Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 57493

Heavy Metals among Female Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria
This study was conducted to examine the level of heavy metals among 192 apparently healthy female adolescents randomly selected from three different boarding secondary schools in the urban area of the most populated city in north-western part of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the plasma levels of the heavy metals which include cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Our findings revealed the following mean±SD values for each of the heavy metal; 0.11±0.01µg Cd/L, 0.09 ± 0.02µg Co/L, 0.19 ± 0.02 µg Cr/L, 0.91 ± 0.02 µg Cu/L, 1.53 ± 0.31 µg Fe/L, 0.01 ± 0.04 µg Mn/L, 0.3.8 ± 0.04µg Mo/L, 0.04±0.01µg Ni/L, 0.04 ± 0.01µg Pb/L and 2.80 ± 0.24µg Zn/L respectively. It was concluded that toxicity from heavy metals did not exist among female adolescents.
Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Low-Cost Materials: A Review
In small quantities certain heavy metals are nutritionally essential for a healthy life. The heavy metals linked most often to human poisoning are lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium. Other heavy metals including copper, zinc and chromium are actually required by the body in small quantity but can also be toxic in large doses. Nowadays, we have contamination to this heavy metals in some untreated industrial waste waters and even in several populated cities drinking waters around the world. The contamination of ground and underground water sources to heavy metals can be concentrated and travel up to food chain by drinking water and agricultural products. In recent years, the need for safe and economical methods for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water has necessitated research interest towards the finding low-cost alternatives. Bio-adsorbents have emerged as low-cost and efficient materials for the removal of heavy metals from waste and ground waters. The bio-adsorbents have an affinity for heavy metals ions to form metal complexes or chelates due to having functional groups including carboxyl, hydroxyl, imidazole, and etc. The objective of this study is to review researches in less expensive adsorbents and their utilization possibilities for various low-cost bio-adsorbents such as coffee beans, rice husk, and saw dust for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated waters.
Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.
Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) in the vegetative and reproductive organs of safflower, and to identify the possibility of its growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals and efficacy for phytoremediation. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The contents of heavy metals in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds) were determined. The quality of safflower oils (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) was also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out with inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). Safflower is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of lead and cadmium and the accumulators of zinc. The plant can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of safflower seeds into oil and the use of the obtained oil will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation.
Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Khark Island-Iran Using Geographic Information System
The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Ni were determined from 40 soil samples collected in surface soils of Khark Island. Geostatistic methods and GIS were used to identify heavy metal sources and their spatial pattern. Principal component analysis coupled with correlation between heavy metals showed that level of mentioned heavy metal was lower than the standard level. Then the data obtained from the soil analyzing were studied for the purposes of normal distribution. The best way of interior finding for cadmium and nickel was ordinary kriging and the best way of interpolation of lead was inverse distance weighted. The result of this study help us to understand heavy metals distribution and make decision for remediation of soil pollution.
Wastewater Treatment from Heavy Metals by Nanofiltration and Ion Exchange
The technologies of ion exchange and nanofiltration can be used for treatment of wastewater containing copper and other heavy metal ions to decrease the environmental risks. Nanofiltration characteristics under water treatment of heavy metals have been studied. The influence of main technical process parameters - pressure, temperature, concentration and pH value of the initial solution on flux and rejection of nanofiltration membranes has been considered. And ion exchange capacities of resins in removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater have been determined.
Heavy Metals Concentration in Sediments Along the Ports, Samoa
Contamination of heavy metals in coral reefs and coastal areas is a serious ecotoxicological and environmental problem due to direct runoff from anthropogenic wastes, commercial vessels, and discharge from industrial effluents. In Samoa, the information on the ecotoxicological impact of heavy metals on sediments is limited. This study presents baseline data on the concentration and distribution of heavy metals in sediments collected along the commercial and fishing ports in Samoa. Surface sediment samples were collected within the months of August-October 2013 from the 5 sites along the 2 ports. Sieved sample fractions were used for the evaluation of sediment physicochemical parameters namely pH, conductivity, organic matter, and bicarbonates of calcium. Heavy metal (Cu, Pb) analysis was achieved by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Two heavy metals (Cu, Pb) were detected from each port with some concentration below the WHO permissible maximum concentration of environment quality standard. The results obtained from this study advocate for further studies regarding emerging threats of heavy metals on the vital marine resources which have significant importance to the livelihood of coastal societies, particularly Small Island States including Samoa.
Removal of Metals from Heavy Oil
Crude oil contains various compounds of hydrocarbons but low concentrations of inorganic compounds or metals. Vanadium and Nickel are the most common metals in crude oil. These metals usually exist in solution in the oil and residual fuel oil in the refining process is condensed. Deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. These metals do not only contaminate the product but also cause intoxication and loss of catalyst and corrosion to equipment. In this study, removal of heavy metals and petroleum residues were investigated. These methods include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. For example, processes such as solvent extraction and hydro-catalytic and catalytic methods are effective and practical methods, but typically often have high costs and cause environmental pollution. Furthermore, biological methods that do not cause environmental pollution have been discussed in recent years, but these methods have not yet been industrialized.
Evaluating Acid Buffering Capacity of Sewage Sludge Barrier for Inhibiting Remobilization of Heavy Metals in Tailing Impoundment
Compacted sewage sludge has been proved to be feasible as a barrier material for tailing impoundment because of its low permeability and retardation of heavy metals. The long-term penetration of acid mine drainage, however, would acidify the barrier system and result in remobilization of previously immobilized heavy metal pollutants. In this study, the effect of decreasing pH on the mobility of three typical heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) is investigated by acid titration test on sewage sludge under various conditions. The remobilization of heavy metals is discussed based on the acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge-leachate system. Test results indicate that heavy metals are dramatically released out when pH is decreased below 6.2, and their amounts take the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge decreases with the solid-liquid ratio but increases with the anaerobic incubation time, and it is mainly governed by dissolution of contained carbonate and organics. These results reveal that the sewage sludge possesses enough acid buffering capacity to consume protons within the acid mine drainage. Thus, this study suggests that an explosive remobilization of heavy metals is not expected in a long-term perspective.
Impact on Soil Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial Wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi
Use of wastewater for growing vegetables has become a common practice around big cities. Wastewater contains organic material and inorganic elements essential for plant growth but also contain heavy metals, which may be lethal for animals and humans if their concentration increases than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and their translocation in to the edible parts of the vegetables. The study highlighted that there is a large accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, which is irrigated with industrial wastewater Laden and people consume vegetables grown in soil irrigated with sewage water to absorb a large amount of these metals. This accumulation of heavy metals in food cause possible health risks for the consumer. Regular monitoring of the levels of pathogens and heavy metals from the waste water drain which effluent are used for growing vegetables and other foodstuffs is essential to monitor excessive accumulation of these metals in the food chain.
An Evaluation of Edible Plants for Remediation of Contaminated Soil- Can Edible Plants Be Used to Remove Heavy Metals on Soil?
In Mozambique rapid industrialization (mining, aluminium and cement activities) and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of heavy metals on soil, thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting plants, animals and human healthy. Several methods have been used to remediate contaminated soils, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up a contamination from soils, sediments, and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. The present investigation summarised the potential of edible vegetable to grow under the high level of heavy metals such as lead and zinc. The plants used in these studies include Tomatoes, lettuce and Soya beans. The studies have shown that edible plants can be grown under the high level of heavy metals on the soil. Further investigations are identifying mechanisms used by plants to ensure a safe and sustainable use for remediation of contaminated soils by heavy metals.
Heavy Metals (Pb, Cu, Fe, and Zn) Level in Shellfish (Etheria elliptica), Water, and Sediments of River Ogbese, Ondo State, Nigeria
Investigations on the accumulation of heavy metals in water and sediments of River Ogbese were carried out between December 2010 and February 2011 using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Etheria elliptica a sessile organism was also used to determine the concentration of heavy metal in the aquatic environmental. In water, Cu had the highest concentration (0.55–0.13 mg/l ±0.1) while in sediments, the highest value obtained was in Fe (1.46-3.89mg/l±0.27). The minimum concentrations recorded were in Pb; which was below detectable level. The result also revealed that the shell accumulated more heavy metals than the flesh of the mussel with Cu in the shell exhibiting a negative correlation with all the metals in the flesh. However, the condition factor (K) value is 6.44, an indication of good health. The length-weight relationship is expressed as W=-0.48xL 1.94 (r2=0.29) showing the growth pattern to be negatively allometric.
Health Risks Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Sea Food from Persian ‎Gulf
Heavy metals are increasingly being released into natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distribution of several heavy metals (Cd, Pb) was investigated in muscle, liver in six different fish species seasonally collected in Persian Gulf (autumn 2009-summer 2010). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The THQ index for fish was calculated. Estimation of target hazard quotients calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQs values (Pb and Cd) for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Bushehr and Bandar-Genaveh, respectively, and for children they were 0.08 and 0.05 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.
Heavy Metals in Selected Infant Milk Formula
To test for the presence of toxic heavy metals, specifically Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in formula milk available in Misrata city north of Libya for infants aged 6-12 months through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer,30 samples of imported milk formula in Libyan markets subjected to test to accurate their pollution with heavy metals, We get concentration of Hg, Ar, Pb in milk formula samples was between 0.002-1.37, 1.62-0.04–2.16, 0.15–0.65 respectively, when compared the results with Libyan &WHO standards ,they were within standards of toxic heavy metals. The presence or absence of toxic heavy metals (Lead, Arsenic, and Mercury) in selected infant formula milk and their levels within or beyond standards set by the WHO. The three infant formulas tested, all were negative for Arsenic and Lead, while two out of the three infant formulas tested positive for Mercury with levels of 0.6333ppm and 0.8333ppm. The levels of Mercury obtained, expressed in parts per million (ppm), from the two infant formulas tested were above the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of total Mercury, which is 0.005ppm, as set by the FAO, WHO, and JECFA.
Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Yelagirihills,Tamilnadu by EDXRF Technique
Heavy metals were considered as highly toxic environmental pollutants to soil ecosystem and human health. In present study the 12 heavy metals (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co,Ni and Zn.) are determined in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Metal concentrations were used to quantify pollution contamination factors such as enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) are calculated and reported.
Dietary Exposure of Heavy Metals through Cereals Commonly Consumed by Dhaka City Residents
Contamination of soil and agricultural products by heavy metals resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concern. Dietary exposure to heavy metals has been associated with toxic and adverse health effects. The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to Pb, Cd and Hg. The aim of this study was to monitor the presence of heavy metals in cereals collected from different wholesale markets of Dhaka City. One hundred and sixty cereal samples were collected and analyzed for determination of heavy metals. Heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A total of six heavy metals– lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and antimony were estimated. The average concentrations of heavy metals in cereals fall within the safe limit established by regulatory organizations except for Pb (152.4 μg/100g) and Hg (15.13 μg/100g) which exceeded the safe limits. BARI gom-26 was the highest source of Pb (304.1 μg/100g) whereas Haski-29 rice variety contained the highest amount of Hg (60.85 μg/100g). Though all the cereal varieties contained approximately same amount of Cr the naizer sail varieties contained huge amount of Cr (171.8 μg/100g). Among all the cereal samples miniket rice varieties contained the least amount of heavy metals. The concentration of Cr (63.24 μg/100g), Cd (5.54 μg/100g) and As (3.26 μg/100g) in all cereals were below the safe limits. The daily intake of heavy metals was determined using the total weight of cereals consumed each day multiplied by the concentrations of heavy metals in cereals. The daily intake was compared with provisional maximum tolerable daily intake set by different regulatory organizations. The daily intake of Cd (23.0 μg), Hg (63.0 μg) and as (13.6 μg) through cereals were below the risk level except for Pb (634.0 μg) and Cr (263.1 μg). As the main meal of average Bangladeshi people is boiled rice served with some sorts of vegetables, our findings indicate that the residents of Dhaka City are at risk from Pb and Cr contamination. Potential health risks from exposure to heavy metals in self-planted cereals need more attention.
Detection of Pollution in the Catchment Area of Baha Region by Using Some Common Plants as a Bioindicators
Although, there are a little data on the use of littoral plants as heavy metals bioaccumulators over large areas of the wetlands environment. So, soil samples and biomass of the five plant species: Pluchea dioscroides, Pulicaria crispa, Lavandula pubescens, Tarchononthus comporatus and Argemone ochroleuca were collected from two different sites (basin and mouth) of four dams at Baha province, KSA. Nutrients and heavy metals were extracted from plant samples (leaves and stems) for analyzing elements (Na, K, Ca, P and N) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu and Ni). The soils of the mouth of the dam had the highest concentrations of all elements, while that of basin had the highest ones of most heavy metals except Pb. The soil elements in relation to the two sites arranged as: Ca > K > P > Na > N; and the heavy metals as: Cu > Ni > Pb. The present study indicated that Pluchea dioscroides had the highest values of most elements and heavy metals, while Lavandula pubescens had the lowest. In general, leaves attain the highest concentrations of all nutrients and heavy metals in most studied species as compared with stem. It was indicated that Pluchea dioscroides showed a high transfer factor for almost elements and heavy metals such as K, Na, Cu, Ni and Pb, while Pulicaria crispa showed the highest translocation factor of N, P, Ca-Na ratio and Cu. All studied species growing in the basin had almost the highest concentrations of elements and heavy metals as compared with that in the mouth of dam except K in Pluchea dioscroides, Tarchononthus comporatus and Argemone ochroleuca tissues. Otherwise tissues of Tarchononthus comporatus growing in the basin had the lowest concentrations of K and Ni, while that growing in the mouth had the highest of P and N.
The Effect of Soil Contamination on Chemical Composition and Quality of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits
A field study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and quality of the Aronia fruits, as well as the possibilities of Aronia cultivation on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study included four varieties of Aronia; Aron variety, Hugin variety, Viking variety and Nero variety. The Aronia was cultivated according to the conventional technology on areas at a different distance from the source of pollution NFMW- Plovdiv (1 km, 3.5 km, and 15 km). The concentrations of macroelements, microelements, and heavy metals in Aronia fruits were determined. The dry matter content, ash, sugars, proteins, and fats were also determined. Aronia is a crop that is tolerant to heavy metals and can successfully be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The increased content of heavy metals in the soil leads to less absorption of the nutrients (Ca, Mg and P) in the fruit of the Aronia. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the Aronia fruit varieties.
Assessment of the Water Quality of the Nhue River in Vietnam and its Suitability for Irrigation Water
The Nhue River in Vietnam is the main source of irrigation water for suburban agricultural land and fish farm. Wastewater from the industrial plants located along these rivers has been discharged, which has degraded the water quality of the rivers. The present paper describes the chemical properties of water from the river focusing on heavy metal pollution and the suitability of water quality for irrigation. Water from the river was heavily polluted with heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Ni. Dissolved oxygen, COD, and total suspended solids, and the concentrations of all heavy metals exceeded the Vietnamese standard for surface water quality in all investigated sites. The concentrations of some heavy metals such as Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni were over the internationally recommended WHO maximum limits for irrigation water. A wide variation in heavy metal concentration of water due to metal types is the result of wastewater discharged from different industrial sources.
The Effect of Supercritical Fluid on the Extraction Efficiency of Heavy Metal from Soil
Clay soils have particular properties that affect the assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. In clay soils, electro-kinetic transport of heavy metals has been carried out. The transport of these metals is predicated on maintaining a low pH throughout the cell, which, in turn, keeps the metals in the pore water phase where they are accessible to electro-kinetic transport. Supercritical fluid extraction and acid digestion were used for the analysis of heavy metals concentrations after the completion of electro-kinetic experimentation. Supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide) extraction is a new technique used to extract the heavy metal (lead, nickel, calcium and potassium) from clayey soil. The comparison between supercritical extraction and acid digestion of different metals was carried out. Supercritical fluid extraction, using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modifier, proved to be efficient and a safer technique than acid digestion technique in extracting metals from clayey soil. Mixing time of soil with EDTA before extracting heavy metals from clayey soil was investigated. The optimum and most practical shaking time for the extraction of lead, nickel, calcium and potassium was two hours.
Principles of Municipal Sewage Sludge Bioconversion into Biomineral Fertilizer
The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge in bioleaching with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared. The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varied from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and followed the order: Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process at heterotrophic metabolism was shown. A new process for bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle temperature after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which provide sludge flocks sedimentation and concentration. The process results in biomineral fertilizer with immobilized sludge bioelements with prolonged action. The fertilizer obtained satisfied the EU limits for the sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the biomineral fertilizers obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation experiments.
Assessment of Pollution Cd, Pb and as in Rice Cultivation in Savadkooh
More than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced and consumed in Asia. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water environments is a serious and growing problem. Toxin by human activities causes pollution in soils so that the intensity of metals in soils was exceeded. This study was done on 7 samples of rice cultivated in Savadkooh of Mazandaran province and soils; they were grown. The amount of heavy metals Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium were measured by atomic absorption. The test results showed that the amount of Lead in rice strain, Tarom A, was 0.768 ppm, the maximum amount of Cadmium in rice strain, Hashemi B, was 0.09 ppm and the highest levels of Arsenic was in red Tarom, 0.39 ppm. According to the results obtained in this study can be found all rice grown in Savadkooh city of Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead, but the measurements are less than specified in the national standard, and their use is safe for consumers. These results also indicate that positive and significant correlation between the studied heavy metals in soil and rice strains that grow there and by increasing the amount of heavy metals in the soil, the amount of these metals in crops grown on them is also increasing.
Growing Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) on Contaminated Soils with Heavy Metals in Bulgaria
A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.5, 3.5, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in vetiver (roots and leaves) were determined. Correlations between the content of the heavy metal mobile forms extracted with DTPA and their content in the roots and leaves of the Vetiver have been established. The Vetiver is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. Plants are characterized by low ability to absorb and accumulate Pb, Cd, and Zn and have no signs of toxicity (chlorosis and necrosis) at 36.8 mg/kg Cd, 1158.8 mg/kg Pb and 1526.2 mg/kg Zn in the soil. Vetiver plants can be classified as Pb, Cd and Zn excluder, therefore, this plant has the suitable potential for the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated soils. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund (Project DFNI 04/9).
Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatments of Sewage Wastewater
Background: The wastewater is known as a mixture of one or more kinds of different water such as domestic, comprising hospitals, industrial wastewater, and agricultural water. Several researchers have reported the studied of ability to removal and bio-sorbant of different heavy metals by algae, marine algae, bacteria, yeast and higher plants in immobilized as well as in free state. However, the available information on the biodegradation of organic pollutants by microorganisms in such environments are quite limited. Therefore, these microorganisms are highly recommended to be used in bio-treatment and bio- adsorbent to different heavy metals from sewage wastewater. Materials and Methods: Mixed bacteria in different formula (free cells and immobilized cells) were used to bio-treatment and bio-sorbant of different heavy metals in sewage wastewater. Objective: This study aims to investigate the ability of mixed bacteria in different formula (free cells and immobilized cells) as a bio-treatment and bio-removal of heavy metals from sewage water at different exposure period (time). Results: The experimental work shows that the removal efficiency for bio-treatment by used mixed bacteria and the percentage of removal rate was found to be 81.10 % (BOD), 83.22% (COD), Ammonia Nitrogen 45.71% and Phosphate 95.77. The high bio-removal to different heavy metals were found to reach 70.6 % for (Fe) ion, 64.5% for (Mn) ion, 58.1% for (Zn) ion. Conclusion: On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that biological treatment by mixed bacteria of sewage wastewater was found to be effective in biotreatment and a bio-sorbent of different heavy metals after 30 hr incubation period at 27°- 30°C.
Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatments of Sewage Wastewater
Background: The wastewater is known as a mixture of one or more kinds of different water such as domestic, comprising hospitals, industrial wastewater, and agricultural water. Several researchers have reported the studied of ability to removal and bio-sorbant of different heavy metals by algae, marine algae, bacteria, yeast and higher plants in immobilized as well as in free state. However, the available information on the biodegradation of organic pollutants by microorganisms in such environments are quite limited. Therefore, these microorganisms are highly recommended to be used in bio-treatment and bio- adsorbent to different heavy metals from sewage wastewater. Materials and Methods: Mixed bacteria in different formula (free cells and immobilized cells) were used to bio-treatment and bio-sorbant of different heavy metals in sewage wastewater. Objective: This study aims to investigate the ability of mixed bacteria in different formula (free cells and immobilized cells) as a bio-treatment and bio-removal of heavy metals from sewage water at different exposure period (time). Results: The experimental work shows that the removal efficiency for bio-treatment by used mixed bacteria and the percentage of removal rate was found to be 81.10 % (BOD), 83.22% (COD), Ammonia Nitrogen 45.71% and Phosphate 95.77. The high bio-removal to different heavy metals were found to reach 70.6 % for (Fe) ion, 64.5% for (Mn) ion, 58.1% for (Zn) ion. Conclusion: On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that biological treatment by mixed bacteria of sewage wastewater was found to be effective in biotreatment and a bio-sorbent of different heavy metals after 30 hr incubation period at 27°- 30°C.
