second group with 2/32 (6.25 %) isolates, and a single (3.1 %) K. varricola as a third group while 6 isolates were of unknown sequences. Conclusions/significance: A phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of the 7 housekeeping genes showed that strains of K. pneumoniae form a distinct lineage within the genus Klebsiella, with K. oxytoca and K. varricola its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. With the analysis of 7 genes were determined 1 K. variicola, which was mistakenly identified as K. pneumoniae by phenotypic methods. Two misidentifications of K. oxytoca were found when phenotypic methods were used. No significant differences were observed between ESBL blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV groups in the distribution of Sequence types (STs) or Clonal complexes (CCs).
Species Distribution and Incidence of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Blood Cultures of Patients with True Bacteremia in Turkey
During the last few decades, the increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant-CoNS isolates has become a common problem worldwide. Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics are effectively used for the treatment of CoNS infections. However, resistance to MLSB antibiotics is prevalent among staphylococci. The aim of this study is to determine species distribution and the incidence of inducible clindamycin resistance in CoNS isolates caused nosocomial bacteremia in our hospital. Between January 2014 and October 2015, a total of 484 coagulase-negative CoNS isolates were isolated from blood samples of patients with true bacteremia who were hospitalized in intensive care units and in other departments of Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Hospital. Blood cultures were analyzed with the BACTEC 9120 system (Becton Dickinson, USA). The identification and antimicrobial resistance of isolates were determined by Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD). Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected using D-test. The species distribution was as follows: Staphylococcus epidermidis 211 (43%), S. hominis 154 (32%), S. haemolyticus 69 (14%), S. capitis 28 (6%), S. saprophyticus 11 (2%), S. warnerii 7 (1%), S. schleiferi 5 (1%) and S. lugdunensis 1 (0.2%). Resistance to methicillin was detected in 74.6% of CoNS isolates. Methicillin resistance was highest in S.hemoliticus isolates (89%). Resistance rates of CoNS strains to the antibacterial agents, respectively, were as follows: ampicillin 77%, gentamicin 20%, erythromycin 71%, clindamycin 22%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 45%, ciprofloxacin 52%, tetracycline 34%, rifampicin 20%, daptomycin 0.2% and linezolid 0.2%. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Fifteen (3%) CoNS isolates were D-test positive, inducible MLSB resistance type (iMLSB-phenotype), 94 (19%) were constitutively resistant (cMLSB -phenotype), and 237 (46,76%) isolates were found D-test negative, indicating truly clindamycin-susceptible MS phenotype (M-phenotype resistance). The incidence of iMLSB-phenotypes was higher in S. epidermidis isolates (4,7%) compared to other CoNS isolates.
Combined Aplication of Indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens and the AM Fungi as the Potential Biocontrol Agents of Banana Fusarium wilt
In this study, combination of some biocontrol agents with different mechanisms was an alternative to improve the effectiveness of the biological control agents. Single and combined applications of indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens and Arbuscular Mychorrhizae Fungi (AM Fungi) isolates were tested to induce the resistance on susceptible Cavendish banana against F.oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 under greenhouse conditions. These isolates originally isolated from healthy banana rhizosphere at endemic Fusarium wilt areas in the centre of production banana in West Sumatra. These researches were conducted with Randomized Block Design with 16 treatments and 10 replications. The treatments were three indigenous isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Par1-Cv, Par4-Rj1, Par2-Jt1) and 3 isolates of AM Fungi (Gl1BuA4, Gl2BuA6, and Gl1KeP3. The biocontrol agents were applied as single agents and combination two of them. This study demonstrated that the application of combination biocontrol organisms Pseudomonas fluorescens and AM Fungi provided were more effective than single application. The combination of Par1-Cv and Gl1BuA4 isolates was the most effective to control Fusarium wilt and followed by the combination of Par1-Cv and Gl2BuA6 and Par2-Jt1 and Gl1P3.
Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Enzyme Activities of Geosmithia pallida (KU693285): A Fungal Endophyte Associated with Brucea mollis Wall Ex. Kurz, an Endangered and Medicinal Plant of N. E. India
Endophytes are the microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects. Endophytes are rich source of therapeutic substances like antimicrobial, anticancerous, herbicidal, insecticidal, immunomodulatory compounds. Brucea mollis, commonly known as Quinine in Assam, belonging to the family Simaroubaceae, is a shrub or small tree, recorded as endangered species in North East India by CAMP survey in 2003. It is traditionally being used as antimalarial and antimicrobial agent and has antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, anticancer, diuretic, cardiovascular effect etc. Being endangered and medicinal; this plant may host certain noble endophytes which need to be studied in depth. The aim of the present study was isolation and identification of potent endophytic fungi from Brucea mollis, an endangered medicinal plant, to protect it from extinction due to over use for medicinal purposes. Aseptically collected leaves, barks and roots samples of healthy plants were washed and cut into a total of 648 segments of about 2 cm long and 0.5 cm broad with sterile knife, comprising 216 segments each from leaves, barks and roots. These segments were surface sterilized using ethanol, mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Different media viz., Czapeck-Dox-Agar (CDA, Himedia), Potato-Dextrose-Agar (PDA, Himedia), Malt Extract Agar (MEA, Himedia), Sabourad Dextrose Agar (SDA, Himedia), V8 juice agar, nutrient agar and water agar media and media amended with plant extracts were used separately for the isolation of the endophytic fungi. A total of 11 fungal species were recovered from leaf, bark and root tissues of B. mollis. The isolates were screened for antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzymatic activities using certain protocols. Cochliobolus geniculatus was identified as the most dominant species. The mycelia sterilia (creamy white) showing highest inhibitory activity against Candida albicans (MTCC 183) was induced to sporulate using modified PDA media. The isolate was identified as Geosmithia pallida. The internal transcribed spacer of rDNA was sequenced for confirmation of the taxonomic identity of the sterile mycelia (creamy white). The internal transcribed spacer r-DNA sequence was submitted to the NCBI (KU693285) for the first time from India. G. pallida and Penicillium showed highest antioxidant activity among all the isolates. The antioxidant activity of G. pallida and Penicillium didn’t show statistically significant difference (P˃0.05). G. pallida, Cochliobolus geniculatus and P. purpurogenum respectively showed highest cellulase, amylase and protease activities. Thus, endopytic fungal isolates may be used as potential natural resource of pharmaceutical importance. The endophytic fungi, Geosmithia pallida, may be used for synthesis of pharmaceutically important natural products and consequently can replace plants hitherto used for the same purpose. This study suggests that endophytes should be investigated more aggressively to better understand the endophyte biology of B. mollis.
The New Insight about Interspecies Transmission of Iranian H9N2 Influenza Viruses from Avian to Human
Documented cases of human infection with H9N2 avian influenza viruses, first detected in 1999 in Hong Kong and China, indicate that these viruses can be directly transmitted from birds to humans. In this study, we characterized the mutation in the Hemagglutinin (HA) genes and proteins that correlates with a shift in affinity of the Hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the “avian” type sialic receptors to the “human” type in 10 Iranian isolates. We delineated the genomes and receptor binding profile of HA gene of some field isolates and established their phylogenetic relationship to the other Asian H9N2 sub lineages. A total of 1200 tissue samples collected from 40 farms located in various states of Iran during 2008 – 2010 as part of a program to monitor Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV) infection. To determine the genetic relationship of Iranian viruses, the Hemagglutinin (HA) genes from ten isolates were amplified and sequenced (by RT-PCR method). Nucleotide sequences (orf) of the (HA) genes were used for phylogenetic tree construction. Deduced amino acid sequences showed the presence of L226 (234 in H9 numbering) in all ten Iranian isolates which indicates a preference to binding of α (2–6) sialic acid receptors, so these Iranian H9N2 viruses have the potential to infect human beings. These isolates showed high degree of homology with 2 human H9N2 isolates A/HK/1073/99, A/HK/1074/99. Phylogenetic analysis of showed that all the HA genes of the Iranian H9N2 viruses fall into a single group within a G1-like sublineage which had contributed as donor of six internal genes to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza. The results of this study indicated that all Iranian viruses have the potential to emerge as highly pathogenic influenza virus, and considering the homology of these isolates with human H9N2 strains, it seems that the potential of these avian influenza isolates to infect human should not be overlooked.
Incidence of Fungal Infections and Mycotoxicosis in Pork Meat and Pork By-Products in Egyptian Markets
The consumption of food contaminated with molds (microscopic filamentous fungi) and their toxic metabolites results in the development of food-borne mycotoxicosis. The spores of molds are ubiquitously spread in the environment and can be detected everywhere. Ochratoxin A is a potentially carcinogenic fungal toxin found in a variety of food commodities , not only is considered the most abundant and hence the most commonly detected member but also is the most toxic one.Ochratoxin A is the most abundant and hence the most commonly detected member, but is also the most toxic of the three. A very limited research works concerning foods of porcine origin in Egypt were obtained in spite of presence a considerable swine population and consumers. In this study, the quality of various ready-to-eat local and imported pork meat and meat byproducts sold in Egyptian markets as well as edible organs as liver and kidney were assessed for the presence of various molds and their toxins as a raw material. Mycological analysis was conducted on (n=110) samples which included pig livers n=10 and kidneys n=10 from the Basateen slaughter house; local n=70 and 20 imported processed pork meat byproducts.The isolates were identified using traditional mycological and biochemical tests while, Ochratoxin A levels were quantitatively analyzed using the high performance liquid. Results of conventional mycological tests for detecting the presence of fungal growth (yeasts or molds) were negative, while the results of mycotoxins concentrations were be greatly above the permiceable limits or "tolerable weekly intake" (TWI) of ochratoxin A established by EFSA in 2006 in local pork and pork byproducts while the imported samples showed a very slightly increasing.Since ochratoxin A is stable and generally resistant to heat and processing, control of ochratoxin A contamination lies in the control of the growth of the toxin-producing fungi. Effective prevention of ochratoxin A contamination therefore depends on good farming and agricultural practices. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) including methods to reduce fungal infection and growth during harvest, storage, transport and processing provide the primary line of defense against contamination with ochratoxin A. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of mycological assessment, especially the mycotoxins in pork byproducts in Egypt.
Impact of Climate Variability on Dispersal and Distribution of Airborne Pollen and Fungal Spores in Nsukka, South-East Nigeria: Implication on Public Health
Airborne pollen and fungal spores are major triggers of allergies, and their abundance and seasonality depend on plant responses to climatic and meteorological variables. A survey of seasonal prevalence of airborne pollen and fungal spores in Nsukka, Enugu, South- East Nigeria and relationship to climatic variables were carried out from Jan-June, 2017. The aim of the study was to access climate change and variability over time in the area and their accrued influence on modern pollen and spores rain. Decadal change in climate was accessed from variables collected from meteorological centre in the study area. Airborne samples were collected monthly using a modified Tauber-like pollen samplers raised 5 ft above ground level. Aerosamples collected were subjected to acetolysis. Dominant pollen recorded were those of Poaceae, Elaeis guinensis Jacq. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. Change in weather brought by onset of rainfall evoked sporulation and dispersal of diverse spores into ambient air especially potent allergenic spores with the spores of Ovularia, Bispora, Curvularia, Nigrospora, Helminthosporium preponderant; these 'hydrophilic fungi' were abundant in the rainy season though in varying quantities. Total fungal spores correlated positively with monthly rainfall and humidity but negatively with temperature. There was a negative though not significant correlation between total pollen count and rainfall. The study revealed a strong influence of climatic variables on abundance and spatial distribution of pollen and fungal spores in the ambient atmosphere.
Technological Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Algerian's Goat's Milk
A total of 153 wild lactic acid bacteria were isolated from goat’s milk collected from different areas in Western Algeria. The strains were identified using phenotypical, biochemical and physiological properties. API system and SDS-PAGE technique was also used in identification of the strains. Six genera were found Enterococcus (41.83%), Lactobacillus (29.40%), Lactococcus (19.60%), Leuconostoc (4.57%), Streptococcus thermophilus (3.26%) and Pediococcus (1.30%). The most abundant species were Enterococcus faecium (24 isolates), Enterococcus durans (22 isolates), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (25 isolates), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (09 isolates) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (07 isolates). The strains were screened for production and technological properties such as acid production, aminopeptidase activity, autolytic properties, antimicrobial activity and exopolysaccharide production. In general most tested isolates showed a good biomass separation when collected by centrifugation; as for the production of the lactic acid, results revealed that our strains are weakly acidifying; nevertheless, lactococci showed a best acidifying activity compared to lactobacilli. Aminopeptidase activity was also weak in most strains; but, it was generally higher for lactobacilli compared to lactococci, where we recorded 30 units for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus M14. Autolytic activity was generally higher for most strains, more particularly lactobacilli where we recorded values of 71.13% and 70% of autolysis rate respectively in Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains 9S10 and 9S7. Antimicrobial activity was detected in 50% of the isolates, particularly in lactobacilli where 80% of strains tested were able to inhibit the growth of other strains. Two strains could produce exopolysaccharides, E. faecium 8M6 and E. durans 7S8. Some strains were able to maintain two or three technological characteristics together.
Studies on Dye Removal by Aspergillus niger Strain
For color removal from wastewater containing organic contaminants, biological treatment systems have been widely used such as physical and chemical methods of flocculation, coagulation. Fungal decolorization of dye containing wastewater is one of important goal in industrial wastewater treatment. This work was aimed to characterize Aspergillus niger strain for dye removal from aqueous solution and from raw textile wastewater. Batch experiments were studied for removal of color using fungal isolate biomass under different conditions. Environmental conditions like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial dye concentration were studied. Influence of the pH on the removal of azo dye by Aspergillus niger was carried out between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0. The optimum pH for red dye decolonization was 9.0. Results showed the decolorization of dye was decreased with the increase of its initial dye concentration. The adsorption data was analyzed based on the models of equilibrium isotherm (Freundlich model and Langmuir model). During the adsorption isotherm studies; dye removal was better fitted to Freundlich model. The isolated fungal biomass was characterized according to its surface area both pre and post the decolorization process by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Results indicate that the isolated fungal biomass showed higher affinity for dye in decolorization process.
Preliminary Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Escherichia coli sp. and Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Thailand Fermented Foods
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 10 samples of fermented foods (Sa-tor-dong and Bodo) in South locality of Thailand. The 23 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were selected, which were exhibited a clear zone and growth on MRS agar supplemented with CaCO3. All of lactic acid bacteria were tested on morphological and biochemical. The result showed that all isolates were Gram’s positive, non-spore forming but only 10 isolates displayed catalase negative. The 10 isolates including BD 1.1, BD 1.2, BD 2.1, BD2.2, BD 2.3, BD 3.1, BD 4.1, BD 5.2, ST4.1, and ST 5.2 were selected for inhibition activity determination. Only 2 strains (ST 4.1 and BD 2.3) showed inhibition zone on agar, when using Escherichia coli sp. as target strain. The ST 4.1 showed highest inhibition zone on agar, which was selected for probiotic property testing. The ST4.1 isolate could grow in MRS broth containing a high concentration of sodium chloride 6%, bile salts 7%, pH 4-10 and vary temperature at 15-45^oC.
Quorum Quenching Activities of Bacteria Isolated from Red Sea Sediments
Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria communicate with each other through small signaling molecules, such as N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Also, certain bacteria have the ability to degrade AHL molecules by a process referred to as quorum quenching (QQ); therefore, QQ can be used to control bacterial infections and biofilm formation. In this study, we aimed to identify new species of bacteria with QQ activities. To achieve this, sediments from Red Sea were collected either in the close vicinity of Sea grass or from area with no vegetation. From these samples, we isolated 72 bacterial strains and tested their ability to degrade/inactivate AHL molecules. Chromobacterium violaceum based bioassay was used in initial screening of isolates for QQ activity. The QQ activity of the positive isolates was further confirmed and quantified by employing liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. These analyses showed that isolated bacterial strain could degrade AHL molecules with different acyl chain length and modifications. Sequencing of 16S-rRNA genes of positive isolates revealed that they belong to three different genera. Specifically, two isolates belong to genus Erythrobacter, four to Labrenzia and one isolate belongs to Bacterioplanes. Time course experiment showed that isolate belonging to genus Erythrobacter could degrade AHLs faster than other isolates. Furthermore, these isolates were tested for their ability to inhibit formation of biofilm and degradation of 3OXO-C12 AHLs produced by P. aeruginosa PAO1. Our results showed that isolate VG12 is better at controlling biofilm formation. This aligns with the ability of VG12 to cause at least 10-fold reduction in the amount of different AHLs tested.
Molecular Characterization of Major Isolated Organism Involved in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis
Mastitis is a common problem of dairy industries. Reduction in milk production and an irreparable damage to the udder associated with the disease are common causes of culling of dairy cows. Milk from infected animals is not suitable for drinking and for making different milk products. So, it has a major economic importance in dairy cattle. The aims of this study were to investigate the bacteriological panorama in milk from udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and to carried out for the molecular characterization of the major isolated organisms, from subclinical mastitis-affected cows in and around Durg and Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh. Isolation and identification of bacteria from the milk samples of subclinical mastitis-affected cows were done by standard and routine culture procedures. A total of 78 isolates were obtained from cows and among the various bacteria isolated, Staphylococcus spp. occupied prime position with occurrence rate of 51.282%. However, other bacteria isolated includeStreptococcus spp. (20.512%), Micrococcus spp. (14.102%), E. coli (8.974%), Klebsiela spp. (2.564%), Salmonella spp. (1.282%) and Proteus spp. (1.282%). Staphylococcus spp. was isolated as the major causative agent of subclinical mastitis in the studied area. Molecular characterization of Staphylococus aureusisolates was done for genetic expression of the virulence genes like ‘nuc’ encoding thermonucleaseexoenzyme, coa and spa by PCR amplification of the respective genes in 25 Staphylococcus isolates. In the present study, 15 isolates (77.27%) out of 20 coagulase positive isolates were found to be genotypically positive for ‘nuc’ where as 20 isolates (52.63%) out of 38 CNS expressed the presence of the same virulence gene. In the present study, three Staphylococcus isolates were found to be genotypically positive for coa gene. The Amplification of the coa gene yielded two different products of 627, 710 bp. The amplification of the gene segment encoding the IgG binding region of protein A (spa) revealed a size of 220 and 253bp in twostaphylococcus isolates. The X-region binding of the spa gene produced an amplicon of 315 bp in one Staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be major isolate (51.28%) responsible for causing subclinical mastitis in cows which also showed expression of virulence genesnuc, coa and spa.
Molecular Characterization of Major Isolated Organism Involved in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis
Mastitis is a common problem of dairy industries. Reduction in milk production and an irreparable damage to the udder associated with the disease are common causes of culling of dairy cows. Milk from infected animals is not suitable for drinking and for making different milk products. So, it has a major economic importance in dairy cattle. The aims of this study were to investigate the bacteriological panorama in milk from udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and to carried out for the molecular characterization of the major isolated organisms, from subclinical mastitis-affected cows in and around Durg and Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh. Isolation and identification of bacteria from the milk samples of subclinical mastitis-affected cows were done by standard and routine culture procedures. A total of 78 isolates were obtained from cows and among the various bacteria isolated, Staphylococcus spp. occupied prime position with occurrence rate of 51.282%. However, other bacteria isolated includeStreptococcus spp. (20.512%), Micrococcus spp. (14.102%), E. coli (8.974%), Klebsiela spp. (2.564%), Salmonella spp. (1.282%) and Proteus spp. (1.282%). Staphylococcus spp. was isolated as the major causative agent of subclinical mastitis in the studied area. Molecular characterization of Staphylococus aureusisolates was done for genetic expression of the virulence genes like ‘nuc’ encoding thermonucleaseexoenzyme, coa and spa by PCR amplification of the respective genes in 25 Staphylococcus isolates. In the present study, 15 isolates (77.27%) out of 20 coagulase positive isolates were found to be genotypically positive for ‘nuc’ where as 20 isolates (52.63%) out of 38 CNS expressed the presence of the same virulence gene. In the present study, three Staphylococcus isolates were found to be genotypically positive for coa gene. The Amplification of the coa gene yielded two different products of 627, 710 bp. The amplification of the gene segment encoding the IgG binding region of protein A (spa) revealed a size of 220 and 253bp in twostaphylococcus isolates. The X-region binding of the spa gene produced an amplicon of 315 bp in one Staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be major isolate (51.28%) responsible for causing subclinical mastitis in cows which also showed expression of virulence genesnuc, coa and spa.
Molecular Characterization of Major Isolated Organism Involved in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis
Mastitis is a common problem of dairy industries. Reduction in milk production and an irreparable damage to the udder associated with the disease are common causes of culling of dairy cows. Milk from infected animals is not suitable for drinking and for making different milk products. So, it has a major economic importance in dairy cattle. The aims of this study were to investigate the bacteriological panorama in milk from udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and to carried out for the molecular characterization of the major isolated organisms, from subclinical mastitis-affected cows in and around Durg and Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh. Isolation and identification of bacteria from the milk samples of subclinical mastitis-affected cows were done by standard and routine culture procedures. A total of 78 isolates were obtained from cows and among the various bacteria isolated, Staphylococcus spp. occupied prime position with occurrence rate of 51.282%. However, other bacteria isolated includeStreptococcus spp. (20.512%), Micrococcus spp. (14.102%), E. coli (8.974%), Klebsiela spp. (2.564%), Salmonella spp. (1.282%) and Proteus spp. (1.282%). Staphylococcus spp. was isolated as the major causative agent of subclinical mastitis in the studied area. Molecular characterization of Staphylococus aureusisolates was done for genetic expression of the virulence genes like ‘nuc’ encoding thermonucleaseexoenzyme, coa and spa by PCR amplification of the respective genes in 25 Staphylococcus isolates. In the present study, 15 isolates (77.27%) out of 20 coagulase positive isolates were found to be genotypically positive for ‘nuc’ where as 20 isolates (52.63%) out of 38 CNS expressed the presence of the same virulence gene. In the present study, three Staphylococcus isolates were found to be genotypically positive for coa gene. The Amplification of the coa gene yielded two different products of 627, 710 bp. The amplification of the gene segment encoding the IgG binding region of protein A (spa) revealed a size of 220 and 253bp in twostaphylococcus isolates. The X-region binding of the spa gene produced an amplicon of 315 bp in one Staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be major isolate (51.28%) responsible for causing subclinical mastitis in cows which also showed expression of virulence genesnuc, coa and spa.
Changing the Landscape of Fungal Genomics: New Trends
Understanding of biological processes encoded in fungi is instrumental in addressing future food, feed, and energy demands of the growing human population. Genomics is a powerful and quickly evolving tool to understand these processes. The Fungal Genomics Program of the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) partners with researchers around the world to explore fungi in several large scale genomics projects, changing the fungal genomics landscape. The key trends of these changes include: (i) rapidly increasing scale of sequencing and analysis, (ii) developing approaches to go beyond culturable fungi and explore fungal ‘dark matter,’ or unculturables, and (iii) functional genomics and multi-omics data integration. Power of comparative genomics has been recently demonstrated in several JGI projects targeting mycorrhizae, plant pathogens, wood decay fungi, and sugar fermenting yeasts. The largest JGI project ‘1000 Fungal Genomes’ aims at exploring the diversity across the Fungal Tree of Life in order to better understand fungal evolution and to build a catalogue of genes, enzymes, and pathways for biotechnological applications. At this point, at least 65% of over 700 known families have one or more reference genomes sequenced, enabling metagenomics studies of microbial communities and their interactions with plants. For many of the remaining families no representative species are available from culture collections. To sequence genomes of unculturable fungi two approaches have been developed: (a) sequencing DNA from fruiting bodies of ‘macro’ and (b) single cell genomics using fungal spores. The latter has been tested using zoospores from the early diverging fungi and resulted in several near-complete genomes from underexplored branches of the Fungal Tree, including the first genomes of Zoopagomycotina. Genome sequence serves as a reference for transcriptomics studies, the first step towards functional genomics. In the JGI fungal mini-ENCODE project transcriptomes of the model fungus Neurospora crassa grown on a spectrum of carbon sources have been collected to build regulatory gene networks. Epigenomics is another tool to understand gene regulation and recently introduced single molecule sequencing platforms not only provide better genome assemblies but can also detect DNA modifications. For example, 6mC methylome was surveyed across many diverse fungi and the highest among Eukaryota levels of 6mC methylation has been reported. Finally, data production at such scale requires data integration to enable efficient data analysis. Over 700 fungal genomes and other -omes have been integrated in JGI MycoCosm portal and equipped with comparative genomics tools to enable researchers addressing a broad spectrum of biological questions and applications for bioenergy and biotechnology.
Impact of Ethnomedicinal Plants on Toothpaste Improvement
Objectives: The aim of this study to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of combined toothpaste with medicinal plants and the relations between the commercial toothpaste to its price and the patient age as well. Materials and Methods: Oral isolates of different patients aged 3 to 60 years were obtained, purified, and tested against four different ethnomedicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial activity. A total of 10 different commercial toothpastes (different brands and prices) were collected from the market, and the combined action of the medicinal plants and toothpaste was studied. Results: We found a higher bacterial population in the age group of 3–40 years than the group of 40–60 years, with approximately 44% and 32%, respectively. The combined action of ethanolic extract (alone) against oral isolates showed a synergistic effect, with 32.20, 30.50, and 25.42% for combinations A (Ci/Ca), B (Ci/Ca/P), and C (Ci/Ca/P/N), respectively. By contrast, the combined action of ethnomedicinal plants with 10 different toothpastes improved the antimicrobial sensitivity by 60, 100, and 0% for combinations A, B, and C respectively. Clinical relevance: The ethanolic extract of only combinations A and B with commercial toothpaste showed high antibacterial activity against oral isolates and the effectiveness of toothpaste is not related to the price.