Reclamation of Fly Ash Dykes Using Naturally Growing Plant Species
The present study was conducted over a period of three years on fly ash dyke. The physicochemical analysis of fly ash (pH, WHC, BD, porosity, EC% OC & available P, heavy metal content etc.) was performed before and after the growth of plant species. Fly ash was analyzed after concentrated nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-7000b(Shimadzu) for heavy metals. The dyke was colonized by the propagules of native species over a period of time, and it was observed that fly ash was contaminated by heavy metals and plants were able to ameliorate the metal concentration of dyke. The growth of plant species also improved the condition of fly ash so that it can be used for agricultural purposes. Phytosociological studies of the fly ash dyke were performed so that these plants may be used for reclamation of fly ash for subsequent use in agriculture.
Assessment of Some Heavy Metals (Manganese, Copper, Nickel and Zinc) in Muscle and Liver of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Ilushi River, Nigeria
This study determined the level of manganese, zinc, copper, and nickel in the liver and muscle of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from Ilushi River, Edo State, Nigeria with a view to determining the extent of contamination. Heavy metal determination of digested fish samples was done using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The results show that the muscles and livers were contaminated to varying levels with the presence of some non-metallic elements. The heavy metal load revealed that zinc had the highest mean concentration of 0.217±0.008µg/g in liver and 0.130±0.006µg/g in muscle, while copper recorded the least concentration in liver 0.063±0.004µg/g and 0.027±0.003µg/gin muscle. The distribution of the heavy metals in the muscles and livers of Clarias gariepinus showed significant variations and the results also revealed that the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cu,Ni and Mn) found in the liver was higher than those found in the muscle. This indicates that the liver is a better accumulator of heavy metal in Clarias gariepinus than the muscles. On comparison with WHO/FAO/FEPA/USFDA standards, the study shows that the concentrations of heavy metals in liver and muscle were within permissible limits safe for human consumption.
Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Roadside Soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway in Liaoning Province, China
The heavy metal contaminations were determined with a detailed soil survey in roadside soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway of Liaoning Province (China) and Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The average concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn in roadside soils was determined to be 43.8, 26.5, 0.119, 32.1, 71.3 mg/kg respectively, and all of the heavy metal contents were higher than the background values. Different heavy metal distribution regularity was found in different land use type of roadside soil, there was an obvious peak of heavy concentration at 25m from road edge in the farmland, while in the forest and orchard soil, all heavy metals gradually decreased with the increase of distance from road edge and conformed to the exponential model. Furthermore, the heavy metal contents of heavy metals except Cd were markedly increased compared with those in 1999 and 2007, and the heavy metals concentrations of Shenyang- Dalian Highway were considered medium or low in comparison with those in other cities around the world. The assessment of heavy metal contamination of roadside soils illustrated a common low pollution for all heavy metal and recommended that more attention should be paid to Pb contamination in roadside soils in Shenyang-Dalian Highway.
Heavy Metal of Soil in Wastewater, Irrigated Agricultural Soil in a Surrounding Area of the Nhue River, Vietnam
Waste from industrial sources, serves as sources of water for irrigating farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals in the soils. Soil samples were collected from the different locations from upstream to downstream of the Nhue River to evaluate heavy metal pollution. The results showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals in the soil samples in the farmland area were much higher than the background level in that area (1.2-2.6 mg/kg for Cd, 42-60 mg/kg for Cr, 22-62mg/kg for Cu, 30-86 mg/kg for Pb, 119-245 mg/kg for Zn, and 26-57 mg/kg for Ni), and exceeded the level of Vietnamese standard for agricultural soil for all heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn except soil samples at upstream and downstream of the Nhue River.
Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Nigeria
Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal, and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.
Speciation and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Greenhouse Soils
Repeated amendments of organic matter and intensive use of fertilizers, metal-enriched chemicals and biocides may cause soil and environmental pollution in greenhouses. Specially, the impact of heavy metal pollution of soils on food metal content and underground water quality has become a public concern. Due to potential toxicity of heavy metals to human life and environment, determining the chemical form of heavy metals in greenhouse soils is an important approach of chemical characterization and can provide useful information on its mobility and bioavailability. A sequential extraction procedure was used to estimate the availability of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr) in greenhouse soils of Antalya Aksu. Zn was predominantly associated with Fe-Mn oxide fraction, major portion of Cd associated with carbonate and organic matter fraction, a major portion of (>65 %) Ni and Cr were largely associated with Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions and Pb was largely associated with organic matter and Fe-Mn oxide fractions. Results of the present study suggest that the mobility and bioavailability of metals probably increase in the following order: Cr < Pb < Ni < Cd < Zn. Among the elements studied, Zn and Cd appeared to be the most readily soluble and potentially bioavailable metals and these metals may carry a potential risk for metal transfer in food chain and contamination to ground water.
Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Country, Nigeria
Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.
Bioactive, Nutritional and Heavy Metal Constituents of Some Edible Mushrooms Found in Abia State of Nigeria
The phytocemical, mineral, proximate and heavy metals compositions of six edible and non-edible species of mushrooms were investigated. Fully fleshy mushrooms were used for the analysis. On the averagely, the bioactive constituents of the mushrooms were as follows Alkaloids 0.12 ± 0.02 – 1.01 ± 03 %, Tannins 0.44 ± 0.09 – 1.38 ± 0.6,). Phenols,(0.13 ± 0.01 – 0.26± 0.00, Saponins 0.14 ± 0.03 – 0.32 ± 0.04%, Flavonoids 0.08 ± 0.02 – 0.34 ± 0.02%. The result of proximate composition indicated that the mushroom contained (5.17 ± 0.06 – 12.28 ± 0.16% protein, 0.16 ± 0.02 – 0.67 ± 0.02% fats, 1.06 ± 0.03 – 8.49 ± 0.03 % fibre, (62.06 ± 0.52 – 80.01 ± 4.71% and carbohydrate. The mineral composition of the mushrooms were as follows, calcium 81.49 ± 2.32 - .914 ± 2.32mg/100g, Magnesium(8 ± 1.39-24 ± 2.40mg/100g, Potassium 64.54 ± 0.43 – 164.54 ± 1.23 mg/100g, sodium 9.47 ± 0.12 – 30.97 ± 0.16 mg/100g, and Phosphorus 22.19 ± 0.57-53.2± 0.44 mg/100g. Heavy metals concentration indicated Cadmium 0.7-0.94ppm. Zinc 27.82 – 70.98 ppm. Lead 0.66 – 2.86ppm and Copper 1.8-22.32ppm. The result obtained indicates that the mushrooms are of good sources of phytochemicals, proximate and minerals needed for maintenance of good health and can also be exploited in manufacture of drugs. Heavy metals obtained indicate that when consume intentionally in high content may cause liver, kidney damage and even death.
Potential of Salvia sclarea L. for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals
A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Salvia sclarea L. for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The content of heavy metals in different parts of Salvia sclarea L. (roots, stems, leaves and inflorescences) was determined by ICP. The essential oil of the Salvia sclarea L. was obtained by steam distillation in laboratory conditions and was analyzed for heavy metals and its chemical composition was determined. Salvia sclarea L. is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils. Based on the obtained results and using the most common criteria, Salvia sclarea L. can be classified as Pb hyperaccumulator and Cd and Zn accumulators, therefore, this plant has suitable potential for the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Favorable is also the fact that heavy metals do not influence the development of the Salvia sclarea L., as well as on the quality and quantity of the essential oil. For clary sage oil obtained from the processing of clary sage grown on highly contaminated soils, its key odour-determining ingredients meet the quality requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia and BS ISO 7609 regarding Bulgarian clary sage oil and/or have values that are close to the limits of these standards. The possibility of further industrial processing will make Salvia sclarea L. an economically interesting crop for farmers of phytoextraction technology.
Removal of Heavy Metals Pb, Zn and Cu from Sludge Waste of Paper Industries Using Biosurfactant
Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as metals. Sludge waste of paper industries as toxic and hazardous material from specific source contains Pb, Zn, and Cu metal from waste soluble ink. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. Soil washing is among the methods available to remove heavy metal from sediments. The purpose of this research is to study effectiveness of biosurfactant with concentration = CMC for the removal of heavy metals, lead, zinc and copper in batch washing test under four different biosurfactant production by microbial origin. Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3K, Acinetobacter sp, and Actinobacillus sp was grown on mineral salt medium that had been already added with 2% concentration of molasses that it is a low cost application. The samples were kept in a shaker 120 rpm at room temperature for 3 days. Supernatants and sediments of sludge were separated by using a centrifuge and samples from supernatants were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The highest removal of Pb was up to 14,04% by Acinetobacter sp. Biosurfactant of Pseudomonas putida T1(8) have the highest removal for Zn and Cu up to 6,5% and 2,01% respectively. Biosurfactants have a role for removal process of the metals, including wetting, contact of biosurfactant to the surface of the sediments and detachment of the metals from the sediment. Biosurfactant has proven its ability as a washing agent in heavy metals removal from sediments, but more research is needed to optimize the process of removal heavy metals.
Heavy Metals in PM2.5 Aerosols in Urban Sites of Győr, Hungary
<p class="Abstract" style="text-indent:10.2pt">Atmospheric concentrations of some heavy metal compounds (Pb, Cd, Ni) and the metalloid As were identified and determined in airborne PM2.5 particles in urban sites of Győr, northwest area of Hungary. PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected in two different sampling sites and the trace metal(loid) (Pb, Ni, Cd and As) content were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of PM2.5 fraction was varied between 12.22 and 36.92 &mu;g/m3 at the two sampling sites. The trend of heavy metal mean concentrations regarding the mean value of the two urban sites of Győr was found in decreasing order of Pb &gt; Ni &gt; Cd. The mean values were 7.59 ng/m3 for Pb, 0.34 ng/m3 for Ni and 0.11 ng/m3 for Cd, respectively. The metalloid As could be detected only in 3.57% of the total collected samples. The levels of PM2.5 bounded heavy metals were determined and compared with other cities located in Hungary.
Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Plant Biomass
Environment pollution through various wastes (particularly by heavy metals) is a major environmental problem due to industrialization and the development of various human activities. Considerable attention has been focused, in recent years, upon the field of biosorption which represents a biotechnological innovation as well as an excellent tool for removal of metal ions from aqueous effluents. So the purpose of this study is to valorize by-product which are orange peels and an extract of these peels (pectin; a heteropolysaccharide) in treatment of water containing heavy metals. All biosorption experiments were carried out at room temperature, an indicated pH, a precise amount of biosorbent and under continuous stirring. Biosorption kinetic was determined by evaluating the residual concentration of the metal ion at different time intervals using UV spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the orange peels and pectin are interesting biosorbents with maximum biosorption capacity of up to 140 mg/g.
Removal of Mixed Heavy Metals from Contaminated Clay Soils Using Pulsed Electrokinetic Process
Electrokinetic remediation process was employed for the removal of four (4) heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) from contaminated clay and bentonite soils under pulsed current supply mode. The effects of voltage gradient, pulse duty cycle and bentonite/clay ratio on the simultaneous removal efficiencies of the heavy metals were investigated. A total of thirteen experiments were designed and conducted according to factorial design with each experiment allowed to continuously ran for 3 weeks. Results obtained showed that increase in bentonite ratio decreased the removal efficiency of the heavy metals with no significant effect on the energy consumption. Conversely, increase in both voltage gradient and pulse duty cycle increased the heavy metals removal efficiencies with increased in energy consumption. Additionally, increase in voltage gradient increased the electrical conductivity and the soil pH due to due to continuous refill and replacement of process fluids as they decomposed under the induced voltage gradient. Under different operating conditions, the maximum removal efficiencies obtained for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb were 21.87, 83.2, 62.4, 78.06 and 16.65% respectively.
Heavy Metals and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria as Indicators of Effluent Environmental Pollution in the Green Turtles, Chelonia Mydas
At Ras Al-Hadd Reserve, Eggs from green turtles and Chelonia mydas were randomly collected immediately after Oviposition. Eggshells taken from fresh eggs and sand collected from the body chamber were analyzed for eight heavy metals (Al, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, S, and Zn) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP). Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly (P< 0.05) between nest sand and eggshells. Zn values were significantly higher than the other heavy metals. A total of 60 heterotrophic bacteria belong to eight genera were isolated from fresh egg contents (albumen and yolk). Resistance of the isolates to Amikacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycine, minocylin, nalidixicacid, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tobramycin, and Trimethoprim was tested. More than 40 % of the isolates were multiple resistant to 2-7 antibiotics. Most of the resistant strains were also resistant to Zn. The value of these findings may indicate that the origin of pollution is of human contaminated effluents.
Heavy Metal Contamination of a Dumpsite Environment as Assessed with Pollution Indices
Indiscriminate refuse dumping in and around Ado-Ekiti combined with improper management of few available dumpsites, such as Ilokun dumpsite, posed the threat of heavy metals pollution in the surrounding soils and underground water that needs assessment using pollution indices. Surface soils (0-15 cm) were taken from the centre of Ilokun dumpsite (0 m) and environs at different directions and distances during the dry and wet seasons, as well as a background sample at 1000 m away, adjacent to the dumpsite at Ilokun, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The concentration of heavy metals used to calculate the pollution indices for the soils were determined using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. The soils recorded high concentrations of all the heavy metals above the background concentrations irrespective of the season with highest concentrations at the 0 m except Ni and Fe at 50 m during the dry and wet season, respectively. The heavy metals concentration were in the order of Ni &gt; Mn &gt; Pb &gt; Cr &gt; Cu &gt; Cd &gt; Fe during the dry season, and Fe &gt; Cr &gt; Cu &gt; Pb &gt; Ni &gt; Cd &gt; Mn during the wet season. Using the Contamination Factor (CF), the soils were classified to be moderately contaminated with Cd and Fe to very high contamination with other metals during the dry season and low Cd contamination (0.87), moderate contamination with Fe, Pb, Mn and Ni and very high contamination with Cr and Cu during the wet season. At both seasons, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicates the soils to be generally polluted with heavy metals and the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) calculated shown the soils to be in unpolluted to moderately polluted levels. Enrichment Factor (EF) implied the soils to be deficiently enriched with all the heavy metals except Cr (7.90) and Cu (6.42) that were at significantly enrichment levels during the wet season. Modified Degree of Contamination (mCd) recorded, indicated the soils to be of very high to extremely high degree of contamination during the dry season and moderate degree of contamination during the wet season except 0 m with high degree of contamination. The concentration of heavy metals in the soils combined with some of the pollution indices indicated the soils in and around the Ilokun Dumpsite are being polluted with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources constituted by the indiscriminate refuse dumping.
Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Varieties of Vegetable oils Consumed in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Health Risk Assessment of Local Population
Selected heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and As, in seven popular varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from Saudi Arabia, were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) using microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (NIST 1577b). The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.035 - 0.286, 0.955 - 3.10, 17.3 - 57.8, 0.178 - 0.586, 0.011 - 0.017 and 0.011 - 0.018 µg/g, respectively. Cadmium was found to be in the range of 2.36 - 6.34 ng/g. The results are compared internationally and with standards laid down by world health agencies. A risk assessment study has been carried out to assess exposure to these metals via consumption of vegetable oils. A comparison has been made with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The results indicated that the dietary intakes of the selected heavy metals from daily consumption of 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no significant health risk to local population.
The Fight against Pollution of Heavy Metals
We are living in a time and in a world heavily polluted. In the list of the great dangers awaiting the man can be placed on top of the list pollution by heavy metals: lead, mercury, cadmium, etc. Fatigue, Depression, Thyroid disorder, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Cancer, are some of the health problems caused by heavy metal pollution. The environmental protection has long since become a major political and economic issue. Among the priorities, include safeguarding water resources. All countries of the world are concerned either because they lack water or because they pollute it. There are several ways to remove these heavy metals; ion exchange by zeolites is one of these ways, which our work is based on. Zeolites were among the main clean up materials by either adsorption, ion exchange and catalysis. Lead and cadmium, heavy metals, is one of the main dangers fulminate the flora and fauna of our small planet, so many resources are deployed to remedy them. The elimination of lead and cadmium by ion exchange has been extensively studied. However, exchange capacity of more and larger formed a major challenge for researchers and industry.
Physiochemical Analysis of Ground Water in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria
Some physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations of water samples collected from ten boreholes in Samaru, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria were analysed in order to assess the drinking water quality. Physicochemical parameters were determined using classical methods while the heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Results of the analysis obtained were as follows: Temperature 29 – 310C, pH 5.74 – 6.19, Electrical conductivity 3.21 – 7.54 µs, DO 0.51 – 1.00 mg/L, BOD 0.0001 – 0.006 mg/L, COD 160 – 260 mg/L, TDS 2.08 – 4.55 mg/L, Total Hardness 97.44 – 401.36 mg/L CaCO3, and Chloride 0.97 – 59.12 mg/L. Concentrations of heavy metals were in the range; Zinc 0.000 – 0.7568 mg/L, Lead 0.000 – 0.070 mg/L and Cadmium 0.000 – 0.009 mg/L. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Heavy Metals Estimation in Coastal Areas Using Remote Sensing, Field Sampling and Classical and Robust Statistic
Sediments are an important source of accumulation of toxic contaminants within the aquatic environment. Bioassays are a powerful tool for the study of sediments in relation to their toxicity, but they can be expensive. This article presents a methodology to estimate the main physical property of intertidal sediments in coastal zones: heavy metals concentration. This study, which was developed in the Bay of Santander (Spain), applies classical and robust statistic to CASI-2 hyperspectral images to estimate heavy metals presence and ecotoxicity (TOC). Simultaneous fieldwork (radiometric and chemical sampling) allowed an appropriate atmospheric correction to CASI-2 images.
Evaluating of Chemical Extractants for Assessment of Bioavailable Heavy Metals in Polluted Soils
Availability of a metal is characterised by its quantity transgressing from soil into different extractants or by its content in plants. In literature, the terms 'available forms of compounds' and 'mobile' are often considered as equivalents of the term 'accessible' to plants. Rapid and a sufficiently reliable method for defining the accessible for plants forms turns out to be their extraction through different extractants, imitating the functioning of the root system. As a criterion for the pertinence of the extractant to this purpose usually serves the significant statistic correlation between the extracted quantities of the element from soil and its content in plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of various extractions (DTPA-TEA, AB-DTPA, Mehlich 3, 0.01 M CaCl₂, 1M NH₄NO₃) for the determination of bioavailability of heavy metals in industrially polluted soils from the metallurgical activity near Plovdiv and Kardjali, Bulgaria. Quantity measurements for contents of heavy metals were performed with ICP-OES. The results showed that extraction capacity was as follows: Mehlich 3>ABDTPA>DTPA-TEA>CaCl₂>NaNO₃. The content of the mobile form of heavy metals depends on the nature of metal ion, the nature of extractant and pH. The obtained results show that CaCl₂ extracts a greater quantity of mobile forms of heavy metals than NH₄NO₃. DTPA-TEA and AB-DTPA are capable of extracting from the soil not only the heavy metals participating in the exchange processes but also the heavy metals bound in carbonates and organic complexes, as well as bound and occluded in oxide and secondary clay minerals. AB-DTPA extracts a bit more heavy metals than DTPA-TEA. The darker color of the solutions obtained with AB-DTPA indicates that considerable quantities organic matter are being destructed. A comparison of the mobile forms of heavy metals extracted from clean and highly polluted soils has revealed that in the polluted soils the greater portion of heavy metals exists in a mobile form. High correlation coefficients are obtained between the metals extracted with different extractants and their total content in soil (r=0.9). A positive correlation between the pH, soil organic matter and the extracted quantities of heavy metals has been found. The results of correlation analysis revealed that the heavy metals extracted by DTPA-TEA, AB-DTPA, Mehlich 3, CaCl₂ and NaNO₃ correlated significantly with plant uptake. Significant correlation was found between DTPA-TEA, AB-DTPA, and CaCl₂ with heavy metals concentration in plants. Application of extracting methods contains chelating agents would be recommended in the future research onthe availabilityof heavy metals in polluted soils.
Absorption Capability Examination of Heavy Metals by Spirogyra Alga in Ahvaz Water Treatment Plant
The present study examined the potential capability of Spirogyra algae remove heavy metals Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr from the water. For this purpose, the water treatment No. 3 of Ahvaz County in Khuzestan Province of Iran was selected as a case study. From 8 sampling stations, 4 stations were dedicated to the water samples and 4 stations to the algae samples. According to the obtained results, the concentration of the heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in water samples were within the ranges of 1.98-19.53, 0.67-13.45, 1-23.18, and 2.12-83.04 µg/L. Besides, the concentration of heavy metal Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn in spirogyra algae samples varied between the ranges 2.30-3.61, 2.06-3.43, 2.29-2.56, and 9.88-10.84 µg/L. The highest amount of metal absorption in spirogyra algae samples was related to the zinc. The obtained results also indicated that the last spirogyra algae sample which was at the inlet of Tank 4 absorbed the lowest concentration of metals. This would be due to the treatment process along the course of ponds resulted in completely pure water at the outlet without the existence of algae on the sides. The paper also provides some useful recommendations on this issue.
Investigation of Heavy Metals and Nitrate Level in Drinking Water and the Side Effects on Public Health in the Capital City of Iran
Regarding to the dramatic rise of cancer prevalence of cancers in Iran and also base on the investigations around environmental factors which causes cancer, The air and water pollution is in high level in Iran’s capital city this issue motivated us to start an investigation on concentration of heavy metals and nitrate in Tehran’s Tap water, additionally we investigated the effects of this contaminations on public health, it is clear that heavy metals and also nitrate are causes cancers directly and indirectly, we divided the city to four districts: (1) North, (2) East, (3) West, (4) South and totally collected over 30 samples from noted districts, we obvious difference in concentrations, after a study we founded the reasons of this difference, the old distribution system, non-standard sewage disposal system, travel up from contaminated rains, releasing industrial wastes waters without any pretreatment, the most important one is the old distribution system, Tehran is an old city hence distribution system is old too we know that the old water pipes were built from alloys which containing several of this harmful heavy metals, releasing of this heavy metals from pipes to the tap water is one of the most Important reasons, as the result we presented the concentrations by districts and the alternatives to decreasing the level of this contaminations.
Understanding Integrated Removal of Heavy Metals, Organic Matter and Nitrogen in a Constructed Wetland System Receiving Simulated Landfill Leachate
This study investigated the integrated removal of heavy metals, organic matter and nitrogen from landfill leachate using a novel laboratory scale constructed wetland system. The main objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the overall effectiveness of the constructed wetland system for treating landfill leachate; (ii) to examine the interactions and impact of key leachate constituents (heavy metals, organic matter and nitrogen) on the overall removal dynamics and efficiency. The constructed wetland system consisted of four stages operated in tidal flow and anoxic conditions. Results obtained from 215 days of operation have demonstrated extraordinary heavy metals removal up to 100%. Analysis of the physico- chemical data reveal that the controlling factors for metals removal were the anoxic condition and the use of the novel media (dewatered ferric sludge which is a by-product of drinking water treatment process) as the main substrate in the constructed wetland system. Results show that the use of the ferric sludge enhanced heavy metals removal and brought more flexibility to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification which occurs within the microbial flocs. Furthermore, COD and NH4-N were effectively removed in the system and this coincided with enhanced aeration in the 2nd and 3rd stages of the constructed wetland system. Overall, the results demonstrated that the ferric dewatered sludge constructed wetland system would be an effective solution for integrated removal of pollutants from landfill leachates.
Phytoremediation: An Ecological Solution to Heavy-Metal-Polluted Soil
Heavy metals contamination in aquatic ecosystem is a major environmental problem since its accumulation along the food chain pose public health risk. The concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil and plants species collected from different streams of Suoxu River, China was investigated. This aim was to define the level of pollutants in Suoxu River, find which plant species exhibits the greatest accumulation and to evaluate whether these species could be useful for phytoremediation. While total soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations varied, respectively, from 0.09 to 0.23 , 58.6 to 98, 9.72 to 80.5, 15.3 to 41, 15.2 to 27.3 and 35 to 156 (mg-kg-1), those in plants ranged from 0.035 to 0.49, 2.91 to 75.6, 4.79 to 32.4, 1.27 to 16.1, 0.62 to10.2, 18.9 to 84.6 (mg-kg-1), respectively. Based on BCFs and TFs values, most of the studied species have potential for phytostabilization. The plants with most effective in the accumulation of metals in shoots are Phragmatis australis (TF=2.29) and Iris tectorum (TF =2.07) for Pb. While Chenopodium album, (BCF =3.55), Ranunculus sceleratus, (BCF= 3.0), Polygonum hydropiper (BCF =2.46) for Cd and Iris tectorum (BCF=2.0) for Cu was suitable for phytostabilization. Among the plant species screened for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, most of the species were efficient to take up more than one heavy metal in roots. Our study showed that the native plant species growing on contaminated sites may have the potential uses for phytoremediation.
Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tunas Caught from Lakshweep Islands, India
The toxic metal contamination and their biomagnification in marine fishes is a serious public health concern specially, in the coastal areas and the small islands. In the present study, concentration of toxic heavy metals like zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the tissues of tunas (T. albacores) caught from the area near to Lakshdweep Islands. The heavy metals are one of the indicators for the marine water pollution. Geochemical weathering, industrialization, agriculture run off, fishing, shipping and oil spills are the major pollutants. The presence of heavy toxic metals in the near coastal water fishes at both western coast and eastern coast of India has been well established. The present study was conducted assuming that the distant island will not have the metals presence in a way it is at the near main land coast. However, our study shows that there is a significant amount of the toxic metals present in the tissues of tuna samples. The gill, lever and flash samples were collected in waters around Lakshdweep Islands. They were analyzed using ICP&ndash;AES for the toxic metals after microwave digestion. The concentrations of the toxic metals were found in all fish samples and the general trend of presence was in decreasing order as Zn &gt; Al &gt; Cd &gt; Pb &gt; Cr &gt; Ni &gt; Hg. The amount of metals was found to higher in fish having more weight.
Geostatistical Simulation of Carcinogenic Industrial Effluent on the Irrigated Soil and Groundwater, District Sheikhupura, Pakistan
The water resources are depleting due to an intrusion of industrial pollution. There are clusters of industries including leather tanning, textiles, batteries, and chemical causing contamination. These industries use bulk quantity of water and discharge it with toxic effluents. The penetration of heavy metals through irrigation from industrial effluent has toxic effect on soil and groundwater. There was strong positive significant correlation between all the heavy metals in three media of industrial effluent, soil and groundwater (P < 0.001). The metal to the metal association was supported by dendrograms using cluster analysis. The geospatial variability was assessed by using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and pollution model to identify the simulation of carcinogenic elements in soil and groundwater. The principal component analysis identified the metals source, 48.8% variation in factor 1 have significant loading for sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) of tannery effluent-based process. In soil and groundwater, the metals have significant loading in factor 1 representing more than half of the total variation with 51.3 % and 53.6 % respectively which showed that pollutants in soil and water were driven by industrial effluent. The cumulative eigen values for the three media were also found to be greater than 1 representing significant clustering of related heavy metals. The results showed that heavy metals from industrial processes are seeping up toxic trace metals in the soil and groundwater. The poisonous pollutants from heavy metals turned the fresh resources of groundwater into unusable water. The availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use is being alarming.
Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Ground Water in the Coastal Part of Cauvery Deltaic Region, South India
In order to assess the heavy metal contamination totally fourty five groundwater samples were collected from the coastal part of Cauvery deltaic region, South India, during monsoon season in the year of 2017. The study area lies between longitudes 79º15’ to 79º 50’ E and latitudes 10º10’ to 11º20’ N with total area of 2,569 km². The concentration of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The heavy metals ranged between 0.007-117.8 µg/l for As, 8.503-1281 µg/l for Ba, 0.006-0.12 µg/l for Cd, 0.23-5.572µg/l for Cr, 0.44-17.9 µg/l for Co, 0.633-11.56 µg/l for Cu, 0.467-29.34 µg/l for Ni, 0.008-5.756 µg/l for Pb, 0.979 to 45.49 µg/l for Se, and 2.712-10480 µg/l for Zn in the groundwaters. A comparison of heavy metal concentration with WHO and BIS drinking water standards shows that Ni, Zn, As, Se, and Ba level is higher than the drinking water standards in some of the groundwater samples, and the concentrations of all the other heavy metals were lower than the drinking water standards. The present levels of heavy metal concentration in the studied area groundwaters are moderate to severe to public health and environmental concerns and need attention.
Bio-Estimation of Selected Heavy Metals in Shellfish and Their Surrounding Environmental Media
Due to the determination of the pollution status of fresh resources in the Egyptian territorial waters is very important for public health, this study was carried out to reveal the levels of heavy metals in the shellfish and their environment and its relation to the highly developed industrial activities in those areas. A total of 100 shellfish samples from the Rosetta, Edku, El-Maadiya, Abo-Kir and El-Max coasts [10 crustaceans (shrimp) and 10 mollusks (oysters)] were randomly collected from each coast. Additionally, 10 samples from both the water and the sediment were collected from each coast. Each collected sample was analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc residues using a Perkin Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the levels of heavy metals were higher in the water and sediment from Abo-Kir. The heavy metal levels decreased successively for the Rosetta, Edku, El-Maadiya, and El-Max coasts, and the concentrations of heavy metals, except copper and zinc, in shellfish exhibited the same pattern. For the concentration of heavy metals in shellfish tissue, the highest was zinc and the concentrations decreased successively for copper, lead, chromium and cadmium for all coasts, except the Abo-Kir coast, where the chromium level was highest and the other metals decreased successively for zinc, copper, lead and cadmium. In Rosetta, chromium was higher only in the mollusks, while the level of this metal was lower in the crustaceans; this trend was observed at the Edku, El-Maadiya and El-Max coasts as well. Herein, we discuss the importance of such contamination for public health and the sources of shellfish contamination with heavy metals. We suggest measures to minimize and prevent these pollutants in the aquatic environment and, furthermore, how to protect humans from excessive intake.
GIS-Based Spatial Distribution and Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals Contamination in Topsoil around Ecton Mining Area, Derbyshire, UK
The study area (Ecton mining area) is located in the southern part of the Peak District in Derbyshire, England. It is bounded by the River Manifold from the west. This area has been mined for a long period. As a result, huge amounts of potentially toxic metals were released into the surrounding area and are most likely to be a significant source of heavy metal contamination to the local soil, water and vegetation. In order to appraise the potential heavy metal pollution in this area, 37 topsoil samples (5-20 cm depth) were collected and analysed for their total content of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni and V using ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) optical emission spectroscopy. Multivariate Geospatial analyses using the GIS technique were utilised to draw geochemical maps of the metals of interest over the study area. A few hotspot points, areas of elevated concentrations of metals, were specified, which are presumed to be the results of anthropogenic activities. In addition, the soil&rsquo;s environmental quality was evaluated by calculating the Mullers&rsquo; Geoaccumulation index (I geo), which suggests that the degree of contamination of the investigated heavy metals has the following trend: Pb &gt; Zn &gt; Cu &gt; Mn &gt; Ni = Cr = V. Furthermore, the potential ecological risk, using the enrichment factor (EF), was also specified. On the basis of the calculated amount or the EF, the levels of pollution for the studied metals in the study area have the following order: Pb&gt;Zn&gt;Cu&gt;Cr&gt;V&gt;Ni&gt;Mn.
Photocatalytic Degradation of Lead from Aqueous Solution Using TiO2 as Adsorbent
Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury do not have biological significance hence they are known to be extremely toxic heavy metals. Water contains various heavy metals like Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) etc., when it gets polluted with industrial waste water. These heavy metals cause various health effects even at low concentration when consumed by humans. Most of the heavy metals are poisonous to living organisms. Heavy metals are non-degradable and are preserved in the environment through bioaccumulation. Therefore removal of heavy metals from water is necessary. In recent years, a great deal of attentions has been focused on to the application of nanosized metal oxides to treat heavy metals, especially titanium oxides, ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminium oxides and magnesium oxides as adsorbent and photocatalyst. TiO2 based photocatalysts have attracted continuously increasing attention because of the excellent properties such as high light -conversion efficiency, chemical stability, nontoxic nature, low cost. The catalyst displays high photocatalytic activity because of its large surface area. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of Lead (Pb) from aqueous solution was investigated in natural sunlight by using TiO2 as Nanomaterial. This study was performed at laboratory scale. All the experiments were carried out in the batch process. The concentration of lead was constant (25mg/lit) in the experiment and effect of titanium dioxide dose and pH were varied to study the removal efficiency of the lead by adsorption. Further study was performed on the dependence of photocatalytic reaction on the reaction temperature. The aqueous solution was prepared by Lead metal powder. TiO2 photo catalyst nanopowder used was Sisco-74629 grade. The heavy metal is analyzed with VARIAN AA 240 atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The study shows, with increasing TiO2 dose and pH the lead removal increases. According to study, it can be concluded that the utilization of titanium dioxide accounted for higher efficiency in the removal of lead from aqueous solution.
Assessment of the Soils Pollution Level of the Open Mine and Tailing Dump of Surrounding Territories of Akhtala Ore Processing Combine by Heavy Metals
For assessment of the soils pollution level of the open mine and tailing dump of surrounding territories of Akhtala ore processing combine by heavy metals in 2013 collected soil samples and analyzed for different heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd. The main soil type in the study sites was the mountain cambisol. To classify soil pollution level contamination indices like Contamination factors (Cf), Degree of contamination (Cd), Pollution load index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation index (I-geo) are calculated. The distribution pattern of trace metals in the soil profile according to I geo, Cf and Cd values shows that the soil is very polluted. And also the PLI values for the 19 sites were >1, which indicates deterioration of site quality.
Phytoremediation Potential of Enhanced Tobacco BAC F3 in Soil Contaminated with Heavy Metals
A comparative study has been carried out into the impact of organic meliorants on the uptake of heavy metals, micro and macroelements and the phytoremediation potential of enhanced tobacco BAC F3. The soil used as part of this experiment was sampled from the vicinity of the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The pot experiment carried out consisted of a randomized, complete block design containing nine treatments and three replications (27 pots). The treatments consisted of a control (with no organic meliorants) and compost and vermicompost meliorants (added at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 30%, and recalculated based on their dry soil weight). Upon reaching commercial ripeness, the tobacco plants were gathered. Heavy metals, micro and macroelement contents in roots, stems, and leaves of tobacco were analyzed by the method of the microwave mineralization. To determine the elements in the samples, inductively coupled emission spectrometry (Jobin Yvon Emission - JY 38 S, France) was used. The distribution of the heavy metals, micro, and macroelements in the organs of the enhanced tobacco has a selective character and depended above all on the parts of the plants and the element that was examined. Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, P and Mg distribution in tobacco decreases in the following order: roots > leaves > stems, and for Cd, K, and Ca - leaves > roots > stems. The high concentration of Cd in the leaves and the high translocation factor indicate the possibility of enhanced tobacco to be used in phytoextraction. Tested organic amendments significantly influenced the uptake of heavy metals, micro and macroelements by the roots, stems, and leaves of tobacco. A correlation was found between the quantity of the mobile forms and the uptake of Pb, Zn, and Cd by the enhanced tobacco. The compost and vermicompost treatments significantly reduced heavy metals concentration in leaves and increased uptake of K, Ca and Mg. The 30% compost and 30% vermicompost treatments led to the maximal reduction of heavy metals in enhanced tobacco BAC F3. The addition of compost and vermicompost further reduces the ability to digest the heavy metals in the leaves, and phytoremediation potential of enhanced tobacco BAC F3. Acknowledgment: The financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund Project DFNI Н04/9 is greatly appreciated.
Heavy Metal Reduction in Plant Using Soil Amendment
This study investigated the influence of limestone and sepiolite on heavy metals accumulation in the soil and soybean. The soil was synthesized to contaminate with zinc 150 mg/kg, copper 100 mg/kg, and cadmium 1 mg/kg. The contaminated soil was mixed with limestone and sepiolite at the ratio of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 2:1. The amount of soil modifier added to soil was 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8%. The metals determination was performed on soil both before and after soybean planting and in the root, shoot, and seed of soybean after harvesting. The study was also on metal translocate from root to seed and on bioaccumulation factor. Using of limestone and sepiolite resulted in a reduction of metals accumulated in soybean. For soil containing a high concentration of copper, cadmium, and zinc, a mixture of limestone and sepiolite (1:1) was recommended to mix with soil with the amount of 0.2%. Zinc could translocate from root to seed more than copper, and cadmium. From studying the movement of metals from soil to accumulate in soybean, the result was that soybean could absorb the highest amount of cadmium, followed by zinc, and copper, respectively.
Determination of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni and Zn) in 6 Important Commercial Fish Species in North of Hormoz Strait
The concentrations of 10 heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn) were measured in muscle, gill and liver of 6 species from Hormoz Strait in north coast of Persian Gulf in 12 months (April 2009 – March 2010). All samples were analyzed three times for Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and for Hg by LECO AMA254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer. Results of this study showed that iron had the highest concentration (total mean concentration) in all species, followed by Zn, Cu, Ni, Al, Pb, Mn, Cd, Hg and lowest concentration in three tissues was As. In addition, the accumulation of metals was species-dependent, and was higher in Scomberomorous commerson and Scomberomorous guttatus (p< 0.05) and the lowest concentration was record in Pampus argenteus (p< 0.05).
Enrichment and Flux of Heavy Metals along the Coastal Sediments of Pakistan
Heavy metal contamination in the marine environment is a global issue, and in past decades, this problem has intensified due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization, especially in developing countries. Marine sediments act as a preliminary indicator of heavy metal contamination in the coastal and estuarine environment, which has adverse effects on biota as well as in the marine system. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contamination status, enrichment, and flux of heavy metals in two monitoring years from coastal sediments of Pakistan. A total of 74 sediment samples were collected from seven coastal areas of Pakistan in two monitoring years, 2001-03 (MY-I) and 2011-13 (MY-II). The geochemical properties (grain size analysis, organic contents and eight heavy metals, i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd) of all sediment samples were analyzed. A significant increase in Fe, Ni and Cr concentrations detected between the years, whereas no significant differences were exhibited in Cu, Zn, Co, Pb and Cd concentrations. The extremely high enrichment (>50) of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were scrutinized in both monitoring years. The annual deposition flux of heavy metals ranged from 0.63 to 66.44 and 0.78 to 68.27 tons per year in MY-I and MY-II, respectively, with the lowest flux evaluated for Cd and highest for Zn in both monitoring years. A significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in the burial flux of Cr and Ni during the last decade in coastal sediments. The use of geo-indicators is helpful to assess the contamination analysis for management and conservation of the marine environment.
The Effect of Bacteria on Mercury's Biological Removal
Heavy metals such as Mercury are toxic elements that enter the environment through different ways and endanger the environment, plants, animals, and humans’ health. Microbial activities reduce the amount of heavy metals. Therefore, an effective mechanism to eliminate heavy metals in the nature and factory slops, is using bacteria living in polluted areas. Karun River in Khuzestan Province in Iran has been always polluted by heavy metals as it is located among different industries in the region. This study was performed based on the data from sampling water and sediments of four stations across the river during the four seasons of a year. The isolation of resistant bacteria was performed through enrichment and direct cultivation in a solid medium containing mercury. Various bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp., Serratia Marcescens, and E.coli were identified as mercury-resistant bacteria. The power of these bacteria to remove mercury varied from 28% to 86%, with strongest power belonging to Pseudomonas sp. isolated in spring making a good candidate to be used for mercury biological removal from factory slops.
Balance Transfer of Heavy Metals in Marine Environments Subject to Natural and Anthropogenic Inputs: A Case Study on the Mejerda River Delta
Sedimentation rates and total fluxes of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cu) was measured in three different depths (10m, 20m and 40m) during March and August 2012, offshore of the Mejerda River outlet (Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia). The sedimentation rates are estimated from the fluxes of the suspended particulate matter at 7.32, 5.45 and 4.39 mm y⁻¹ respectively at 10m, 20m and 40m depth. Heavy metals sequestration in sediments was determined by chemical speciation and the total metal contents in each core collected from 10, 20 and 40m depth. Heavy metals intake to the sediment was measured also from the suspended particulate matter, while the fluxes from the sediment to the water column was determined using the benthic chambers technique and from the diffusive fluxes in the pore water. Results shown that iron is the only metal for which the balance transfer between intake/uptake (45 to 117 / 1.8 to 5.8 g m² y⁻¹) and sequestration (277 to 378 g m² y⁻¹) was negative, at the opposite of the Lead which intake fluxes (360 to 480 mg m² y⁻¹) are more than sequestration fluxes (50 to 92 mg m² y⁻¹). The balance transfer is neutral for Mn, Zn, and Cu. These clearly indicate that the contributions of Mejerda have consistently varied over time, probably due to the migration of the River mouth and to the changes in the mining activity in the Mejerda catchment and the recent human activities which affect the delta area.
Potential of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals
A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of safflower plant for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in safflower (roots, stems, leaves and seeds), safflower oil and meal were determined. A correlation was found between the quantity of the mobile forms and the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the safflower seeds. Safflower is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils, and which can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of cadmium and the accumulators of lead and zinc, and can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of seeds to oil and using the obtained oil for nutritional purposes will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation. The possibility of further industrial processing will make safflower economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.
Separation of Chlorinated Plastics and Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Hazardous Automotive Shredder Residue
In the present study, feasibility of the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment was evaluated to facilitate the separation from automotive shredder residue (ASR), by the froth flotation. The combination of 60 sec microwave treatment with PAC, a sharp and significant decrease about 16.5° contact angle of PVC was observed in ASR plastic compared with other plastics. The microwave treatment with the addition of PAC resulted in a synergetic effect for the froth flotation, which may be a result of the 90% selective separation of PVC from ASR plastics, with 82% purity. While, simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR soil/residues. The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. Microwave treatment can be a simple and effective method for PVC separation from ASR plastics.
Investigation on the Changes in the Chemical Composition and Ecological State of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals
Heavy metals contamination of soils is a big problem mainly as a result of industrial production. From this point of view, this is of interests the processes for decontamination of soils for crop of production with low content of heavy metals and suitable for consumption from the animals and the peoples. In the current article, there are presented data for established changes in chemical composition and ecological state on soils contaminated from non-ferrous metallurgy manufacturing, for seven years time period. There was done investigation on alteration of pH, conductivity and contain of the next elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn and Al. Also, there was done visual observations under the processes of recovery of root-inhabitable soil layer and reforestation. Obtained data show friendly changes for the investigated indicators pH and conductivity and decreasing of content of some form analyzed elements. Visual observations show augmentation of plant cover areas and change in species structure with increase of number of shrubby and wood specimens.
Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metal Concentration in Water and Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab) in a Crude Oil Exposed Community (Bodo Creek), Rivers State, Nigeria
The exploration and production of fossil fuel particularly crude oil has led to some serious environmental damage in some oil producing communities like the Bodo Community who rely heavily on their aquatic environment for food and water. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the level of some heavy metals in water and Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab) in the month of August, September and October from Bodo creek, Rivers State, Nigeria. The physico-chemical parameters of the water were also analyzed in-situ. The levels of heavy metals, Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) were analyzed in water and in Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab), using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after acid digestion. For the concentration of heavy metals in water, Pb ranged from 0.103 - 0.791 mg/l, Zn 0.0025 - 0.342 mg/l, Cr < 0.001 - 0.304 mg/l, Cd 0.011 - 0.116 mg/l and Cu < 0.001 - 0.079 mg/l. For the concentration of heavy metals in Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab), the level of Pb ranged from 0.359 - 0.849 mg/l, Zn 0.134 - 0.342 mg/l, Cd 0.053 - 0.103 mg/l, Cr < 0.001 - < 0.001 mg/l, Cu < 0.001 - 0.131 mg/l. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr for all water and crab samples collected from the various stations were higher than permissible level suggesting serious anthropogenic influence. Thus, precaution needs to be taken to prevent further contamination and adequate purification measures need to be put in place. Therefore, there should be periodic environmental pollution monitoring, for assessment and awareness especially with regards heavy metal.
An Analysis of Heavy Metal Pollution by Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) in Different Cities of Pakistan
The levels of metal pollution (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) were investigated in the leaves of Dalbergia sisso in urban areas of the Sahiwal and Faisalabad City. For this purpose, three habitats were selected for sampling (roads, residential areas and parks). High concentration of metal was found in roadside samples as compared to residential areas and parks. In Sahiwal city the mean concentration of Copper (7.68µgg-¹) Zinc (43.55µgg-¹) and lead (4.79µgg-¹) were detected. Similarly, concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in leaves of Faisalabad city ranged from 14.4-11.3µgg-¹, 49.7-49.5µgg-¹,138.7-47.1µgg-¹. Highest concentration of heavy metals was detected in Faisalabad as compared to Sahiwal city and level of heavy metals was below the threshold limits, therefore, the concentration of heavy metals was not high in Dalbergia sissoo.
Biodiesel Production and Heavy Metal Removal by Aspergillus fumigatus sp.
Some of filamentous fungi can be used for biodiesel production as they are able to accumulate high amounts of intracellular lipids when grown at stress conditions. Aspergillus fumigatus sp. was isolated from Nile delta soil in Egypt. The fungus was primarily screened for its capacity to accumulate lipids using Nile red staining assay. The fungus could accumulate more than 20% of its biomass as lipids when grown at optimized minimal medium. After lipid extraction, we could use fungal cell debris to remove some heavy metals from contaminated waste water. The fungal cell debris could remove Cd, Cr, and Zn with absorption efficiency of 73%, 83.43%, and 69.39% respectively. In conclusion, the Aspergillus fumigatus isolate may be considered as a promising biodiesel producer, and its biomass waste can be further used for bioremediation of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals.
Vertical Distribution of Heavy Metals and Enrichment in Core Marine Sediments of East Malaysia by INAA and ICP-MS
Fifty-five core marine sediments from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea of coastal East Malaysia was analyzed for heavy metals using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy. The enrichment factor of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn varied from 0.42 to 4.26, 0.50 to 2.34, 0.31 to 0.82, 0.20 to 0.61, 0.91 to 1.92, 0.23 to 1.52, and 0.90 to 1.28 respectively, with the modified degree of contamination values below 0.6. Comparative data show that coastal East Malaysia is of low levels of contamination.
Examining the Role of Tree Species in Absorption of Heavy Metals; Case Study: Abidar Forest Park
Industrial and traffic activities cause large amounts of heavy metals enter into the atmosphere and the use of plant species can be effective in assessing and reducing air pollution by metals. This study aimed to investigate the adsorption level of heavy metals in leaves of Fraxinus rotundifolia, Robinia, Platanus orientalis, Platycladus orientalis and Pinus eldarica trees in Abidar forest park. For this purpose, samples leaves of the trees were prepared from the contaminated and control areas in each region in 3 stations with 3 replicates in mid-August and finally 90 samples were sent to the laboratory. Then, the concentrations of heavy metals were measured by graphite furnace. To do this, factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with two factors of location on two levels (contaminated area and control area) and the factor of species on five levels (Fraxinus rotundifolia, Robinia, Platanus orientalis, Platycladus orientalis and Pinus eldarica) with three replications was used. The analysis of collected data was performed by SPSS software and Duncan's multiple range test was used to compare the means. The results showed that the accumulation of all metals in the leaves of most species in the infected area with a significant difference at 95% level was higher than the control area. In the contaminated area, with a significant difference at 5% level, the highest accumulations of metals were observed as the following: lead, cadmium, zinc and manganese in Platanus orientalis, nickel in Fraxinus rotundifolia and copper in Platycladus orientalis.
Quantitative Determination of Heavy Metals in Some Commonly Consumed Herbal Medicines in Kano State, Nigeria
Evaluation of heavy metals in twelve commonly consumed herbal medicines/preparations in Kano State, Nigeria, was carried out. The samples comprised of five unregistered powdered medicines, namely, Zuwo, (ZW); Rai Dorai, (RD); Miyar Tsanya, (MTS); Bagaruwar Makka, (BM); and Madobiya, (M); five unregistered liquid herbal medicinal concussions for pile (MB), yellow fever (MS), typhoid (MT), stomach pain (MC), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); and two registered herbal medicines; Alif Powder (AP) and Champion Leaf (CL). The heavy metals evaluation was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and the result revealed the concentrations (ppm) ranges of the heavy metals as follows: Cadmium (0.0045 – 0.1601), Chromium (0.0418 – 0.2092), Cobalt (0.0038 – 0.0760), Copper (0.0547 – 0.2465), Iron (0.1197 – 0.3592), Manganese (0.0123 – 1.4462), Nickel (0.0073 – 0.0960), Lead (0.185 – 0.0927) and Zinc (0.0244 – 0.2444). Comparing the results obtained in this work with the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and permissible limits of other countries, the concentrations of heavy metals in the herbal medicine/preparations are within the allowed permissible limits range in herbal medicines and their use could be safe.
Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil from Flood Affected Area
In mid-December 2014, the biggest flood event occurred in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially at Dabong area, Kelantan. As a consequent of flood disaster, the heavy metals concentration in soil may changes and become harmful to the environment due to the pollution that deposited in soil. This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal concentration from flood affected area. Sample have been collected and analysed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), and Arsenic (As) were chosen for the heavy metals concentration. The result indicated that the heavy metal concentration did not exceed the limit. In-situ parameters also were carried out, were the results showed the range of soil pH (6.5-6.8), temperature (25°C – 26.5°C), and moisture content (1-2), respectively. The results from this study can be used as a base data to improve the soil quality and for consideration of future land use activities.
Detection of Selected Heavy Metals in Raw Milk: Lahore, Pakistan
Milk plays a significant role in the dietary requirements of human beings as it is a single source that provides various essential nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentration in the raw milk marketed in Data Gunj Baksh Town of Lahore. A total of 180 samples of raw milk were collected in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season from five colonies of Data Gunj Baksh Town, Lahore. The milk samples were subjected to heavy metal analysis (Cr, Cu) by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results indicated high levels of Cr and Cu in post-monsoon seasons. Heavy metals were detected in milk in all samples under study and exceeded the standards given by FAO.
Concentrations and History of Heavy Metals in Sediment Cores: Geochemistry and Geochronology Using 210Pb
This paper aims at assessing the concentrations of heavy metals and the isotopic composition of lead 210Pb in different fractions of sediment produced in the watershed that makes up the M&atilde;e d&#39;&aacute;gua dam and thus characterizing the distribution of metals along the sedimentary column and inferencing in the urbanization of the same process. Sample collection was carried out in June 2014; eight sediment cores were sampled in the lake of the dam. For extraction of the sediments core, a core sampler "Piston Core" was used. The trace metal concentrations were determined by conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The samples were subjected to radiochemical analysis of 210Po. 210Pb activity was obtained by measuring 210Po activity. The chronology was calculated using the constant rate of supply (CRS). 210Pb is used to estimate the sedimentation rate.
Investigations of Metals and Metal-Antibrowning Agent Effects on Polyphenol Oxidase Activity from Red Poppy Leaf
Heavy metals are one of the major groups of contaminants in the environment and many of them are toxic even at very low concentration in plants and animals. However, some metals play important roles in the biological function of many enzymes in living organisms. Metals such as zinc, iron, and cooper are important for survival and activity of enzymes in plants, however heavy metals can inhibit enzyme which is responsible for defense system of plants. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a copper-containing metalloenzyme which is responsible for enzymatic browning reaction of plants. Enzymatic browning is a major problem for the handling of vegetables and fruits in food industry. It can be increased and effected with many different futures such as metals in the nature and ground. In the present work, PPO was isolated and characterized from green leaves of red poppy plant (Papaver rhoeas). Then, the effect of some known antibrowning agents which can form complexes with metals and metals were investigated on the red poppy PPO activity. The results showed that glutathione was the most potent inhibitory effect on PPO activity. Cu(II) and Fe(II) metals increased the enzyme activities however, Sn(II) had the maximum inhibitory effect and Zn(II) and Pb(II) had no significant effect on the enzyme activity. In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals, the effects of metal-antibrowning agent complexes on the PPO activity were determined. EDTA and metal complexes had no significant effect on the enzyme. L-ascorbic acid and metal complexes decreased but L-ascorbic acid-Cu(II)-complex had no effect. Glutathione–metal complexes had the best inhibitory effect on Red poppy leaf PPO activity.
Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediments of North East Coast of Tamilnadu by EDXRF Technique
The coastal areas of Tamilnadu are assuming greater importance owing to increasing human population, urbanization and accelerated industrial activities. sIn the present study, sediment samples are collected along the east coast of Tamilnadu for assessment of heavy metal pollution. The concentration of 13 selected heavy metals such as Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn determined by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. In order to describe the pollution status, Contamination factor and pollution load index are calculated and reported. This result suggests that sources of metal contamination were mainly attributed to natural inputs from surrounding environments.
Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization
The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.
Potential of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals
A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Field experiments with a randomized, complete block design with five treatments (control, compost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa, and vemicompost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa) were carried out. The accumulation of heavy metals in the sunflower plant and the quality of the sunflower oil (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) were determined. The tested organic amendments significantly influenced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the sunflower plant. The incorporation of 40 t/decare of compost and 20 t/decare of vermicompost to the soil led to an increase in the ability of the sunflower to take up and accumulate Cd, Pb and Zn. Sunflower can be subjected to the accumulators of Pb, Zn and Cd and can be successfully used for phytoremediation of contaminated soils with heavy metals. The 40 t/daa compost treatment led to a decrease in heavy metal content in sunflower oil to below the regulated limits. Oil content and fatty acids composition were affected by compost and vermicompost amendment treatments. Adding compost and vermicompost increased the oil content in the seeds. Adding organic amendments increased the content of stearic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, and reduced the content of palmitic and gadoleic acids in sunflower oil. The possibility of further industrial processing of seeds to oil and use of the obtained oil will make sunflowers economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.
Identification and Characterization of Heavy Metal Resistant Bacteria from the Klip River
Pollution of the Klip River has caused microorganisms inhabiting it to develop protective survival mechanisms. This study isolated and characterized the heavy metal resistant bacteria in the Klip River. Water and sediment samples were collected from six sites along the course of the river. The pH, turbidity, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were measured in-situ. The concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) of the water samples were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochemical and antibiotic profiles of the isolates were assessed using the API 20E® and Kirby Bauer Method. Growth studies were carried out using spectrophotometric methods. The isolates were identified using 16SrDNA sequencing. The uppermost part of the Klip River with the lowest pH had the highest levels of heavy metals. Turbidity, salinity and specific conductivity increased measurably at Site 4 (Henley on Klip Weir). MIC tests showed that 16 isolates exhibited high iron and lead resistance. Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that the isolates exhibited multi-tolerances to drugs such as tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin.
Trace Metals in Natural Bottled Water on Montenegrin Market and Comaparison with Tap Water in Podgorica
Many different chemicals may occur in drinking water and cause significant human health risks after prolonged periods of exposure. In particular concern are contaminants that have cumulative toxic properties, such as heavy metals. This investigation was done to clarify concerns about chemical quality and safety of drinking tap water in Podgorica. For comparison, all available natural bottled water on Montenegrin market were bought. All samples (bottled water and tap water from Podgorica) were analyzed using ICP –OES on contents of Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn,Cr, Fe, As and Mn. All results compared with the maximum concentration levels allowed by international standards and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The results of analysis showed that all trace of heavy metals were very low and in same time below MCL according to WHO and International standard.
Effect of Compost Application on Uptake and Allocation of Heavy Metals and Plant Nutrients and Quality of Oriental Tobacco Krumovgrad 90
A comparative research on the impact of compost on uptake and allocation of nutrients and heavy metals and quality of Oriental tobacco Krumovgrad 90 has been carried out. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the lead zinc smelter near the town of Kardzali, Bulgaria, after closing the lead production. The compost treatments had significant effects on the uptake and allocation of plant nutrients and heavy metals. The incorporation of compost leads to decrease in the amount of heavy metals present in the tobacco leaves, with Cd, Pb and Zn having values of 36%, 12% and 6%, respectively. Application of the compost leads to increased content of potassium, calcium and magnesium in the leaves of tobacco, and therefore, may favorably affect the burning properties of tobacco. The incorporation of compost in the soil has a negative impact on the quality and typicality of the oriental tobacco variety of Krumovgrad 90. The incorporation of compost leads to an increase in the size of the tobacco plant leaves, the leaves become darker in colour, less fleshy and undergo a change in form, becoming (much) broader in the second, third and fourth stalk position. This is accompanied by a decrease in the quality of the tobacco. The incorporation of compost also results in an increase in the mineral substances (pure ash), total nicotine and nitrogen, and a reduction in the amount of reducing sugars, which causes the quality of the tobacco leaves to deteriorate (particularly in the third and fourth harvests).
Removal Efficiency of Some Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution on Magnetic Nanoparticles
In this study, super paramagnetic iron-oxide nano- materials (SPMIN) were investigated for removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solution. The magnetic nanoparticles of 12 nm were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Batch experiments carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of metal ions, the dosage of SPMIN, desorption,pH value of solutions. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH dependent, which made the nanoparticles selectively adsorb these three metals from wastewater. Maximum sorption for all the studies cations obtained at the first half hour and reached equilibrium at one hour. The adsorption data of heavy metals studied were well fitted with the Langmuir isotherm and the equilibrium data show the percent removal of Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ were 96.5%, 80% and 75%, respectively. Desorption studies in acidic medium indicate that Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ were removed by 89%, 2% and 18% from the first cycle. Regeneration studies indicated that SPMIN nanoparticles undergoing successive adsorption–desorption processes for Zn2+ ions retained original metal removal capacity. The results revealed that the most prominent advantage of the prepared SPMIN adsorbent consisted in their separation convenience compared to the other adsorbents and SPMIN has high efficiency for removal the investigated metals from aqueous solution.
Air Pollution from Volatile Metals and Acid Gases
Environmental pollution is at the heart of the debate today, the pollutants released into the atmosphere must be measured and reduced to the norms of international releases. The industries pollution is caused by emissions of SO₂, CO and heavy metals in volatile form that must be quantified and monitored. This study presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis However, the collection of volatile heavy metals were performed by active sampling using an isokinetic. SO₂ gas for the maximum is reached for a value of 343 mg / m³, the SO₂ concentration far exceeds the standard releases SO₂ followed by incineration industries in Algeria. the concentration of Cr exceeds 8 times the standard, the Pb concentration in the excess of 6 times, the concentration of Fe has reached very high values exceeding the standard 30 times, the Zn concentration in the excess of 5 times, and the Ni the excess of 4 times and finally that of Cu is almost double of the standard.
Geostatistical Analysis of Contamination of Soils in an Urban Area in Ghana
Urbanization remains one of the unique predominant factors which is linked to the destruction of urban environment and its associated cases of soil contamination by heavy metals through the natural and anthropogenic activities. These activities are important sources of toxic heavy metals such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Often, these heavy metals lead to increased levels in some areas due to the impact of atmospheric deposition caused by their proximity to industrial plants or the indiscriminately burning of substances. Information gathered on potentially hazardous levels of these heavy metals in soils leads to establish serious health and urban agriculture implications. However, characterization of spatial variations of soil contamination by heavy metals in Ghana is limited. Kumasi is a Metropolitan city in Ghana, West Africa and is challenged with the recent spate of deteriorating soil quality due to rapid economic development and other human activities such as "Galamsey", illegal mining operations within the metropolis. The paper seeks to use both univariate and multivariate geostatistical techniques to assess the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils and the potential risk associated with ingestion of sources of soil contamination in the Metropolis. Geostatistical tools have the ability to detect changes in correlation structure and how a good knowledge of the study area can help to explain the different scales of variation detected. To achieve this task, point referenced data on heavy metals measured from topsoil samples in a previous study, were collected at various locations. Linear models of regionalisation and coregionalisation were fitted to all experimental semivariograms to describe the spatial dependence between the topsoil heavy metals at different spatial scales, which led to ordinary kriging and cokriging at unsampled locations and production of risk maps of soil contamination by these heavy metals. Results obtained from both the univariate and multivariate semivariogram models showed strong spatial dependence with range of autocorrelations ranging from 100 to 300 meters. The risk maps produced show strong spatial heterogeneity for almost all the soil heavy metals with extremely risk of contamination found close to areas with commercial and industrial activities. Hence, ongoing pollution interventions should be geared towards these highly risk areas for efficient management of soil contamination to avert further pollution in the metropolis.
The Determination of Co, Cd and Pb in Seafoods of Thewet Market, Bangkok to Develop Quality of Life of Consumer
The amount of heavy metals in our environment has been of great concern because of their toxicity when their concentration is more than the permissible level. These metals enter the environment by different ways such as industrial activities, soil pollution. We have used flame atomic absorption spectrometry technique for determination of the concentration of Co, Cd and Pb in different tissues of five samples of seafoods (mackerel, squid, mussels, scallops and shrimp). The concentrations of Co, Cd and Pb in all examined seafoods were less than the reported literature values (WHO). The results mentioned that the seafoods obtained from Thewet Market were safety to consumption and make the quality of life of people in the community look better.
Removal of Heavy Metals from Municipal Wastewater Using Constructed Rhizofiltration System
Wastewater discharged from municipal treatment plants contain an amalgamation of trace metals. The presence of metal pollutants in wastewater poses a huge challenge to the choice and applications of the preferred treatment method. Conventional treatment methods are inefficient in the removal of trace metals due to their design approach. This study evaluated the treatment performance of a constructed rhizofiltration system in the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater. The study was conducted at an eThekwni municipal wastewater treatment plant in Kingsburgh - Durban in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The construction details of the pilot-scale rhizofiltration unit included three different layers of substrate consisting of medium stones, coarse gravel and fine sand. The system had one section planted with Phragmites australis L. and Kyllinga nemoralis L. while the other section was unplanted and acted as the control. Influent, effluent and sediment from the system were sampled and assessed for the presence of and removal of selected trace heavy metals using standard methods. Efficiency of metals removal was established by gauging the transfer of metals into leaves, roots and stem of the plants by calculations based on standard statistical packages. The Langmuir model was used to assess the heavy metal adsorption mechanisms of the plants. Heavy metals were accumulated in the entire rhizofiltration system at varying percentages of 96.69% on planted and 48.98% on control side for cadmium. Chromium was 81% and 24%, Copper was 23.4% and 1.1%, Nickel was 72% and 46.5, Lead was 63% and 31%, while Zinc was 76% and 84% on the on the water and sediment of the planted and control sides of the rhizofilter respectively. The decrease in metal adsorption efficiencies on the planted side followed the pattern of Cd>Cr>Zn>Ni>Pb>Cu and Ni>Cd>Pb>Cr>Cu>Zn on the control side. Confirmatory analysis using Electron Scanning Microscopy revealed that higher amounts of metals was deposited in the root system with values ranging from 0.015mg/kg (Cr), 0.250 (Cu), 0.030 (Pb) for P. australis, and 0.055mg/kg (Cr), 0.470mg/kg (Cu) and 0.210mg/kg,(Pb) for K. nemoralis respectively. The system was found to be efficient in removing and reducing metals from wastewater and further research is necessary to establish the immediate mechanisms that the plants display in order to achieve these reductions.
Determination of Cr Content in Canned Fish Marketed in Iran
The presence of heavy metals in the environment could constitute a hazard to food security and public health. These can be accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish. Samples of four popular brands of canned fish in the Iranian market (yellowfin tuna, common Kilka, Kawakawa, and longtail tuna) were analyzed for level of Cr after wet digestion with acids using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations for Cr in the different brands were: 2.57, 3.24, 3.16, and 1.65 μg/g for brands A, B, C, and D respectively. Significant differences were observed in the Cr levels between all of the different brands of canned fish evaluated in this study. The Cr concentrations for the varieties of canned fishes were generally within the FAO/WHO, U.S. FDA, and U.S. EPA recommended limits for fish.