Identification and Characterization of Heavy Metal Resistant Bacteria from the Klip River
Pollution of the Klip River has caused microorganisms inhabiting it to develop protective survival mechanisms. This study isolated and characterized the heavy metal resistant bacteria in the Klip River. Water and sediment samples were collected from six sites along the course of the river. The pH, turbidity, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were measured in-situ. The concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) of the water samples were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochemical and antibiotic profiles of the isolates were assessed using the API 20E® and Kirby Bauer Method. Growth studies were carried out using spectrophotometric methods. The isolates were identified using 16SrDNA sequencing. The uppermost part of the Klip River with the lowest pH had the highest levels of heavy metals. Turbidity, salinity and specific conductivity increased measurably at Site 4 (Henley on Klip Weir). MIC tests showed that 16 isolates exhibited high iron and lead resistance. Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that the isolates exhibited multi-tolerances to drugs such as tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin.
Application of Phenol Degrading Microorganisms for the Treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW)
The growth of the olive oil production in Saudi Arabia peculiarly in Al Jouf region in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the discharge of associated processing waste. Olive mill waste is produced throughout the extraction of oil from the olive fruit using the traditional mill and press process. Deterioration of the environment due to olive mill disposal wastes is a serious problem. When olive mill waste disposed into the soil, it affects soil quality, soil micro flora, and also toxic to plants. The aim of this work is to isolate microorganism (bacterial or fungal strains) from OMW capable of degrading phenols. Olive mill wastewater, olive mill waste and soil (beside oil production mill) contaminated with olive waste were used for isolation of phenol tolerant microorganisms. Four strains (two fungal and two bacterial) were isolated from olive mill waste. The isolated strains were Candida tropicalis and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (fungal strains) and Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp. (bacterial strains). These strains were able to degrade phenols and could be used for bioremediation of olive mill waste.
Investigation of Clusters of MRSA Cases in a Hospital in Western Kenya
Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major cause of nosocomial infections in Kenya. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections are a significant burden to public health and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. At a hospital in Western Kenya two clusters of MRSA cases emerged within short periods of time. In this study we explored whether these clusters represented a nosocomial outbreak by characterizing the isolates using phenotypic and molecular assays and examining epidemiological data to identify possible transmission patterns. Specimens from the site of infection of the subjects were collected, cultured and S. aureus isolates identified phenotypically and confirmed by APIStaph™. MRSA were identified by cefoxitin disk screening per CLSI guidelines. MRSA were further characterized based on their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and spa gene typing. Characteristics of cases with MRSA isolates were compared with those with MSSA isolated around the same time period. Two cases of MRSA infection were identified in the two week period between 21 April and 4 May 2015. A further 2 MRSA isolates were identified on the same day on 7 September 2015. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the two MRSA isolates in the 1st cluster of cases were different suggesting that these were distinct isolates. One isolate had spa type t2029 and the other had a novel spa type. The 2 isolates were obtained from urine and an open skin wound. In the 2nd cluster of MRSA isolates, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns were similar but isolates had different spa types: one was t037 and the other a novel spa type different from the novel MRSA spa type in the first cluster. Both cases in the second cluster were admitted into the hospital but one infection was community- and the other hospital-acquired. Only one of the four MRSA cases was classified as an HAI from an infection acquired post-operatively. When compared to other S. aureus strains isolated within the same time period from the same hospital only one spa type t2029 was found in both MRSA and non-MRSA strains. None of the cases infected with MRSA in the two clusters shared any common epidemiological characteristic such as age, sex or known risk factors for MRSA such as prolonged hospitalization or institutionalization. These data suggest that the observed MRSA clusters were multi strain clusters and not an outbreak of a single strain. There was no clear relationship between the isolates by spa type suggesting that no transmission was occurring within the hospital between these cluster cases but rather that the majority of the MRSA strains were circulating in the community. There was high diversity of spa types among the MRSA strains with none of the isolates sharing spa types. Identification of disease clusters in space and time is critical for immediate infection control action and patient management. Spa gene typing is a rapid way of confirming or ruling out MRSA outbreaks so that costly interventions are applied only when necessary.
Genetic Characterization of Acanthamoeba Isolates from Amoebic Keratitis Patients
Background: Amoebic keratitis is a painful vision threatening infection caused by a free living pathogenic amoeba Acanthamoeba. It can be misdiagnosed and very difficult to treat if not suspected early. The epidemiology of Acanthamoeba genotypes causing infection in our geographical area is not yet known to the best of our knowledge. Objective: To characterize Acanthamoeba isolates from amoebic keratitis patients. Methods: A total of 19 isolates obtained from patients with amoebic keratitis presenting to the Advanced Eye Centre at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, a tertiary care centre of North India over a period of last 10 years were included. Their corneal scrapings, lens solution and lens case (in case of lens wearer) were collected for microscopic examination, culture and molecular diagnosis. All the isolates were maintained in the Non Nutrient agar culture medium overlaid with E.coli and 13 strains were axenised and maintained in modified Peptone Yeast Dextrose Agar. Identification of Acanthamoeba genotypes was based on amplification of diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18srRNA gene followed by sequencing. Nucleotide similarity search was performed by BLAST search of sequenced amplicons in GenBank database (http// Multiple Sequence alignments were determined by using CLUSTAL X. Results: Nine out of 19 Acanthamoeba isolates were found to belong to Genotype T4 followed by 6 isolates of genotype T11, 3 T5 and 1 T3 genotype. Conclusion: T4 is the predominant Acanthamoeba genotype in our geographical area. Further studies should focus on differences in pathogenicity of these genotypes and their clinical significance.
Detection of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout
The present study was done to evaluate the presence of tetracycline resistance genes in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from cultured rainbow trout, West Iran. The isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion method. Of the 49 strains tested, 19 were resistant to tetracycline (38.7%), 32 to enrofloxacin (65.3%), 21 to erythromycin (42.8%), 20 to chloramphenicol and trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40.8%). The strains were then characterized for their genotypic resistance profiles. The results revealed that all 49 isolates contained at least one of the tetracycline resistance genes. Tet (A) was found in 89.4% of tetracycline resistant isolates and the frequency of other gene were as follow: tet (E) 42.1%, tet (B) 47.3%, tet (D) 15.7%, tet (L) 26.3%, tet (K) 52.6%, tet (G) 36.8%, tet (34) 21%, tet (S) 63.1%, tet (C) 57.8%, tet (M) 73.6%, tet (O) 42.1%. The results revealed high levels of antibiotic resistance in L. garvieae strains which is a potential danger for trout culture as well as for public health.
Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens β2-Toxin in Type a Isolates of Sheep and Goats
Introduction: Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen responsible for causing enteric diseases in both human and animals. The bacteria produce several toxins. These toxins play vital role in the pathogenesis of various fatal enteric diseases and are classified into five types, on the basis of the differential production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. In addition to the so-called major toxins, there are other toxins like beta2 toxin, produced by some strains of C. perfringens which may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Aim of the study: In this study a multiplex PCR assay was developed and used for detection of cpb2 gene to identify the Beta2 harboring isolates among different types of C. perfringens. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of β2-toxin gene in local isolates of Clostridium perfringens. Methodology: This was an experimental study. Random sampling technique was used. A total of 97 sheep and goats were included in this study. All were Pakistani local breeds. The samples were collected during the period from Sep, 2014 to Mar, 2015 from selected districts of Punjab province (Pakistan). Faecal samples were cultured in cooked meat media. The identification of Clostridium perfringens was made on the basis of biochemical tests. Multiplex PCR was performed to identify the toxin genes. Results: A total of 43 C. perfringens isolates were genotyped using multiplex PCR assay. The gene encoding C. perfringens β2-toxin (cpb2) was present in more than 50% of the isolates genotyped. However, the prevalence of this gene varied between sheep and goat isolates. Conclusion: The present study suggests the high occurrence of C. perfringens b2-toxin (cpb2) in the local isolates of Pakistan. As β2-toxin is present in both healthy and diseased animals, so further studies are suggested to establish the role of β2-toxin in pathogenesis of the clostridial enteric diseases.
Optimization of the Culture Medium, Incubation Period, pH and Temperatures for Maximal Dye Bioremoval Using A. Fumigates
This study dealing with optimization the conditions affecting the formation of extracellular lignin- degrading enzymes to achieve maximal decolorization activity of Direct Violet dye by one fungal strain. In this study Aspergillus fumigates fungal strain used for production extracellular ligninolytic enzymes for removing Direct Violet dye under different conditions: culture medium, incubation period, pH and temperatures. The results indicted that the removal efficiency of A. fumigatus was enhanced by addition glucose and peptone to the culture medium. The addition of peptone and glucose was found to increase the decolorization activity of the fungal isolate from 51.38% to 93.74% after 4 days of incubation. The highest production of extracellular lignin degrading enzymes also recorded in Direct Violet dye medium supplemented with peptone and glucose. It was also found the decolorization activity of A. fumigatus was decreased gradually by increasing the incubation period up to 4 days. Also it was found that the fungal strain can grow and produce extracellular ligninolytic enzymes which accompanied by efficient removal of Direct Violet dye in a wide pH range of 4-8. The results also found that the maximal biosynthesis of ligninolytic enzymes which accompanied with maximal removal of Direct Violet dye was obtained at a temperature of 28C. This indicates that the different conditions of culture medium, incubation period, pH and temperatures are effective on dye decolorization on the fungal biomass and played a role in Direct Violet dye removal along with enzymatic activity of A. fumigatus.
Characterization of β-Lactamases Resistance amongst Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolated from Clinical Samples, Egypt
Background: Acinetobacter spp. resistance towards β-lactam antibiotics is mediated mainly by different classes of β-lactamases production; detection of some genes responsible for production of β-lactamases is the objective of the study. Methods: One hundred fifty bacterial isolates were recovered from blood, sputum, and urine specimens from different hospitals in Egypt. Sixty-nine isolate were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii using traditional biochemical tests, CHROM agar, MicroScan and PCR amplification of blaoxa-51like gene. Acinetobacterbaumannii isolates were grouped into carbapenem resistant group (GP1), cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoxitin resistant group (GP2) and carbapenem and cephalosporin non-resistant group (GP3). Carbapenemase activity was screened using modified Hodge test (MHT) for GP1.Metallo-β-lactamases screening was performed for MHT positive isolates using double disk synergy test (DDST) and combined disk test (CDT). Amp C activity was screened using Amp C disk test with Tris-EDTA, DDST, and CDT for GP2. Finally, PCR amplification of blaoxa-51like, blaoxa-23like, blaIMP-like, blaVIM-like, and blaADC-like genes was performed for isolates that showed, at least, two positive results of three for both AmpC and carbapenemases phenotypic screening tests (obvious activity), in addition to GP3 (for comparison). Detection of blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes preceded by ISAba1 was also performed. Results: Antibiogram of 69 pure Acinetobacter baumannii isolates resulted in 57, 64, and 2 isolates enrolled into GP1, GP2, and GP3, respectively. Carbapenemase activity was shown by 49(85.9%) isolate using MHT. Metallo-β-lactamases screening revealed 32(65.3%) and 35(71.4%) using DDST and CDT, respectively.AmpC activity was shown by 43(67.2%) and 50 (78.1%) isolates using AmpC disk test with Tris-EDTA, and both DDST and CDT, respectively. Twenty-seven isolates showed obvious activity, all of them (100%) were harboring blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes, while blaoxa-23like, blaIMP-like andblaVIM-like genes were harbored by 23(85.2%), 9 (33.%) and no isolate respectively. Only 12 (44.4%) isolates harbored blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes preceded by ISAba1. GP3 isolates showed only positive blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes. Conclusion: It is not possible to correlate resistance with presence of blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes and presence of ISAba1 was immediate as transcriptional promoter. A blaoxa-23like gene played an important role in carbapenem resistance when compared with blaIMP-like and blaVIM-like gene.
Phenotypic and Symbiotic Characterization of Rhizobia Isolated from Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) in Moroccan Soils
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important food legume crop in Morocco. It is mainly used as human food and feed for animals. Faba bean also plays an important role in cereal-based cropping systems, when rotated with cereals it improves soil fertility by fixing N2 in root nodules mediated by Rhizobium. Both faba bean and its biological nitrogen fixation symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium are affected by different stresses such as: salinity, drought, pH, heavy metal, and the uptake of inorganic phosphate compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenotypic diversity among the faba bean rhizobial isolates and to select the tolerant strains that can fix N2 under environmental constraints for inoculation particularly for affected soils, in order to enhance the productivity of faba bean and to improve soil fertility. Result have shown that 62% of isolates were fast growing with the ability of producing acids compounds , while 38% of isolates are slow growing with production of alkalins. Moreover, 42.5% of these isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 and the index of solubilization was ranged from 2.1 to 3.0. The resistance to extreme pH, temperature, water stress heavy metals and antibiotics lead us to classify rhizobial isolates into different clusters. Finally, the authentication test under greenhouse conditions showed that 55% of the rhizobial isolates could induce nodule formation on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under greenhouse experiment. This phenotypic characterization may contribute to improve legumes and non legumes crops especially in affected soils and also to increase agronomic yield in the dry areas.
Fungal Flocculation of Single Algae Species and Mixed Algal Communities
Microalgae are extremely useful organisms but notoriously hard to harvest. The use of fungal pellets has been found to be an efficient way to flocculate numerous species of algae. However, only the flocculation of single species of algae has been investigated. Algae are generally found in complex communities in the environment comprising of numerous species of algae ranging from simple single cell algae such as Chlorella to more complex or communal algae such as Dictyosphaerium. This study investigated the flocculation capabilities of Aspergillus oryzae to flocculate four species of algae; Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus and Dictyosphaerium sp., and the algal communities in four different types of domestic effluent from a lagoon-based treatment plant; primary effluent, secondary effluent and the high rate algal pond effluent at a natural and at a lowered pH level. Spectrophotometry was used to measure the changes in algal population. C. vulgaris, S. acuminatus and S. quadricauda, had over 90% reduction of algal in suspension after 24 hours. Dictyosphaerium sp. showed a little to no removal after 24 hours. The primary, secondary, and natural pH level HRAP had roughly a 50% removal after 24 hours, the HRAP which was grown at a lower pH level had over a 90% removal after 24 hours. pH has been shown previously to affect fungal flocculation. Fungal and algae pellets have been shown to be able to treat wastewater and can be converted to biofuels in a very similar method to how algae are currently converted. The mixture of both fungi and algae has also been shown to provide a higher yield of oils then separately and are able to more efficiently treat wastewater then algae or fungi by themselves.
Screening of Indigenous Rhizobacteria for Growth Promoting and Antagonistic Activity against Fusarium Oxysporoum in Tomato
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to enhance plant growth and/or reduce plant damage due to soil-borne pathogens. Tomato is the highest consumable vegetable world-wide including Jordan. Fusarium oxysporum is a pathogen that causes well-known damages and losses to many vegetable crops including tomato. In this study, purification of 112 isolates of PGPR strains from rhizosphere environment of different regions in Jordan was accomplished. All bacterial isolates were In-vitro screened for antagonistic effects against F. oxysporum. The eleven most effective isolates that caused 30%-50% in-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum were selected. 8 out of 11 of these isolates were collected from Al-Halabat (arid-land). 7 isolates of Al-Halabat exerted 40-54% In-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum. Four-week-old seedlings of tomato cultivar (Anjara, the most susceptible indigenous cultivar to F. oxysporum) treated with PGPR5 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens), and exposed to F. oxysporum, showed no disease symptoms and no significant changes in biomasses or chlorophyll contents indicating a non-direct mechanism of action of PGPR on tomato plants. However PGPR3 (Bacillus sp.), PGPR4 (Bacillus cereus), and PGPR38 (Paenibacillus sp.) treated plants or PGPR treated and exposed to F. oxysporum showed a significant increasing growth of shoot and root biomasses as well as chlorophyll contents of leaves compared to control untreated plants or plants exposed to the fungus without PGPR treatment. A significant increase in number of flowers per plant was also recorded in all PGPR treated plants. The characterization of rhizobacterial strains were accomplished using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in addition to microscopic characterization. Further research is necessary to explore the potentiality of other collected PGPR isolates on tomato plants in addition to investigate the efficacy of the identified isolates on other plant pathogens and then finding a proper and effective methods of formulation and application of the successful isolates on selected crops.
Ergosterol Regulated Functioning of Rubisco in Tomato
Ergosterol, is an important fungal metabolite on phylloplane which is not synthesised by plants. However, the functional requirement of ergosterol to the plants is still an enigma. Being ubiquitously present in all plants except algae needs an insight into its physiological implication. The present study aimed at understanding if and how ergosterol influences the physiology of chloroplast particularly the activity of RuBisCo and carbonic anhydrase. The concept of the study was based on one of our earlier observation of enhanced Hills reaction in plants treated with fungal metabolites which contained ergosterol. The fungal metabolite treated plants had a significantly high concentration of photosynthetic pigments. Eight-week-old tomato plants raised under aseptic conditions at 25 + 10 C, 75 % relative humidity and 12 hour L/D photoperiod. Metabolites of Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum were sprayed on plants either singly or in a 1: 1 combination. A separate group of plants was also treated with 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0. 7.0 mg ergosterol / ml of n- heptane. Control plants were treated with sterile distilled water only. Plants were sampled at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of treatment. RuBisCo and carbonic anhydrase was estimated from sampled leaves. RuBisCo was separated on 1D SDS-PAGE and subjected to MALDI – TOF- TOF – MS analysis. The presence of ergosterol in fungal metabolites was confirmed. Fungal metabolites significantly enhanced the concentration and activity of RuBisCo and carbonic anhydrase. The Vmax activity of the enzymes was significantly high in metabolite treated plants. 1:1 mix of metabolite was more effective than when applied individually. Insilico analysis revealed, RuBisCo subunits had a binding site for ergosterol and in its presence affinity of Co2 to the enzyme increased by several folds. Invivo activity of RuBisCo was significantly elicited by ergosterol. Results of the present study indicate that ergosterol from phylloplane microfungi probably regulates the binding of Co2 to RuBisCo along with activity of carbonic anhydrase thereby modulating the physiology of choloroplast.
Utilization of Whey for the Production of β-Galactosidase Using Yeast and Fungal Culture
Whey is the lactose rich by-product of the dairy industry, having good amount of nutrient reservoir. Most abundant nutrients are lactose, soluble proteins, lipids and mineral salts. Disposing of whey by most of milk plants which do not have proper pre-treatment system is the major issue. As a result of which, there can be significant loss of potential food and energy source. Thus, whey has been explored as the substrate for the synthesis of different value added products such as enzymes. β-galactosidase is one of the important enzymes and has become the major focus of research due to its ability to catalyze both hydrolytic as well as transgalactosylation reaction simultaneously. The enzyme is widely used in dairy industry as it catalyzes the transformation of lactose to glucose and galactose, making it suitable for the lactose intolerant people. The enzyme is intracellular in both bacteria and yeast, whereas for molds, it has an extracellular location. The present work was carried to utilize the whey for the production of β-galactosidase enzyme using both yeast and fungal cultures. The yeast isolate Kluyveromyces marxianus WIG2 and various fungal strains have been used in the present study. Different disruption techniques have also been investigated for the extraction of the enzyme produced intracellularly from yeast cells. Among the different methods tested for the disruption of yeast cells, SDS-chloroform showed the maximum β-galactosidase activity. In case of the tested fungal cultures, Aureobasidium pullulans NCIM 1050, was observed to be the maximum extracellular enzyme producer.
Identification of Cellulose-Hydrolytic Thermophiles Isolated from Sg. Klah Hot Spring Based on 16S rDNA Gene Sequence
In this study, six bacterial isolates of a slightly thermophilic organism from the Sg. Klah hot spring, Malaysia were successfully isolated and designated as M7T55D1, M7T55D2, M7T55D3, M7T53D1, M7T53D2 and M7T53D3 respectively. The bacterial isolates were screened for their cellulose hydrolytic ability on Carboxymethlycellulose agar medium. The isolated bacterial strains were identified morphologically, biochemically and molecularly with the aid of 16S rDNA sequencing. All of the bacteria showed their optimum growth at a slightly alkaline pH of 7.5 with a temperature of 55°C. All strains were Gram-negative, non-spore forming type, strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive with the ability to produce thermostable cellulase. Based on BLASTn results, bacterial isolates of M7T55D2 and M7T53D1 gave the highest homology (97%) with similarity to Tepidimonas ignava while isolates M7T55D1, M7T55D3, M7T53D2 and M7T53D3 showed their closest homology (97%-98%) with Tepidimonas thermarum. These cellulolytic thermophiles might have a commercial potential to produce valuable thermostable cellulase.
Phenotypic Characterization of Listeria Spp Isolated from Chicken Carcasses Marketed in Northeast of Iran
Listeria infections occur worldwide in variety of animals and man. Listeriae are widely distributed in nature. The organism has been isolated from the feces of humans and several animals, different soils, plants, aquatic environments and food of animal and vegetable origin. Listeria monocytogenes is recognized as important food-borne pathogens due to its high mortality rate. This organism is able to growth at refrigeration temperature, and high osmotic pressure. Poultry can become contaminated environmentally or through healthy carrier birds. In recent decades, prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents may be lead to emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms, which can be transmitted to human through consumption of contaminated foods. In this study, from 200 fresh chicken carcasses samples which were collected randomly from different supermarkets and butcheries, 80 samples were detected as contaminate with Listeria spp. and 19% of the isolates identified as Listeria monocytogene using multiplex PCR assay. Conventional methods were used to differentiate other species of the listeria genus. The results showed the most prevalent isolates as L. monocytogenes (48.75%). Other isolates were detected as Listeria innocua (28.75%), Listeria murrayi (20%), Listeria grayi (3.75%) and Listeria welshimeri (2.5%).The Majority of the isolates had multidrug resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Most of them were resistant to erythromycin (50%), followed by Tetracycline (44.44%), Clindamycin (41.66%), and Trimethoprim (25%). Some of them showed resistance to chloramphenicol (17.65%). The results indicate the resistance of the isolates to antimicrobials commonly used to treat human listeriosis, which could be a potential health hazard for consumers.
Production, Extraction and Purification of Fungal Chitosan and Its Modification for Medical Applications
Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Chitosan is a positively charged natural biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. It is a linear polysaccharide consisting of β-1,4 linked monomers of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Chitosan can be mainly obtained from fungal sources during large fermentation process. In this study,three different fungal strains Aspergillus niger NCIM 1045, Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 645 and Mucor indicus MTCC 3318 were used for the production of chitosan. The growth mediums were optimized for maximum fungal production. The produced chitosan was characterized by determining degree of deacetylation. Chitosan possesses one reactive amino at the C-2 position of the glucosamine residue, and these amines confer important functional properties to chitosan which can be exploited for biofabrication to generate various chemically modified derivatives and explore their potential for pharmaceutical field. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking with tripolyphosphate (TPP). The major effect on encapsulation and release of protein (e.g. enzyme diastase) in chitosan-TPP nanoparticles was investigated in order to control the loading and release efficiency. It was noted that the chitosan loading and releasing efficiency as a nanocapsule, obtained from different fungal sources was almost near to initial enzyme activity(12026 U/ml) with a negligible loss. This signify, chitosan can be used as a polymeric drug as well as active component or protein carrier material in dosage by design due to its appealing properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and relatively low production cost from abundant natural sources. Based upon these initial experiments, studies were also carried out on modification of chitosan based nanocapsules incorporated with physiologically important enzymes and nutraceuticals for target delivery.
Flora of Seaweeds and the Preliminary Screening of the Fungal Endophytes
Seaweeds are economically important as they have the potential of being utilized, the capabilities and opportunities for further expansion as well as the availability of other species for future development. Hence, research on the diversity and distribution of seaweeds have to be expanded whilst the seaweeds are one of the Malaysian marine valuable heritage. The study on the distribution of seaweeds at Pengerang, Johor was carried out between February and November 2015 at Kampung Jawa Darat and Kampung Sungai Buntu. The study sites are located at the south-southeast of Peninsular Malaysia where the Petronas Refinery and Petrochemicals Integrated Project Development (RAPID) are in progress. In future, the richness of seaweeds in Pengerang will vanish soon due to the loss of habitat prior to RAPID project. The research was completed to study the diversity of seaweed and to determine the present of fungal endophyte isolated from the seaweed. The sample was calculated by using quadrat with 25-meter line transect by 3 replication for each site. The specimen were preserved, identified, processed in the laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The complete thallus specimens for fungal endophyte screening were chosen meticulously, transferred into sterile zip-lock plastic bag and kept in the freezer for further process. A total of 29 species has been identified including 12 species of Chlorophyta, 2 species of Phaeophyta and 14 species of Rhodophyta. From February to November 2015, the number of species highly varied and there was a significant change in community structure of seaweeds. Kampung Sungai Buntu shows the highest diversity throughout the study compared to Kampung Jawa Darat. This evidence can be related to the high habitat preference such as types of shores which is rocky, sandy and having lagoon and bay. These can enhance the existence of the seaweeds community due to variations of the habitat. Eighteen seaweed species were selected and screened for the capability presence of fungal endophyte; Sargassum polycystum marked having the highest number of fungal endophyte compared to the other species. These evidence has proved the seaweed have capable of accommodating a lot of species of fungal endophytes. Thus, these evidence leads to positive consequences where further research should be employed.
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Pigs at Slaughterhouses in Northeast of Thailand
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. isolated from pigs at slaughterhouses in the northeast of Thailand. During 2015-2016, all samples were isolated and identified by ISO 6579:2002. A total of 699 samples of rectal swab were collected and isolated for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 275 of 699 (39.34%) samples. 24 serovars were identified in the 275 isolates. The most prevalent serovars were rissen (36.97%), S. enterica ser.4,5,12:i: (25.35%) and typhimurium (21.33%). In this study, 76.30% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug and 38.39% were multidrug resistant. The highest resistances were found in ampicillin (69.20%), tetracycline (66.35%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (35.55%) and chloramphenicol (9.00%) The results showed high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pigs and high antimicrobial resistance among the isolates, and indicated the need for monitoring program to control Salmonella contamination and reduce the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in pig supply chain.