Histopathological Changes in Liver and Muscle of Tilapia Fish from QIRE Exposed to Concentrations of Heavy Metals
Toxicity of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and iron (Fe) to Tilapia guinensis was carried out for 4 days with a view to determining their effects on the liver and muscle tissues. Tilapia guinensis samples of about 10 - 14cm length and 0.2 – 0.4kg weight each were obtained from University of Calabar fish ponds and acclimated for three (3) days before the experimental set up. Survivors after the 96-hr LC50 test period were selected from test solutions of the heavy metals for the histopathological studies. Histological preparations of liver and muscle tissues were randomly examined for histopathological lesions. Results of the histological examinations showed gross abnormalities in the liver tissues due to pathological and degenerative changes compared to liver and muscle tissues from control samples (tilapia fishes from aquaria without heavy metals). Extensive hepatocyte necrosis with chronic inflammatory changes was observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Cu solution. Similar but less damaging effects were observed in the liver of fishes exposed to Pb and Fe. The extent of lesion observed was therefore heavy metal-related. However, no pathologic changes occurred in the muscle tissues.
Chronic Renal Failure Associated with Heavy Metal Contamination of Drinking Water in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn Co and Cr. is mainly via intake of drinking water being the most important source in most populations. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. A strong relationship between contaminated drinking water with heavy metals from some of the stations of water shopping in Hail, KSA and chronic diseases such as renal failure, liver cirrhosis, and chronic anemia has been identified in this study. These diseases are apparently related to contaminant drinking water with heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn Co and Cr. Renal failure is related to contaminate drinking water with lead and cadmium, liver cirrhosis to copper and molybdenum, and chronic anemia to copper and cadmium. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via drinking water being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. During the last century lead, cadmium, zinc, iron and arsenic is mainly via intake of drinking water being the most important source in most populations. Long-term exposure to lead, cadmium, zinc, iron and arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to primarily in the form of kidney damage. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to toxic materials in the groundwater and thereby led to the contamination of drinking water in these areas.
Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals
Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.
Heavy Metals in the Water of Lakes in the 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park of Biosphere Reserve
Bory Tucholskie (Tucholskie Forest) is one of the largest pine forest complexes in Poland. It occupies approx. 3,000 square kilometers of Sandr in the Brda and Wda basin and the Tuchola Plain and the Charzykowskie Plain. Since 2010 it has transformed into The Bory Tucholskie Biosphere Reserve, according to the UNESCO decision. The area of the Bory Tucholskie National Park (BTNP), the park area, has been designated in 1996. There is little data on the presence of heavy metals in the Park's lakes. Concentration of heavy metals in the water of 19 lakes in the BTNP was examined. The lakes were divided into two groups: subglacial channel lakes of Struga Siedmiu Jezior (the Seven Lakes Stream) and other lakes. Heavy metals (transition metals) belong to d-block of elements. The part of these metals plays an important role in the function of living organisms as metalloproteins (enzymes, hemoproteins, vitamins, etc.). However, heavy metals are also typical; heavy metals are typical anthropogenic pollutants. Water samples were collected at the deepest points of lakes during spring and during summer stagnation. The analysis of metals was performed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer Varian Spectra A300/400 in electric atomizer (GTA 96) in graphite cuvette. In the waters of the Seven Lakes Stream (Ostrowite, Zielone, Jelen, Belczak, Glowka, Plesno, Skrzynka, Mielnica) the increase in the concentration of the manganese and iron from outflow to inflow of Charzykowskie lake was found, while the concentration of copper (approx. 4 μg dm⁻³) and cadmium ( < 0.5 μg dm⁻³) was similar in all lakes. The concentration of the lead also varied within 2.1-3.6 μg dm⁻³. The concentration of nickel was approx. 3-fold higher in Ostrowite lake than other lakes of Struga. In turn the waters of the lakes Ostrowite, Jelen and Belczak were rich in zinc. The lowest level of heavy metals was observed in Zielone lake. In the second group of lakes, i.e., Krzywce Wielkie and Krzywce Male the heavy metal concentrations were lower than in the waters of Struga but higher than in oligotrophic lakes, i.e., Nierybno, Gluche, Kociol, Gacno Wielkie, Gacno Mae, Dlugie, Zabionek, and Sosnowek. The concentration of cadmium was below 0.5 μg dm⁻³ in all the studied lakes from this group. In the group of oligotrophic lakes the highest concentrations of metals such as manganese, iron, zinc and nickel in Gacno Male and Gacno Wielkie were observed. The high level of manganese in Sosnowek and Gacno Wielkie lakes was found. The lead level was also high in Nierybno lake and nickel in Gacno Wielkie lake. The lower level of heavy metals was in oligotrophic lakes such as Kociol, Dlugie, Zabionek and α-mesotrophic lake, Krzywce Wielkie. Generally, the level of heavy metals in studied lakes situated in Bory Tucholskie National Park was lower than in other lakes of Bory Tucholskie Biosphere Reserve.
Human Health Risk Assessment from Metals Present in a Soil Contaminated by Crude Oil
The main sources of soil pollution due to petroleum contaminants are industrial processes involve crude oil. Soil polluted with crude oil is toxic for plants, animals, and humans. Human exposure to the contaminated soil occurs through different exposure pathways: Soil ingestion, diet, inhalation, and dermal contact. The present study research is focused on soil contamination with heavy metals as a consequence of soil pollution with petroleum products. Human exposure pathways considered are: Accidentally ingestion of contaminated soil and dermal contact. The purpose of the paper is to identify the human health risk (carcinogenic risk) from soil contaminated with heavy metals. The human exposure and risk were evaluated for five contaminants of concern of the eleven which were identified in soil. Two soil samples were collected from a bioremediation platform from Muntenia Region of Romania. The soil deposited on the bioremediation platform was contaminated through extraction and oil processing. For the research work, two average soil samples from two different plots were analyzed: The first one was slightly contaminated with petroleum products (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil was 1420 mg/kgd.w.), while the second one was highly contaminated (TPH in soil was 24306 mg/kgd.w.). In order to evaluate risks posed by heavy metals due soil pollution with petroleum products, five metals known as carcinogenic were investigated: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), ChromiumVI (CrVI), Nickel (Ni), and Lead (Pb). Results of the chemical analysis performed on samples collected from the contaminated soil evidence soil contamination with heavy metals as following: As in Site 1 = 6.96 mg/kgd.w; As in Site 2 = 11.62 mg/kgd.w, Cd in Site 1 = 0.9 mg/kgd.w; Cd in Site 2 = 1 mg/kgd.w; CrVI was 0.1 mg/kgd.w for both sites; Ni in Site 1 = 37.00 mg/kgd.w; Ni in Site 2 = 42.46 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 1 = 34.67 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 2 = 120.44 mg/kgd.w. The concentrations for these metals exceed the normal values established in the Romanian regulation, but are smaller than the alert level for a less sensitive use of soil (industrial). Although, the concentrations do not exceed the thresholds, the next step was to assess the human health risk posed by soil contamination with these heavy metals. Results for risk were compared with the acceptable one (10-6, according to World Human Organization). As, expected, the highest risk was identified for the soil with a higher degree of contamination: Individual Risk (IR) was 1.11&times;10-5 compared with 8.61&times;10-6.&nbsp;
Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Hospital Wastewater in Enugu Urban, Nigeria
An important hydrogeologic problem in areas of high faults formations is high environmental health hazard occasioned by microbial and heavy metals contamination of ground waters. Consequently, we examined the microbial load and heavy metals concentration of hospital wastewater discharged into the environment at Park Lane General Hospital Enugu Urban, Nigeria. The microbial counts, characteristics and frequency of occurrences of the isolated microorganisms were determined by cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics using established procedure while the varying concentrations of the identified heavy metals were determined using the spectrophotometric method. The microbiological analyses showed a mean total aerobic bacteria counts from 13.7 ± 0.65 × 107 to 22.8 ± 1.14 ×1010 CFU/ml, mean total anaerobic bacteria counts from 6.0 ± 1.6 × 103 to 1.7 ± 0.41 ×104 CFU/ml and mean total fungal counts from 0 ± 0 to 2.3 ± 0.16 × 105 CFU/ml. The isolated micro-organisms which included both pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Klesbsiella pneumonia and bacteriodes sp. The only fungal isolate was Candida albican. The heavy metals identified in the leachate were Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury and Chromium and their concentrations ranged from 0.003 ± 0.00082 to 0.14 ± 0.0082 mg/l. These values were above WHO permissible limits while others fall within the limits. Therefore, hospital waste water can pose the environmental health risk when not properly treated before discharge, especially in geologic formations with high fault formations.
Investigations of Heavy Metals Pollution in Sediments of Small Urban Lakes in Karelia Republic
Waterbodies, which are located either within urban areas or nearby towns, permanently undergo anthropogenic load. The extent of the load can be determined via investigations of chemical composition of both water and sediments. Lakes, as a rule, are considered as a landscape depressions, hence they are capable of natural material accumulating, which has been delivered from the catchment area through rivers as well as temporary flows. As a result, lacustrine sediments (especially closed-basin lakes sediments) are considered as perfect archives, which are served for reconstructing past sedimentation process, assessment of the modern contamination level, and prognostication of possible ways of changing in the future. The purposes of the survey are to define a heavy metals content in lake sediments cores, which were retrieved from four urban lakes located in the southern part of Karelia Republic, and to ascertain the main sources of heavy metals input to these waterbodies. It is really crucial to be aware of heavy metals content in environment, because chemical composition of a landscape may have a significant effect on living organisms and people’s health. Sediment columns were sampled in a field with 2-cm intervals by a gravitational corer called «Limnos». The sediment samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP MS) for 8 chemical elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, V). The highest concentrations of trace elements were established in the upper and middle layers of the cores. It has also been ascertained that the extent of contamination mostly depends on a remoteness of a lake from various pollution sources and features of the sources.
Study on Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Sweet Potato, Grown in Industrially Polluted Regions
A comparative research had been carried out to allow us to determine the quantities and the centers of accumulation of Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in the vegetative and reproductive organs of the sweet potatoes and to ascertain the possibilities for growing them on soils, polluted with heavy metals. The experiments were performed on agricultural fields contaminated by the (1) Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, (2) Lead and Zinc Complex near Kardjali and (3) a copper smelter near Pirdop, Bulgaria. The soils used in this experiment were characterized by acid, neutral and slightly alkaline reaction, loamy texture and a moderate content of organic matter. The total content of Zn, Pb, and Cd was high and exceeded the limit value in agriculture soils. Sweet potatoes were in a 2-year rotation scheme on three blocks in the experimental field. On reaching commercial ripeness the sweet potatoes were gathered and the contents of heavy metals in their different parts – root, tuber (peel and core), leaves and stems, were determined after microwave mineralization. The quantitative measurements were carried out with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The contamination of the sweet potatoes was due mainly to the presence of heavy metals in the soil, which entered the plants through their root system, as well as by diffusion through the peel. Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd were selectively accumulated in the underground parts of the sweet potatoes, and most of all in the root system and the peel. Heavy metals have an impact on the development and productivity of the sweet potatoes. The high anthropogenic contamination leads to an increased assimilation of heavy metals which reduces the yield and the quality of the production of sweet potatoes, as well as leads to decrease of the absolute dry substance and the quantity of sugars in sweet potatoes. Sweet potatoes could be grown on soils, which are light to medium polluted with lead, zinc, and cadmium, as they do not accumulate these elements. On heavily polluted soils, however, (Pb – 1504 mg/kg, Zn – 3322 mg/kg, Cd – 47 mg/kg) the growing of sweet potatoes is not allowed, as the accumulation of Pb and Cd in the core of the potatoes exceeds the Maximum Acceptable Concentration. Acknowledgment: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund (Project DFNI DH04/9).
Scope of Heavy Oil as a Fuel of the Future
Increasing imbalance between energy supply and demand has made nations and companies involved in the energy sector to boost up their research and find suitable solutions. With the high rates at which conventional oil and gas resources are depleting, efficient exploration and exploitation of heavy oil could just be the answer. Heavy oil may be defined as crude oil having API gravity value of less than 20⁰. They are highly viscous, have low hydrogen to carbon ratios and are known to produce high carbon residues. They have high contents of asphaltenes, heavy metals, sulphur and nitrogen in them. Due to these properties extraction, transportation and refining of crude oil have its share of challenges. Lack of suitable technology has hindered its production in the past, but now things are going in a more positive direction. The aim of this paper is to study the various advantages of heavy oil, associated limitations and its feasibility as a fuel of the future.
Heavy Metal Pollution of the Soils around the Mining Area near Shamlugh Town (Armenia) and Related Risks to the Environment
The heavy metal pollution of the soils around the mining area near Shamlugh town and related risks to human health were assessed. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals that can be ranked by anthropogenic pollution degree as follows: Cu>Pb>As>Co>Ni>Zn. The main sources of the anthropogenic metal pollution of the soils were the copper mining area near Shamlugh town, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the trucks transferring are from the mining area. Copper pollution degree in some observation sites was unallowable for agricultural production. The total non-carcinogenic chronic hazard index (THI) values in some places, including observation sites in Shamlugh town, were above the safe level (THI
[Keynote Talk]: Heavy Metals in Marine Sediments of Gulf of Izmir
In this study, sediment samples were collected from four sampling sites located on the shores of the Gulf of İzmir. In the samples, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined using inductively coupled, plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average heavy metal concentrations were: Cd
Chronic Exposure of Mercury on Amino Acid Level in Freshwater Fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.)
Virtually all metals are toxic to aquatic organisms because of the devastating effect of these metals on humans; heavy metals are one of the most toxic forms of aquatic pollution. Metal concentrations in aquatic organisms appear to be of several magnitudes higher than concentrations present in the ecosystem. Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the environment. The principal sources of contamination in wastewater are chloralkali plants, battery factories, mercury switches, and medical wastes. Elevated levels of mercury in aquatic organisms specially fish represent both an ecological and human concern. Amino acid levels were estimated in five tissues (gills, liver, kidney, brain and muscle) of Clariasbatrachus after 28 days of chronic exposure to mercury. Free amino acids serve as precursor for energy production under stress and for the synthesis of required proteins to face the metal challenge.
Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Groundwater Due to Leachate Migration from an Open Dumping Site
Indiscriminate disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in open dumping site is a common scenario in developing countries like India which poses a risk to the environment as well as human health. The objective of the present investigation was to find out the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cd) and other physicochemical parameters of leachate and soil collected from an open dumping site of Tezpur town, Assam, India and its associated potential ecological risk. Tezpur is an urban agglomeration coming under the category of Class I UAs/Towns with a population of 105,377 as per data released by Government of India for Census 2011. Impact of the leachate on the groundwater was also addressed in our study. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using ICP-OES. Energy dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDS) microanalysis was also conducted to see the presence of the studied metals in the soil. X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were also used to identify dominant minerals present in the soil samples. The trend of measured heavy metals in the soil samples was found in the following order: Mn > Pb > Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cd. The assessment of heavy metal contamination in the soil was carried out by calculating enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (Cfi), degree of contamination (Cd), pollution load index (PLI) and ecological risk factor (Eri). The study showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Cd were much higher than their respective average shale value and the EF of the soil samples depicted very severe enrichment for Pb, Cu, and Cd; moderate enrichment for Cr and Zn. Calculated Igeo values indicated that the soil is moderate to strongly contaminated with Pb and uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Cd and Cu. The Cfi value for Pb indicates a very strong contamination level of the metal in the soil. The Cfi values for Cu and Cd were 2.37 and 1.65 respectively indicating moderate contamination level. To apportion the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in soil, principal components analysis (PCA) has been adopted. From the leachate, heavy metals are accumulated at the dumping site soil which could easily percolate through the soil and reach the groundwater. The possible relation of groundwater contamination due to leachate percolation was examined by analyzing the heavy metal concentrations in groundwater with respect to distance from the dumping site. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in groundwater (at a distance of 20m from dumping site) exceeded the permissible limit for drinking water as set by WHO. Occurrence of elevated concentration of potentially toxic heavy metals such as Pb and Cd in groundwater and soil are much environmental concern as it is detrimental to human health and ecosystem.
An Assessment of Trace Heavy Metal Contamination of Some Edible Oils Regularly Marketed in Benue and Taraba States of Nigeria
The determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in edible oils (palm oil, ground-nut oil and soybean oil) bought from various markets of Benue and Taraba state were carried out with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. The method 3031 developed acid digestion of oils for metal analysis by atomic absorption or ICP spectrometry was used in the preparation of the edible oil samples for the determination of total metal content in this study. The overall results (µg/g) in palm oil sample ranged from 0.028-0.076, 0.035-0.092, 1.011-1.955, 2.101-4.892, 0.666-0.922, 0.054-0.095, 0.031-0.068 and 1.987-2.971 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively, while in ground-nut oil the overall results ranged from 0.011-0.042, 0.011-0.052, 0.133-0.788, 1.789-2.511, 0.078-0.765, 0.045-0.092, 0.011-0.028 and 1.098-1.997 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. Of the heavy metals considered Cd and Ni showed the highest contamination in the soybean oil sample. The overall results in soybean oil samples ranged from 0.011-0.015, 0.017-0.032, 0.453-0.987, 1.789-2.511, 0.089-0.321, 0.011-0.016, 0.012-0.065 and 1.011-1.997 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The concentration of Pb was the highest. The degree of contamination by each metal was estimated by the transfer factor. The transfer factors obtained for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in edible oils (palm oil, ground-nut oil and soybean oil) were 10.800, 16.500, 16.000, 18.813, 15.115, 14.230, 23.000 and 9.418 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in palm oil, and 7.000, 12.500, 8.880, 11.333, 7.708, 10.833, 15.00 and 6.608 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in ground-nut oil while for soybean oil the transfer factors were 13.000, 11.000, 7.642, 11.578, 4.486, 13.00, 12.333 and 4.412 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The inter-element correlation was found among metals in edible oil samples using Pearson’s correlation co-efficient. There were positive and negative correlations among the metals determined. All Metals determined showed degree of contamination but concentrations lower than the USP specification.
Use of Carica papaya as a Bio-Sorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater
The study was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in waste water using Pawpaw (Carica papaya) wood as a bio-sorbent. The heavy metals considered include; zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, iron, selenium, nickel, and manganese. The physiochemical properties of carica papaya stem were studied. The experimental sample was obtained from a felled trunk of matured pawpaw tree. Waste water for experimental use was prepared by dissolving soil samples collected from a dump site at Owerri, Imo state in water. The concentration of each metal remaining in solution as residual metal after bio-sorption was determined using Atomic absorption Spectrometer. The effects of ph, contact time and initial heavy metal concentration were studied in a batch reactor. The results of Spectrometer test showed that there were different functional groups detected in the carica papaya stem biomass. Optimum bio-sorption occurred at pH 5.9 with 5g/100ml solution of bio-sorbent. The results of the study showed that the treated wastewater is fit for irrigation purpose based on Canada wastewater quality guideline for the protection of Agricultural standard. This approach thus provides a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for treating waste water.
A Review of Recent Studies on Advanced Technologies for Water Treatment
Growing concern for the presence and contamination of heavy metals in our water supplies has steadily increased over the last few years. A number of specialized technologies including precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, cementation, electrochemical operations, have been developed for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. However, these technologies have many limitations in the application, such as high cost, low separation efficiency, Recently, numerous approaches have been investigated to overcome these difficulties and membrane filtration, advanced oxidation technologies (AOPs), and UV irradiation etc. are sufficiently developed to be considered as alternative treatments. Many factors come into play when selecting wastewater treatment technology, such as type of wastewater, operating conditions, economics etc. This study describes these various treatment technologies employed for heavy metal removal. Advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are also compared to highlight their current limitations and future research needs. For example, we investigated the applicability of the ultrafiltration technology for treating of heavy metal ions (e.g., Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II)) from synthetic wastewater solutions. Results shown that complete removal of metal ions, could be achieved.
Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater
This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.
Application of Various Methods for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils around Agarak Copper-Molybdenum Mine Complex, Armenia
The present study was aimed in assessing the heavy metal pollution of the soils around Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex and related environmental risks. This mine complex is located in the south-east part of Armenia, and the present study was conducted in 2013. The soils of the five riskiest sites of this region were studied: surroundings of the open mine, the sites adjacent to processing plant of Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex, surroundings of Darazam active tailing dump, the recultivated tailing dump of "ravine - 2", and the recultivated tailing dump of "ravine - 3". The mountain cambisol was the main soil type in the study sites. The level of soil contamination by heavy metals was assessed by Contamination factors (Cf), Degree of contamination (Cd), Geoaccumulation index (I-geo) and Enrichment factor (EF). The distribution pattern of trace metals in the soil profile according to Cf, Cd, I-geo and EF values shows that the soil is much polluted. Almost in all studied sites, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Cd were the main polluting heavy metals, and this was conditioned by Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex activity. It is necessary to state that the pollution problem becomes pressing as some parts of these highly polluted region are inhabited by population, and agriculture is highly developed there; therefore, heavy metals can be transferred into human bodies through food chains and have direct influence on public health. Since the induced pollution can pose serious threats to public health, further investigations on soil and vegetation pollution are recommended. Finally, Cf calculating based on distance from the pollution source and the wind direction can provide more reasonable results.