Evaluation of Methods for Simultaneous Extraction and Purification of Fungal and Bacterial DNA from Vaginal Swabs
Background: The interactions between bacteria and fungi in the human vaginal microbiome are fundamental to the concept of health and disease. The means by which the microbiota and mycobiota interact is still poorly understood and further studies are necessary to properly characterize this complex ecosystem. The aim of this study was to select a DNA extraction method capable of recovering high qualities of fungal and bacterial DNA from a single vaginal swab. Methods: 11 female volunteers ( ≥ 20 to < 55 years old) self-collected vaginal swabs in triplicates. Three commercial extraction kits: Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (Epicenter), PureLink™ Microbiome DNA Purification kit (Invitrogen), and Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) were evaluated on the ability to recover fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. The extraction kits were compared on the basis of recovery, yield, purity, and the community richness of bacterial (16S rRNA - V3-V4 region) and fungal (ITS1) microbiota composition by Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing. Results: Recovery of bacterial DNA was achieved with all three kits while fungal DNA was only consistently recovered with Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (yield and purity). Overall, all kits displayed similar microbiota profiles for the top 20 OTUs; however, Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) showed more species richness than the other two kits. Conclusion: In the present study, Masterpure Yeast purification kit proved to be a good candidate for purification of high quality fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. These findings have potential benefits that could be applied in future vaginal microbiome research. Whilst the use of a single extraction method would lessen the burden of multiple swab sampling, decrease laboratory workload and off-set costs associated with multiple DNA extractions, thoughtful consideration must be taken when selecting an extraction kit depending on the desired downstream application.
Fecal Prevalence, Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia
Salmonella is one of the major zoonotic pathogens affecting wide range of vertebrates and humans worldwide. Consumption of contaminated dairy products and contact with dairy cattle represent the common sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in humans. Fecal samples were collected from 132 dairy herds in central Ethiopia and cultured for Salmonella to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from the feces of at least one cattle in 10(7.6%) of the dairy farms. Out of 1193 fecal samples 30(2.5%) were positive for Salmonella. Large farm size, detection of diarrhea in one or more animals during sampling and keeping animals completely indoor compared to occasional grazing outside were associated with Salmonella positivity of the farms. Farm level prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in young animals below 6 months of age compared to other age groups(X2=10.24; p=0.04). Nine different serotypes were isolated. The four most frequently recovered serotypes were S. Typhimurium (23.3%),S. Saintpaul (20%) and S. Kentucky and S. Virchow (16.7%) each. All isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 18 drugs tested. Twenty-six (86.7%), 20(66.7%), 18(60%), 16(53.3%) of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline respectively. Resistance to 2 drugs was detected in 93.3% of the isolates. Resistance to 3 or more drugs were detected in 21(70%) of the total isolates while multi-drug resistance (MDR) to 7 or more drugs were detected in 12 (40%) of the isolates. The rate of occurrence of MDR in Salmonella strains isolated from dairy farms in Addis Ababa was significantly higher than those isolated from farms outside of Addis Ababa((p= 0.009). The detection of high MDR in Salmonella isolates originating from dairy farms warrants the need for strict pathogen reduction strategy in dairy cattle and spread of these MDR strains to human population.
A Comparison of Antibiotic Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Infections
Background: The Middle East, in particular Kuwait, contains one of the highest rates of patients with Diabetes in the world. Generally, infections resistant to antibiotics among the diabetic population has been shown to be on the rise. This is the first study in Kuwait to compare the antibiotic resistance profiles and genotypic differences between the resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Material/Methods: In total, 65 isolates were collected from diabetic patients consisting of 34 E. coli, 15 K. pneumoniae and 16 other Enterobacteriaceae species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.). In our control group, a total of 49 isolates consisting of 37 E. coli, 7 K. pneumoniae and 5 other species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.) were included. Isolates were identified at the species level and antibiotic resistance profiles, including Colistin, were determined using initially the Vitek system followed by double dilution MIC and E-test assays. Multi drug resistance (MDR) was defined as isolates resistant to a minimum of three antibiotics from three different classes. PCR was performed to detect ESBL genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM & blaSHV), flouroquinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS & aac(6’)-lb-cr) and carbapenem resistance genes (blaOXA, blaVIM, blaGIM, blaKPC, blaIMP, & blaNDM) in both groups. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to compare clonal relatedness of both E. coli and K.pneumonaie isolates. Results: Colistin resistance was determined in three isolates with MICs of 32-128 mg/L. A significant difference in resistance to ampicillin (Diabetes 93.8% vs control 72.5%, P value < 0.002), augmentin (80% vs 52.5%, p value < 0.003), cefuroxime (69.2% vs 45%, p value < 0.0014), ceftazadime (73.8% vs 42.5%, p value < 0.001) and ciprofloxacin (67.6% vs 40%, p value < 0.005) were determined. Also, a significant difference in MDR rates between the two groups (Diabetes 76.9%, control 57.5%, p value < 0.036 were found. All antibiotic resistance genes showed a higher prevalence among the diabetic group, except for blaCTX-M, which was higher among the control group. PFGE showed a high rate of diversity between each group of isolates. Conclusions: Our results suggested an alarming rate of antibiotic resistance, in particular Colistin resistance (1.8%) among K. pneumoniea isolated from diabetic patients in Kuwait. MDR among Enterobacteriaceae infections also seems to be a worrying issue among the diabetics of Kuwait. More efforts are required to limit the issue of antibiotic resistance in Kuwait, especially among patients with diabetes mellitus.
Evaluation of Four Different DNA Targets in Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection and Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting genomic DNA segments have been established for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in clinical specimens. However, the data on comparative evaluations of various targets in detection of H. pylori are limited. Furthermore, the frequencies of vacA (s1 and s2) and cagA genotypes, which are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori in other parts of the world, are not well studied in Kuwait. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR assays for the detection and genotyping of H. pylori by targeting the amplification of DNA targets from four genomic segments. The genomic DNA were isolated from 72 clinical isolates of H. pylori and tested in PCR with four pairs of oligonucleotides primers, i.e. ECH-U/ECH-L, ET-5U/ET-5L, CagAF/CagAR and Vac1F/Vac1XR, which were expected to amplify targets of various sizes (471 bp, 230 bp, 183 bp and 176/203 bp, respectively) from the genomic DNA of H. pylori. The PCR-amplified DNA were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR products of expected size were obtained with all primer pairs by using genomic DNA isolated from H. pylori. DNA dilution experiments showed that the most sensitive PCR target was 471 bp DNA amplified by the primers ECH-U/ECH-L, followed by the targets of Vac1F/Vac1XR (176 bp/203 DNA), CagAF/CagAR (183 bp DNA) and ET-5U/ET-5L (230 bp DNA). However, when tested with undiluted genomic DNA isolated from single colonies of all isolates, the Vac1F/Vac1XR target provided the maximum positive results (71/72 (99% positives)), followed by ECH-U/ECH-L (69/72 (93% positives)), ET-5U/ET-5L (51/72 (71% positives)) and CagAF/CagAR (26/72 (46% positives)). The results of genotyping experiments showed that vacA s1 (46% positive) and vacA s2 (54% positive) genotypes were almost equally associated with VaCA+/CagA- isolates (P &gt; 0.05), but with VacA+/CagA+ isolates, S1 genotype (92% positive) was more frequently detected than S2 genotype (8% positive) (P&lt; 0.0001). In conclusion, among the primer pairs tested, Vac1F/Vac1XR provided the best results for detection of H. pylori. The genotyping experiments showed that vacA s1 and vacA s2 genotypes were almost equally associated with vaCA+/cagA- isolates, but vacA s1 genotype had a significantly increased association with vacA+/cagA+ isolates.
Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco
112 lactic isolates were obtained from 15 samples of camel raw milk produced in Laayoune Boujdour Sakia-El Hamra region (South of Morocco). The main objective was the identification of species of lactic flora belonging to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. Data obtained showed predominance of cocci among lactic isolates (86.6%) while lactic rods represented only 13.4%. With regard to genera identified, Enterococcus was the mostly found out (53.57%), followed by Lactococcus (28.57%), Lactobacillus (13.4%) and Leuconostoc (4.4 %). Identification of the lactic isolates according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics led to differentiating 11 species with Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis biovar diacetylactis being the mostly encountered (24.1%) followed by Lactobacillus brevis (3.57%), Lactobacillus plantarum (3.57%), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp lactis (3.57%) and Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris (2.67%).
Emergence of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Pigs, Nigeria
A comparison of resistance to quinolones was carried out on isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coliO157:H7 from cattle and mecA and nuc genes harbouring Staphylococcus aureus from pigs. The isolates were separately tested in the first and current decades of the 21st century. The objective was to demonstrate the dissemination of resistance to this frontline class of antibiotic by bacteria from food animals and bring to the limelight the spread of antibiotic resistance in Nigeria. A total of 10 isolates of the E. coli O157:H7 and 9 of mecA and nuc genes harbouring S. aureus were obtained following isolation, biochemical testing, and serological identification using the Remel Wellcolex E. coli O157:H7 test. Shiga toxin-production screening in the E. coli O157:H7 using the verotoxin E. coli reverse passive latex agglutination (VTEC-RPLA) test; and molecular identification of the mecA and nuc genes in S. aureus. Detection of the mecA and nuc genes were carried out using the protocol by the Danish Technical University (DTU) using the following primers mecA-1:5&#39;-GGGATCATAGCGTCATTATTC-3&#39;, mecA-2: 5&#39;-AACGATTGTGACACGATAGCC-3&#39;, nuc-1: 5&#39;-TCAGCAAATGCATCACAAACAG-3&#39;, nuc-2: 5&#39;-CGTAAATGCACTTGCTTCAGG-3&#39; for the mecA and nuc genes, respectively. The nuc genes confirm the S. aureus isolates and the mecA genes as being methicillin-resistant and so pathogenic to man. The fluoroquinolones used in the antibiotic resistance testing were norfloxacin (10 &micro;g) and ciprofloxacin (5 &micro;g) in the E. coli O157:H7 isolates and ciprofloxacin (5 &micro;g) in the S. aureus isolates. Susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar. Fluoroquinolone resistance was not detected from isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle. However, 44% (4/9) of the S. aureus were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance of up to 44% in isolates of mecA and nuc genes harbouring S. aureus is a compelling evidence for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance from bacteria in food animals from Nigeria. Ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice for the treatment of Typhoid fever, therefore widespread resistance to it in pathogenic bacteria is of great public health significance. The study concludes that antibiotic resistance in bacteria from food animals is on the increase in Nigeria. The National Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) agency in Nigeria should implement the World Health Organization (WHO) global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. A good starting point can be coordinating the WHO, Office of International Epizootics (OIE), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) tripartite draft antimicrobial resistance monitoring and evaluation (M&amp;E) framework in Nigeria.
Comparison of the Isolation Rates and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Antibiotic-Free and Conventional Chicken Meat Samples
Salmonella contamination in chicken samples can cause major health problems in humans. However, not only the effects of antibiotic treatment during growth but also the impacts of poultry slaughter line on the prevalence of Salmonella in final chicken meat sold to consumers are unknown. In this study, we compared the isolation rates and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella between antibiotic-free, conventional, conventional Korean native retail chicken meat samples and clonal divergence of Salmonella isolates by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, the distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates was analyzed. A total of 72 retail chicken meat samples (n = 24 antibiotic-free broiler [AFB] chickens, n = 24 conventional broiler [CB] chickens, and n = 24 conventional Korean native [CK] chickens) were collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. The isolation rates of Salmonella were 66.6% in AFB chickens, 45.8% in CB chickens, and 25% in CK chickens. By analyzing the minimum inhibitory concentrations of β -lactam antibiotics with the disc-diffusion test, we found that 81.2% of Salmonella isolates from AFB chickens, 63.6% of isolates from CB chickens, and 50% of isolates from CK chickens were ESBL producers; all ESBL-positive isolates had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Interestingly, all ESBL-producing Salmonella were revealed as ST16 by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, all CTX-M-15-positive isolates had the genetic platform of blaCTX-M gene (IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15-IS903), to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Salmonella around the world. The Salmonella ST33 strain (S. Hadar) isolated in this study has never been reported in South Korea. In conclusion, our findings showed that antibiotic-free retail chicken meat products were also largely contaminated with ESBL-producing Salmonella and that their ESBL genes and genetic platforms were the same as those isolated from conventional retail chicken meat products.
Effects of Microbial Biofertilization on Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Yield of Lablab purpureus
A collection of 20 isolates from fresh Nodules of the legume plant Lablab purpureus was isolated. These isolates have been authenticated by seedling inoculation grown in jars containing sand. The results obtained after two months of culture have revealed that the 20 isolates (100% of the isolates) are able to nodulate their host plants. The results obtained were analyzed statistically by ANOVA using the software statistica and had shown that the effect of the inoculation has significantly improved all the growth parameters (the height of the plant and the dry weight of the aerial parts and roots, and the number of nodules). We have evaluated the tolerance of all strains of the collection to the major stress factors as the salinity, pH and extreme temperature. The osmotolerance reached a concentration up to 1710mm of NaCl. The strains were also able to grow on a wide range of pH, ranging from 4.5 to 9.5, and temperature, between 4°C and 40°C. Also, we tested the effect of the acidity, aluminum and ferric deficit on the Lablab-rhizobia symbiosis. Lablab purpureus has not been affected by the presence of high concentrations of aluminum. On the other hand, iron deficiency has caused a net decrease in the dry biomass of the aerial part. The results of all the phenotypic characters have been treated by the statistical Minitab software, the numerical analysis had shown that these bacterial strains are divided into two distinct groups at a level of similarity of 86 %. The SDS-PAGE was carried out to determine the profile of the total protein of the strains. The coefficients of similarity of polypeptide bands between the isolates and strains reference (Bradyrhizobium, Mesorizobium sp.) confirm that our strain belongs to the groups of rhizobia.
Nematicidal Activity of the Cell Extract from Penicillium Sp EU0013 and Its Metabolite Profile Using High Performance Liquid Chromatograpy
Organic extract from newly isolated plant growth promoting fungus (PGPF) Penicillium sp EU0013 was subjected to bioassays including anti fungal (disc diffusion) cytotoxicity (brine shrimp lethality), herbicidal (Lemna minor) and nematicidal activities. Metabolite profile of the extract was also assessed using HPLC analysis with the aim to identify bioactive natural products in the extract as new drug candidate(s). The extract showed anti fungal potential against tested fungal pathogens. Growth of the Wilt pathogen Fusarium oxyosproum was inhibited up to 63% when compared to negative reference. Activity against brine shrimps was weak and mortality up to 10% was observed at concentration of 200 µg. mL-1. The extract exhibited no toxicity against Lemna minor frond at 200 µg. mL-1. Nematicidal activity was observed very potent against root knot nematode and LC50 value was calculated as 52.5 ug. mL-1 using probit analysis. Methodically assessment of metabolites profile by HPLC showed the presence of kojic acid (Rt 1.4 min) and aflatoxin B1 (Rt 5.9 min) in the mycellial extract as compared with standards. The major unidentified metabolite was eluted at Rt 8.6 along with other minor peaks. The observed high toxicity against root knot nematode was attributed to the unidentified compounds that make fungal extract worthy of further exploration for isolation and structural characterization studies for development of future commercial nematicidal compound(s).
Identification and Characterization of Inhibitors of Epoxide Hydrolase from Trichoderma reesei
Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EHs have high biotechnological interest for the drug design and chemistry transformation for industries. In this study, we describe the identification of substrates and inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase enzyme from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (TrEH), and these inhibitors showed the fungal growth inhibitory activity. We have used the cloned enzyme and expressed in E. coli to develop the screening in the library of fluorescent substrates with the objective of finding the best substrate to be used in the identification of good inhibitors for the enzyme TrEH. The substrate (3-phenyloxiranyl)-acetic acid cyano-(6-methoxy-naphthalen-2-yl)-methyl ester showed the highest specific activity and was chosen for the next steps of the study. The inhibitors screening was performed in the library with more than three thousand molecules and we could identify the 6 best inhibitors. The IC50 of these molecules were determined in nM and all the best inhibitors have urea or amide in their structure, because It has been recognized that these groups fit well in the hydrolase catalytic pocket of the epoxide hydrolases. Then the growth of T. reesei in PDA medium containing these TrEH inhibitors was tested, and fungal growth inhibition activity was demonstrated with more than 60% of inhibition of fungus growth in the assay with the TrEH inhibitor with the lowest IC50. Understanding how this EH enzyme from T. reesei responds to inhibitors may contribute for the study of fungal metabolism and drug design against pathogenic fungi.
Biosorption of Nickel by Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203 Isolated from Indian Metalliferous Mining Overburden
Nickel, an industrially important metal is not mined in India, due to the lack of its primary mining resources. But, the chromite deposits occurring in the Sukinda and Baula-Nuasahi region of Odhisa, India, is reported to contain around 0.99% of nickel entrapped in the goethite matrix of the lateritic iron rich ore. Weathering of the dumped chromite mining overburden often leads to the contamination of the ground as well as the surface water with toxic nickel. Microbes inherent to this metal contaminated environment are reported to be capable of removal as well as detoxification of various metals including nickel. Nickel resistant fungal isolates obtained in pure form from the metal rich overburden were evaluated for their potential to biosorb nickel by using their dried biomass. Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203 was the best nickel biosorbant among the 20 fungi tested and was capable to sorbing 16.85 mg Ni/g biomass from a solution containing 50 mg/l of Ni. The identity of the isolate was confirmed using 18S rRNA gene analysis. The sorption capacity of the isolate was further standardized following Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models and the results reflected energy efficient sorption. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the nickel loaded and control biomass in a comparative basis revealed the involvement of hydroxyl, amine and carboxylic groups in Ni binding. The sorption process was also optimized for several standard parameters like initial metal ion concentration, initial sorbet concentration, incubation temperature and pH, presence of additional cations and pre-treatment of the biomass by different chemicals. Optimisation leads to significant improvements in the process of nickel biosorption on to the fungal biomass. P. simplicissimum SAU203 could sorb 54.73 mg Ni/g biomass with an initial Ni concentration of 200 mg/l in solution and 21.8 mg Ni/g biomass with an initial biomass concentration of 1g/l solution. Optimum temperature and pH for biosorption was recorded to be 30°C and pH 6.5 respectively. Presence of Zn and Fe ions improved the sorption of Ni(II), whereas, cobalt had a negative impact. Pre-treatment of biomass with various chemical and physical agents has affected the proficiency of Ni sorption by P. simplicissimum SAU203 biomass, autoclaving as well as treatment of biomass with 0.5 M sulfuric acid and acetic acid reduced the sorption as compared to the untreated biomass, whereas, NaOH and Na₂CO₃ and Twin 80 (0.5 M) treated biomass resulted in augmented metal sorption. Hence, on the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that P. simplicissimum SAU203 has the potential for the removal as well as detoxification of nickel from contaminated environments in general and particularly from the chromite mining areas of Odhisa, India.
Identification and Application of Biocontrol Agents against Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Disease in Gossypium hirsutum under Green House Conditions
Biological control is a novel approach being used in crop protection nowadays. Bacteria like Bacillus and Pseudomonas are reported for this purpose and few of their products are commercially available too. Rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source to isolate bacteria capable of exhibiting properties worthy for selection as biocontrol agent. For this purpose all isolated strains were screened for the activities like phosphate solubilization, Indole acetic acid (IAA) production and biocontrol against fungi. Two strains S1HL3 and S1HL4 showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously while two other JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 were good inhibitors of fungal pathogens. Through biochemical and molecular characterization these bacteria were identified as P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia and Bacillus respectively. In green house trials of these isolates against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), seven treatments including individual bacterial isolate and consortia were included. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants in which upto 74% CLCuV symptomatic plants exist. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in T7 treated plants where viral load was only 0.4% as compared to control where viral load was upto 74%. This treatment consortium included Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates; S1HL3, S1HL4, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. Principal Component Biplot depicted highly significant correlation between percentage viral load and the disease incidence.
Assessment of Bioaerosol and Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds in Different Sections of Library
A pilot study of indoor air quality in terms of bioaerosol (fungus and bacteria) and few selective microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was carried out in different indoor sections of a library for two seasons, namely monsoon and post monsoon. Bioaerosol sampling was carried out using Anderson six stage viable sampler at a flow rate of 28.3 L/min while MVOCs were collected on activated charcoal tubes ORBOTM 90 Carboxen 564.Collected MVOCs were desorbed using carbon disulphide (CS2) and analysed by GC-FID. Microscopic identification for fungus was only carried out. Surface dust was collected by sterilised buds and cultured to identify fungal contaminants. Unlike bacterial size distribution, fungal bioaerosol concentration was found to be highest in the fourth stage in different sections of the library. In post monsoon season both fungal bioaerosol (710 to 3292cfu/m3) and bacterial bioaerosol (298 to 1475cfu/m3) were fund at much greater concentration than in monsoon. In monsoon season unlike post monsoon, I/O ratio for both the bioaerosol fractions was more than one. Rain washout could be the reason of lower outdoor concentration in monsoon season. On the contrary most of the MVOCs namely 1-hexene, 1-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol were found in the monsoon season instead of post monsoon season with the highest being 1-hexene with 7.09µg/m3 concentration. Among the six identified fungal bioaerosol Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium were found in maximum concentration while Aspergillus niger, Curvuleria lunata, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium sp., was indentified in surface dust samples. According to regression analysis apart from environmental factors other factors also played an important role. Thus apart from outdoor infiltration and human sources, accumulated surface dust mostly on organic materials like books, wooden furniture and racks can be attributed to being one of the major sources of both fungal bioaerosols as well as MVOCs found in the library.
Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Mastitis Milk of Cow and Buffalo in Udaipur, India
-Mastitis disease has been known as one of the most costly diseases of dairy cattle and observed as an inflammatory disease of cow and buffalo udder. Mastitis badly affected animal health, quality of milk and economics of milk production along with cause’s great economic loss. Bacteria have been representing the most common etiological agents of mastitis. The antibiotic sensitivity test was important to attain accurate treatment of mastitis. The aim of present research work was to explore prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates recovered from cow and buffalo clinical mastitis milk sample. During the period of April 2010 to April 2014, total 1487 clinical mastitis milk samples of cow and buffalo were tested to check the prevalence of mastitis causing bacterial isolates. Milk samples were collected aseptically from the udder at the time of morning milking. The most prevalent bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (24.34%) followed by coliform bacteria (15.87%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (13.85%), non-coliform bacteria (13.05%), mixed infection (12.51%), Streptococcus spp. (10.96%). Out of 1487, 140 (9.42%) mastitis milk samples showed no growth on culture media. Identification of bacteria made on the basis of Standard Microbial features and procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In vitro Antibiotic susceptibility test of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity to Gentamicin (74.6%), Ciprofloxacin (62.1%) and Amikacin (59.4%). The lower susceptibility was shown to Amoxicillin (21.6%), Erythromycin (26.4%) and Ceftizoxime (29.9%). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed Gentamicin are the possible effective antibiotic against the major prevalent mastitis pathogens. Present research work would be helpful in increase production, quality and quantity of milk, increase annual income of dairy owners and improve health of cow and buffaloes.
Isolation and Characterization of Indigenous Rhizosphere Bacteria Producing Gibberellin Acid from Local Soybeans in Three Different Areas of South Sulawesi
This study aimed to isolate and characterize the indigenous Rhizosphere bacteria producing Gibberellin Acid as plant growth isolated from local soybean of three different areas in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Several soil samples of soybean plants were collected from the Rhizosphere of local soybeans in three different areas of South Sulawesi such as Soppeng, Bone and Takalar. There were 56 isolates of bacteria were isolated and grouped into gram-positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria .There are 35 isolates produce a thick slime or slimy when cultured on media Natrium Broth and the remaining of those produced spores. The results showed that of potential bacterial isolated produced Gibberellin Acid in high concentration. The best isolate of Rhizosphere bacteria for the production of Gibberellin Acid is with concentration 2%. There are 4 isolates that had higher concentration are AKB 19 (4.67 mg/ml) followed by RKS 17 (3.80 mg/ml), RKS 25 (3.70 mg / ml) and RKS 24 (3.29 mg/ml) respectively.
Analysis of Population and Growth Rate Methanotof Bateria as Reducers Methane Gases Emission in Rice Field
The life cycle of rice plant has three phases of growth; they are the vegetative, reproductive and maturation phase. They greatly affect the life of dynamics metanotrof bacterial as reducer methane emissions in the rice field, both of population and on the rate of growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the population and growth rate of methanotrof isolates which has been isolated in previous studies. Isolates were taken at all the life cycle of rice plant. Population of analysis was conducted by standard plate count method and growth rate was analysed by logarithmic calculation. The results showed that each isolate varied in population and growth rate. The highest population was obtained in the isolates Gowa Methanotrof Reproductive (GMR 8) about 7.06 x 10 11 cfu / ml on 3 days of incubation and the lowest population was obtained in the Gowa Methanotrof Maturation (GMP 5) about 0.27 x 10 11 cfu / ml on 7 day of incubation. Some isolate were demonstrated in long growth rate about 5 days of incubation and another are 3 days.
Phylogenetic Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in Sediments of Aegean Sea
The studies in bacterial diversity and antimicrobial resistance in coastal areas are important to understand the variability in the community structures and metabolic activities. In the present study, antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria isolated from stations with different depths and influenced by terrestrial and marine fluxes in eastern Aegean Sea were illustrated. 51% of the isolates were found as resistant and 14% showed high MAR index indicating the high-risk sources of contamination in the environment. The resistance and the intermediate levels and high MAR index of the study area were 38–60%, 11–38% and 0–40%, respectively. According to 16S rRNA gene analysis, it was found that the isolates belonged to two phyla Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria with the genera Bacillus, Halomonas, Oceanobacillus, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Vibrio. 47% of Bacillus strains which were dominant among all isolates were resistant. In addition to phylogenetically diverse bacteria, the variability in resistance, intermediate and high MAR index levels of the study area indicated the effect of geographical differences.
Ethanol and Biomass Production from Spent Sulfite Liquor by Filamentous Fungi
Since filamentous fungi are capable of assimilating several types of sugars (hexoses and pentoses), they are potential candidates for bioconversion of spent sulfite liquor (SSL). Three filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizopus oryzae were investigated in this work. The SSL was diluted in order to obtain concentrations of 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% and supplemented with two types of nutrients. The results from cultivations in shake flask showed that A. oryzae and M. indicus were not able to grow in pure SSL and SSL90% while R. oryzae could grow only in SSL50% and SSL60%. Cultivation with A. oryzae resulted in the highest yield of produced fungal biomass, while R. oryzae cultivation resulted in the lowest fungal biomass yield. Although, the mediums containing yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, CaCl2∙2H2O, and MgSO4∙7H2O as nutrients supplementations produced higher fungal biomass compared to the mediums containing NH4H2PO4 and ammonia, but there was no significant difference between two types of nutrients in terms of sugars and acetic acid consumption rate. The sugars consumption in M. indicus cultivation was faster than A. oryzae and R. oryzae cultivation. Acetic acid present in SSL was completely consumed during cultivation of all fungi. M. indicus was the best and fastest ethanol producer from SSL among the fungi examined, when yeast extract and salts were used as nutrients supplementations. Furthermore, no further improvement in ethanol concentration and rate of sugars consumption was obtained in medium supplemented with NH4H2PO4 and ammonia compared to medium containing yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, CaCl2∙2H2O, and MgSO4∙7H2O. On the other hand, the higher dilution of SSL resulted in a better fermentability, and better consumption of sugars and acetic acid.
Antibacterial Potentials of the Leaf Extracts of Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata) on Wound Isolates
The antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed) was evaluated against four wound isolates: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae at the concentrations of 200mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively. S. aureus and E. coli showed high susceptibility to the various extracts than the other test isolates. The aqueous extract showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 16 ± 3.00 at concentration of 200mg/ml and as low as 8 ± 0.00 at concentration of 25mg/ml; E. coli showed susceptibility with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 18 ± 2.00 and 10 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to the aqueous extract. Methanol extract showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition at 28 ± 4.00 and 12 ± 2.30 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively; while E. coli was susceptible with mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 18 ± 2.00 and as low as 12 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed considerable susceptibility with mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 13 ± 1.00 and 12 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively. The ethanol extract showed activity against S. aureus with a mean diameter zone of inhibition of 15 ± 2.00 and 9 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively: E. coli showed susceptibility with a mean diameter zone of inhibition of 20 ± 4.00 and 13 ± 2.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed considerable susceptibility with a mean diameter zone of inhibition of 13 ± 1.00 and 9 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively. The results above indicate the efficacy and potency of the crude extracts of Chromolaena odorata leaf on the tested wound isolates.
Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Campylobacter from Pig and Cattle Carcasses in Poland
Campylobacter is recognized as the main cause of bacterial gastrointestinal infections in Europe. A main source of the pathogen is poultry and poultry meat; however, other animals like pigs and cattle can also be reservoirs of the bacteria. Human Campylobacter infections are often self-limiting but in some cases, macrolide and fluoroquinolones have to be used. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns (AMR) of Campylobacter isolated from pig and cattle carcasses. Between July 2009 and December 2015, 735 swabs from pig (n = 457) and cattle (n = 278) carcasses were collected at Polish slaughterhouses. All samples were tested for the presence of Campylobacter by ISO 10272-1 and confirmed to species level using PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates was determined by a microbroth dilution method with six antimicrobials: gentamicin (GEN), streptomycin (STR), erythromycin (ERY), nalidixic acid (NAL), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and tetracycline (TET). It was found that 167 of 735 samples (22.7%) were contaminated with Campylobacter. The vast majority of them were of pig origin (134; 80.2%), whereas for cattle carcasses Campylobacter was less prevalent (33; 19.8%). Among positive samples C. coli was predominant species (123; 73.7%) and it was isolated mainly from pig carcasses. The remaining isolates were identified as C. jejuni (44; 26.3%). Antimicrobial susceptibility indicated that 22 out of 167 Campylobacter (13.2%) were sensitive to all antimicrobials used. Fourteen of them were C. jejuni (63.6%; pig, n = 6; cattle, n = 8) and 8 was C. coli (36.4%; pig, n = 4; cattle, n = 4). Most of the Campylobacter isolates (145; 86.8%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials (C. coli, n = 115; C. jejuni, n = 30). Comparing the AMR for Campylobacter species it was found that the most common pattern for C. jejuni was CIP-NAL-TET (9; 30.0%), whereas CIP-NAL-STR-TET was predominant among C. coli (47; 40.9%). Multiresistance, defined as resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials, was found in 57 C. coli strains, mostly obtained from pig (52 isolates). On the other hand, only one C. jejuni strain, isolated from cattle, showed multiresistance with pattern CIP-NAL-STR-TET. Moreover, CIP-NAL-STR-TET was characteristic for most of multiresistant C. coli isolates (47; 82.5%). For the remaining C. coli the resistance patterns were CIP-ERY-NAL-TET (7 strains; 12.3%) and for one strain of each patterns: ERY-STR-TET, CIP-STR-TET, CIP-NAL-GEN-STR-TET. According to the present findings resistance to erythromycin was observed only in 11 C. coli (pig, n = 10; cattle, n = 1). In conclusion, the results of this study showed that pig carcasses may be a serious public health concern because of contamination with C. coli that might features multiresistance to antimicrobials.
Biological Control of Fusarium Crown and Root and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Growth Promotion Using Endophytic Fungi from Withania somnifera L.
Fusarium Crown and Root Rot (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is a serious tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) disease in Tunisia. Its management is very difficult due to the long survival of its resting structures and to the luck of genetic resistance. In this work, we explored the wild Solanaceae species Withania somnifera, growing in the Tunisian Centre-East, as a potential source of biocontrol agents effective in FCRR suppression and tomato growth promotion. Seven fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato roots, crowns, and stems. Used as conidial suspensions or cell-free culture filtrates, all tested fungal treatments significantly enhanced tomato growth parameters by 21.5-90.3% over FORL-free control and by 27.6-93.5% over pathogen-inoculated control. All treatments significantly decreased the leaf and root damage index by 28.5-92.8 and the vascular browning extent 9.7-86.4% over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. The highest disease suppression ability (decrease by 86.4-92.8% in FCRR severity) over pathogen-inoculated control and by 81.3-88.8 over hymexazol-treated control) was expressed by I6 based treatments. This endophytic fungus was morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as Fusarium sp. I6 (MG835371). This fungus was shown able to reduce FORL radial growth by 58.5–83.2% using its conidial suspension or cell-free culture filtrate. Fusarium sp. I6 showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities. The current study clearly demonstrated that Fusarium sp. (I6) is a promising biocontrol candidate for suppressing FCRR severity and promoting tomato growth. Further investigations are required for elucidating its mechanism of action involved in disease suppression and plant growth promotion.
Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media
The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis were 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.
Wide Dissemination of CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Korean Swine Farms
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli from food animals are considered as a reservoir for transmission of ESBL genes to human. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing E. coli colonization in pigs, farm workers, and farm environments to elucidate the transmission of multidrug-resistant clones from animal to human. Nineteen pig farms were enrolled across the country in Korea from August to December 2017. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were detected in 190 pigs, 38 farm workers, and 112 sites of farm environments using ChromID ESBL (bioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), directly (stool or perirectal swab) or after enrichment (sewage). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done with disk diffusion methods and blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M were detected with PCR and sequencing. The genomes of the four CTX-M-55-producing E. coli isolates from various sources in one farm were entirely sequenced to assess the relatedness of the strains. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed with PacBio RS II system (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA). ESBL genotypes were 85 CTX-M-1 group (one CTX-M-3, 23 CTX-M-15, one CTX-M-28, 59 CTX-M-55, one CTX-M-69) and 60 CTX-M-9 group (41 CTX-M-14, one CTX-M-17, one CTX-M-27, 13 CTX-M-65, 4 CTX-M-102) in total 145 isolates. The rectal colonization rates were 53.2% (101/190) in pigs and 39.5% (15/38) in farm workers. In WGS, sequence types (STs) were determined as ST69 (E. coli PJFH115 isolate from a human carrier), ST457 (two E. coli isolates PJFE101 recovered from a fence and PJFA1104 from a pig) and ST5899 (E. coli PJFA173 isolate from the other pig). The four plasmids encoding CTX-M-55 (88,456 to 149, 674 base pair), whether it belonged to IncFIB or IncFIC-IncFIB type, shared IncF backbone furnishing the conjugal elements, suggesting of genes originated from same ancestor. In conclusion, the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in swine farms was surprisingly high, and many of them shared common ESBL genotypes of clinical isolates such as CTX-M-14, 15, and 55 in Korea. It could spread by horizontal transfer between isolates from different reservoirs (human-animal-environment).
Production of Bacillus Lipopeptides for Biocontrol of Postharvest Crops
With overpopulation threatening the world’s ability to feed itself, food production and protection has become a major issue, especially in developing countries. Almost one-third of the food produced for human consumption, around 1.3 billion tonnes, is either wasted or lost annually. Postharvest decay in particular constitutes a major cause of crop loss with about 20% of fruits and vegetables produced lost during postharvest storage, mainly due to fungal disease. Some of the major phytopathogenic fungi affecting postharvest fruit crops in South Africa include Aspergillus, Botrytis, Penicillium, Alternaria and Sclerotinia spp. To date control of fungal phytopathogens has primarily been dependent on synthetic chemical fungicides, but these chemicals pose a significant threat to the environment, mainly due to their xenobiotic properties and tendency to generate resistance in the phytopathogens. Here, an environmentally benign alternative approach to control postharvest fungal phytopathogens in perishable fruit crops has been presented, namely the application of a bio-fungicide in the form of lipopeptide molecules. Lipopeptides are biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. which have been established as green, nontoxic and biodegradable molecules with antimicrobial properties. However, since the Bacillus are capable of producing a large number of lipopeptide homologues with differing efficacies against distinct target organisms, the lipopeptide production conditions and strategy are critical to produce the maximum lipopeptide concentration with homologue ratios to specification for optimum bio-fungicide efficacy. Process conditions, and their impact on Bacillus lipopeptide production, were evaluated in fully instrumented laboratory scale bioreactors under well-regulated controlled and defined environments. Factors such as the oxygen availability and trace element and nitrate concentrations had profound influences on lipopeptide yield, productivity and selectivity. Lipopeptide yield and homologue selectivity were enhanced in cultures where the oxygen in the sparge gas was increased from 21 to 30 mole%. The addition of trace elements, particularly Fe2+, increased the total concentration of lipopeptides and a nitrate concentration equivalent to 8 g/L ammonium nitrate resulted in optimum lipopeptide yield and homologue selectivity. Efficacy studies of the culture supernatant containing the crude lipopeptide mixture were conducted using phytopathogens isolated from fruit in the field, identified using genetic sequencing. The supernatant exhibited antifungal activity against all the test-isolates, namely Lewia, Botrytis, Penicillium, Alternaria and Sclerotinia spp., even in this crude form. Thus the lipopeptide product efficacy has been confirmed to control the main diseases, even in the basic crude form. Future studies will be directed towards purification of the lipopeptide product and enhancement of efficacy.
Wood Decay Fungal Strains Useful for Bio-Composite Material Production
Interest on wood decay fungi (WDF) has been increasing in the last year's thanks to the potentiality of this kind of fungi; research on new WDF strains has increased as well thus pointing out the key role of the culture collections. One of the most recent biotechnological application of WDF is the development of novel materials from natural or recycled resources. Based on different combinations of fungal species, substrate, and processing treatment involved (e.g. heat pressing), it is possible to achieve a wide variety of materials with different features useful for many industrial applications: from packaging to thermal and acoustic insulation. In comparison with the conventional ones, these materials represent a 100% natural and compostable alternative involving low amounts of energy in the production process. The purpose of the present work was to isolate and select WDF strains able to colonize and degrade different plant wastes thus producing a fungal biomass shapeable to achieve bio-composite materials. Strains were selected within the mycological culture collection of Pavia University (MicUNIPV, over 300 strains of WDF). The selected strains have been investigated with regards their ability to colonize and degrade plant residues from the local major cultivations (e.g. poplar, alfalfa, maize, rice, and wheat) and produce the fungal biomass. The degradation of the substrate was assessed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Chemical characterization confirmed that TGA and FTIR are complementary techniques able to provide quality-quantitative information on compositional and structural variation that occurs during the transformation from the substrate to the bio-composite material. This pilot study provides a fundamental step to tune further applications in fungus-residues composite biomaterials.
Wood Decay Fungal Strains Useful for Bio-Composite Material Production
Interest on wood decay fungi (WDF) has been increasing in the last year's thanks to the potentiality of this kind of fungi; research on new WDF strains has increased as well thus pointing out the key role of the culture collections. One of the most recent biotechnological application of WDF is the development of novel materials from natural or recycled resources. Based on different combinations of fungal species, substrate, and processing treatment involved (e.g. heat pressing), it is possible to achieve a wide variety of materials with different features useful for many industrial applications: from packaging to thermal and acoustic insulation. In comparison with the conventional ones, these materials represent a 100% natural and compostable alternative involving low amounts of energy in the production process. The purpose of the present work was to isolate and select WDF strains able to colonize and degrade different plant wastes thus producing a fungal biomass shapeable to achieve bio-composite materials. Strains were selected within the mycological culture collection of Pavia University (MicUNIPV, over 300 strains of WDF). The selected strains have been investigated with regards their ability to colonize and degrade plant residues from the local major cultivations (e.g. poplar, alfalfa, maize, rice, and wheat) and produce the fungal biomass. The degradation of the substrate was assessed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Chemical characterization confirmed that TGA and FTIR are complementary techniques able to provide quality-quantitative information on compositional and structural variation that occurs during the transformation from the substrate to the bio-composite material. This pilot study provides a fundamental step to tune further applications in fungus-residues composite biomaterials.
Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Suppurative Otitis Media
The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis was 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in the treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.
Culturable Diversity of Halophilic Bacteria in Chott Tinsilt, Algeria
Saline lakes are extreme hypersaline environments that are considered five to ten times saltier than seawater (150 – 300 g L-1 salt concentration). Hypersaline regions differ from each other in terms of salt concentration, chemical composition and geographical location, which determine the nature of inhabitant microorganisms. In order to explore the diversity of moderate and extreme halophiles Bacteria in Chott Tinsilt (East of Algeria), an isolation program was performed. In the first time, water samples were collected from the saltern during pre-salt harvesting phase. Salinity, pH and temperature of the sampling site were determined in situ. Chemical analysis of water sample indicated that Na +and Cl- were the most abundant ions. Isolates were obtained by plating out the samples in complex and synthetic media. In this study, seven halophiles cultures of Bacteria were isolated. Isolates were studied for Gram’s reaction, cell morphology and pigmentation. Enzymatic assays (oxidase, catalase, nitrate reductase and urease), and optimization of growth conditions were done. The results indicated that the salinity optima varied from 50 to 250 g L-1, whereas the optimum of temperature range from 25°C to 35°C. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that these cultured isolates included members belonging to the Halomonas, Staphylococcus, Salinivibrio, Idiomarina, Halobacillus Thalassobacillus and Planococcus genera and what may represent a new bacterial genus.
Molecular Comparison of HEV Isolates from Sewage & Humans at Western India
Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. It spreads feco orally mainly due to contamination of drinking water by sewage. There is limited data on the genotypic comparison of HEV isolates from sewage water and humans. The aim of this study was to identify genotype and conduct phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from sewage water and humans. Materials and Methods: 14 sewage water and 60 serum samples from acute sporadic hepatitis E cases (negative for hepatitis A, B, C) were tested for HEV-RNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (RTnPCR) using primers designed with in RdRp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) region of open reading frame-1 (ORF-1). Sequencing was done by ABI prism 310. The sequences (343 nucleotides) were compared with each other and were aligned with previously reported HEV sequences obtained from GeneBank, using Clustal W software. A Phylogenetic tree was constructed by using PHYLIP version 3.67 software. Results: HEV-RNA was detected in 49/ 60 (81.67%) serum and 5/14 (35.71%) sewage samples. The sequences obtained from 17 serums and 2 sewage specimens belonged to genotype I with 85% similarity and clustering with previously reported human HEV sequences from India. HEV isolates from human and sewage in North West India are genetically closely related to each other. Conclusion: These finding suggest that sewage acts as reservoir of HEV. Therefore it is important that measures are taken for proper waste disposal and treatment of drinking water to prevent outbreaks and epidemics due to HEV.
Unravelling of the TOR Signaling Pathway in Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
Tor1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is widely conserved across eukaryotic species. Tor1 was first identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a target of rapamycin (TOR). The TOR pathway has been implicated in regulating cellular responses to nutrients, proliferation, translation, transcription, autophagy, and ribosome biogenesis. Here we identified two homologues of S. cerevisiae Tor proteins, CNAG_06642 (Tor1) and CNAG_05220 (Tlk1, TOR-like kinase 1), in Cryptococcus neoformans causing a life-threatening fungal meningoencephalitis. Both Tor1 and Tlk1 have rapamycin-binding (RB) domains but Tlk1 has truncated RB form. To study the TOR-signaling pathway in the fungal pathogen, we attempt to construct the tor1Δ and tlk1Δ mutants and phenotypically analyze them. Although we failed to construct the tor1Δ mutant, we successfully construct the tlk1Δ mutant. The tlk1Δ mutant does not exhibit any discernable phenotypes, suggesting that Tlk1 is dispensable in C. neoformans. The essentiality of TOR1 is independently confirmed by constructing the TOR1 promoter replacement strain by using a copper transporter 4 (CTR4) promoter and the TOR1/tor1 heterozygous mutant in diploid C. neoformans strain background followed by sporulation analysis. To further analyze the function of Tor1, we construct TOR1 overexpression mutant using a constitutively active histone H3 in C. neoformans. We find that the Tor1 overexpression mutant is resistant to rapamycin but the tlk1Δ mutant does not exhibit any altered resistance to rapamycin, further confirming that Tor1, but not Tlk1, is critical for TOR signaling. Furthermore, we found that Tor1 is involved in response to diverse stresses, including genotoxic stress, oxidative stress, thermo-stress, antifungal drug treatment, and production of melanin. To identify any TOR-related transcription factors, we screened C. neoformans transcription factor library that we constructed in our previous study and identified several potential downstream factors of Tor1, including Atf1, Crg1 and Bzp3. In conclusion, the current study provides insight into the role of the TOR signaling pathway in human fungal pathogens as well as C. neoformans.
Field Application of Trichoderma Harzianum for Biological Control of Root-Knot Nematodes in Summer Tomatoes
To study the efficacy of the selected Trichoderma isolates, field trials were conducted in the root-knot nematode-infested areas of Dargai and Swat, Pakistan. Four isolates of T. harzianum viz, Th-1, Th-2, Th-9 and Th-15 were tested against root knot nematodes on summer tomatoes under field conditions. The T. harzianum isolates, grown on wheat grains substrate, were applied @ 8 g plant-1, either alone or in different combinations. Root weight of tomato plants was reduced Th-9 as compared to 26.37 g in untreated control. Isolate Th-1 was found to enhance shoot and root lengths to the maximum levels of 78.76 cm and 19.59 cm, respectively. Tomato shoot weight was significantly increased (65.36g) in Th-1-treated plots as compared to 49.66 g in control. Maximum (156) number of flowers plant-1 and highest (48.18%) fruit set plant-1 was observed in Th-1 treated plots, while there were 87 flowers and 35.50% fruit set in the untreated control. Maximum fruit weight (70.97 g) plant-1 and highest (17.99 t ha-1) marketable yield were recorded in the treatments where T. harzianum isolate Th-1 was used, in comparison to 51.33 g tomato fruit weight and 9.90 t ha-1 yield was noted in the control plots. It was observed that T. harzianum isolates significantly reduced the nematode populations. The fungus enhanced plant growth and yield in all the treated plots. Jabban isolate (Th-1) was found as the most effective in nematode suppression followed by Shamozai (Th-9) isolate. It was concluded from the present findings that T. harzianum has a potential bio control capability against root-knot nematodes.
Bacteriological Spectrum and Resistance Patterns of Common Clinical Isolates from Infections in Cancer Patients
Introduction: Cancer patients are at increased risk of bacterial infections. This may due to the disease process itself, the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs or invasive procedures such as catheterization. A wide variety of bacteria including some emerging pathogens are increasingly being reported from these patients. The incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms particularly in the Gram negative group is also increasing, with higher resistance rates seen to cephalosporins, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitor combinations, and the carbapenems. This study documents the bacteriological spectrum of infections and their resistance patterns in cancer patients. Methods: This study includes all bacterial isolates recovered from infections cancer patients over a period of 18 months. Samples included Blood cultures, Pus/wound swabs, urine, tissue biopsies, body fluids, catheter tips and respiratory specimens such as sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were processed in the microbiology laboratory as per standard laboratory protocols. Organisms were identified to species level and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed manually by the disc diffusion technique or in the Vitek-2 (Biomereux, France) instrument. Interpretations were as per Clinical laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: A total of 1150 bacterial isolates were cultured from 884 test samples during the study period. Of these 227 were Gram-positive and 923 were Gram-negative organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (99 isolates) was the commonest Gram-positive isolate followed by Enterococcus (79) and Gr A Streptococcus (30). Among the Gram negatives, E. coli (304), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (201) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (190) were the most common. Of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates 27.2% were methicillin resistant. Only 5.06% enterococci were vancomycin resistant. High rates of resistance to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin were seen amongst E. coli (84.8% & 83.55%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (71 & 62.1%) respectively. Resistance to carbapenems (meropenem) was high at 70% in Acinetobacter spp.; however all isolates were sensitive to colistin. Among the aminoglycosides, amikacin retained good efficacy against Escherichia coli (82.9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (78.1%). Occasional isolates of emerging pathogens such as Chryseobacterium indologens, Roseomonas, and Achromobacter xyloxidans were also recovered. Conclusion: The common infections in cancer patients include respiratory, wound, tract infections and sepsis. The commonest isolates include Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There is a high level of resistance to the commonly used antibiotics among Gram-negative organisms.
Aflatoxins Characterization in Remedial Plant-Delphinium denudatum by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Introduction: The objective of the projected work is to study the occurrence of the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1and G2 in remedial plants, exclusively in Delphinium denudatum. The aflatoxins were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC–MS/MS) and immunoaffinity column chromatography were used for extraction and purification of aflatoxins. PDA media was selected for fungal count. Results: A good quality linear relationship was originated for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at 1–10 ppb (r > 0.9995). The analyte precision at three different spiking levels was 88.7–109.1 %, by means of low per cent relative standard deviations in each case. Within 5 to7 min aflatoxins can be separated using an Agilent XDB C18-column. We found that AFB1 and AFB2 were not found in D. denudatum. This was reliable through exceptionally low figures of fungal colonies observed after 6 hr of incubation. The developed analytical method is straightforward, be successfully used to determine the aflatoxins. Conclusion: The developed analytical method is straightforward, simple, accurate, economical and can be successfully used to find out the aflatoxins in remedial plants and consequently to have power over the quality of products. The presence of aflatoxin in the plant extracts was interrelated to the least fungal load in the remedial plants examined.
Bismuth-Inhibitory Effects on Bacteria and Stimulation of Fungal Growth In vitro
Bismuth salicylate was found to inhibit the growth of a range of bacteria and yeast, Candida albican. In general the growth of bacteria did not result in the increase in bismuth solubilisation, in contrast, bismuth solubilisation increased following the growth of C. albicans. A significant increase in the biomass (dry weight) of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae occurred in vitro when these fungi were grown in the presence of bismuth salicylate. Biomass increase occurred over a range of bismuth compound additions, which in the case of A. oryzae was associated with the increase in the solubilisation of the insoluble bismuth compounds.
Determination of Anti-Fungal Activity of Cedrus deodara Oil against Oligoporus placentus, Trametes versicolor and Xylaria acuminata on Populus deltoids
Populus deltoides is a hardwood used predominantly for the manufacturing of plywood, matchsticks, and paper in India and hence has a higher economical significance. Wood-decaying fungi cause serious damage to Populus deltoides products, as the wood itself is perishable and vulnerable to decaying agents, decreasing their aesthetical value which in return results in significant monetary loss for the wood industries concerned. The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal activity of Cedrus deodara oil against three primary wood-decaying fungi namely white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor), brown-rot fungi (Oligoporus placentus) and soft-rot fungi (Xylaria acuminata) on Populus deltoides samples under optimum laboratory conditions. The susceptibility of Populus deltoides samples on the fungal attack and the ability of deodar oil to control colonization of the wood rotting fungi on the samples were assessed. Three concentrations of deodar oil were considered for the study as treating solutions, i.e., 4%, 5%, and 6%. The Populus deltoides samples were treated with treating solutions, and the ability of the same to prevent a fungal attack on the samples were assessed using accelerated test in the laboratory at Biochemical Oxygen Demand incubator at temperature (25 ± 2°C) and relative humidity 70 ± 4%. Efficacy test and statistical analysis of deodar oil against Trametes versicolor, Oligoporus placentus, and Xylariaacuminataon P. deltoides samples exhibited light, minor and negligible mycelia growth at 4 %, 5% and 6% concentrations of deodar oil, respectively. Whereas, moderate to heavy attack was observed on the surface of the control samples. Statistical analysis further established that the treatments were statistically significant and had significantly inhibited fungal growth of all the three fungus spp by almost 3 to 5 times.