Investigation of the Heavy Metal Pollution of the River Ecosystems in the Lake Sevan Basin, Armenia
The Lake Sevan basin is situated in the eastern part of the Republic of Armenia (Gegharquniq marz/district). The heavy metal pollution of the some tributaries of Lake Sevan was investigated. Water sampling was performed in August and December, 2014 from the 4 observation sites: 1) Sotq river upstream (about 600 meters upstream from the Sotq gold mine); 2) Sotq river mouth; 3) Masrik river mouth; 4) Dzknaget river mouth. Heavy metal (V, Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Mo, Pb) concentrations in the water samples were determined by the standard methods using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of the study showed that heavy metal content mainly increased from the upstream of the Sotq river to the mouth of the Masrik river which may have been conditioned by the influence of gold mining activity as the Masrik and its tributary-Sotq rivers passing through the gold mining area were exposed to heavy metal pollution. The observation sites can be ranked by pollution degree as follows: №3> №2> №1> №4. The highest heavy metal pollution degree was observed in the Masrik river mouth which may have been conditioned by the direct impact of gold mining activity and the pressure of its tributary–the Sotq river which flows through the gold mining area. The lowest heavy metal pollution degree was registered in the Dzknaget river mouth which flowing through rural areas wasn’t subject to significant heavy metal pollution. According to the observation sites of the Sotq and Masrik rivers, high positive correlation was mainly observed between the concentrations of the investigated heavy metals (except nickel) which indicated that all the heavy metals except the nickel had the same anthropogenic pollution source which was the activity of the Sotq gold mine. In general, it is possible to state that the activity of the Sotq gold mine in the Lake Sevan basin caused the heavy metal pollution of the Sotq and Masrik rivers which may have posed environmental hazards. Heavy metals are nondegradable substances, and heavy metal pollution of freshwater systems may pose risks to the environment and human health through accumulation in the tissues of aquatic organisms, water-food chain as well as oral ingestion and dermal contact.
Expression of Metallothionein Gen and Protein on Hepatopancreas, Gill and Muscle of Perna viridis Caused by Biotoxicity Hg, Pb and Cd
Jakarta Bay with 13 rivers that flow into, the environment has deteriorated and is the most polluted bays in Asia. The entry of waste into the waters of the Bay of Jakarta has caused pollution. Heavy metal contamination has led to pollution levels and may cause toxicity to organisms that live in the sea, down to the cellular level and may affect the ecological balance. Various ways have been conducted to measure the impact of environmental degradation, such as by measuring the levels of contaminants in the environment, including measuring the accumulation of toxic compounds in the tissues of organisms. Biological responses or biomarkers known as a sensitive indicator but need relevant predictions. In heavy metal pollution monitoring, analysis of aquatic biota is very important from the analysis of the water itself. The content of metals in aquatic biota will usually always be increased from time to time due to the nature of metal bioaccumulation, so the aquatic biota is best used as an indicator of metal pollution in aquatic environments. The results of the content analysis results of sea water in coastal estuaries Angke, Kaliadem and Panimbang detected heavy metals cadmium, mercury, lead, but did not find zinc metal. Based on the results of protein electrophoresis methallotionein found heavy metals in the tissues hepatopancreas, gills and muscles, and also the mRNA expression of has detected.
Identification of Toxic Metal Deposition in Food Cycle and Its Associated Public Health Risk
Food chain contamination by heavy metals has become a critical issue in recent years because of their potential accumulation in bio systems through contaminated water, soil and irrigation water. Industrial discharge, fertilizers, contaminated irrigation water, fossil fuels, sewage sludge and municipality wastes are the major sources of heavy metal contamination in soils and subsequent uptake by crops. The main objectives of this project were to determine the levels of minerals, trace elements and heavy metals in major foods and beverages consumed by the poor and non-poor households of Dhaka city and assess the dietary risk exposure to heavy metal and trace metal contamination and potential health implications as well as recommendations for action. Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density of at least 5 times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment; raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. This review provides an analysis of their environmental occurrence, production and use, potential for human exposure, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, and carcinogenicity.
The Effect of Traffic on Harmful Metals and Metalloids in the Street Dust and Surface Soil from Urban Areas of Tehran, Iran: Levels, Distribution and Chemical Partitioning Based on Single and Sequential Extraction Procedures
Street dust and surface soil samples were collected from very heavy, heavy, medium and low traffic areas and natural site in Tehran, Iran. These samples were analyzed for some physical–chemical features, total and chemical speciation of selected metals and metalloids (Zn, Al, Sr, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, and V) to study the effect of traffic on their mobility and accumulation in the environment. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), carbonates and organic carbon (OC) values were similar in soil and dust samples from similar traffic areas. The traffic increases EC contents in dust/soil matrixes but has no effect on concentrations of metals and metalloids in soil samples. Rises in metal and metalloids levels with traffic were found in dust samples. Moreover, the traffic increases the percentage of acid soluble fraction and Fe and Mn oxides associated fractions of Pb and Zn. The mobilization of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr in dust samples was easier than in soil. The speciation of metals and metalloids except Cd is mainly affected by physicochemical features in soil, although total metals and metalloids affected the speciation in dust samples (except chromium and nickel).
Analysis of Dust Particles in Snow Cover in the Surroundings of the City of Ostrava: Particle Size Distribution, Zeta Potential and Heavy Metal Content
In this paper, snow samples containing dust particles from several sampling points around the city of Ostrava were analyzed. The pH values of sampled snow were measured and solid particles analyzed. Particle size, zeta potential and content of selected heavy metals were determined in solid particles. The pH values of most samples lay in the slightly acid region. Mean values of particle size ranged from 290.5 to 620.5 nm. Zeta potential values varied between -5 and -26.5 mV. The following heavy metal concentration ranges were found: copper 0.08-0.75 mg/g, lead 0.05-0.9 mg/g, manganese 0.45-5.9 mg/g and iron 25.7-280.46 mg/g. The highest values of copper and lead were found in the vicinity of busy crossroads, and on the contrary, the highest levels of manganese and iron were detected close to a large steelworks. The proportion between pH values, zeta potentials, particle sizes and heavy metal contents was established. Zeta potential decreased with rising pH values and, simultaneously, heavy metal content in solid particles increased. At the same time, higher metal content corresponded to lower particle size.
Potential of Castor Bean (Ricinus Communis L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals
The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in industrially polluted soils containing high concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd, situated at different distances (0.3, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution - the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. On reaching commercial ripeness, the castor oil plants were gathered and the contents of heavy metals in their different parts – roots, stems, leaves and seeds, were determined after dry ashing. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric soil samples were carried. Translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out with ICP. A soxhlet extraction was used for the extraction of the oil, using hexane as solvent. The oil was recovered by simple distillation of the solvent. The residual oil obtained was investigated for physicochemical parameters and fatty acid composition. Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor values (BAF and TF > 1) were greater than one suggesting efficient accumulation in the shoot. The castor oil plant may be preferred as a good candidate for phytoremediation (phytoextraction). These results indicate that R. communis has good potential for removing Pb from contaminated soils attributed to its fast growth, high biomass, strong absorption and accumulation for Pb. The concentrations of heavy metals in the oil were low as seed coats accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb. In addition, the result of the fatty acid composition analysis confirms the oil to be of good quality and can be used for industrial purposes such as cosmetics, soaps and paint.
Stabilization of Medical Waste Incineration Fly Ash in Cement Mortar Matrix
We performed laboratory experiments to assess the suitability of using medical waste incineration fly ash in cement as a construction material based on the engineering properties of fly ash-cement matrix and the leaching potential of toxic heavy metals from the stabilized mix. Fly ash-cement samples were prepared with different proportions of fly ash (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight) in the laboratory controlled conditions. The solidified matrix exhibited a compressive strength from 3950 to 4980 psi when fly ash is mixed in varying proportions. The 28-day compressive strength has been found to decrease with the increase in fly ash content, but it meets the minimum requirement of compressive strength for cement-mortar. Soundness test results for cement-mortar mixes having up to 15% fly ash. Final and initial setting times of cement have been found to generally increase with fly ash content. Water requirement (for normal consistency) also increased with the increase in fly ash content in cement. Based on physical properties of the cement-mortar matrix it is recommended that up to 10% (by weight) medical waste incineration fly ash can be incorporated for producing cement-mortar of optimum quality. Leaching behaviours of several targeted heavy metals (As, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn) were analyzed using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) on fly ash and solidified fly ash-cement matrix. It was found that the leached concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were reduced by 80.13%, 89.47%, 33.33% and 23.9% respectively for 10% fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix compared to that of original fly ash. The leached concentrations of heavy metals were from the matrix were far below the EPA land disposal limits. These results suggest that the solidified fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix can effectively confine and immobilize the heavy metals contained in the fly ash.
Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metals Analysis of Contaminated Ndawuse River in North Central of Nigeria
The study assessed quality of surface water across Ndawuse River Phase 1, District of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria based on physico-chemical variables that are linked to agrochemical and eutrophication, as well as heavy metals concentrations. In total, sixteen surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river. The results were compared with the standard limits set by both World Health Organization and Federal Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. The results obtained indicated that BOD5, turbidity, 0.014-3.511 mg Fe/L and 0.078-0.14 mg Cr/L were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on these receiving water bodies primarily as their source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws considering the physico-chemical analysis.
Toxic Heavy Metal Accumulation by Algerian Malva sylvestris L. Depending on Location Variation
In the present study, wet digestion with HCl and HNO3 mixture was used to extract the heavy metals (copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)) from the leaves, the stems and the roots of Malva sylvestris L., which were subsequently analyzed by AAS. The samples (soil and parts of species) were collected from different sites: the industrial area (IA) (Rouiba), the rubbish dump area (RDA) (Boudouaou), the residential area (RA) with large open fields and construction activities (Blida), the Montaigne area (MA) (Chrea) and the high plateau area (HPA) (Berouaguia). The study showed differences in metal concentrations according to the analysed parts and the different sampling locations. In the contaminated site of the industrial area (IA), high content of the toxic heavy metals (Cd: 3.18 µg/g DW and Pb: 34.48 µg/g DW) were found in the leaves of Malva sylvestris L. This finding suggests that the consumers of this species could be exposed to a risk associated with this higher level of these toxic metals. It was found that Malva sylvestris L. is rich by Zn and Cu in some sites, which are considered to be the essential elements for the human health. The obtained results with the control site (Montaigne area) suggest that this species can be applicable in both the health and food, feasible alternatives as medicinal plant without any risk.
Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Metallurgical Slag
Acid mine drainage (AMD) refers to the production of acidified water from abandoned mines and active mines as well. The reason behind the generation of this kind of acidified water is the oxidation of pyrites present in the rocks in and around mining areas. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which is a sulfur oxidizing bacteria, helps in the oxidation process. AMD is extremely acidic in nature, (pH 2-3) with high concentration of several trace and heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such as chloride and sulfate. AMD has several detrimental effect on aquatic organism and environment. It can directly or indirectly contaminate the ground water and surface water as well. The present study considered the treatment of AMD with metallurgical slag, which is a waste material. Slag helped to enhance the pH of AMD to 8.62 from 1.5 with 99% removal of trace metals such as Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co. Metallurgical slag was proven as efficient neutralizing material for the treatment of AMD.
Cadmium Contamination in Rice Cultivation in the City of Savadkooh in Iran
Potential contamination of rice by heavy metals such as Copper, Cobalt, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium, Mercury, Nickel, Lead and Magnesium in soil, water and pesticides affect the quality and nutritional properties of rice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of rice cultivated in the city of Savadkooh to Cadmium and its comparison with international standards. With the study on different areas of Savadkooh(a city in Mazanaran Province) 7 samples of rice with the soil in which they were grown was taken for sampling. According to the results of all rice grown in Savadkooh city there are some Cadmium but the amount measured is less than specified in the national standard, and is safe for consumers to use.
Porous Alumina-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite Membranes Processed via Spark Plasma Sintering for Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Water
The purpose of the present study was to use the adsorption mechanism with microfiltration synergistically for efficient heavy metal removal from contaminated water. Alumina (Al2O3) is commonly used for ceramic membranes development while recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered among the best adsorbent materials for heavy metals. In this work, we combined both of these materials to prepare porous Al2O3-CNTs nanocomposite membranes via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. Alumina was used as a base matrix while CNTs were added as filler. The SPS process parameters i.e. applied pressure, temperature, heating rate, and holding time were varied to obtain the best combination of porosity (64%, measured according to ASTM c373-14a) and strength (3.2 MPa, measured by diametrical compression test) of the developed membranes. The prepared membranes were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission secondary electron microscopy (FE-SEM), contact angle and porosity measurements. The results showed that properties of the synthesized membranes were highly influenced by the SPS process parameters. FE-SEM images revealed that CNTs were reasonably dispersed in the alumina matrix. The porous membranes were evaluated for their water flux transport as well as their capacity to adsorb heavy metals ions. Selected membranes were able to remove about 97% cadmium from contaminated water. Further work is underway to enhance the removal efficiency of the developed membranes as well as to remove other heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury.
Bioprospecting for Indigenous Ruderal Plants with Potentials for Phytoremediation of Soil Heavy Metals in the Southern Guinea Savanna of North Western Nigeria
In a study to evaluate the response of indigenous ruderal plants to the metal deposition regime imposed by anthropogenic modification in the Southern Guinea Savanna of north Western Nigeria during the dry and wet seasons, herbaceous plants and samples of soils were collected in three 5m by 5m quadrats laid around the environs of the Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company and the banks of River Kaduna. Heavy metal concentration (Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in soil and plant samples was determined using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils were generally observed to be higher during the wet season in both locations although the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cr, Cu and Ni in all the plants observed were found to be below levels described as phytotoxic to plants. However, above ‘normal’ concentrations of Cr was observed in most of the plant species sampled. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn in soils around the KRPC and RKB were found to be above the acceptable limits. Although no hyper accumulator plant species was encountered in this study, twenty (20) plant species were identified to have high bioconcentration (BCF > 1.0) of Cd and Cu, which indicated tolerance of these plants to excessive or phytotoxic concentrations of these metals. In addition, they generally produce high above ground biomass, due to rapid vegetative growth. These are likely species for phytoextraction. Elevated concentration of metals in both soil and plant materials may cause a decrease in biodiversity due to direct toxicity. There are also risks to humans and other animals due to bioaccumulation across the food chain. There are further possibilities of further evaluating and genetically improving metal tolerance traits in some of these plant species in relation to their potential use in phytoremediation programmes in metal polluted sites.
Assessment of Toxic Impact of Metals on Different Instars of Silkworm, Bombyx Mori
Larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori) exhibit very high mortality when reared on mulberry leaves collected from mulberry orchards which get contaminated with metallic/nonmetallic compounds through either drift-deposition or chemigation. There is need to screen out such metallic compound for their toxicity at their various concentrations. The present study was carried out to assess toxicity of metals in different instars of silkworm. Aqueous solutions of nine heavy-metal based salts were prepared by dissolving 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg of each salt in one liter of water and were applied on the mulberry leaves by leaf-dip methods. The results reveal that mortality in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae caused by each heavy metal salts increased with an increase in their concentrations. The 1st instar larvae were found more susceptible to metal salts followed by 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of silkworm. Overall, Nickel chloride proved more toxic for all larval instar as it demonstrated approximately 40-99% mortality. On the basis of LC2 and larval mortality, the order of toxicity of heavy metals against all five larval instar was Nickel chloride (LC₂ = 1.9-13.9 mg/L; & 15.0±1.2-69.2±1.7% mortality) followed by Chromium nitrate (LC₂ = 3.3-14.8 mg/L; & 13.3±1.4-62.4±2.8% mortality), Cobalt nitrate (LC₂ = 4.3-30.9; &11.4±0.07-54.9±2.0% mortality), Lead acetate (LC₂ =8.8-53.3 mg/L; & 9.5±1.3-46.4±2.9% mortality), Aluminum sulfate (LC₂ = 15.5-76.6 mg/L; & 8.4±0.08-42.1±2.8% mortality), Barium sulfide (LC₂ = 20.9-105.9; & 7.7±1.1-39.2±2.5% mortality), Copper sulfate (LC2 = 28.5-12.4 mg/L; & 7.3±0.06-37.1±2.4% mortality), Manganese chloride (LC₂ = 29.9-136.9 mg/L; & 6.8±0.09-35.3±1.6% mortality) and Zinc nitrate (LC₂ = 36.3-15 mg/L; & 6.2±1.2-32.1±1.9% mortality). Zinc nitrate @ 50 and 100 mg/L, Barium sulfide @ 50 mg/L, Manganese chloride @ 50 and 100 mg/L and Copper sulfate @ 50 mg/L proved safe for 5th instar larvae as these interaction attributed no mortality. All the heavy metal salts at a concentration of 50 mg/L demonstrated less than 10% mortality.
The Use of Microorganisms in the Bioleaching of Soils Polluted with Heavy Metals
This paper shows researches in order to extract Cr, Cu and Ni from the polluted soils. Research is based on preliminary studies regarding the usage of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacterium (9K medium) for bioleaching of soil polluted with heavy metal (Cu, Cr and Ni). The microorganisms (Thiobacillus ferooxidans) selected directly from polluted soil samples were used in this experimental work. Soil samples used in the experimental research were taken from an area polluted with heavy metals from Romania. The soil samples are subjected to the cleaning process using the 9K medium solution (20 mL and 40 mL, respectively), stirred 200 rpm for 20 hours at a controlled temperature (30 ˚C). During the experiment (0, 2, 4, 8 and 20 h), liquid samples have been extracted and analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AA-6800 (AAS) in order to determine the Cr, Cu and Ni concentration. Experiments led to the conclusion that these soils can be depolluted by bioleaching, being a biological treatment method involving the use of microorganisms to favor the extraction of Cr, Cu and Ni from polluted soils.
Soil Degradation Resulting from Migration of Ion Leachate in Gosa Dumpsite, Abuja
The effect of soil degradation due to ion leachate migration using dumpsite located at Idu industrial area of Abuja was investigated. It was done to assess the health and environmental pollution consequences caused by heavy metals’ concentration in the soil on inhabitants around the settlement. Soil samples collected from four cardinal points and at the center during the dry and wet season were pretreated, digested and heavy metal concentrations present were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Cr, were determined and also for control sample obtained 300 m away from the dumpsite. Water samples were collected from three wells to test for physiochemical properties of pH, COD, BOD, DO, hardness, conductivity, and alkalinity. The result showed a significant difference in concentration of toxic heavy metals in the dumpsite as compared to the control sample. A mathematical model was developed to predict the heavy metal concentrations beyond the sampling point. The results indicate that metal concentrations in both dry and wet season were above the WHO, and SON set standards. The trend, if unrestrained, portends danger to human life, reduces agricultural productivity and sustainability.
Phytoextraction of Copper and Zinc by Willow Varieties in a Pot Experiment
Soil and water contamination by heavy metals is a major challenging issue for the environment. Phytoextraction is an emerging, environmentally friendly and cost-efficient technology in which plants are used to eliminate pollutants from the soil and water. We aimed to assess the copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal efficiency by two willow varieties such as Klara (S. viminalis x S. schwerinii x S. dasyclados) and Karin ((S.schwerinii x S. viminalis) x (S. viminalis x S.burjatica)) under different soil treatments (control/unpolluted, polluted, lime with polluted, wood ash with polluted). In 180 days of pot experiment, these willow varieties were grown in a highly polluted soil collected from Pyhasalmi mining area in Finland. The lime and wood ash were added to the polluted soil to improve the soil pH and observe their effects on metals accumulation in plant biomass. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ELAN 6000 ICP-EOS, Perkin-Elmer Corporation) was used in this study to assess the heavy metals concentration in the plant biomass. The result shows that both varieties of willow have the capability to accumulate the considerable amount of Cu and Zn varying from 36.95 to 314.80 mg kg⁻¹ and 260.66 to 858.70 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. The application of lime and wood ash substantially affected the stimulation of the plant height, dry biomass and deposition of Cu and Zn into total plant biomass. Besides, the lime application appeared to upsurge Cu and Zn concentrations in the shoots and leaves in both willow varieties when planted in polluted soil. However, wood ash application was found more efficient to mobilize the metals in the roots of both varieties. The study recommends willow plantations to rehabilitate the Cu and Zn polluted soils.