Enhanced Decolourization and Biodegradation of Textile Azo and Xanthene Dyes by Using Bacterial Isolates
In Sri Lanka, the largest contribution for the industrial export earnings is governed by textile and apparel industry. However, this industry generates huge quantities of effluent consists of unfixed dyes which enhance the effluent colour and toxicity thereby leading towards environmental pollution. Therefore, the effluent should properly be treated prior to the release into the environment. The biological technique has now captured much attention as an environmental-friendly and cost-competitive effluent decolourization method due to the drawbacks of physical and chemical treatment techniques. The present study has focused on identifying dye decolourizing potential of several bacterial isolates obtained from the effluent of the local textile industry. Yellow EXF, Red EXF, Blue EXF, Nova Black WNN and Nylosan-Rhodamine-EB dyes have been selected for the study to represent different chromophore groups such as Azo and Xanthene. The rates of decolorization of each dye have been investigated by employing distinct bacterial isolates. Bacterial isolate which exhibited effective dye decolorizing potential was identified as Proteus mirabilis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The high decolorizing rates of identified bacterial strain indicate its potential applicability in the treatment of dye-containing wastewaters.
Short-Term Impact of a Return to Conventional Tillage on Soil Microbial Attributes
Agricultural practices affect the soil physical and chemical properties, which in turn influence the soil microorganisms as a function of the soil biological environment. On the return to conventional tillage (CT) from continuing no-till (NT) cropping system, a very little information is available from the impact caused by the intermittent tillage on the soil biochemical properties from a short-term (2-year) study period. Therefore, the contribution made by different microorganisms (fungal, bacteria) was also investigated in order to find out the effective changes in the soil microbial activity under a South Australian dryland faring system. This study was conducted to understand the impact of microbial dynamics on the soil organic carbon (SOC) under NT and CT systems when treated with different levels of mulching (0, 2.5 and 5 t/ha). Our results demonstrated that from the incubation experiment the cumulative CO2 emitted from CT system was 34.5% higher than NT system. Relatively, the respiration from surface layer (0-10 cm) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher by 8.5% and 15.8 from CT; 8% and 18.9% from NT system w.r.t 10-20 and 20-30 cm respectively. Further, the dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DHA) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were both significantly lower (P< 0.05) under CT, i.e., 7.4%, 7.2%, 6.0% (DHA) and 19.7%, 15.7%, 4% (MBC) across the different mulching levels (0, 2.5, 5 t/ha) respectively. In general, it was found that from both the tillage system the enzyme activity and MBC decreased with the increase in depth (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) and with the increase in mulching rate (0, 2.5 and 5 t/ha). From the perspective of microbial stress, there was 28.6% higher stress under CT system compared to NT system. Whereas, the microbial activity of different microorganisms like fungal and bacterial activities were determined by substrate-induced inhibition respiration using antibiotics like cycloheximide (16 mg/gm of soil) and streptomycin sulphate (14 mg/gm of soil), by trapping the CO2 using an alkali (0.5 M NaOH) solution. The microbial activities were confirmed through platting technique, where it was that found bacterial activities were 46.2% and 38.9% higher than fungal activity under CT and NT system. In conclusion, it was expected that changes in the relative abundance and activity of different microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) under different tillage systems could significantly affect the C cycling and storage due to its unique structures and differential interactions with the soil physical properties.
Use of RAPD and ISSR Markers in Detection of Genetic Variation among Colletotrichum falcatum Went Isolates from South Gujarat India
The present research work aims at finding genetic differences in the genomes of sugarcane red rot isolates Colletotrichum falcatum Went using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and interspersed simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Ten isolates of C. falcatum isolated from different red rot infected sugarcane cultivars stalk were used in present study. The amplified bands were scored across the lanes obtained in 15 RAPD primes and 21 ISSR primes successfully. The data were analysed using NTSYSpc 2.2 software. The results showed 80.6% and 68.07% polymorphism in RPAD and ISSR analysis respectively. Based on the RAPD analysis, ten genotypes were grouped into two major clusters at a cut-off value of 0.75. Geographically distant C. falcatum isolate cfGAN from south Gujarat had a level of similarity with Coimbatore isolate cf8436 presented on separate clade of bootstrapped dendrograms. First and second cluster consisted of five and three isolates respectively, indicating the close relation among them. The 21 ISSR primers produced 119 distinct and scorable loci in that 38 were monomorphic. The number of scorable loci for each primer varied from 2 (ISSR822) to 8 (ISSR807, ISSR823 and ISSR15) with an average of 5.66 loci per primer. Primer ISSR835 amplified the highest number of bands (57), while only 16 bands were obtained by primers ISSR822. Four primers namely ISSR830, ISSR845, ISSR4 and ISSR15 showed the highest value of percentage of polymorphism (100%). The results indicated that both of the marker systems RAPD and ISSR, individually can be effectively used in determination of genetic relationship among C falcatum accessions collected from different parts of south Gujarat.
Management of Fungal Diseases of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Using Plant Extracts
Onion is most Important Vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but the fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extract (Datura metel, Pongamia pinnata, Ipomoea palmata) at five different concentration Viz, 10,25,50,75 and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning techniquie. Detura metal gave 94.73% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentraton and 26.31% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium, and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Pongamia pinnata L. at 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and at 100% extract concentration 36.84% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was observed. Stemphylium vesicarium give good in inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporium. Ipomoea palmata in 10% extract concentration 92% growth and in 100% extract concentration 40% growth of Fusarium oxysporium was recorded. Fusarium oxysporium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and, Stemphylium vesicarium.
Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines
This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.
Comparative Study of the Effect of Three Fungicides: Tilt and Artea Amistarxtra about Growing Wheat, Hard, and Soft and Their Impact on Grain Yield and Its Components in the Semi-Arid Zone of Setif
Several fungal diseases may infect hard and soft wheat, which directly affect the yield and thus the economy of the homeland. So, a treatment fungicide is one of means of diseases control. In this context, we studied two varieties of wheat; Waha for soft wheat and Hidhab for hard wheat, at the level of the Technical Institute of crops (ITGC) in the wilaya of Setif under semi-arid conditions. This study consists of a successive application of three fungicides (Tilt, Artea, and Armistarxtra) according to three treatments (T1, T2, and T3) in addition to the witness (T0) at different stages of plant development (respectively, Montaison, earing and after flowering) whose purpose is to test and determine the effectiveness of these products used sequentially. The study showed good efficacy when we use the sum of these pesticides The comparison between these different treatments indicates that the T3 treatment reduced yield losses significantly; which is evident in the main yield components such as fertility, grain yield and weight of 1000 grains. The various components of yield and final yield are all parameters to be taken into account in such a study. In general, the fungal treatment is an effective way of improving profitability. In general, the fungal treatment is an effective way of improving profitability and positioning interventions in time is one of the requirements for an appreciable efficiency.
Management of Mycotoxin Production and Fungicide Resistance by Targeting Stress Response System in Fungal Pathogens
Control of fungal pathogens, such as foodborne mycotoxin producers, is problematic as effective antimycotic agents are often very limited. Mycotoxin contamination significantly interferes with the safe production of foods or crops worldwide. Moreover, expansion of fungal resistance to commercial drugs or fungicides is a global human health concern. Therefore, there is a persistent need to enhance the efficacy of commercial antimycotic agents or to develop new intervention strategies. Disruption of the cellular antioxidant system should be an effective method for pathogen control. Such disruption can be achieved with safe, redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic derivatives are potent redox cyclers that inhibit fungal growth through destabilization of the cellular antioxidant system. The goal of this study is to identify novel, redox-active compounds that disrupt the fungal antioxidant system. The identified compounds could also function as sensitizing agents to conventional antimycotics (i.e., chemosensitization) to improve antifungal efficacy. Various benzo derivatives were tested against fungal pathogens. Gene deletion mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as model systems for identifying molecular targets of benzo analogs. The efficacy of identified compounds as potent antifungal agents or as chemosensitizing agents to commercial drugs or fungicides was examined with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute or the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Selected benzo derivatives possessed potent antifungal or antimycotoxigenic activity. Molecular analyses by using S. cerevisiae mutants indicated antifungal activity of benzo derivatives was through disruption of cellular antioxidant or cell wall integrity system. Certain benzo analogs screened overcame tolerance of Aspergillus signaling mutants, namely mitogen-activated protein kinase mutants, to fludioxonil fungicide. Synergistic antifungal chemosensitization greatly lowered minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of test compounds, including inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration. Of note, salicylaldehyde is a potent antimycotic volatile that has some practical application as a fumigant. Altogether, benzo derivatives targeting cellular antioxidant system of fungi (along with cell wall integrity system) effectively suppress fungal growth. Candidate compounds possess the antifungal, antimycotoxigenic or chemosensitizing capacity to augment the efficacy of commercial antifungals. Therefore, chemogenetic approaches can lead to the development of novel antifungal intervention strategies, which enhance the efficacy of established microbe intervention practices and overcome drug/fungicide resistance. Chemosensitization further reduces costs and alleviates negative side effects associated with current antifungal treatments.
Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Fresh Fish and Fish Products
Listeria monocytogenes is an important human and animal pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks. The bacteria may be present in different types of food: cheese, raw vegetables, sliced meat products and vacuum-packed sausages, poultry, meat, fish. The most common method, which has been used for the investigation of genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes, is PFGE. This technique is reliable and reproducible and established as gold standard for typing of L. monocytogenes. The aim of the study was characterization by molecular serotyping and PFGE analysis of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from fresh fish and fish products in Poland. A total of 301 samples, including fresh fish (n = 129) and fish products (n = 172) were, collected between January 2014 and March 2016. The bacteria were detected using the ISO 11290-1 standard method. Molecular serotyping was performed with PCR. The isolates were tested with the PFGE method according to the protocol developed by the European Union Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes with some modifications. Based on the PFGE profiles, two dendrograms were generated for strains digested separately with two restriction enzymes: AscI and ApaI. Analysis of the fingerprint profiles was performed using Bionumerics software version 6.6 (Applied Maths, Belgium). The 95% of similarity was applied to differentiate the PFGE pulsotypes. The study revealed that 57 of 301 (18.9%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The bacteria were identified in 29 (50.9%) ready-to-eat fish products and in 28 (49.1%) fresh fish. It was found that 40 (70.2%) strains were of serotype 1/2a, 14 (24.6%) 1/2b, two (4.3%) 4b and one (1.8%) 1/2c. Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were presented with the same frequency in both categories of food, whereas serotype 1/2c was detected only in fresh fish. The PFGE analysis with AscI demonstrated 43 different pulsotypes; among them 33 (76.7%) were represented by only one strain. The remaining 10 profiles contained more than one isolate. Among them 8 pulsotypes comprised of two L. monocytogenes isolates, one profile of three isolates and one restriction type of 5 strains. In case of ApaI typing, the PFGE analysis showed 27 different pulsotypes including 17 (63.0%) types represented by only one strain. Ten (37.0%) clusters contained more than one strain among which four profiles covered two strains; three had three isolates, one with five strains, one with eight strains and one with ten isolates. It was observed that the isolates assigned to the same PFGE type were usually of the same serotype (1/2a or 1/2b). The majority of the clusters had strains of both sources (fresh fish and fish products) isolated at different time. Most of the strains grouped in one cluster of the AscI restriction was assigned to the same groups in ApaI investigation. In conclusion, PFGE used in the study showed a high genetic diversity among L. monocytogenes. The strains were grouped into varied clonal clusters, which may suggest different sources of contamination. The results demonstrated that 1/2a serotype was the most common among isolates from fresh fish and fish products in Poland.
Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Influenza a(H3N2) Virus Circulating during the 2010-2011 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
This study provides data on the viral diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H3N2) virus isolated in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 80 clinically infected patients in the peak of the 2010-2011 winter seasons were processed for viral diagnosis by RT-PCR. Sequencing of entire HA and NA genes of representative isolates and molecular epidemiological analysis were performed. A total of 06 patients were positive for influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial viruses by RT-PCR assays; out of these only one sample was positive for influenza A(H3N2) by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA gene sequences showed identities higher than 99-98.8 % in both genes. They were also similar to reference isolates in HA sequences (99 % identity) and in NA sequences (99 % identity). Amino acid sequences predicted for the HA gene were highly identical to reference strains. The NA amino acid substitutions identified did not include the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y substitution. Conclusion: Viral isolation and RT-PCR together were useful for diagnosis of the influenza A (H3N2) virus. Variations in HA and NA sequences are similar to those identified in worldwide reference isolates and no drug resistance was found.
Antifungal Activity of Commiphora myrrha L. against Some Air Fungi
To avoid the harmful effects of the chemical fungicides on the human and minimize the environmental pollution, an alternative eco-friendly control strategies should be developed. The extract of Commiphora myhrra L. was tested against twenty fungal genera isolated from the indoor air collected from different rooms in King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Disc diffusion test was modified for use in this study and the collected data was statistically analyzed. Variable antifungal efficacy of different myrrh extract was recorded against the investigated fungal genera. The efficacy of the extract was increased as the concentration increased. The highest growth inhibition (74.6%) was against Acremonium strictum followed by Trichoderma psuedokoningii (70.6%). On contrast, the lowest efficacy (12.7%) was against Ulocladium consortiale. It could be concluded that myrrh extract is promised as a source of substances from which of safer and eco-friendly could be used as antimicrobial agents against a number of pathogenic fungi.
Use of Different Plant Extracts in Fungal Disease Management of Onion (Allium cepa. L)
Onion is most important vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but these fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil-borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extracts (Ocimum sanctum L., Xanthium strumarium B. and H. Withania somnifera Dunal)at five different concentration Viz, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning technique. Ocimum sanctum gave 84.21% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentration and 10.52% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Xanthium strumarium B. and H. at 10% extract concentration 46.42% growth and at 100% extract concentration 28.57% growth of Fusarium oxysporum was observed. Fusarium oxysporum give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium. In Withania somnifera Dunal in 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and in 100% extract concentration 21.05% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was recorded. Stemphylium vesicarium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporum.
The Prevalence and Profile of Extended Spectrum B-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae Species in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Setting of a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India
Serious infections caused by gram-negative bacteria are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the hospital setting. In acute care facilities like in intensive care units (ICUs), the intensity of antimicrobial use together with a population highly susceptible to infection, creates an environment, which facilitates both emergence and transmission of Extended Spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae species. The study was conducted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) and the Pulmonary Critical Care Unit (PCCU) of the Department of Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Out of a total of 1108 samples of urine, blood and respiratory tract secretions received for culture and sensitivity analysis from Medical Intensive Care Unit and Pulmonary Critical Care Unit, a total of 170 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae species were obtained which were then included in our study. Out of these 170 isolates, confirmed ESBL production was seen in 116 (68.24%) cases. E.coli was the most common species isolated (56.47%) followed by Klebsiella (32.94%), Enterobacter (5.88%), Citrobacter (3.53%), Enterobacter (0.59%) and Morganella (0.59%) among the total isolates. The rate of ESBL production was more in Klebsiella (78.57%) as compared to E.coli (60.42%). ESBL producers were found to be significantly more common in patients with prior history of hospitalization, antibiotic use, and prolonged ICU stay. Also significantly increased the prevalence of ESBL related infections was observed in patients with a history of catheterization or central line insertion but not in patients with the history of intubation. Patients who had an underlying malignancy had significantly higher prevalence of ESBL related infections as compared to other co-morbid illnesses. A slightly significant difference in the rate of mortality/LAMA was observed in the ESBL producer versus the non-ESBL producer group. The rate of mortality/LAMA was significantly higher in the ESBL related UTI but not in the ESBL related respiratory tract and bloodstream infections. ESBL producing isolates had significantly higher rates of resistance to Cefepime and Piperacillin/Tazobactum, and to non β-lactum antibiotics like Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin. The level of resistance to Imipenem was lower as compared to other antibiotics. However, it was noted that ESBL producing isolates had higher levels of resistance to Imipenem as compared to non-ESBL producing isolates. Conclusion- The prevalence of ESBL producing organisms was found to be very high (68.24%) among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in our ICU setting as among other ICU care settings around the world.
Microorganisms in Fresh and Stored Bee Pollen Originated from Slovakia
The aim of the study was to test the storage of bee pollen at room temperature and in cold store, and to describe microorganisms originated from it. Fresh bee pollen originating in West Slovakia was collected in May 2010. It was tested for presence of particular microbial groups using dilution plating method, and divided into two parts with different storage (in cold store and at room temperature). Microbial analyses of pollen were repeated after one year of storage. Several bacterial strains were isolated and tested using Gram staining, for catalase and fructose-6-phosphate-phosphoketolase presence, and by rapid ID 32A (BioMérieux, France). Micromycetes were identified at genus level. Fresh pollen contained coliform bacteria, which were not detected after one year of storage in both ways. Total plate count (TPC) of aerobes and anaerobes and of yeasts in fresh bee pollen exceeded 5.00 log CFU/g. TPC of aerobes and anaerobes decreased below 2.00 log CFU/g after one year of storage in both ways. Count of yeasts decreased to 2.32 log CFU/g (at room temperature) and to 3.66 log CFU/g (in cold store). Microscopic filamentous fungi decreased from 3.41 log CFU/g (fresh bee pollen) to 1.13 log CFU/g (at room temperature) and to 1.89 log CFU/g (in cold store). In fresh bee pollen, 12 genera of micromycetes were identified in the following order according to their relative density: Penicillium > Mucor > Absidia > Cladosporium, Fusarium > Alternaria > Eurotium > Aspergillus, Rhizopus > Emericella > Arthrinium and Mycelium sterilium. After one year at room temperature, only three genera were detected in bee pollen (Penicillium > Aspergillus, Mucor) and after one year in cold store, seven genera were detected (Mucor > Penicillium, Emericella > Aspergillus, Absidia > Arthrinium, Eurotium). From the plates designated for anaerobes, eight colonies originating in fresh bee pollen were isolated. Among them, a single yeast isolate occurred. Other isolates were G+ bacteria, with a total of five rod shaped. In three out of these five, catalase was absent and fructose-6-phosphate-phosphoketolase was present. Bacterial isolates originating in fresh pollen belonged probably to genus Bifidobacterium or relative genera, but their identity was not confirmed unequivocally. In general, cold conditions are suitable for maintaining the natural properties of foodstuffs for a longer time. Slight decrease of microscopic fungal number and diversity was recorded in cold temperatures compared with storage at room temperature.
Molecular Detection and Antibiotics Resistance Pattern of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli in a Tertiary Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria
Antibiotic resistance is increasing globally and has become a major health challenge. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase is clinically important because the ESBL gene are mostly plasmid encoded and these plasmids frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other classes of antimicrobials thereby limiting antibiotic options in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs production in Escherichia coli, to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of ESBLs producing Escherichia coli, to detect TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes and the risk factors to acquisition of ESBL producing Escherichia coli. The protocol of the study was approved by Health Research and Ethics committee of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that involved all hospitalized patients in UNTH from whose specimens Escherichia coli was isolated during the period of the study. The samples analysed were urine, wound swabs, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. These samples were cultured in 5% sheep Blood agar and MacConkey agar (Oxoid Laboratories, Cambridge UK) and incubated at 35-370C for 24 hours. Escherichia coli was identified with standard biochemical tests and confirmed using API 20E auxanogram (bioMerieux, Marcy 1'Etoile, France). The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method and interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guideline. ESBL production was confirmed using ESBL Epsilometer test strips (Liofilchem srl, Italy). The ESBL bla genes were detected with polymerase chain reaction, after extraction of DNA with plasmid mini-prep kit (Jena Bioscience, Jena, Germany). Data analysis was with appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred and six isolates (53.00%) out of the 200 were from urine, followed by isolates from different swabs specimens 53(26.50%) and the least number of the isolates 4(2.00) were from blood (P value = 0.096). Seventy (35.00%) out of the 200 isolates, were confirmed positive for ESBL production. Forty-two (60.00%) of the isolates were from female patients while 28(40.00%) were from male patients (P value = 0.13). Sixty-eight (97.14%) of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem while all of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. From the 70 positive isolates the ESBL genes detected with polymerase chain reaction were blaCTX-M (n=26; 37.14%), blaTEM (n=7; 10.00%), blaSHV (n=2; 2.86%), blaCTX-M/TEM (n=7; 10.0%), blaCTX-M/SHV (n=14; 20.0%) and blaCTX-M/TEM/SHV (n=10; 14.29%). There was no gene detected in 4(5.71%) of the isolates. The most associated risk factors to infections caused by ESBL producing Escherichia coli was previous antibiotics use for the past 3 months followed by admission in the intensive care unit, recent surgery, and urinary catheterization. In conclusion, ESBLs was detected in 4 of every 10 Escherichia coli with the predominant gene detected being CTX-M. This knowledge will enable appropriate measures towards improvement of patient health care, antibiotic stewardship, research and infection control in the hospital.
Phi Thickening Induction as a Response to Abiotic Stress in the Orchid Miltoniopsis
Phi thickenings are specialized secondary cell wall thickenings that are found in the cortex of the roots in a wide range of plant species, including orchids. The role of phi thickenings in the root is still under debate through research have linked environmental conditions, particularly abiotic stresses such as water stress, heavy metal stress and salinity to their induction in the roots. It has also been suggested that phi thickenings may act as a barrier to regulate solute uptake, act as a physical barrier against fungal hyphal penetration due to its resemblance to the Casparian strip and play a mechanical role to support cortical cells. We have investigated phi thickening function in epiphytic orchids of the genus Miltoniopsis through induction experiment against factors such as soil compaction and water stress. The permeability of the phi thickenings in Miltoniopsis was tested through uptake experiments using the fluorescent tracer dyes Calcofluor white, Lucifer yellow and Propidium iodide then viewed with wide-field or confocal microscopy. To test whether phi thickening may prevent fungal colonization in the root cell, fungal re-infection experiment was conducted by inoculating isolated symbiotic fungus to sterile in vitro Miltoniopsis explants. As the movement of fluorescent tracers through the apoplast was not blocked by phi thickenings, and as phi thickenings developed in the roots of sterile cultures in the absence of fungus and did not prevent fungal colonization of cortical cells, the phi thickenings in Miltoniopsis do not function as a barrier. Phi thickenings were found to be absent in roots grown on agar and remained absent when plants were transplanted to moist soil. However, phi thickenings were induced when plants were transplanted to well-drained media, and by the application of water stress in all soils tested. It is likely that phi thickenings stabilize the root cortex during dehydration. Nevertheless, the varied induction responses present in different plant species suggest that the phi thickenings may play several adaptive roles, instead of just one, depending on species.
Antimicrobial Efficacy of Some Antibiotics Combinations Tested against Some Molecular Characterized Multiresistant Staphylococcus Clinical Isolates, in Egypt
The resistance of staphylococci to various antibiotics has become a major concern for health care professionals. The efficacy of the combinations of selected glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin/rifampicin combination, was studied against selected pathogenic staphylococcus isolated from Egypt. The molecular distribution of genes conferring resistance to these four antibiotics was detected among tested clinical isolates. Antibiotic combinations were studied using the checkerboard technique and the time-kill assay (in both the stationary and log phases). Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was tried in the absence and presence of diclofenac sodium as inducer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the effect of glycopeptides on the ultrastructure of the cell wall of staphylococci. Attempts were made to cure gentamicin resistance plasmids and to study the transfer of these plasmids by conjugation. Trials for the transformation of the successfully isolated gentamicin resistance plasmid to competent cells were carried out. The detection of genes conferring resistance to the tested antibiotics was performed using the polymerase chain reaction. The studied antibiotic combinations proved their efficacy, especially when tested during the log phase. Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was more promising in presence of diclofenac sodium, compared to its absence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the thickening of bacterial cell wall in staphylococcus clinical isolates due to the presence of tested glycopeptides. Curing of gentamicin resistance plasmids was only successful in 2 out of 9 tested isolates, with a curing rate of 1 percent for each. Both isolates, when used as donors in conjugation experiments, yielded promising conjugation frequencies ranging between 5.4 X 10-2 and 7.48 X 10-2 colony forming unit/donor cells. Plasmid isolation was only successful in one out of the two tested isolates. However, low transformation efficiency (59.7 transformants/microgram plasmid DNA) of such plasmids was obtained. Negative regulators of autolysis, such as arlR, lytR and lrgB, as well as cell-wall associated genes, such as pbp4 and/or pbp2, were detected in staphylococcus isolates with reduced susceptibility to the tested glycopeptides. Concerning rifampicin resistance genes, rpoBstaph was detected in 75 percent of the tested staphylococcus isolates. It could be concluded that in vitro studies emphasized the usefulness of the combination of vancomycin or teicoplanin with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin with rifampicin, against staphylococci showing varying resistance patterns. However, further in vivo studies are required to ensure the safety and efficacy of such combinations. Diclofenac sodium can act as an inducer of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci. Cell-wall thickness is a major contributor to such resistance among them. Gentamicin resistance in these strains could be chromosomally or plasmid mediated. Multiple mutations in the rpoB gene could mediate staphylococcus resistance to rifampicin.
Design, Development and Evaluation of Ketoconazole Loaded Nanosponges in Hydrogel for the Management of Topical Fungal Infections
This work aims at investigating the use of β-Cyclodextrin as a cross linker, in an attempt to formulate nanosponges containing ketoconazole. The nanosponges were prepared by cross-linking method. The excipients used in this study did not alter the physicochemical properties of a drug as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy. Studies on various formulation variables revealed that all the variables are inter-related with the formulation. The ideal batch among the formulation was selected based on the higher entrapment efficiency and drug loading. The in vitro release studies of ketoconazole nanosponges in hydrogel exhibited a sustained release over a period of 24 hours. Mathematical analysis of drug release from the formulation followed non-Fickian diffusion obeying first order kinetics. The anti-fungal activity of the formulation exhibited better zone of inhibition when compared to pure drug (ketoconazole) against Tinea corporis.
Selection of Endophytcs Fungi Isolated from Date Palm, Halotolerants and Productors of Secondary Metabolite
Date palm is a plant which presents a very good adaptation to the difficult conditions of the environment in particular to the drought and saline stress even at high temperatures. This adaptation is related on the biology of the plant and to the presence of a microflora endophyte which live inside its tissues. Fifteen endophytics fungi isolated from date palm were tested in vitro in the presence of various NaCl concentrations to select halotolerantes isolates. These same endophytes were tested for their colonizing capacity by the description of the production of secondary metabolites more particularly the enzymes (pectinases, proteases, and phosphorylases), and the production of antibiotics and growth hormones. Significant difference was observed between the isolates with respect to the tests carried out.