Impact of Wastewater Irrigation on Soil and Vegetable Quality in Peri Urban Cropping System
Farmers in peri-urban areas of developing countries depend on wastewater for Irrigation but with great environmental and health hazards. Since, irrigation with wastewater is growing in the developing countries but its suitability to environment and other health factors should be checked. Metal pollution is a very serious issue these days, various neuro, physical and mental disorders are prevailing due to the metal pollution. Waste water contaminated with heavy metals got accumulated in the soil and then bioaccumulated in the vegetables irrigated with waste water. A 3-year field experiment on cauliflower has been done by using wastewater with two different methods of irrigation i.e. Drip and Flood irrigation and checked the impact on the cauliflower and soil quality. Heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb) have been studied in wastewater used for the irrigation and their accumulation in the soil and vegetable was studied. The study reveals that the concentration of heavy metals increases by 100 times from initial in soil. After 3 years, the concentration of Copper(41 ppm) Chromium(39.4 ppm) Lead(62.2ppm) Zinc(100.5 ppm) and Nickel(75.7 ppm) in Flood irrigated soil while in Drip irrigated soil , Copper (36.4 ppm) Chromium(36.8 ppm) Lead(53.7 ppm) Zinc(70.3 ppm) and Nickel (53.9 ppm). In vegetable, the wastewater irrigated shows an increase in the concentration of metals with the time and the accumulation of Nickel (6.98ppm), Lead (30.18 ppm) and Zinc (55.83 ppm) in drip irrigated while in flood irrigated, Nickel (30.58 ppm), Lead (73.95ppm) Zinc (93.50 ppm) and Copper (54.58 ppm) in edible part of cauliflower which is above the permissible limits suggested by different international agencies. On other hand, the nutrients content i.e. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in soil was increased in concentration with time. The study pointed out that the metal contaminated waste water consisting the nutrients in it but also heavy metals which causes health issues in human. While the increase in concentration of nutrients in the soil indirectly helpful to the farmers economically by restricting the use of fertilizers. But the metal pollution directly affects the health of human being. The different method of irrigation suggested that the drip irrigated vegetable acquired less metal then the flood one and is a better combo with the waste water for the irrigation.
Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Low Cost Adsorbents
This paper describes the use of by-products as adsorbents for removing heavy metals from aqueous effluent solutions. Products of almond skin, walnut shell, saw dust, rice bran and egg shell were evaluated as metal ion adsorbents in aqueous solutions. A comparative study was done with commercial adsorbents like ion exchange resins and activated carbon too. Batch experiments were investigated to determine the affinity of all of biomasses for, Cd(ΙΙ), Cr(ΙΙΙ), Ni(ΙΙ), and Pb(ΙΙ) metal ions at pH 5. The rate of metal ion removal in the synthetic wastewater by the biomass was evaluated by measuring final concentration of synthetic wastewater. At a concentration of metal ion (50 mg/L), egg shell adsorbed high levels (98.6 – 99.7%) of Pb(ΙΙ) and Cr(ΙΙΙ) and walnut shell adsorbed high levels (35.3 – 65.4%) of Ni(ΙΙ) and Cd(ΙΙ). In this study, it has been shown that by-products were excellent adsorbents for removal of toxic ions from wastewater with efficiency comparable to commercially available adsorbents, but at a reduced cost. Also statistical studies using Independent Sample t Test and ANOVA Oneway for statistical comparison between various elements adsorption showed that there isn’t a significant difference in some elements adsorption percentage by by-products and commercial adsorbents.
Determination of Heavy Metals in Canned Dry-Milk and Fish from Supermarkets in Addis Ababa
Background: Human being require metallic elements such as copper and zinc up to certain limits that could cause problems if found in excess. Other metallic elements like cadmium and lead can be harmful to health if foodstuffs containing them are consumed regularly. Canned dry-milk and fish contain these metals in the journey from farm to fork. Objective: This study was designed to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in four brands of canned dry-milk and fish from supermarkets in Addis Ababa. Methods: Laboratory based cross-sectional study design was used to determine the concentration of the heavy metals in four different brands of canned dry-milk and fish imported from different country from February to March 2013. The foods brands were sampled by simple random sampling method from eight supermarkets in Addis Ababa and coded. Wet oxidation using HNO3 and H2O2 was used to extract the heavy metals from the foods samples and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Conclusions: From this study, it can be concluded that the level of Cadmium and Copper residues in canned dry-milk significantly vary among brands; and the levels of copper residue significantly vary among brands of canned fish at 95 % level. The AM milk brand from Ethiopia was safe in cadmium level. The cadmium and lead level in the NF fish brands from Indonesia packed in vegetables oil, and the lead level in DF brand packed in brine are safe.
Phycoremiadation of Heavy Metals by Marine Macroalgae Collected from Olaikuda, Rameswaram, Southeast Coast of India
The industrial effluent with high amount of heavy metals is known to have adverse effects on the environment. For the removal of heavy metals from aqueous environment, different conventional treatment technologies had been applied gradually which are not economically beneficial and also produce huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. So, bio-sorption of heavy metals by marine plant is an eco-friendly innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of heavy metals accumulation and removal by some selected marine macroalgae (seaweeds) from marine environment. Methods: Seaweeds Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl.) Boergesen, Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Halimeda gracilis Harvey ex. J. Agardh, Gracilaria opuntia Durairatnam.nom. inval. Valoniopsis pachynema (Martens) Boergesen, Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (Sonder ex Kutzing) W. R. Taylor and Hydroclathrus clathratus (C. Agardh) Howe were collected from Olaikuda (09°17.526'N-079°19.662'E), Rameshwaram, south east coast of India during post monsoon period (April’2016). Seaweeds were washed with sterilized and filtered in-situ seawater repeatedly to remove all the epiphytes and debris and clean seaweeds were kept for shade drying for one week. The dried seaweeds were grinded to powder, and one gm powder seaweeds were taken in a 250ml conical flask, and 8 ml of 10 % HNO3 (70 % pure) was added to each sample and kept in room temperature (28 ̊C) for 24 hours and then samples were heated in hotplate at 120 ̊C, boiled to evaporate up to dryness and 20 ml of Nitric acid: Percholoric acid in 4:1 were added to it and again heated to hotplate at 90 ̊C up to evaporate to dryness, then samples were kept in room temperature for few minutes to cool and 10ml 10 % HNO3 were added to it and kept for 24 hours in cool and dark place and filtered with Whatman (589/2) filter paper and the filtrates were collected in 250ml clean conical flask and diluted accurately to 25 ml volume with double deionised water and triplicate of each sample were analysed with Inductively-Coupled plasma analysis (ICP-OES) to analyse total eleven heavy metals (Ag, Cd, B, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Al content of the specified species and data were statistically evaluated for standard deviation. Results: Acanthophora spicifera contains highest amount of Ag (0.1± 0.2 mg/mg) followed by Cu (0.16±0.01 mg/mg), Mn (1.86±0.02 mg/mg), B (3.59±0.2 mg/mg), Halimeda gracilis showed highest accumulation of Al (384.75±0.12mg/mg), Valoniopsis pachynema accumulates maximum amount of Co (0.12±0.01 mg/mg), Zn (0.64±0.02 mg/mg), Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa contains Zn (0.63±0.01), Cr (0.26±0.01 mg/mg ), Ni (0.21±0.05), Pb (0.16±0.03 ) and Cd ( 0.02±00 ). Hydroclathrus clathratus, Codium tomentosum and Gracilaria opuntia also contain adequate amount of heavy metals. Conclusions: The mentioned species of seaweeds are contributing important role for decreasing the heavy metals pollution in marine environment by bioaccumulation. So, we can utilise this species to remove excess amount of heavy metals from polluted area.
The Distribution and Environmental Behavior of Heavy Metals in Jajarm Bauxite Mine, Northeast Iran
Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least five times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical, and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment, raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Environmental protection against various pollutants, such as heavy metals formed by industries, mines and modern technologies, is a concern for researchers and industry. In order to assess the contamination of soils the distribution and environmental behavior have been investigated. Jajarm bauxite mine, the most important deposits have been discovered in Iran, which is about 22 million tons of reserve, and is the main mineral of the Diaspora. With a view to estimate the heavy metals ratio of the Jajarm bauxite mine area and to evaluate the pollution level, 50 samples have been collected and have been analyzed for the heavy metals of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb with the help of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP- MS). In this study, we have dealt with determining evaluation criteria including contamination factor (CF), average concentration (AV), enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (GI) to assess the risk of pollution from heavy metals(As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb) in Jajarm bauxite mine. In the samples of the studied, the average of recorded concentration of elements for Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Mercury, Nickel and Lead are 18, 0.11, 12, 0.07, 58 and 51 (mg/kg) respectively. The comparison of the heavy metals concentration average and the toxic potential in the samples has shown that an average with respect to the world average of the uncontaminated soil amounts. The average of Pb and As elements shows a higher quantity with respect to the world average quantity. The pollution factor for the study elements has been calculated on the basis of the soil background concentration and has been categorized on the basis of the uncontaminated world soil average with respect to the Hakanson classification. The calculation of the corrected pollutant degree shows the degree of the bulk intermediate pollutant (1.55-2.0) for the average soil sampling of the study area which is on the basis of the background quantity and the world average quantity of the uncontaminated soils. The provided conclusion from calculation of the concentrated factor, for some of the samples show that the average of the lead and arsenic elements stations are more than the background values and the unnatural metal concentration are covered under the study area, That's because the process of mining and mineral extraction. Given conclusion from the calculation of Geoaccumulation index of the soil sampling can explain that the copper, nickel, cadmium, arsenic, lead and mercury elements are Uncontamination. In general, the results indicate that the Jajarm bauxite mine of heavy metal pollution is uncontaminated area and extract the mineral from the mine, not create environmental hazards in the region.
Spatio-temporal Variations in Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Qua Iboe River Estuary, Nigeria
The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of Qua Iboe River Estuary (QIRE) were monitored at four different sampling locations in wet and dry seasons. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling stations along the river continuum showed that the area spanned between < 0.1% salinity at the control station and 21.5‰ at the fourth station along the river continuum. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling locations along the river estuary showed variations in salinity and other physicochemical parameters. The estuary was found to be polluted with heavy metals from point and nonpoint sources at varying degrees. Mean values of 7.80 mg/kg, 4.97 mg/kg and 2.80 mg/kg of nickel were obtained for sediment samples from Douglas creek, Qua Iboe and Atlantic sampling locations, respectively in the dry season. The wet season nickel concentrations were however lower. The entire study area was grossly contaminated by iron. At Douglas creek, the concentration of iron in sediment was 9274 ± 9.54 mg/kg while copper, nickel, lead and vanadium were < 0.5 mg/kg each as compared to iron. Bioaccumulation was therefore suspected within the study area as values of 31.00 ± 0.79, 36.00 ± 0.10 and 55.00 ± 0.05 mg/kg of zinc were recorded in sediment at Douglas creek, Atlantic and the control sampling locations. The results from this study showed that the source of these heavy metals were from point sources like the corrosion of metal steel pipes from old bridges as well as oily sludge wastes from the Qua Iboe Terminal / tank farm located within the vicinity of the study area.
Levels of Heavy Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf
In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS). Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found to be 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus Miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.
Assessment of Trace Metal Concentration of Soils Contaminated with Carbide in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
An investigation was carried out on trace metal concentration of soils contaminated with carbide in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria in 2014 with a view to providing baseline formation on their status relative to the control plants and to the tolerable limits recommended by World standard bodies including WHO and FAO. The metals were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer which showed an elevated level when compared with the control plots. High level of metals including Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and arsenic were recorded and these values were significantly different (P< 0.05) from values obtained from the control plots. These results are indicative of the fact that carbide polluted soil had higher level of trace metals and because these metals are non-biodegradable elements in the ecosystem, a rise to their lethal levels in food chains is envisaged due to the interdependency of plants and animals stemming from soil-water organisms interrelationship.
Geochemical Baseline and Origin of Trace Elements in Soils and Sediments around Selibe-Phikwe Cu-Ni Mining Town, Botswana
Heavy metals may occur naturally in rocks and soils, but elevated quantities of them are being gradually released into the environment by anthropogenic activities such as mining. In order to address issues of heavy metal water and soil pollution, a distinction needs to be made between natural and anthropogenic anomalies. The current study aims at characterizing the spatial distribution of trace elements and evaluate site-specific geochemical background concentrations of trace elements in the mine soils examined, and also to discriminate between lithogenic and anthropogenic sources of enrichment around a copper-nickel mining town in Selibe-Phikwe, Botswana. A total of 20 Soil samples, 11 river sediment, and 9 river water samples were collected from an area of 625m² within the precincts of the mine and the smelter. The concentrations of metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, As, Pb, and Co) were determined by using an ICP-MS after digestion with aqua regia. Major elements were also determined using ED-XRF. Water pH and EC were measured on site and recorded while soil pH and EC were also determined in the laboratory after performing water elution tests. The highest Cu and Ni concentrations in soil are 593mg/kg and 453mg/kg respectively, which is 3 times higher than the crustal composition values and 2 times higher than the South African minimum allowable levels of heavy metals in soils. The level of copper contamination was higher than that of nickel and other contaminants. Water pH levels ranged from basic (9) to very acidic (3) in areas closer to the mine/smelter. There is high variation in heavy metal concentration, eg. Cu suggesting that some sites depict regional natural background concentrations while other depict anthropogenic sources.
Presence of High Concentrations of Toxic Metals from the Collected Soil Samples Due to Excessive E-Waste Burning in the Various Areas of Moradabad City, U.P India
Moradabad is a small town in the Northern area of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is situated on the bank of river Ramganga which is also known as ‘Brass City of India’. There is eventually increase in the environmental pollution due to uncontrolled and inappropriate e-waste burning (recycling) activities which have been reported in many areas of Moradabad. In this paper, analysis of toxic heavy metals, causing pollution to the surrounding environment released from the e-waste burning and much other recycling process. All major e-waste burning sites are situated on the banks of the river which is burned in open environmental conditions. Soil samples were collected from seven (n=3) different sites including control site, after digestion of soil samples using triacid mixture, analysis of different toxic metals (Pb, Ar, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ni) has been carried out with the help of instrument ICP-AAS. After the study, the outcome is that the soil of those areas contains a relatively high level of the toxic metals in order of Cu>Fe>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn>Ar>Hg. The concentration of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ar and Zn (the majority of samples experimentally proved) exceeded the maximum standard level of WHO. Sequentially this study showed that uncontrolled e-waste processing operations caused serious pollution to local soil and release of toxic metals in the environment is also causing adverse effect on the health of people living in the nearby areas making them more prone to various harmful diseases.
Ground Water Contamination by Tannery Effluents and Its Impact on Human Health in Peshawar, Pakistan
Ground water, a major source of drinking water supply in Peshawar has been severely contaminated by leather tanning industry. Effluents from the tanneries contain high concentration of chromium besides several other chemical species. Release of untreated effluents from the tanning industry has severely damaged surface and ground water, agriculture soil as well as vegetables and crops. Chromium is a well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic agent. Once in the human food chain, it causes multiple problems to the exposed population including various types of cancer, skin dermatitis, and DNA damage. In order to assess the extent of chromium and other heavy metals contamination, water samples were analyzed for heavy metals using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GFAAS, Analyst 700, Perkin Elmer). Total concentration of chromium was above the permissible limit (0.048 mg/l) in 85% of the groundwater (drinking water) samples. The concentration of cobalt, manganese, cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc and iron was also determined in the ground water, surface water, agriculture soil, and vegetables samples from the affected area.
Adverse Impacts of Poor Wastewater Management Practices on Water Quality in Gebeng Industrial Area, Pahang, Malaysia
This study was carried out to investigate the adverse effect of industrial waste water on surface water quality in Gebeng industrial estate, Pahang, Malaysia. Surface water was collected from 6 sampling stations. Physico-chemical parameters were characterized based on in-situ and ex-situ analysis according to standard methods by American Public Health Association (APHA). Selected heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS). The result reveled that the concentration of heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr and Hg were high in samples. The result showed that the value of Pb and Hg were higher in the wet season in comparison to dry season. According to Malaysia National Water Quality Standard (NWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI) all the sampling station were categorized as class IV (highly polluted). The present study reveled that the adverse effects of careless disposal of wastes and directly discharge of effluents affected on surface water quality. Therefore, the authorities should implement the laws to ensure the proper practices of waste water management for environmental sustainability around the study area.
Leaching Properties of Phosphate Rocks in the Nile River
Phosphate Rocks (PR) are natural sediment rocks. These rocks contain several chemical compositions of heavy metals and radioactive elements. Mining and transportation these rocks beside or through the natural water streams may lead to water contamination. When PR is in contact with water in the field, as a consequence of precipitation events, changes in water table or sinking in water streams, elements such as salts and heavy metals, may be released to the water. In this work, the leaching properties of PR in Nile River water was investigated by experimental lab work. The study focused on evaluating potential environmental impacts of some constituents, including phosphors, cadmium, curium and lead of PR on the water quality of Nile by applying tank leaching tests. In these tests the potential impact of changing conditions, such as phosphate content in PR, liquid to solid ratio (L/S) and pH value, was studied on the long-term release of heavy metals and salts. Experimental results showed that cadmium and lead were released in very low concentrations but curium and phosphors were in high concentrations. Results showed also that the release rate from PR for all constituents was low even in long periods.
Soil Quality State and Trends in New Zealand’s Largest City after Fifteen Years
Soil quality monitoring is a science-based soil management tool that assesses soil ecosystem health. A soil monitoring program in Auckland, New Zealand’s largest city, extends from 1995 to the present. The objective of this study was to firstly determine changes in soil parameters (basic soil properties and heavy metals) that were assessed from rural land in 1995-2000 and repeated in 2008-2012. The second objective was to determine differences in soil parameters across various land uses including native bush, rural (horticulture, pasture and plantation forestry) and urban land uses using soil data collected in more recent years (2009-2013). Across rural land, mean concentrations of Olsen P had significantly increased in the second sampling period and was identified as the indicator of most concern, followed by soil macroporosity, particularly for horticultural and pastoral land. Mean concentrations of Cd were also greatest for pastoral and horticultural land and a positive correlation existed between these two parameters, which highlights the importance of analysing basic soil parameters in conjunction with heavy metals. In contrast, mean concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn were greatest for urban sites. Native bush sites had the lowest concentrations of heavy metals and were used to calculate a ‘pollution index’ (PI). The mean PI was classified as high (PI > 3) for Cd and Ni and moderate for Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, As, and Hg, indicating high levels of heavy metal pollution across both rural and urban soils. From a land use perspective, the mean ‘integrated pollution index’ was highest for urban sites at 2.9 followed by pasture, horticulture and plantation forests at 2.7, 2.6, and 0.9, respectively. It is recommended that soil sampling continues over time because a longer spanning record will allow further identification of where soil problems exist and where resources need to be targeted in the future. Findings from this study will also inform policy and science direction in regional councils.
Functionalized Mesoporous Silica: Absorbents for Water Purification
The release of heavy metals into the environment is a potential threat to water and soil quality as well as to plant, animal and human health. In current research work, organically functionalized mesoporous silicates (MSU-H) were prepared by the co-condensation between sodium silicate and oregano alkoxysilanes in the presence of the nonionic surfactant triblock copolymer P104. The surfactant was used as a template for improving the porosity of the hybrid gels. Synthesized materials were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, SEM/EDX, TG, surface area analysis. The surface morphology and textural properties of such materials varied with various kinds of groups in the channels. In this study, removal of some heavy metals ions from aqueous solution by adsorption process was investigated. Batch adsorption studies show that the adsorption capacity of metal ions on the functionalized silicates is more than that on pure MSU-H. Data shows adsorption on synthesized materials is a time efficient process, suggesting adsorption on external surface as well as the mesoporous process. Adsorption models of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin depicted equal goodness for all adsorbents, whereas pseudo 2nd order kinetics is in best agreement with experimental data.
Nagabhasma Preparation and Its Effect on Kidneys: A Histopathological Study
Heavy metals, especially lead, is considered to be a multi-organ toxicant. However, such heavy metals, are used in the preparation of traditional medicines. Nagabhasma is one of the traditional medicines. Lead is the metal used in its preparation. Lead is converted into a health beneficial, organometallic compound, when subjected to various traditional methods of purification. Therefore, this study is designed to evaluate the effect of such processed lead in various stages of traditionally prepared Nagabhasma on the histological structure of kidneys. Using the human equivalent doses of Nagabhasma, various stages of its preparation were fed orally for 30 days and 60 days (short term and long term). The treated and untreated rats were then sacrificed for the collection of kidneys. The kidneys were processed for histopathological study. The results show severe changes in the histological structure of kidneys. The animals treated with lead acetate showed changes in the epithelial cells lining the bowman’s capsule. The proximal and distal convoluted tubules were dilated leading to atrophy of their epithelial cells. The amount of inflammatory infiltrates was more in this group. A few groups also showed pockets of inter-tubular hemorrhage. These changes, however, were minimized as the stages progressed form stages 1 to 4 of Nagabhasma preparation. Therefore, it is necessary to stringently monitor the processing of lead acetate during the preparation of Nagabhasma.
Spatial Variability of Soil Pollution and Health Risks Due to Long-Term Wastewater Irrigation in Egypt
In Egypt, wastewater has been used for irrigation in areas with fresh water scarcity. However, continuous applications may cause potential risks. Thus, the current study aims at screening the impacts of long-term wastewater irrigation on soil pollution and human health due to the exposure of heavy metals. Soils of nine sites in Al-Qalyubiyah Governorate, Egypt were sampled and analyzed for different properties. Wastewater resulted in a build-up of metals in soils. The pollution index (PI) showed the order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn. The integrated pollution index of Nemerow’s (IPIN) exceeded the safe limit of 0.7. The enrichment factor (EF) surpassed 1.0 value proving anthropogenic effects. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) indicated that Pb, Ni, and Zn-induced none to moderate pollution, while high threats were associated with Cd. The calculated hazard index proved a potential health risk for humans, particularly children. It is recommended to perform a treatment to the wastewater used in irrigation to avoid such threats.