Detection and Molecular Identification of Bacteria Forming Polyhydroxyalkanoate and Polyhydroxybutyrate Isolated from Soil in Saudi Arabia
Soil samples were collected from five different regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Microbiological methods included dilution methods and pour plates to isolate and purify bacteria soil. The ability of isolates to develop biopolymer was investigated on petri dishes containing elements and substance concentrations stimulating developing biopolymer. Fluorescent stains, Nile red and Nile blue were used to stain the bacterial cells developing biopolymers. In addition, Sudan black was used to detect biopolymers in bacterial cells. The isolates which developed biopolymers were identified based on their gene sequence of 1 6sRNA and their ability to grow and synthesize PHAs on mineral medium supplemented with 1% dates molasses as the only carbon source under nitrogen limitation. During the study 293 bacterial isolates were isolated and detected. Through the initial survey on the petri dishes, 84 isolates showed the ability to develop biopolymers. These bacterial colonies developed a pink color due to accumulation of the biopolymers in the cells. Twenty-three isolates were able to grow on dates molasses, three strains of which showed the ability to accumulate biopolymers. These strains included Bacillus sp., Ralstonia sp. and Microbacterium sp. They were detected by Nile blue A stain with fluorescence microscopy (OLYMPUS IX 51). Among the isolated strains Ralstonia sp. was selected after its ability to grow on molasses dates in the presence of a limited nitrogen source was detected. The optimum conditions for formation of biopolymers by isolated strains were investigated. Conditions studied included, best incubation duration (2 days), temperature (30°C) and pH (7-8). The maximum PHB production was raised by 1% (v1v) when using concentrations of dates molasses 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% in MSM. The best inoculated with 1% old inoculum (1= OD). The ideal extraction method of PHA and PHB proved to be 0.4% sodium hypochlorite solution, producing a quantity of polymer 98.79% of the cell's dry weight. The maximum PHB production was 1.79 g/L recorded by Ralstonia sp. after 48 h, while it was 1.40 g/L produced by R.eutropha ATCC 17697 after 48 h.
Microbial Pathogens Associated with Banded Sugar Ants (Camponotus consobrinus) in Calabar, Nigeria
Objectives and Goals: The study was aimed at determining pathogenic microbial carriage on the external body parts of Camponotus consobrinus which is also known as the banded sugar ant because of its liking for sugar and sweet food. The level of pathogenic microbial carriage of Camponotus consobrinus in association to the environment in which they have been collected is not known. Methods: The ants were purposively collected from four locations including the kitchens, bedroom of various homes, food shops, and bakeries. The sample collection took place within the hours of 6:30 pm to 11:00 pm. The ants were trapped in transparent plastic containers of which sugar, pineapple peels, sugar cane and soft drinks were used as bait. The ants were removed with a sterile spatula and put in 10mls of peptone water in sterile universal bottles. The containers were vigorously shaken to wash the external surface of the ant. It was left overnight and transported to the Microbiology Laboratory, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital for analysis. The overnight peptone broths were inoculated on Chocolate agar, Blood agar, Cystine Lactose Electrolyte-Deficient agar (CLED) and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Incubation was done aerobically and in a carbon dioxide jar for 24 to 48 hours at 37°C. Isolates were identified based on colonial characteristics, Gram staining, and biochemical tests. Results: Out of the 250 Camponotus consobrinus caught for the study, 90(36.0%) were caught in the kitchen, 75(30.0%) in the bedrooms 40(16.0%) in the bakery while 45(18.0%) were caught in the shops. A total of 82.0% prevalence of different microbial isolates was associated with the ants. The kitchen had the highest number of isolates 75(36.6%) followed by the bedroom 55(26.8%) while the bakery recorded the lowest number of isolates 35(17.1%). The profile of micro-organisms associated with Camponotus consobrinus was Escherichia coli 73(30.0%), Morganella morganii 45(18.0%), Candida species 25(10.0%), Serratia marcescens 10(4.0%) and Citrobacter freundii 10(4.0%). Conclusion: Most of the Camponotus consobrinus examined in the four locations harboured potential pathogens. The presence of ants in homes and shops can facilitate the propagation and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the development of basic preventive measures and the control of ants must be taken seriously.
Biodiesel Production and Heavy Metal Removal by Aspergillus fumigatus sp.
Some of filamentous fungi can be used for biodiesel production as they are able to accumulate high amounts of intracellular lipids when grown at stress conditions. Aspergillus fumigatus sp. was isolated from Nile delta soil in Egypt. The fungus was primarily screened for its capacity to accumulate lipids using Nile red staining assay. The fungus could accumulate more than 20% of its biomass as lipids when grown at optimized minimal medium. After lipid extraction, we could use fungal cell debris to remove some heavy metals from contaminated waste water. The fungal cell debris could remove Cd, Cr, and Zn with absorption efficiency of 73%, 83.43%, and 69.39% respectively. In conclusion, the Aspergillus fumigatus isolate may be considered as a promising biodiesel producer, and its biomass waste can be further used for bioremediation of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals.
Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for the Treatment of Fungal Infections and Related Ailments in South Africa
The current study investigates the antifungal properties of crude plant extracts from selected medicinal plant species. Eight plant species used by the traditional healers and local people to treat fungal infections were selected for further phytochemical analysis and biological assay. The selected plant species were extracted with solvent of various polarities such as acetone, methanol, ethanol, hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water. Leaf, roots and bark extracts of Maerua juncea Pax, Albuca seineri (Engl &amp; K. Krause) J.C Manning &amp; Goldblatt, Senna italica Mill., Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels, Indigofera circinata Benth., Schinus molle L., Asparagus buchananii Bak., were screened for antifungal activity against three animal fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans). All plant extracts were active against the tested microorganisms. Acetone, dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol extracts of Senna italica and Elephantorrhiza elephantine had excellent activity against Candida albicans and A. fumigatus with the lowest MIC value of 0.02 mg/ml. Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds presence in the plant extracts. No active compounds were observed in plant extracts of Indigofera circinnata, Schinus molle and Pentarrhinum insipidum with good antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. fumigatus indicating possible synergism between separated metabolites.
Epidemiological Model for Citrus Black Spot Dynamics along the Pre-Harvest Supply Chain
Citrus Black Spot (CBS) is a fungal disease that is responsible for huge economical loss and poses a threat to the citrus industry worldwide. We construct a mathematical model framework for citrus black spot between fruits to characterise the dynamics of the disease development, paying attention to the pathogen life cycle. We have made an observation from the model analysis that the initial inoculum from ascomata is very important for disease development and thereafter it is no longer important due to conidia which is responsible for secondary infection. Most importantly, the model indicated that ascospores and conidia are very important parameters in developing citrus black spot within a short distance. The basic reproductive number and its importance in relation to citrus black spot persistence are outlined. A numerical simulation of the model was done to explain the theoretical findings.
Staphylococcus argenteus: An Emerging Subclinical Bovine Mastitis Pathogen in Thailand
Staphylococcus argenteus is the emerging species of S. aureus complex. It was generally misidentified as S. aureus by standard techniques and their features. S. argenteus is possibly emerging in both humans and animals, as well as increasing worldwide distribution. The objective of this study was to differentiate and identify S. argenteus from S. aureus, which has been collected and isolated from milk samples of subclinical bovine mastitis cases in Maha Sarakham province, Northeastern of Thailand. Twenty-one isolates of S. aureus, which confirmed by conventional methods and immune-agglutination method were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The result from MALDI-TOF MS and MLST showed 6 from 42 isolates were confirmed as S. argenteus, and 36 isolates were S. aureus, respectively. This study indicated that the identification and classification method by using MALDI-TOF MS and MLST could accurately differentiate the emerging species, S. argenteus, from S. aureus complex which usually misdiagnosed. In addition, the identification of S. argenteus seems to be very limited despite the fact that it may be the important causative pathogen in bovine mastitis as well as pathogenic bacteria in food and milk. Therefore, it is very necessary for both bovine medicine and veterinary public health to emphasize and recognize this bacterial pathogen as the emerging disease of Staphylococcal bacteria and need further study about S. argenteus infection.
Effect of Oxidative Stress on Glutathione Reductase Activity of Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently experienced by the female population where the prevalence increases with aging. Escherichia coli, one of the most common UTI causing organisms, retains glutathione defense mechanism that aids the organism to withstand the harsh physiological environment of urinary tract, host oxidative immune response and even to affect antibiotic-mediated cell death and the emergence of resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the glutathione reductase activity of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by observing the reduced glutathione (GSH) level alteration under stressful condition. Urine samples of 58 patients with UTI were collected. Upon isolation and identification, 88% of the samples presented E. coli as UTI causing organism among which randomly selected isolates (n=9), obtained from urine samples of female patients, were considered for this study. E. coli isolates were grown under normal and stressful conditions where H₂O₂ was used as the stress-inducing agent. GSH level estimation of the isolates in both conditions was carried out based on the colorimetric measurement of 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and GSH reaction product using microplate reader assay. The GSH level of isolated E. coli sampled from adult patients decreased under stress compared to normal condition (p = 0.011). On the other hand, GSH production increased markedly in samples that were collected from elderly subjects (p = 0.024). A significant partial correlation between age and change of GSH level was found as well (p = 0.007). This study may help to reveal ways for better understanding of E. coli pathogenesis of UTI prevalence in elderly patients.
Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Fermented Products: Potential Probiotic Bacteria with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities
Thirty (30) isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditionally-prepared fermented products specifically fermented soy-bean paste, fermented mustard and fermented rice-fish mixture were studied for their in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Seventeen (17) isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, while 13 isolates were identified as Enterococcus spp using 16s rDNA sequences. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of LAB against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), while the modified agar overlay method was used to determine the antifungal activity of LAB isolates on the yeast Candida albicans, and the dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The filter-sterilized LAB supernatants were evaluated for their cytotoxicity to mammalian colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116) and normal human dermal fibrolasts (HDFn) using resazurin assay (PrestoBlueTM). Colchicine was the positive control. No antimicrobial activity was observed against the bacterial test organisms and the yeast Candida albicans. On the other hand, all of the tested LAB strains were fungicidal for all the test dermatophytes. Cytotoxicity index profiles of the supernatants of the 15 randomly picked LABs and negative control (brain heart infussion broth) suggest nontoxicity to the cells when compared to colchicine, whereas all LAB supernatants were found to be cytotoxic to HT-29 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines. Results provide strong support for the role of the lactic acid bacteria studied in antimicrobial treatment and anticancer therapy.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: The Major Carbapenem Resistance Bacteria from Waste Water Treatment Plant of Pig Farm
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of the emerging opportunistic pathogens, and also known to have extensive drug resistance intrinsically including carbepenems which is last resort for most serious infections. One possible way for S. maltophilia to infect human is via wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the period between October 2016 and February 2017, effluent samples of WWTP from 3 different pig farms were collected once a month and screened for isolation of S. maltophilia. Total 16 strains of S. maltophilia were isolated and, the antibiotic susceptibility phenotypes were determined by Vitek 2 system for 16 antibiotics, ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), cefazolin (CZ), cefoxitin (FOX), cefotaxime (CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), cefepime (FEP), aztreonam (AZT), ertapenem (ETP), imipenem (IMP), amikacin (AK), gentamicin (GN), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tigecycline (TGC) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT). All isolates showed high resistance to AMP (100%), CZ (100%), FOX (100%), CTX (100%), CAZ (100%), FEP (94%), AZT (100%), ETP (100%), IMP (100%), AK (100%), GN (100%) whereas were susceptible to CIP (0%), TGC (0%), SXT (6%). All strains harbored at least one of the antibiotic resistance determinant such as spgM, rmlA, and rpfF. Some isolates had similar MLST (multilocus sequence typing) types with clinical isolates, suggesting WWTP could have potential role in the transmission of S. maltophilia to aquatic environment and, possibly, to humans.
Virulence Factors and Drug Resistance of Enterococci Species Isolated from the Intensive Care Units of Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt
Background: The enterococci may be considered as opportunistic agents particularly in immunocompromised patients. It is one of the top three pathogens causing many healthcare associated infections (HAIs). Resistance to several commonly used antimicrobial agents is a remarkable characteristic of most species which may carry various genes contributing to virulence. Objectives: to determine the prevalence of enterococci species in different intensive care units (ICUs) causing health care-associated infections (HAIs), intestinal carriage and environmental contamination. Also, to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates with special reference to vancomycin resistance. In addition to phenotypic and genotypic detection of gelatinase, cytolysin and biofilm formation among isolates. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out in the infection control laboratory at Assiut University Hospitals over a period of one year. Clinical samples were collected from 285 patients with various (HAIs) acquired after admission to different ICUs. Rectal swabs were taken from 14 cases for detection of enterococci carriage. In addition, 1377 environmental samples were collected from the surroundings of the patients. Identification was done by conventional bacteriological methods and confirmed by analytical profile index (API). Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method and detection of vancomycin resistance was done by agar screen method. For the isolates, phenotypic detection of cytolysin, gelatinase production and detection of biofilm by tube method, Congo red method and microtiter plate. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of some virulence genes (gelE, cylA, vanA, vanB and esp). Results: Enterococci caused 10.5% of the HAIs. Respiratory tract infection was the predominant type (86.7%). The commonest species were E.gallinarum (36.7%), E.casseliflavus (30%), E.faecalis (30%), and E.durans (3.4 %). Vancomycin resistance was detected in a total of 40% (12/30) of those isolates. The risk factors associated with acquiring vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) were immune suppression (P= 0.031) and artificial feeding (P= 0.008). For the rectal swabs, enterococci species were detected in 71.4% of samples with the predominance of E. casseliflavus (50%). Most of the isolates were vancomycin resistant (70%). Out of a total 1377 environmental samples, 577 (42%) samples were contaminated with different microorganisms. Enterococci were detected in 1.7% (10/577) of total contaminated samples, 50% of which were vancomycin resistant. All isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole. For the remaining antibiotics, variable percentages of resistance were reported. Cytolysin and gelatinase were detected phenotypically in 16% and 48 % of the isolates respectively. The microtiter plate method showed the highest percentages of detection of biofilm among all isolated species (100%). The studied virulence genes gelE, esp, vanA and vanB were detected in 62%, 12%, 2% and 12% respectively, while cylA gene was not detected in any isolates. Conclusions: A significant percentage of enterococci was isolated from patients and environments in the ICUs. Many virulence factors were detected phenotypically and genotypically among isolates. The high percentage of resistance, coupled with the risk of cross transmission to other patients make enterococci infections a significant infection control issue in hospitals.
Bioremediation of Disposed X-Ray Film for Nanoparticles Production
The synthesis of silver nano particles (SNPs) extensively studied by using chemical and physical methods. Here, the biological methods were used and give benefits in research field in the aspect of very low cost (from waste to wealth) and safe time as well. The study aims to isolate and exploit the microbial power in the production of industrially important by-products in nano-size with high economic value, to extract highly valuable materials from hazardous waste, to quantify nano particle size, and characterization of SNPs by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Disposal X-ray films were used as substrate because it consumes about 1000 tons of total silver chemically produced worldwide annually. This silver is being wasted when these films are used and disposed. Different bacterial isolates were obtained from various sources. Silver was extracted as nano particles by microbial power degradation from disposal X-ray film as the sole carbon source for ten days incubation period in darkness. The protein content was done and all the samples were analyzed using XRD, to characterize of silver (Ag) nano particles size in the form of silver nitrite. Bacterial isolates CL4C showed the average size of SNPs about 19.53 nm, GL7 showed average size about 52.35 nm and JF Outer 2A (PDA) showed 13.52 nm. All bacterial isolates partially identified using Gram’s reaction and the results obtained exhibited that belonging to Bacillus sp.
Phylogenetic Characterization of Atrazine-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soil in Eastern Thailand
In this study sugarcane field soils with a long history of atrazine application in Chachoengsao and Chonburi provinces have been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. For the atrazine degrading bacteria isolation, the soils used in this study named ACS and ACB were inoculated in MS-medium containing atrazine. Six short rod and gram-negative bacterial isolates, which were able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen, were isolated and named as ACS1, ACB1, ACB3, ACB4, ACB5 and ACB6. From the 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, the isolated bacteria ACS1 and ACB4 were identified as Rhizobium sp. with 89.1-98.7% nucleotide identity, ACB1 and ACB5 were identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. with 91.0-92.8% nucleotide identity, whereas ACB3 and ACB6 were Klebsiella sp. with 97.4-97.8% nucleotide identity.
Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.
Evaluation of the Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay Drugs Concentration for Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to interrupt the transmission of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) assay is a rapid, accurate and simple liquid culture method to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). MODS were evaluated to determine a lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin for detection of MDR-TB. Direct drug-susceptibility testing was performed with the use of the MODS assay. Drug-sensitive control strains were tested daily. The drug concentrations that used for both isoniazid and rifampin were at the same concentration: 0.16, 0.08 and 0.04μg per milliliter. We tested 56 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and the control strains M. tuberculosis H37RV. All concentration showed same result. Of 53 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 14 were MDR-TB, 38 were susceptible with isoniazid and rifampin, 1 was resistant with isoniazid only. Drug-susceptibility testing was performed with the use of the proportion method using Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system as reference. The result of MODS assay using lower concentration was significance (P< 0.001) compare with the reference methods. A lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin can be used to detect MDR-TB. Operational cost and application can be more efficient and easier in resource-limited environments. However, additional studies evaluating the MODS using lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin must be conducted with a larger number of clinical isolates.
Isolation and Probiotic Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis from Gut Microbiome of Rohu (Labeo rohita)
Though aquaculture started as an occupation for poor and weak farmers for livelihood, it has now acquired the shape of one of the biggest industry to grow live protein in the form of aquatic organisms. Industrialization of the aquaculture sector has led to intensification resulting in stress on aquatic organisms and frequent disease outbreaks leading to huge economic impacts. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics as growth promoter and prophylactic agent in aquaculture has resulted in rapid emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. Over the past few years, use of probiotics (as an alternative of antibiotics) in aquaculture has gained attention due to their immunostimulant and growth promoting properties. It has now well known that after administration, a probiotic bacterium has to compete and establish itself against native microbiota to show its eventual beneficial properties. Due to their non-fish origin, commercial probiotics sometimes may display poor probiotic functionalities and antagonistic effects. Thus, isolation and characterization of probiotic bacteria from same fish host is very much necessary. In this study, attempts were made to isolate potent probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from intestinal microflora of rohu fish. Twenty-five experimental rohu fishes (mean weight 400 ± 20gm, mean standard length 20 ± 3cm) were used in the study to collect fish gut after dissection in a sterile condition. A total of 150 tentative LAB isolates from selective agar media (de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS)) were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Microccocus leuteus. A total of 17 isolates, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, identified by biochemical tests and PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment, displayed promising antimicrobial activity against both the pathogens. Two isolates from each species (FLB1, FLB2 from L. plantarum; and FLC1, FLC2 from L. lactis) were subjected to downstream probiotic potential characterization. These isolates were compared in vitro for their hemolytic activity, acid and bile tolerance for growth kinetics, auto-aggregation, cell-surface hydrophobicity against xylene, and chloroform, tolerance to phenol, cell adhesion, and safety parameters (by intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections). None of the tested isolates showed any hemolytic activity indicating their potential safety. Moreover, these isolates were tolerant to 0.3% bile (75-82% survival), phenol stress (96-99% survival) with 100% viability at pH 3 over a period of 3 h. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that all the tested LAB isolates were resistant to vancomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and erythromycin and sensitive to Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Trimethoprim, and Nitrofurantoin. Tetracycline resistance was found in L. plantarum (FLB1 and FLB2 isolates), whereas L. lactis were susceptible to it. Intramuscular and intraperitoneal challenges to fingerlings of rohu fish (5 ± 1gm weight) with FLB1 showed no pathogenicity and occurrence of disease symptoms in fishes over an observation period of 7 days. The results revealed FLB1 as a potential probiotic candidate for aquaculture application among other isolates.
Transcriptomic Response of Calmodulin Encoding Gene (CaM) in Pesticide Utilizing Talaromyces Fungal Strains
Calmodulin is one of the intracellular calcium proteins that regulates large spectrum of enzymes and cellular functions including metabolism of cyclic nucleotides and glycogen. The potentials of calmodulin gene in fungi necessitates their genetic response and their strong cassette of enzyme secretions for pesticide degradation. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the ‘Transcriptomic’ response of calmodulin encoding genes in Talaromyces fungi in response to 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP or Dichlorvos) an organophosphate pesticide and γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) an organochlorine pesticide. Fungi strains isolated from rhizosphere from grasses rhizosphere in pesticide polluted sites were subjected to percentage incidence test. Two most frequent fungi were further characterized using ITS gene amplification (ITS1 and ITS4 combinations), they were thereafter subjected to In-vitro DDVP and lindane tolerance tests at different concentrations. They were also screened for presence and expression of calmodulin gene (caM) using RT-PCR technique. The two Talaromyces strains had the highest incidence of 50-72% in pesticide polluted site, they were both identified as Talaromyces astroroseus asemoG and Talaromyces purpurogenum asemoN submitted in NCBI gene-bank with accession numbers KY488464 and KY488468 respectively. T. astroroseus KY488464 tolerated DDVP (1.23±0.023 cm) and lindane (1.11±0.018 cm) at 25 % concentration while T. purpurogenum KY488468 tolerated DDVP (1.33±0.061 cm) and lindane (1.54±0.077 cm) at this concentration. Calmodulin gene was detected in both strains, but RT-PCR expression of caM gene revealed at 900-1000 bp showed an under-expression of caM in T. astrorosues KY488464 but overexpressed in T. purpurogenum KY488464. Thus, the calmodulin gene response of these fungal strains to both pesticides could be considered in monitoring the potentials of fungal strains to pesticide tolerance and bioremediation of pesticide in polluted soil.
Identification and Characterisation of Oil Sludge Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Compost
The oil sludge components (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) have been found to be cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic and microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi can degrade the oil sludge to less toxic compounds such as carbon dioxide, water and salts. In the present study, we isolated different bacteria with PAH-degrading potentials from the co-composting of oil sludge and different animal manure. These bacteria were isolated on the mineral base medium and mineral salt agar plates as a growth control. A total of 31 morphologically distinct isolates were carefully selected from 5 different compost treatments for identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S rDNA gene with specific primers (16S-P1 PCR and 16S-P2 PCR). The amplicons were sequenced and sequences were compared with the known nucleotides from the gene bank database. The phylogenetical analyses of the isolates showed that they belong to 3 different clades namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. These bacteria identified were closely related to genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, Variovorax, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia and Geobacillus species. The results showed that Bacillus species were more dominant in all treated compost piles. Based on their characteristics these bacterial isolates have high potential to utilise PAHs of different molecular weights as carbon and energy sources. These identified bacteria are of special significance in their capacity to emulsify the PAHs and their ability to utilize them. Thus, they could be potentially useful for bioremediation of oil sludge and composting processes.
Bacteriological Screening and Antibiotic – Heavy Metal Resistance Profile of the Bacteria Isolated from Some Amphibian and Reptile Species of the Biga Stream in Turkey
In this article, the antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of the bacteria isolated from total 34 studied animals (Pelophylax ridibundus = 12, Mauremys rivulata = 14, Natrix natrix = 8) captured around the Biga Stream, are described. There was no database information on antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria from these area’s amphibians and reptiles. In this study, a total of 200 bacteria were successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptiles as well as from the water sample. According to Jaccard’s similarity index, the degree of similarity in the bacterial flora was quite high among the amphibian and reptile species under examination, whereas it was different from the bacterial diversity in the water sample. The most frequent isolates were A. hydrophila (31.5%), B. pseudomallei (8.5%), and C. freundii (7%). The total numbers of bacteria obtained were as follows: 45 in P. ridibundus, 45 in N. natrix 30 in M. rivulata, and 80 in the water sample. The result showed that cefmetazole was the most effective antibiotic to control the bacteria isolated in this study and that approximately 93.33% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic. The Multiple Antibiotic Resistances (MAR) index indicated that P. ridibundus (0.95) > N. natrix (0.89) > M. rivulata (0.39). Furthermore, all the tested heavy metals (Pb+2, Cu+2, Cr+3, and Mn+2) inhibit the growth of the bacterial isolates at different rates. Therefore, it indicated that the water source of the animals was contaminated with both antibiotic residues and heavy metals.
Antimicrobial Effect of Natamycin against Food Spoilage Fungi and Yeast Contaminated Fermented Foods
Food antimicrobials are compounds that are incorporated into food matrixes in order to cause death or delay the growth of spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms. As a result, microbiological deterioration is prevented throughout storage and food distribution. In this study, the effect of natural antimycotic natamycin (C33H47NO13, with a molecular mass of 665.725), a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) commercial compound produced by different strains of Streptomyces sp., was tested against various fermented food contamination fungi and yeast species. At the concentration of 100 µg/ml, natamycin exhibited stronger antifungal activity against fungi than yeast species tested. The exposure time of natamycin for complete inhibition of the species tested were found to be between 100-180 min at 300-750 µg/ml concentration. SEM observations of fungal species demonstrated that natamycin distorted and damaged the conidia and hyphae by inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth. Natamycin can be considered as a potential candidate in hurdle food treatments for preventing fungal and yeast invasion and resulting deterioration of fermented products.
Antifungal Susceptibility of Saprolegnia parasitica Isolated from Rainbow Trout and Its Host Pathogen Interaction in Zebrafish Disease Model
Saprolegniasis is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in freshwater fish which is caused by species in the genus Saprolegnia including Saprolegnia parasitica. In this study, we isolated the strain of S. parasitica from diseased rainbow trout in Korea. Morphological and molecular based identification confirmed that isolated fungi belong to the member of S. parasitica, supported by its typical fungal features including cotton-like whitish mycelium, zoospores (primary and secondary) and phylogenetic analysis with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Pathogenicity of isolated S. parasitica was developed in embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult zebrafish as a disease model. Up regulation of host genes encoding ZfTnf-α, Zfc-Rel, ZfIl-12, ZfLyz-c, Zfβ-def, and ZfHsp-70 was identified in zebrafish larvae after experimental challenge of S. parasitica showing the host immune responses against the S. parasitica. Survival of the juveniles upon fungal infection might be due to the increased immune protection in the host. Investigation of antifungal susceptibility of S. parasitica with natural lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG %) as 200 µg/mL and 31.8%, respectively. Lawsone was able to change the membrane permeability, and cause irreversible damage and disintegration to the cellular membranes of S. parasitica which might have effect on fungi growth inhibition. Moreover, the mycelium exposed to lawsone (MIC level) changed the transcriptional responses of S. parasitica genes. Overall results indicate that lawsone could be a potential and novel anti-S. parasitica agent for controlling S. parasitica infection.
Analysis of Pathogen Populations Occurring in Oilseed Rape Using DNA Sequencing Techniques
For a few years, the populations of pathogenic fungi occurring in winter oilseed rape in Malyszyn were analyzed. Brassica napus L. in Poland and in the world is a source of energy for both the men (oil), and animals, as post-extraction middling, as well as a motor fuel (oil, biofuel) therefore studies of this type are very important. The species composition of pathogenic fungi can be an indicator of seed yield. The occurrence of oilseed rape pathogens during several years were analyzed using the sequencing method DNA ITS. The results were compared in the gene bank using the program NCBI / BLAST. In field conditions before harvest of oilseed rape presence of pathogens infesting B. napus has been assessed. For example, in 2015, 150 samples have been isolated and applied to PDA medium for the identification of belonging species. From all population has been selected mycelium of 83 isolates which were sequenced. Others (67 isolates) were pathogenic fungi of the genus Alternaria which are easily to recognize. The population of pathogenic species on oilseed rape have been identified after analyzing the DNA ITS and include: Leptosphaeria sp. 38 (L. maculans 25, L. biglobosa 13), Alternaria sp. 29, Fusarium sp. 3, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 7, heterogeneous 6, total of 83 isolates. The genus Alternaria sp. fungi wear the largest share of B. napus pathogens in particular years. Another dangerous species for oilseed rape was Leptosphaeria sp. Populations of pathogens in each year were different. The number of pathogens occurring in the field and their composition is very important for breeders and farmers because of the possible selection of the most resistant genotypes for sowing in the next growing season.
Exploratory Characterization of Antibacterial Efficacy of Synthesized Nanoparticles on Staphylococcus Isolates from Hospital Specimens in Saudi Arabia
Staphylococci spp are ubiquitous gram-positive bacteria is often associated with infections, especially nosocomial infections, and antibiotic resistanceStudy pathogenic bacteria and its use as a tool in the technology of Nano biology and molecular genetics research of the latest research trends of modern characterization and definition of different multiresistant of bacteria including Staphylococci. The Staphylococci are widespread all over the world and particularly in Saudi Arabia The present work study was conducted to evaluate the effect of five different types of nanoparticles (biosynthesized zinc oxide, Spherical and rod of each silver and gold nanoparticles) and their antibacterial impact on the Staphylococcus species. Ninety-six isolates of Staphylococcus species. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, MRSA were collected from different sources during the period between March 2011G to June 2011G. All isolates were isolated from inpatients and outpatients departments at Royal Commission Hospital in Yanbu Industrial, Saudi Arabia. High percentage isolation from males(55%) than females (45%). Staphylococcus epidermidis from males was (47%), (28%), and(25%). For Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Isolates from females were Staphylococcus aureus with higher percent of (47%), (30%), and (23%) for MRSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staphylococcus aureus from wound swab were the highest percent (51.42%) followed by vaginal swab (25.71%). Staphylococcus epidermidis were founded with higher percentage in blood (37.14%) and wound swab (34.21%) respectively related to other. The highest percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(80.77%) were isolated from wound swab, while those from nostrils were (19.23%). Staphylococcus species were isolates in highest percentage from hospital Emergency department with Staphylococcus aureus (59.37%), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (28.13%)and Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%) respectively. Evaluate the antibacterial property of Zinc oxide, Silver, and Gold nanoparticles as an alternative to conventional antibacterial agents Staphylococci isolates from hospital sources we screened them. Gold and Silver rods Nanoparticles to be sensitive to all isolates of Staphylococcus species. Zinc oxide Nanoparticles gave sensitivity impact range(52%) and (48%). The Gold and Silver spherical nanoparticles did not showed any effect on Staphylococci species. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles gave bactericidal impact (25%) and bacteriostatic impact (75%) for of Staphylococci species. Detecting the association of nanoparticles with Staphylococci isolates imaging by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of some bacteriostatic isolates for Zinc Oxide nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), showed some Overlapping Bacterial cells with lower their number and appearing some appendages with deformities in external shape. Molecular analysis was applied by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used for the identification of genes within Staphylococcal pathogens. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed using six primer pairs to detect different genes using 50bp and 100bp DNA ladder marker. The range of Molecular gene typing ranging between 93 bp to 326 bp for Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by TSST-1,mecA,femA and eta, while the bands border were from 546 bp to 682 bp for Staphylococcus epidermidis using icaAB and atlE. Sixteen isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for the femA gene at 132bp,this allowed the using of this gene as an internal positive control, fifteen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for mecA gene at163bp.This gene was responsible for antibiotic resistant Methicillin, Two isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for the TSST-1 gene at326bp which is responsible for toxic shock syndrome in some Staphylococcus species, None were positive for eta gene at 102bpto that was responsible for Exfoliative toxins. Six isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for atlE gene at 682 bp which is responsible for the initial adherence, three isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for icaAB gene at 546bp that are responsible for mediates the formation of the biofilm. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the ability of the detection of the genes to discriminate between infecting Staphylococcus strains and considered biological tests, they may potentiate the clinical criteria used for the diagnosis of septicemia or catheter-related infections.
Heterogeneity of Genes Encoding the Structural Proteins of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus
Infectious bronchitis is an acute, highly contagious respiratory, nephropathogenic and reproductive disease of poultry that is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The present study used a large data set of structural gene sequences, including newly generated ones and sequences available in the GenBank database to further analyze the diversity and to identify selective pressures and recombination spots. There were some deletions or insertions in the analyzed regions in isolates of the Italy-02 and D274 genotypes. Whereas, there were no insertions or deletions observed in the isolates of the Massachusetts and 4/91 genotype. The hypervariable nucleotide sequence regions spanned positions 152–239, 554–582, 686–737 and 802–912 in the S1 sub-unit of the all analyzed genotypes. The nucleotide sequence data of the E gene showed that this gene was comparatively unstable and subjected to a high frequency of mutations. The M gene showed substitutions consistently distributed except for a region between nucleotide positions 250–680 that remained conserved. The lowest variation in the nucleotide sequences of ORF5a was observed in the isolates of the D274 genotype. While, ORF5b and N gene sequences showed highly conserved regions and were less subjected to variation. Genes ORF3a, ORF3b, M, ORF5a, ORF5b and N presented negative selective pressure among the analyzed isolates. However, some regions of the ORFs showed favorable selective pressure(s). The S1 and E proteins were subjected to a high rate of mutational substitutions and non-synonymous amino acids. Strong signals of recombination breakpoints and ending break point were observed in the S and N genes. Overall, the results of this study revealed that very likely the strong selective pressures in E, M and the high frequency of substitutions in the S gene can probably be considered the main determinants in the evolution of IBV.
Phylogenetic Study of L1 Protein Human Papillomavirus Type 16 From Cervical Cancer Patients in Bandung
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. In Indonesia, the incidence of cervical cancer cases is estimated at 25-40 per 100,000 women per year. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most common genotype that infects the cervical tissue. The major late protein L1 may be associated with infectivity and pathogenicity and its variation can be used to classify HPV isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the phylogenetic tree of HPV 16 L1 gene from cervical cancer patient isolates in Bandung. After confirming HPV-16 by Linear Array Genotyping Test, L1 gene was amplified using specific primers and subject for sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HPV 16 from Bandung was in the subgroup of Asia and East Asia, showing the close host-agent relationship among the Asian type.
In vitro Control of Aedes aegypti Larvae Using Beauveria bassiana
Aedes aegypti larval survival rate was assessed after exposure to blastopores or conidia (mineral oil-in-water formulation or aqueous suspension) of Beauveria bassiana CG 479 propagules (blastospores or conidia). Here, mineral oil was used in the fungal formulation to control Aedes aegypti larvae. 1%, 0.5% or 0.1% mineral oil-in-water solutions were used to evaluate mineral oil toxicity for mosquito larvae. In the oil toxicity test, 0.1% mineral oil solution reduced only 4.5% larval survival; accordingly, this concentration was chosen for fungal oil-in-water formulations. Aqueous suspensions were prepared using 0.01% Tween 80&reg; in sterile dechlorinated water. A. aegypti larvae (L2) were exposed in aqueous suspensions or mineral oil-in-water fungal formulations at 1&times;107 propagules mL-1; the survival rate (assessed daily, for 7 days) and the median survival time (S50) were calculated. Seven days after the treatment, mosquito larvae survival rates were 8.56%, 16.22%, 58%, and 42.56% after exposure to oil-in-water blastospores, oil-in-water conidia, blastospores aqueous suspension and conidia aqueous suspension (respectively). Larvae exposed to 0.01% Tween 80&reg; had 100% survival rate and the ones treated with 0.1% mineral oil-in-water had 95.11% survival rate. Larvae treated with conidia (regardless the presence of oil) or treated with blastospores formulation had survival median time (S50) ranging from one to two days. S50 was not determined (ND) when larvae were exposed to blastospores aqueous suspension, 0.01% Tween 80&reg; (aqueous control) or 0.1% mineral oil-in-water formulation (oil control). B. bassiana conidia and blastospores (mineral oil-in-water formulated or suspended in water) had potential to control A. aegypti mosquito larvae, despite mineral oil-in-water formulation yielded better results in comparison to aqueous suspensions. Here, B. bassiana CG 479 isolate is suggested as a potential biocontrol agent of A. aegypti mosquito larvae.
Fungal Pigments For Fabrics Dyeing: Initial Tests Using Industrial Dyeing Conditions
Natural pigments have been proposed as an eco-friendly alternative to artificial pigments. Among the diverse organisms able to synthesize natural pigments, several wood colonizing fungi produce extracellular pigments which have been tested to dye fabrics at laboratory conditions with good results. However, the dyeing conditions used at laboratory level not necessary meet the real conditions in which dyeing of fabrics is conducted at industrial level. In this work, yellow and red pigments from the fungi Penicillium murcianum and Talaromyces australis, respectively, were used to dye yarn and linen fabrics using dyeing processes optimized according to the standard conditions used at industrial level. After dyeing treatments, fabrics were tested for color fastness to wash and to wet and dry rubbing, but also to tensile strength tests. Satisfactory result was obtained with both yellow and red pigments in yarn and linen, when used alone or mixed to different proportions. According to these results, natural pigments synthesized by both wood colonizing fungi have a great potential to be used in dyeing processes at industrial level.
Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration of Lysostaphin on Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
S. aureus has the ability to colonize and form biofilms on implanted biomaterials, which is difficult to disrupt, and current antimicrobial therapies for biofilms have largely proven unsuccessful in complete eradication of biofilm. The present study is aimed to determine the lysostaphin activity against biofilm producing MRSA clinical strains. The minimum biofilm inhibition activity of lysostaphin was studied against twelve strong biofilm producing isolates. The biofilm was produced in 96-wells micro-titer plate and biofilm was treated with lysostaphin (0.5 to 16 µg/ml), vancomycin (0.5 to 64 µg/ml) and linezolid (0.5 to 64 µg/ml). The biofilm inhibitory concentration of lysostaphin was found between 4 to 8 µg/ml whereas vancomycin and linezolid inhibited at concentration between 32 to 64 µg/ml. Results indicate that lysostaphin as potential antimicrobial activity against biofilm at lower concentration is comparable with routine antibiotics like vancomycin and linezolid.
Isolation, Screening and Identification of Frog Cutaneous Bacteria for Anti-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Activity
Mitigating strategies using symbiotic cutaneous bacteria is one of the major concerns in the conservation of amphibian population. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis associated with mass mortality and amphibian extinctions worldwide. In the Philippines, there is a lack of study on the cutaneous bacteria of Philippine amphibians that may have beneficial effects to ward off the deadly fungal infection. In this study, cutaneous bacteria from frogs were isolated and examined for anti-B. dendrobatidis activity. Eight species of frogs were collected at Mt. Palay-palay Mataas na Gulod National Park in Cavite, a site positive for the presence of B. dendrobatidis. Bacteria were isolated from the skin of frogs by swabbing the surfaces of the body and inoculated in Reasoner´s 2A (R2A) agar. Isolated bacteria were tested for potential inhibitory properties against B. dendrobatidis through zoospore inhibition assay. Results showed that frog cutaneous bacteria significantly inhibited the growth of B. dendrobatidis in vitro. By means of 16S rRNA gene primers, the anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria were identified to be Enterobacter sp., Alcaligenes faecalis and Pseudomonas sp. Cutaneous bacteria namely Enterobacter sp. (isolates PLd33 and PCv4) and Pseudomonas (isolate PLd31) remarkably cleared the growth of B. dendrobatidis zoospore in 1% tryptone agar. Therefore, frog cutaneous bacteria inhibited B. dendrobatidis in vitro and could possibly contribute to the immunity and defense of frogs against the lethal chytridiomycosis.
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis on a Few Bacteria and Fungi
Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial activity vis-à-vis the bacterial strains (Enterococcus feacalis, Enterobacter cloaceai, Proteus microsilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungic (Fusarium sporotrichioide and Fusarium graminearum). The culture medium used was nutrient broth Muller Hinton. The interaction between the bacteria and the essential oil is expressed by a zone of inhibition with diameters of MIC indirectly expression of. And we used the PDA medium to determine the fungal activity. The extraction of the aromatic fraction (essentially oil- hydrolat) of the fresh aerian part of the Eucalyptus camendulensis was performed by hydrodistillation. The average essential oil yield is 0.99%. The antimicrobial and fungal study of the essential oil and hydrosol showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogens.
Prevalence of Extended Spectrum of Beta Lactamase Producers among Gram Negative Uropathogens
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level with a high rate of morbidity . This is further augmented by increase in the number of resistant and multi resistant strains of bacteria particularly by those producing Extended spectrum of beta lactamases. The present study was aimed at analysis of antibiograms of E.coli and Klebsiella sp causing urinary tract infections. Between November 2011 and April 2013, a total of 1120 urine samples were analyzed,. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done with 542(48%) isolates of E.coli and 446(39%) of Klebsiella sp using the standard disc diffusion method against eleven commonly used antibiotics .Organisms showed high susceptibility to Amikacin and Netilimicin and low susceptibility to Cephalosporins. MAR index was calculated for the multidrug resistant strains. Maximum MAR index detected among the isolates was 0.9. Phenotypic identification for ESBL production was confirmed by double disk synergy test (DDST) according to CLSI guidelines. Plasmid profile of the isolates was carried out using alkaline hydrolysis method. Agarose-gel electrophoresis showed presence of high-molecular weight plasmid DNA among the ESBL strains. This study emphasizes the importance of indiscriminate use of antibiotics which if discontinued, in turn would prevent further development of bacterial drug resistance. For this, a proper knowledge of susceptibility pattern of uropathogens is necessary before prescribing empirical antibiotic therapy and it should be made mandatory.
Analysis of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Acidophilus from Commercial Yoghurt
Lactic acid bacteria are very significant to human health due to the production of some antimicrobial substances and ability to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the bacteria are also used as starter culture in the production of various foods. The present study was focused on isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus acidophilus from yogurt and to demonstrate some of probiotic properties of these isolates. All isolates were phenotypically characterized including studying, biochemical, effect of sodium chloride and pH during growth, carbohydrates test and characterizing the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus against pathogens. The present study demonstrates that Lactobacillus acidophilus produced a bacteriocin- like inhibitory substance with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity directed against pathogenic indicator organism suggesting its protective value against enteric pathogens.
Crude Extracts of Medicinal Plants Can Inhibit Some Bacteria of Clinical Importance in Minced Meat
The antimicrobial activities and preservative potentials of crude extracts of Alstonia boonei stem bark and Euphorbia hirta leaves were studied. Soxhlet extraction and cold ethanol extraction methods were used for the extraction of the dried and ground plant samples. Well in agar diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial screening at different concentrations of 25mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 100mg/ml and 200mg/ml on E.coli and B.subtilis. The preservative effects of the extracts at 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% singly and in combination were determined in minced meat using E. coli and B. subtilis as test isolates. Phytochemical analysis was also conducted on the extracts using standard analytical methods. E.hirta cold and A.boonei cold extracts gave the highest zone of growth inhibition on E. coli and B.substilis with 20mm zone diameter at 200mg/ml concentration. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. A.boonei at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% produced a log cycle reduction on the growth of E.coli. Mixture of A. boonei and E. hirta extracts (1:1) at 0.1% and 0.2% also produced a log cycle reduction on the growth of E.coli and B. subtilis, however the A. boonei extracts had more significant effect on the isolates. The observed antimicrobial activities are attributed to the phytochemicals identified in the extracts. The results reveal the potentials of plant extracts as natural antimicrobial preservatives in minced meat. Thus the crude extracts can act as inhibitors of bacteria in a food system. Upon further purification better results may be obtained.
Excavation of Phylogenetically Diverse Bioactive Actinobacteria from Unexplored Regions of Sundarbans Mangrove Ecosystem for Mining of Economically Important Antimicrobial Compounds
Newly emerged phyto-pathogens and multi drug resistance have been threating the world for last few decades. Actinomycetes, the most endowed group of microorganisms isolated from unexplored regions of the world may be the ultimate solution to these problems. Thus the aim of this study was to isolate several bioactive actinomycetes strains capable of producing antimicrobial secondary metabolite from Sundarbans, the only mangrove tiger land of the world. Fifty four actinomycetes were isolated and analyzed for antimicrobial activity against fifteen test organisms including three phytopathogens. Nine morphologically distinct and biologically active isolates were subjected to polyphasic identification study. 16s rDNA sequencing indicated eight isolates to reveal maximum similarity to the genus streptomyces, whereas one isolate presented only 93.57% similarity with Streptomyces albogriseolus NRRL B-1305T. Seventy-one carbon sources and twenty-three chemical sources utilization assay revealed their metabolic relatedness. Among these nine isolates three specific strains were found to have notably higher degree of antimicrobial potential effective in a broader range including phyto-pathogenic fungus. PCR base whole genome screen for PKS and NRPS genes, confirmed the occurrence of bio-synthetic gene cluster in some of the isolates for novel antibiotic production. Finally the strain SMS_SU21, which showed antimicrobial activity with MIC value of 0.05 mg ml-1and antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.242±0.33 mg ml-1 was detected to be the most potential one. True prospective of this strain was evaluated utilizing GC-MS and the bioactive compound responsible for antimicrobial activity was purified and characterized. Rare bioactive actinomycetes were isolated from unexplored heritage site. Diversity of the biosynthetic gene cluster for antimicrobial compound production has also been evaluated. Antimicrobial compound SU21-C has been identified and purified which is active against a broad range of pathogens.
Seasonal Effect of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria into the Environment from Treated Sewage Effluents
Recycled treated sewage effluents (TSE) is used for agriculture, Public park irrigation and industrial purposes. TSE was found to play a major role in the distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. Fecal coliform and enterococci counts were significantly higher during summer compared to winter seasons. Oman has low annual rainfall with annual average temperature varied between 15-45oC. The main source of potable water is from seawater desalination. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antibiotics (Amikacin, Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycine, minocylin, nalidixicacid, neomycin, streptomycin, Tetracycline, Tobramycin, and Trimethoprim) was tested. Both fecal coliforms and enterococci were multiple resistant to 2-10 antibiotics. However, temperature variation during summer and winter did not affect resistance of the isolates to antibiotics. The significance of this investigation may be indicator to the environmental TSE pollution.
Screening of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria from Bangladeshi Indigenous Poultry for Their Potential Use as Probiotics
In Bangladesh, the use of imported probiotics in poultry is gradually being increased. But surprisingly, no probiotic bacteria have been isolated yet in Bangladesh despite the existence of scavenging native poultry as potential source that is seemingly more resistant to GIT infection as well as other diseases. Therefore, the study was undertaken to isolate, identify and characterize the potential probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria strains from Bangladeshi indigenous poultry, and to evaluate their suitability to use in poultry industry. Crop and cecal samples from 61 healthy indigenous birds were used to isolate potential probiotics strains following conventional cultural methods. A total of 216 isolates were identified following physical, biochemical and molecular methods that belonged to the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. An auto-aggregation test was performed for 180 and 136 isolated lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains, respectively. Twelve lactobacilli isolates and 7 bifidobacteria isolates were selected because of their convenient aggregation. In vitro tests including antibacterial activity, resistance to low pH, hemolytic activities etc. were performed for evaluation of probiotic potential of each strain. Under the in vitro conditions and with respects to the probiotic traits, three lactobacilli; LS16, LS45, LS133 and two bifidobacteria, BS21 and BS90 were found to be potential probiotic strains. Thus, they are proposed to be evaluated for their in vivo probiotic properties. If the proposed strains are found suitable as the probiotics to be used in commercial poultry industry, it is expected that the local probiotics would be more beneficial and would save the huge amount of money that Bangladesh spends every year for the importation of such materials from abroad.
An in vitro Study on Synergetic Antifungal Activity of Garlic Extract with Honey and Lemon Juice against Candida sp.
The incidence of Candida infections is increasing worldwide. The serious nature of these infections is compounded by increasing levels of drug resistance. Pure cultures of the Candida sp. were obtained from clinical isolates and fresh garlic extracts were obtained by extraction techniques. The antifungal activity of garlic extract was investigated in an in vitro system. The extract (100%, 75% and 50%) showed significant antifungal activity against Candida, whereas, low concentration (25%) of the extract showed less antifungal activity against the test organism. Antifungal activities of honey and lemon juice were tested against the Candida; however, the growth was not inhibited by these extracts. On the other hand honey and lemon when combined with garlic exhibited a good antifungal activity. The study thus confirms the antifungal properties of garlic extract along with additives like honey and lemon have significant antifungal activity against isolates of Candida species.
Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium
Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.
Isolation and Identification of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria with Cholesterol Lowering Potential and Their Use in Fermented Milk Product
Elevated level of blood cholesterol or hypercholesterolemia may lead to atherosclerosis and poses a major risk for cardiovascular diseases. Probiotics play a crucial role in human health, and probiotic bacteria that possesses bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity can be used to lower cholesterol level of the host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Thai fermented foods were able to exhibit bile salt hydrolase activity and their use in fermented milk. A total of 28 isolates were tested for BSH activity by plate method on MRS agar supplemented with 0.5% sodium salt of taurodeoxycholic acid and incubated at 37°C for 48 h under anaerobic condition. The results showed that FN1-1 and FN23-3 isolates possessed strong BSH activity. FN1-1 and FN23-3 isolates were then identified for phenotype, biochemical characteristics, and genotype (16S rRNA sequencing). FN1-1 isolate showed 99.92% similarity to Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 20314(T), while FN23-3 isolate showed 99.94% similarity to Enterococcus faecium CGMCC1.2136 (T). Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 and Enterococcus faecium FN23-3 were tolerant of pH 3-4 and 0.3 and 0.8% bile. Bacterial count and pH of milk fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 at 37°C and 43°C were investigated. The results revealed that Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 was able to grow in milk, which led to decrease in pH level. Fermentation at 37°C resulted in faster growth rate than at 43 °C. Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 was a candidate probiotic to be used in fermented milk products to reduce the risk of high-cholesterol diseases.
Genetic Characterization of a Composite Transposon Carrying armA and Aac(6)-Ib Genes in an Escherichia coli Isolate from Egypt
Aminoglycosides are used in treating a wide range of infections caused by both Gram-negative and Gram positive bacteria. The presence of 16S rRNA methyl transferases (16S-RMTase) is among the newly discovered resistance mechanisms that confer high resistance to clinically useful aminoglycosides. Cephalosporins are the most commonly used antimicrobials in Egypt; therefore, this study was conducted to determine the isolation frequency of 16S rRNA methyl transferases among third generation cephalosporin-resistant clinical isolates in Egypt. One hundred and twenty three cephalosporin resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates were screened for aminoglycoside resistance by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and tested for possible production of 16S-RMTase. PCR testing and sequencing were used to confirm the presence of 16S-RMTase and the associated antimicrobial resistance determinants, as well as the genetic region surrounding the armA gene. Out of 123 isolates, 66 (53.66%) were resistant to at least one aminoglycoside antibiotic. Only one Escherichia coli isolate (E9ECMO) which was totally resistant to all tested aminoglycosides, was confirmed to have the armA gene in association with blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-14 and aac(6)-Ib genes. The armA gene was found to be carried on a large A/C plasmid. Genetic mapping of the armA surrounding region revealed, for the first time, the association of armA with aac(6)-Ib on the same transposon. In Conclusion, the isolation frequency of 16S-RMTase was low among the tested cephalosporin-resistant clinical samples. However, a novel composite transposon has been detected conferring high-level aminoglycosides resistance.
Heavy Metals and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria as Indicators of Effluent Environmental Pollution in the Green Turtles, Chelonia Mydas
At Ras Al-Hadd Reserve, Eggs from green turtles and Chelonia mydas were randomly collected immediately after Oviposition. Eggshells taken from fresh eggs and sand collected from the body chamber were analyzed for eight heavy metals (Al, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, S, and Zn) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP). Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly (P< 0.05) between nest sand and eggshells. Zn values were significantly higher than the other heavy metals. A total of 60 heterotrophic bacteria belong to eight genera were isolated from fresh egg contents (albumen and yolk). Resistance of the isolates to Amikacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycine, minocylin, nalidixicacid, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tobramycin, and Trimethoprim was tested. More than 40 % of the isolates were multiple resistant to 2-7 antibiotics. Most of the resistant strains were also resistant to Zn. The value of these findings may indicate that the origin of pollution is of human contaminated effluents.
Discrimination Between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus Isolates in Apple Juice by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis
Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between four Alicyclobacillus strains and four Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm-1 reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these two genera.
In vitro Studies on Antimycobacterial and Efflux Pump Inhibition of C. roseus and P. nigrum against Clinical Isolates of Ofloxacin Resistant M. tuberculosis
Antimycobacterial activity of C. roseus rosea and piperine was evaluated against ofloxacin resistant M. tuberculosis. Among the 68 suspected sputum samples, 32 were AFB positive belongs to age group of 40-50years. Susceptibility of M. tuberculosis was evaluated against ofloxacin and streptomycin by colorimetric assay. Of these 32 positive samples, 20 isolates were resistant to ofloxacin, 12 were resistant to Streptomycin and none of them were found to be multidrug resistant. The sensitivity pattern of ofloxacin resistant M. tuberculosis against two tested plant extracts showed potent tubercular activity. Antimycobacterial activity of C. roseus was 22 + 2.21mm and piperine was found to be 20 + 1.08 mm. The percentage of relative inhibitory zone of C. roseus was 133 % and piperine was found to be 111 %. The MIC of C. roseus and piperine was found at 50 µg/ml. Based on the FICI value 0.37 confirms that both the tested phytochemicals were synergistically active against M. tuberculosis. The MIC of ofloxacin was reduced from 8 mg to 2 mg/l in the presence of piperine but not by C. roseus. This is the first report on Synergistic bioactivity of C. roseus rosea and piperine fractionation leads development of novel antimycobacterial prophylaxis in future.
In situ Biodegradation of Endosulfan, Imidacloprid, and Carbendazim Using Indigenous Bacterial Cultures of Agriculture Fields of Uttarakhand, India
In the present study, the presence of endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim, in the soil /vegetables/cereals and water samples was observed in agriculture fields of Uttarakhand. In view of biodegradation of these pesticides, nine bacterial isolates were recovered from the soil samples of the fields which tolerated endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim from 100 to 200 µg/ml. Three bacterial consortia used for in vitro bioremediation experiments were three bacterial isolates for carbendazim, imidacloprid and endosulfan, respectively. Maximum degradation (87 and 83%) of α and β endosulfan respectively was observed in soil slurry by consortium. Degradation of Imidacloprid and carbendazim under similar conditions was 88.4 and 77.5% respectively. FT-IR analysis of biodegraded samples of pesticides in liquid media showed stretching of various bonds. GC-MS of biodegraded endosulfan sample in soil slurry showed the presence of non-toxic intermediates. A pot trial with Bacterial treatments lowered down the uptake of pesticides in onion plants.
The Production of Reinforced Insulation Bricks out of the Concentration of Ganoderma lucidum Fungal Inoculums and Cement Paste
In response to the global race in discovering the next advanced sustainable material that will reduce our ecological footprint, the researchers aimed to create a masonry unit which is competent in physical edifices and other constructional facets. From different proven researches, mycelium has been concluded that when dried can be used as a robust and waterproof building material that can be grown into explicit forms, thus reducing the processing requirements. Hypothesizing inclusive measures to attest fungi’s impressive structural qualities and absorbency, the researchers projected to perform comparative analyses in creating mycelium bricks from mushroom spores of G. lucidum. Three treatments were intended to classify the most ideal concentration of clay and substrate fixings. The substrate bags fixed with 30% clay and 70% mixings indicated highest numerical frequencies in terms of full occupation of fungal mycelia. Subsequently, sorted parts of white portions from the treatment were settled in a thermoplastic mold and burnt. Three proportional concentrations of cultivated substrate and cement were also prioritized to gather results of variation focused on the weights of the bricks in the Water Absorption Test and Durability Test. Fungal inoculums with solutions of cement showed small to moderate amounts of decrease and increase in load. This proves that the treatments did not show any significant difference when it comes to strength, efficiency and absorption capacity. Each of the concentration is equally valid and could be used in supporting the worldwide demands of creating numerous bricks while also taking into consideration the recovery of our nature.
Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of the Pathogens Isolated from Hospital Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in North India
Background: Acute bacterial meningitis remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity. More than half of the survivors develop the significant lifelong neurological abnormalities. Diagnosis of the hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis (HAABM) is challenging as it appears either in the post operative patients or patients acquire the organisms from the hospital environment. In both the situations, pathogens are exposed to high dose of antibiotics. Chances of getting multidrug resistance organism are very high. We have performed this experiment to find out the etiological agents of HAABM and its antibiotics susceptibility pattern. Methodology: A perspective study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. From March 2015 to April 2018 total 400 Cerebro spinal fluid samples were collected aseptically. Samples were processed for cell count, Gram staining, and culture. Culture plates were incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours. Organism grown on blood and MacConkey agar were identified by MALDI-TOF Vitek MS (BioMerieux, France) and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per CLSI 2015 guideline. Results: Of the 400 CSF samples processed, 43 (10.75%) were culture positive for different bacteria. Out of 43 isolates, the most prevalent Gram-positive organisms were S. aureus 4 (9.30%) followed by E. faecium 3 (6.97%) & CONS 2 (4.65%). Similarly, E. coli 13 (30.23%) was the commonest Gram-negative isolates followed by A. baumannii 12 (27.90%), K. pneumonia 5 (11.62%) and P. aeruginosa 4(9.30%). Most of the antibiotics tested against the Gram-negative isolates were resistance to them. Colistin was most effective followed by Meropenem and Imepenim for all Gram-negative HAABM isolates. Similarly, most of antibiotics tested were susceptible to S. aureus and CONS. However, E. faecium (100%) were only susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusion: Hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis (HAABM) is becoming the emerging challenge as most of isolates are showing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Gram-negative organisms are emerging as the major player of HAABM. Great care needs to be taken especially in tertiary care hospitals. Similarly, antibiotic stewardship should be followed and antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) should be performed regularly to update the antibiotic patter and to prevent from the emergence of resistance. Updated information of the AST will be helpful for the better management of the meningitis patient.
A Study of the Prevalence of Trichinellosis in Domestic and Wild Animals for the Region of Sofia, Bulgaria
Nemathodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution. More than 100 species of mammals, birds and reptiles are involved in the natural cycle of this nematode. At present, T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, and T. britovi have been found in Bulgaria. The existence of natural wildlife and domestic reservoirs of Trichinella spp. can be a serious threat to human health. Three trichinella isolates caused human trichinella infection outbreaks from three regions of Sofia City Province were used for the research: sample No. 1 - Ratus norvegicus, sample No. 2 – domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica), sample No. 3 - domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). Trichinella larvae of the studied species were isolated via digestive method (pepsin, hydrochloric acid, water) at 37ºC by standard procedure and were determined by gender (male and female) based on their morphological characteristics. As a reference trichinella species were used: T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, T. nativa and T. britovi. Single male and female larvae of the three isolates were crossed with single male and female larvae of the reference trichinella species as well as reciprocally. As a result of cross-breeding, offspring of muscular larvae with T. spiralis and T. britovi were obtained, while in experiments with T. pseudospiralis and T. nativa, trichinella larvae were not found in the laboratory mice. The results obtained in the control groups indicate that the trichinella larvae used from the isolates and the four trichinella species are infective. Also, the infective ability of the F1 offspring from the successful cross-breeding between isolates and reference species was investigated. Through the data obtained in the experiment was found that isolates No. 1 and No. 2 belong to the species T. spiralis, and isolate No. 3 belongs to the species T. britovi. The results were confirmed by PCR and real-time PCR analysis. Thus the presence and circulation of the species T. spiralis and T. britovi in Bulgaria was confirmed. Probably the rodents (rats) are involved in the distribution of T. spiralis in urban environment. The species T. britovi found in a domestic pig speaks of some contact with wild animals for which T. britovi is characteristic. The probable reason is that a large number of farmers in Bulgaria practice the free-range breeding of domestic pigs. Part of the farmers also used as food for domestic pigs waste products from the game (foxes, jackals, bears, wolves) and probably thus the infection was obtained. The distribution range of trichinella species in Bulgaria is not strictly outlined. It is believed that T. spiralis is most common in domestic animals and T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis are characteristic of wildlife. To answer the question whether wild and synanthropic animals are infected with the same or different trichinella species, which species predominate in nature and what their distribution among different hosts is, further research is required.
Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Aminoreductone against Pathogenic Bacteria in Comparison with Other Antibiotics
Antimicrobial activities of aminoreductone (AR), a product formed in the initial stage of Maillard reaction, were screened against pathogenic bacteria. A significant growth inhibition of AR against all 7 isolates (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC® 14028™, Bacillus cereus ATCC® 13061™, Bacillus subtilis ATCC® 11774™, Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922™, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212™, Listeria innocua ATCC® 33090™) were observed by the standard disc diffusion methods. The inhibition zone for each isolate by AR (2.5 mg) ranged from 15±0 mm to 28.3±0.4 mm in diameter. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AR ranging from 20 mM to 26 mM was proven in the seven isolates tested. AR also showed the similar effect of growth inhibition in comparison with antibiotics frequently used for the treatment of infections bacteria, such as amikacin, ciprofloxacin, meropennem, and levofloxacin. The results indicated that foods containing AR are valuable sources of bioactive compounds towards pathogenic bacteria.
Isolate-Specific Variations among Clinical Isolates of Brucella Identified by Whole-Genome Sequencing, Bioinformatics and Comparative Genomics
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide prevalence. There are at least four species and several strains of Brucella that cause human disease. Brucella genomes have very limited variation across strains, which hinder strain identification using classical molecular techniques, including PCR and 16 S rDNA sequencing. The aim of this study was to perform whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates of Brucella and perform bioinformatics and comparative genomics analyses to determine the existence of genetic differences across the isolates of a single Brucella species and strain. The draft sequence data were generated from 15 clinical isolates of Brucella melitensis (biovar 2 strain 63/9) using MiSeq next generation sequencing platform. The generated reads were used for further assembly and analysis. All the analysis was performed using Bioinformatics work station (8 core i7 processor, 8GB RAM with Bio-Linux operating system). FastQC was used to determine the quality of reads and low quality reads were trimmed or eliminated using Fastx_trimmer. Assembly was done by using Velvet and ABySS softwares. The ordering of assembled contigs was performed by Mauve. An online server RAST was employed to annotate the contigs assembly. Annotated genomes were compared using Mauve and ACT tools. The QC score for DNA sequence data, generated by MiSeq, was higher than 30 for 80% of reads with more than 100x coverage, which suggested that data could be utilized for further analysis. However when analyzed by FastQC, quality of four reads was not good enough for creating a complete genome draft so remaining 11 samples were used for further analysis. The comparative genome analyses showed that despite sharing same gene sets, single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions existed across different genomes, which provided a variable extent of diversity to these bacteria. In conclusion, the next generation sequencing, bioinformatics, and comparative genome analysis can be utilized to find variations (point mutations, insertions and deletions) across different genomes of Brucella within a single strain. This information could be useful in surveillance and epidemiological studies supported by Kuwait University Research Sector grants MI04/15 and SRUL02/13.
Assessing Immunization across Life Stages of the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) to the Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
Emerging diseases are key factors in the disconcerting rate of contemporary amphibian declines. The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), ranks among the chief pathogenic challenges to vulnerable amphibian populations. Although live Bd can immunosuppress amphibian hosts, amphibian exposure to dead Bd can induce an adaptive immune response, leading to acquired resistance to the pathogen. In this experiment, dose and duration of flash-frozen Bd were manipulated over a variety of life-stages of the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and the magnitude of acquired resistance to the pathogen was quantified via qPCR analyses of spore abundance post subsequent live Bd challenges. It was found that Cuban treefrogs can develop resistance to Bd and that life stage, dose and duration thresholds exist for acquired resistance. This experiment will aid in facilitating the development of a vaccine against Bd which could be used on location and could help curb worldwide amphibian declines associated with this pathogen.
Antifungal Nature of Bacillus Subtilis in Controlling Post Harvest Fungal Rot of Yam
This study investigated the antifungal activity of Bacilluss subtilis in the control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea spp). Bacillus subtilis was isolated from the soil and fungi (Aspergillus spp, Mucor and yeasts) were isolated from rotten yam. The organisms were paired in yam nutrient agar (YNA) and yam Sabourraud dextrose agar media. In the yam dextrose agar media (YSDA) plates, the Bacillus grew rapidly and established itself and restricted the growth of the fungi organisms, but there was no zone of inhibition. This behaviour of Bacillus on the plates of YSDA was also observed in the yams where the fungi caused rot but the rot was suppressed by the presence of the Bacillus as compared to the degree of rot observed in the control that had only spoilage fungi. The control yam showed greater rot than other yams that contained a combination of Bacillus and fungi. The t-Test analysis showed that the difference in the rot between the treated samples and the control sample is significant and this implies that the presence of Bacillus significantly reduced the growth of fungi in the samples (yams). It was revealed from this study that Bacillus subtilis treatment can be successfully used to preserve white yams in storage. Its fast growth and early establishment in the sample accounts for its antifungal strength.
Effect of Addition Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) to Water Content, pH Value, Total Lactid Acid Bacteria Colonies, Antioxidant Activity and Cholesterol Levels of Goat Milk Yoghurt Isolates Dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus)
This study aimed to determine the effect of addition cinnamon extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) in making goat milk yogurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) to antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The method of research was the experimental method by using a Randomized Block Design (RBD), which consists of 5 treatments with 4 groups as replication. Treatment in this study was used of cinnamon extract as A (0%), B (1%), C (2%), D (3%), E (4%) in a goat’s milk yoghurt. This study was used 4200 ml of Peranakan Etawa goat’s milk and 80 ml of cinnamon extract. The variable analyzed were water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The average water content ranged from 81.2-85.56%. Mean pH values rang between 4.74–4.30. Mean total lactic acid bacteria colonies ranged from 3.87 x 10⁸ - 7.95 x 10⁸ CFU/ml. The average of the antioxidant activity ranged between 10.98%-27.88%. Average of cholesterol levels ranged from 14.0 mg/ml–17.5 mg/ml. The results showed that the addition of cinnamon extract in making goat milk yoghurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) significantly different (P < 0.05) to water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the study shows that using of cinnamon extract 4% is the best in making goat milk yoghurt.
Effects of Nickel and Inoculation with Three Isolates of Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus on Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake Seedlings
Two moderately nickel-tolerant isolates of Pisolithus were compared with a non-Ni tolerant isolate for the ability to increase the growth of Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings in the presence of nickel (Ni) in pots in a glasshouse. Seedlings, either inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi or uninoculated, were transplanted into pots containing 3 kg steam-pasteurized yellow sand amended with five concentrations of nickel (0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 mg Ni kg-1 soil). Within a day after transplanting, all seedlings subjected to Ni rates greater than 12 mg Ni kg-1 showed symptoms of wilting and all died within two weeks. At lower nickel concentrations, inoculation with all 3 Pisolithus strains increased rates of seedling survival after 12 weeks. Inoculation with all 3 isolates Pisolithus significantly increased the growth of plants in Ni-free soils between 2 to 4 fold dependent on isolate. However, seedlings growing in soils containing 12 mg Ni kg-1 grew poorly, mycorrhizal development was inhibited and no beneficial effects of inoculation were noted. In contrast, in soils containing 6mg Ni kg-1, inoculated seedlings did not show the reduced root growth and severe toxicity symptoms (chlorosis on young leaves and shoot tips) of uninoculated seedlings. Only the Ni-tolerant Pisolithus strains conferred a significant growth benefit compared to non-inoculated controls, and plants inoculated with one of these strains grew twice the size as those inoculated with the other Ni-tolerant strain. Inorganic plant analysis revealed that inoculation increased plant growth through improved P uptake but did not prevent Ni uptake. However, toxicity may have been minimized by dilution due to an increase in plant biomass. The results suggest that only one of the Ni-tolerant strains of Pisolithus has the potential to improve the growth and survival of E. urophylla seedlings in serpentine soils in the Philippines.
Microbiological Study of Two Spontaneous Plants of Algerian Sahara Septentrional: Cotula cinerea and Chamomilla recutita
The aim of our study is to determine the antimicrobial effect of essential oils of two plants Cotula cinerea and Chamomilla recutita on some pathogenic bacteria. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional therapy. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, they are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, against dermatophytes, those of bacterial origin. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, they are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, against dermatophytes, those of bacterial origin. Humans use plants for thousands of years to treat various ailments, in many developing countries; much of the population relies on traditional doctors and their collections of medicinal plants to cure them. The test adopted is based on the diffusion method on solid medium (Antibiogram), this method allows to determine the susceptibility or resistance of an organism according to the sample studied. Our study reveals that the essential oil of the plants Cotula cinerea and Chamomilla recutita have a different effect on the resistance of germs.
Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistant Enterococci in Treated Wastewater Effluent in Durban, South Africa and Characterization of Vancomycin and High-Level Gentamicin-Resistant Strains
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been implicated as the leading reservoir for antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), including Enterococci spp. and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), worldwide. Enterococci are a group of clinically significant bacteria that have gained much attention as a result of their antibiotic resistance. They play a significant role as the principal cause of nosocomial infections and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes in the environment. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the role of WWTPs in Durban, South Africa as potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant Enterococci (ARE) and their related ARGs. Furthermore, the antibiogram and resistance gene profile of Enterococci species recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface water in Durban were also investigated. Using membrane filtration technique, Enterococcus selective agar and selected antibiotics, ARE were enumerated in samples (influent, activated sludge, before chlorination and final effluent) collected from two WWTPs, as well as from upstream and downstream of the receiving surface water. Two hundred Enterococcus isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface water were identified by biochemical and PCR-based methods, and their antibiotic resistance profiles determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay, while PCR-based assays were used to detect the presence of resistance and virulence genes. High prevalence of ARE was obtained at both WWTPs, with values reaching a maximum of 40%. The influent and activated sludge samples contained the greatest prevalence of ARE with lower values observed in the before and after chlorination samples. Of the 44 vancomycin and high-level gentamicin-resistant isolates, 11 were identified as E. faecium, 18 as E. faecalis, 4 as E. hirae while 11 are classified as “other” Enterococci species. High-level aminoglycoside resistance for gentamicin (39%) and vancomycin (61%) was recorded in species tested. The most commonly detected virulence gene was the gelE (44%), followed by asa1 (40%), while cylA and esp were detected in only 2% of the isolates. The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2''), aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6')-Ia detected in 43%, 45% and 41% of the isolates, respectively. Positive correlation was observed between resistant phenotypes to high levels of aminoglycosides and presence of all aminoglycoside resistance genes. Resistance genes for glycopeptide: vanB (37%) and vanC-1 (25%), and macrolide: ermB (11%) and ermC (54%) were detected in the isolates. These results show the need for more efficient wastewater treatment and disposal in order to prevent the release of virulent and antibiotic resistant Enterococci species and safeguard public health.
Electronic Nose for Monitoring Fungal Deterioration of Stored Rapeseed
Investigations were performed to examine the possibility of using an electronic nose to monitor the development of fungal microflora during the first eighteen days of rapeseed storage. The Cyranose 320 device with polymer-composite sensors was used. Each sample of infected material was divided into three parts, and the degree of spoilage was measured in three ways: analysis of colony forming units (CFU), determination of ergosterol content (ERG), and measurement with the eNose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the generated patterns of signals, and six groups of different spoilage levels were isolated. The electronic nose with polymer-composite sensors under laboratory conditions distinguished between species of spoiled and unspoiled seeds with 100% accuracy. Despite some minor differences in the CFU and ergosterol content, the electronic nose provided responses correctly corresponding to the level of spoilage with 85% accuracy. Therefore, the main conclusion from the study is that the electronic nose is a promising tool for quick and non-destructive detection of the level of oil seed spoilage. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.
Biocontrol Effectiveness of Indigenous Trichoderma Species against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on Tomato
In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rate inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) was reached 75.5% with Tr1. Parasitism rate of root-knot nematode was 60% for juveniles and 75% for eggs with the same one. Pots experiment results showed that Tr1 and Tr2, compared to chemical treatment, enhanced the plant growth and exhibited better antagonism against root-knot nematode and root-rot fungi separated or combined. All Trichoderma isolates revealed a bioprotection potential against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici. When pathogen fungi inoculated alone, Fusarium wilt index and browning vascular rate were reduced significantly with Tr1 (0.91, 2.38%) and Tr2 (1.5, 5.5%), respectively. In the case of combined infection with Fusarium and nematode, the same isolate of Trichoderma Tr1 and Tr2 decreased Fusarium wilt index at 1.1 and 0.83 and reduced the browning vascular rate at 6.5% and 6%, respectively. Similarly, the isolate Tr1 and Tr2 caused maximum inhibition of nematode multiplication. Multiplication rate was declined at 4% with both isolates either tomato infected by nematode separately or concomitantly with Fusarium. The chemical treatment was moderate in activity against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici alone and combined.
Prolonged Synthesis of Chitin Polysaccharide from Chlorovirus System
Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses contain a gene that encodes a function for chitin synthesis, which is expressed early in viral infection to produce chitin polysaccharide, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked GlcNAc, on the outside of Chlorella cell wall. Interestingly, chlorovirus system is an eco-friendly system which converses CO2 and solar energy from the environment into useful materials. However, infected Chlorella cells are lysed at the final stage of viral infection, and this phenomenon is caused the breaking down of polysaccharide. To postpone the lysing period and prolong the synthesis of chitin polysaccharide on cells, the slow growing virus incorporated with aphidicolin treatment, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, was investigated. In this study, a total of 25 virus isolates from water samples in Japan region were analyzed for CHS (the gene for CH synthase) gene by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The accumulation and appearance of chitin polysaccharide on infected cells were detected by biotinylated chitin-binding proteins WGA (wheat germ agglutinin)-biotin for chitin in conjunction with avidin-Cy 2 or Cy 3 and investigated by fluorescence microscopy, observed as green or yellow fluorescence over the cell surface. Among all chlorovirus isolates, cells infected with CNF1 revealed the accumulation of chitin over the cell surface within 30 min p.i. and continued to accumulate on cells until 4 h p.i. before cell lyses which was 1.6 times longer accumulation period than cells infected with CVK2 (prototype virus). Furthermore, addition of aphidicolin could extend the chitin accumulation on cells infected with CNF1 until 8 h p.i. before cell lyses. Whereas, CVK2-infected cells treated with aphidicolin could prolong the chitin synthesis only for 6 h p.i. before cell lyses. Therefore, chitin synthesis by Chlorella-virus system could be prolonged by using slow-growing viral isolates and with aphidicolin.
Antifungal Activity of Free Fatty Acids Methyl Esters Extracted from Citrullus colocynthis L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L. against Toxigenic Aspergillus
The aim of the present work was aimed at evaluating antifungal effect of crude esters and their corresponding FAMEs isolated from Citrullus colocynthis L., Linum usitatissimum L. and Nigella sativa L. seeds against two toxigenic fungal strains namely Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus. The results of the antifungal activity performed radial growth on solid medium (PDA; potatoes dextrose agar) showed that the crude esters and their corresponding FAMEs have exhibited against the two strains tested. Overall, FAMEs have provided an antifungal effect more efficient than that of crude esters. Inhibition of Aspergillus ochraceus has been labeled with percentages ranging from 13.33 to 26.61% by crude esters, While FAMEs inhibition was ranged between 27.33 to 41.13%. However, the inhibition observed against the Aspergillus flavus was varying from 14.68 to 18.59% by crude esters compared with the inhibition percentages ranging from 21.5 to 33.45% by the FAMEs. The antifungal potency of esters oils seeds of the studied plants may be an alternative for consideration by the authorities interested, due to serving the public health, in reducing the fungal enormous peril.
Response Evaluation of Electronic Nose with Polymer-Composite and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensor towards Microbiological Quality of Rapeseed
Rapeseeds were evaluated and classified by the static-headspace sampling method using electronic noses during the 25 days spoilage period. The Cyranose 320 comprising 32 polymer-composite sensors and VCA (Volatile Compound Analyzer - made in Institute of Agrophysics) built of 8 metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors were used to obtain sensor response (∆R/R). Each sample of spoiled material was divided into three parts and the degree of spoilage was measured four ways: determination of ergosterol content (ERG), colony forming units (CFU) and measurement with both e-noses. The study showed that both devices responsive to changes in the fungal microflora. Cyranose and VCA registered the change of domination microflora of fungi. After 7 days of storage, typical fungi for soil disappeared and appeared typical for storeroom was observed. In both cases, response ∆R/R decreased to the end of experiment, while ERG and JTK increased. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.
Influence of Fermentation Conditions on Humic Acids Production by Trichoderma viride Using an Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as the Substrate
Humic Acids (HA) were produced by a Trichoderma viride strain under submerged fermentation in a medium based on the oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and the main variables of the process were optimized by using response surface methodology. A temperature of 40°C and concentrations of 50g/L EFB, 5.7g/L potato peptone and 0.11g/L (NH4)2SO4 were the optimum levels of the variables that maximize the HA production, within the physicochemical and biological limits of the process. The optimized conditions led to an experimental HA concentration of 428.4±17.5 mg/L, which validated the prediction from the statistical model of 412.0mg/L. This optimization increased about 7–fold the HA production previously reported in the literature. Additionally, the time profiles of HA production and fungal growth confirmed our previous findings that HA production preferably occurs during fungal sporulation. The present study demonstrated that T. viride successfully produced HA via the submerged fermentation of EFB and the process parameters were successfully optimized using a statistics-based response surface model. To the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first report on the optimization of HA production from EFB by a biotechnological process, whose feasibility was only pointed out in previous works.