Gradations in Concentration of Heavy and Mineral Elements with Distance and Depth of Soil in the Vicinity of Auto Mechanic Workshops in Sabon Gari, Kaduna State, Nigeria
The concentration levels of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and two mineral elements (Ca and Mg) were determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of two auto mechanic workshops in Sabon-Gari, Kaduna state, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), in order to compare the gradation of their concentrations with distance and depth of soil from the workshop sites. At site 1, concentrations of lead, chromium, iron, and zinc were generally found to be above the World Health Organization limits, while those of Nickel and Cadmium fell within the limits. Iron had the highest concentration with a range of 176.274 ppm to 489.127 ppm at depths of 5 cm to 15 cm and a distance range of 5 m to 15 m, while the concentration of cadmium was least with a range of 0.001 ppm to 0.008 ppm at similar depth and distance ranges. In addition, there was more of calcium (11.521 ppm to 121.709 ppm), in all the samples, than magnesium (11.293 ppm to 21.635 ppm). Similar results were obtained for site II. The concentrations of all the metals analyzed showed a downward gradient with an increase in depth and distance from both workshop sites except for iron and zinc at site 2. The immediate and remote implications of these findings on the biota are discussed.
Recovery of Heavy Metals by Ion Exchange on the Zeolite Materials
Zeolites are a family of mineral compounds. With special properties that have led to several important industrial applications. Ion exchange has enabled the first industrial application in the field of water treatment. The exchange by aqueous pathway is the method most used in the case of such microporous materials and this technique will be used in this work. The objective of this work is to find performance materials for the recovery of heavy metals such as cadmium. The study is to compare the properties of different ion exchange zeolite Na-X, Na-A, their physical mixture and the composite A (LTA) / X (FAU). After the synthesis of various zeolites X and A, it was designed a model Core-Shell to form a composite zeolite A on zeolite X. Finally, ion exchange studies were performed on these zeolite materials. The cation is exclusively tested for cadmium, a toxic element and is harmful to health and the environment.
Bacteriological Screening and Antibiotic – Heavy Metal Resistance Profile of the Bacteria Isolated from Some Amphibian and Reptile Species of the Biga Stream in Turkey
In this article, the antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of the bacteria isolated from total 34 studied animals (Pelophylax ridibundus = 12, Mauremys rivulata = 14, Natrix natrix = 8) captured around the Biga Stream, are described. There was no database information on antibiogram and heavy metal resistance profile of bacteria from these area’s amphibians and reptiles. In this study, a total of 200 bacteria were successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptiles as well as from the water sample. According to Jaccard’s similarity index, the degree of similarity in the bacterial flora was quite high among the amphibian and reptile species under examination, whereas it was different from the bacterial diversity in the water sample. The most frequent isolates were A. hydrophila (31.5%), B. pseudomallei (8.5%), and C. freundii (7%). The total numbers of bacteria obtained were as follows: 45 in P. ridibundus, 45 in N. natrix 30 in M. rivulata, and 80 in the water sample. The result showed that cefmetazole was the most effective antibiotic to control the bacteria isolated in this study and that approximately 93.33% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to this antibiotic. The Multiple Antibiotic Resistances (MAR) index indicated that P. ridibundus (0.95) > N. natrix (0.89) > M. rivulata (0.39). Furthermore, all the tested heavy metals (Pb+2, Cu+2, Cr+3, and Mn+2) inhibit the growth of the bacterial isolates at different rates. Therefore, it indicated that the water source of the animals was contaminated with both antibiotic residues and heavy metals.
Assessment of Fermentative Activity in Heavy Metal Polluted Soils in Alaverdi Region, Armenia
Alaverdi region is situated in the northern part of the Republic of Armenia. Previous studies (1989) in Alaverdi region showed that due to soil irrigation with the highly polluted waters of the Debed and Shnogh rivers, the content of heavy metals in the brown forest steppe soils was significantly higher than the maximum permissible concentration as a result of which the fermentative activity in all the layers of the soils was stressed. Compared to the non-polluted soils, the activity of ferments in the plough layers of the highly polluted soils decreased by 44 - 68% (invertase – 60%, phosphatase – 44%, urease – 66%, catalase – 68%). In case of the soil irrigation with the polluted waters, a decrease in the intensity of fermentative reactions was conditioned by the high content of heavy metals in the soils and changes in chemical composition, physical and physicochemical properties. 20-year changes in the fermentative activity in the brown forest steppe soils in Alaverdi region were investigated. The activity of extracellular ferments in the soils was determined by the unification methods. The study has confirmed that self-recovery process occurs in soils previously polluted with heavy metals which can be revealed by fermentative activity. The investigations revealed that during 1989 – 2009, the activity of ferments in the plough layers of the medium and highly polluted soils increased by 31.2 – 52.6% (invertase – 31.2%, urease – 52.6%, phosphatase – 33.3%, catalase – 41.8%) and 24.1 – 87.0% (invertase – 40.4%, urease – 76.9%, phosphatase – 24.1%, catalase – 87.0%) respectively which indicated that the dynamic properties of the soils, which had been broken due to heavy metal pollution, were improved. In 1989, the activity of the Alaverdi copper smelting plant was temporarily stopped due to financial problems caused by the economic crisis and the absence of market, and the factory again started operation in 1997 and isn’t currently running at full capacity. As a result, the Debed river water has obtained a new chemical composition and comparatively good irrigation properties. Due to irrigation with this water, the gradually recovery of the soil dynamic properties, which had been broken due to irrigation with the waters polluted with heavy metals, was occurred. This is also explained by the fact that in case of irrigation with the partially cleaned water, the soil protective function against pollutants rose due to a content increase in humus and silt fractions. It is supposed that in case of the soil irrigation with the partially cleaned water, the intensity of fermentative reactions wasn’t directly affected by heavy metals.
Application of Recycled Paper Mill Sludge on the Growth of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Effect on Soil Properties, Nutrients and Heavy Metals
The paper industry performs an essential role in the global economy of the world. A study was conducted on the paper mill sludge that is applied on the Khaya senegalensis for 1 year planning period at University Agriculture Park, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia to determine the growth of Khaya senegalensis, soil properties, nutrients concentrations and effects on the status of heavy metals. Paper Mill Sludge (PMS) and composted Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) were used with different rates of nitrogen (0, 150, 300 and 600 kg ha-1) at the ratio of 1:1 (Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) : Empty Fruit Brunch (EFB). The growth parameters were measured twice a month for 1 year. Plant nutrients and heavy metal uptake were determined. The paper mill sludge has the potential to be a supplementary N fertilizer as well as a soil amendment. The application of RPMS with N, significantly contributed to the improvement in plant growth parameters such as plant height (4.24 m), basal diameter (10.30 cm), total plant biomass and improved soil physical and chemical properties. The pH, EC, available P and total C in soil were varied among the treatments during the planting period. The treatments with raw and RPM compost had higher pH values than those applied with inorganic fertilizer and control. Nevertheless, there was no salinity problem recorded during the planting period and available P in soil treated with raw and RPMS compost was higher than the control plots that reflects the mineralization of organic P from the decomposition of pulp sludge. The weight of the free and occluded light fractions of carbon concentration was significantly higher in the soils treated with raw and RPMS compost. The application of raw and composted RPMS gave significantly higher concentration of the heavy metals, but the total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were below the critical values. Hence, the paper mill sludge can be successfully used as soil amendment in acidic soil without any serious threat. The use of paper mill sludge for the soil fertility, shows improvement in land application signifies a unique opportunity to recycle sludge back to the land to alleviate the potential waste management problem.
Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater
Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.
Phytoremediation of Chromium Using Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Cicer arietinum
Heavy metal pollution in water bodies and soil is a major and ever increasing environmental issue nowadays, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide appropriate solutions. By using specially selected and engineered metal-accumulating plants for environmental clean-up is an emerging technology called as phytoremediation. The aim of this study was to find the effect of phytoextraction of Chromium in hydroponics culture by using Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Cicer arietinum. The plants were allowed to grow in static hydroponic culture at 0, 50, 250, 500 and 750 ppm concentrations of Chromium dichromate. The germination percentage was determined. It was found that the germination percentage of the seeds decreased with an increase in the concentration of the heavy metals. The maximum permissible limit of Cr for Vigna radiate and Cicer arietinum was 500 ppm and toxicity was observed whereas at even at 750 ppm no toxicity was observed in Vigna mungo. The main aim of our experiment was to study the impact of Chromium on all the three selected plants.
Chromium Reduction Using Bacteria: Bioremediation Technologies
Bioremediation is the demand of the day. Tannery and textile effluents/waste waters have lots of pollution due to presence of hexavalent Chromium. Methodologies used in the present investigations include isolation, cultivation and purification of bacterial strain. Further characterization techniques and 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. Efficient bacterial strain capable of reducing hexavalent chromium was obtained. The strain can be used for bioremediation of industrial effluents containing hexavalent Cr. A gram negative, rod shaped and yellowish pigment producing bacterial strain from tannery effluent was isolated using nutrient agar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that isolate SA13A is associated with genus Luteimonas (99%). This isolate has been found to reduce 100% of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) (100 mg L-1) 100% in 16 h. Growth conditions were optimized for Cr (VI) reduction. Maximum reduction was observed at a temperature of 37 °C and pH 8.0. Additionally, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A showed resistance against various heavy metals like Cr+6, Cr+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Co+2, Ni+2 and Cd+2 . Hence, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A could be used as potent Cr (VI) reducing strain as well as significant bioremediator in heavy metal contaminated sites.
Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution Using Edible Crabs, Based on Food Intended for Human Consumption
The management and utilization of food resources is becoming a big issue due to rapid urbanization, wastage and non-sustainable use of food, especially in developing countries. Therefore, the use of seafood as alternative sources is strongly promoted worldwide. Marine pollution strongly affects marine organisms, which ultimately decreases their export quality. The monitoring of contamination in marine organisms is a good indicator of the environmental quality as well as seafood quality. Monitoring the accumulation of chemical elements within various tissues of organisms has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this perspective, this study was carried out to compare the previous and current levels (Year 2012 and 2014) of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn) in crabs marketed in Karachi and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. The accumulation of metals in marine organisms, both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Pb, Cd and Cr), natural and anthropogenic, is an actual food safety issue. Significant (p>0.05) variations in metal concentrations were found in all crab species between the two years, with most of the metals showing high accumulation in 2012. For toxicological risk assessment, EWI (Estimated weekly intake), Target Hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) were also assessed and high EWI, Non- cancer risk (THQ < 1) showed that there is no serious threat associated with the consumption of shellfish species on Karachi coast. The Cancer risk showed the highest risk from Cd and Pb pollution if consumed in excess. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to contaminated seafood. It could be concluded that considering the Pakistan coast, these edible species may be sensitive and vulnerable to the adverse effects of environmental contaminants; more attention should be paid to the Pb and Cd metal bioaccumulation and to toxicological risks to seafood and consumers.
A Soft Computing Approach Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Soil and Vegetables in the Republic of Macedonia
The average total concentrations of heavy metals; (cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], and zinc [Zn]) were analyzed in soil and vegetables samples collected from the different region of Macedonia during the years 2010-2012. Basic soil properties such as pH, organic matter and clay content were also included in the study. The average concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn in the A horizon (0-30 cm) of agricultural soils were as follows, respectively: 0.25, 5.3, 6.9, 15.2, 26.3 mg kg-1 of soil. We have found that neural networking model can be considered as a tool for prediction and spatial analysis of the processes controlling the metal transfer within the soil-and vegetables. The predictive ability of such models is well over 80% as compared to 20% for typical regression models. A radial basic function network reflects good predicting accuracy and correlation coefficients between soil properties and metal content in vegetables much better than the back-propagation method. Neural Networking / soft computing can support the decision-making processes at different levels, including agro ecology, to improve crop management based on monitoring data and risk assessment of metal transfer from soils to vegetables.
Heavy Metal Contamination and Environmental Risk in Surface Sediments along the Coasts of Suez and Aqaba Gulfs, Egypt
Sandy surface sediments collected from fourteen sites along the gulfs of Suez and Aqaba coasts, Egypt were analyzed for heavy metals including Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Chromium, Nickel, Lead, Copper and Cadmium in order to evaluate the pollution status and environmental risk assessment of the study area. The obtained results showed that the concentrations of investigated metals are represented in the following sequence; For Gulf of Aqaba sediments Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd. While for Gulf of Suez Sediments Fe > Mn > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd. The degree of surface sediment contamination using Geo-accumulation index (I geo) and Metal Pollution Index (MPI) was computed. Higher MPI values were observed at the sites III (Nama Bay) and VIII (Rex Beach). According to Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) approach, Pb and Cu in the gulf of Suez at station IX (Kabanon Beach) had probably adverse ecological effects to marine organisms.
Risk Assessment of Contamination by Heavy Metals in Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex of Iran Using Topsis Method
In recent years, the study of soil contamination problems surrounding mines and smelting plants has attracted some serious attention of the environmental experts. These elements due to the non- chemical disintegration and nature are counted as environmental stable and durable contaminants. Variability of these contaminants in the soil and the time and financial limitation for the favorable environmental application, in order to reduce the risk of their irreparable negative consequences on environment, caused to apply the favorable grading of these contaminant for the further success of the risk management processes. In this study, we use the contaminants factor risk indices, average concentration, enrichment factor and geoaccumulation indices for evaluating the metal contaminant of including Pb, Ni, Se, Mo and Zn in the soil of Sarcheshmeh copper mine area. For this purpose, 120 surface soil samples up to the depth of 30 cm have been provided from the study area. And the metals have been analyzed using ICP-MS method. Comparison of the heavy and potentially toxic elements concentration in the soil samples with the world average value of the uncontaminated soil and shale average indicates that the value of Zn, Pb, Ni, Se and Mo is higher than the world average value and only the Ni element shows the lower value than the shale average. Expert opinions on the relative importance of each indicators were used to assign a final weighting of the metals and the heavy metals were ranked using the TOPSIS approach. This allows us to carry out efficient environmental proceedings, leading to the reduction of environmental ricks form the contaminants. According to the results, Ni, Pb, Mo, Zn, and Se have the highest rate of risk contamination in the soil samples of the study area.
Natural and Construction/Demolition Waste Aggregates: A Comparative Study
Disposal of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) in embankments in the periphery of cities causes both environmental and social problems. To achieve the management of C&DW, a detailed analysis of the properties of these materials should be done. In this work we report a comparative study of the physical, chemical and environmental properties of natural and C&DW aggregates from 25 different origins. Assays were performed according to European Standards. Analysis of heavy metals and organic compounds, namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were performed. Finally, properties of concrete prepared with C&DW aggregates are reported. Physical analyses of C&DW aggregates indicated lower quality properties than natural aggregates, particularly for concrete preparation and unbound layers of road pavements. Chemical properties showed that most samples (80%) meet the values required by European regulations for concrete and unbound layers of road pavements. Analyses of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and Zn in the C&DW leachates showed levels below the limits established by the Council Decision of 19 December 2002. Identification and quantification of PCBs and PAHs indicated that few samples shows the presence of these compounds. The measured levels of PCBs and PAHs are also below the limits. Other compounds identified in the C&DW leachates include phthalates and diphenylmethanol. The characterized C&DW aggregates show lower quality properties than natural aggregates but most samples showed to be environmentally safe. A continuous monitoring of the presence of heavy metals and organic compounds should be made to trial safe C&DW aggregates. C&DW aggregates provide a good economic and environmental alternative to natural aggregates.
The Study of Effective Microorganism's Biopreperation for Wastewater Treatment
Many industries, tourist camps and houses, discharge aqueous effluents containing relatively high levels of heavy metals, harmful organic compounds water. Untreated effluent from these manufacturing processes has an adverse impact on the environment. A specific problem associated with waste water in the environment is accumulation in the food chain and persistence in the environment. The screening of microorganisms resistant to pollution and able to detoxification them is essential for the development of clean-up technologies. The purpose of this study is to use advanced microbiological technology products for oxidizing organic and heavy metals pollutants as a biological treatment, to reduce water pollution, which arise as a result of waste water due to day-to-day operations of industries and houses of Ulaanbaatar city and tourist camps located around the lake Hovsgol, in Hovsgol province of Mongolia. By comparing the results from tests of effective microorganism’s bio-preparation treated sewage samples and not treated sewage samples shows that the treated sewage samples pollution decreased defending on treatment period and ratio. Treated water analyses show that: the suspended solids 352 mg/l, pH 5.85-7.95, ammonium nitrate 81.25-221.2 mg NH₄/l, nitrite 0.088-0.227 mg NO₂/l, nitrate 8.5-11.5 mg NO₃/l, and orthophosphate 1.06-15.46 mg PO₄/l. Also, heavy metals were decreased and microbiological test results defined parameters, respectively show the waste water pollution was reduced.
Feasibility Studies on the Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Using Agro-Based Waste Materials
In recent years, the problem of water contaminant is drastically increasing due to the disposal of industrial wastewater containing iron, fluoride, mercury, lead, cadmium, phosphorus, silver etc. into water bodies. The non-biodegradable heavy metals could accumulate in the human system through food chain and cause various dreadful diseases and permanent disabilities and in worst cases it leads to casual losses. Further, the presence of the excess quantity of such heavy metals viz. Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel, Zinc, Copper, Iron etc. seriously affect the natural quality of potable water and necessitates the treatment process for removal. Though there are dozens of standard procedures available for the removal of heavy metals, their cost keeps the industrialists away from adopting such technologies. In the present work, an attempt has been made to remove such contaminants particularly fluoride and to study the efficiency of the removal of fluoride by adsorption using a new agro-based materials namely Limonia acidissima and Emblica officinalis which is commonly referred as wood apple and gooseberry respectively. Accordingly a set of experiments has been conducted using batch and column processes, with the help of activated carbon prepared from the shell of wood apple and seeds of gooseberries. Experiments reveal that the adsorption capacity of the shell of wood apple is significant to yield promising solutions.
Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils at Electronic Waste Activity Sites within the Vicinity of Alaba International Market, Nigeria
Digital globalisation and yarn of Nigeria society to overcome the digital divide have resulted in contamination of soil by heavy metals (HMs) from e-waste activities at Alaba international market, Lagos, Nigeria. The aim of this research was to determine the concentration of various metals {Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), and Lead (Pb)} and identify their ecological and health risks for the people within the study area. A total of 60 soil samples were collected at Alaba market study area. Two types of samples were collected from each sampling points: topsoil (0-15 cm), subsoil (15 -30 cm). The metal concentration results showed that the soils were heavily contaminated by HMs at topsoil and subsoil. The geoaccummulation and ecological risk indices revealed high pollution level from all studied site. The health risk assessment results suggested that there is high possibility of carcinogenic risk to humans because the carcinogenic risk via corresponding exposure pathways exceeded the safety limit of 10-6 (the acceptable level of carcinogenic risk for human). Furthermore, inhalation of soil particles is the main exposure pathway for Cr to enter the human body for all ages. Children in the vicinity are exposed more to ingestion of Pb since they tend to eat earth (pica) and repeatedly suck their fingers. This study provides basic information to create awareness for a need to introduce pollution control measures and the need to protect the ecosystem and human health within the study area at Alaba international market.
Drinking Water Quality of Lahore Pakistan: A Comparison of Quality of Drinking Water from Source and Distribution System
The study monitors the quality of drinking water consumed by urban population of Lahore. A total of 50 drinking water samples (16 from source and 34 from distribution system) were examined for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters. The parameters including pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, total alkalinity, carbonate, sulphate, chloride, nitrite, fluoride, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Sixteen out of fifty samples showed high values of alkalinity compared to EPA standards and WHO guidelines. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chromium, iron, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead. Trace amounts of heavy metals were detected in some samples, however for most of the samples values were within the permissible limits although high concentration of zinc was detected in one sample collected from Mughal Pura area. Fifteen samples were analyzed for arsenic. The results were unsatisfactory; around 73% samples showed exceeding values of As. WHO has suggested permissible limits of arsenic < 0.01 ppm, whereas 27 % of samples have shown 0.05 ppm arsenic, which is five times greater than WHO highest permissible limits. All the samples were examined for E. coli bacteria. On the basis of bacteriological analysis, 42 % samples did not meet WHO guidelines and were unsafe for drinking.
Risk Prediction Based on Heavy Metal Distribution in Groundwater
Anthropogenic control on groundwater chemistry has emerged as a critical concern now-a-days, especially in the industrial areas. In view of this, a comprehensive study on the distribution of the heavy metal in the groundwater was conducted to investigate the impact of urbanization in the aquatic media. Water samples either from well or borehole from Fourty different sites in and around, Durgapur, West Bengal were collected for this purpose. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for Calcium (Ca), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Sodium (Na), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) content and the levels were compared with WHO specified maximum contaminant level as well as permissible limits given by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The result obtained from the present study indicates a significant risk to the population of this important emerging ‘smart city’ of eastern India. Because of the toxicity of these metals and the fact that for many tube-wells, dug-wells and bore-wells are the only sources of the water supply for a major fraction of the population in this environment. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop metal contamination risk map.
Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant
A study was carried out to assess the heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations of water from the waste water treatment plant in Mafikeng Local Municipality to evaluate treatment efficiency. Ten water samples were collected from various stages of water treatment which included sewage delivered to the plant, the two treatment stages and the effluent and also the community. The samples were analyzed for heavy metal content using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Gross α/β activity concentration in water samples was evaluated by Liquid Scintillation Counting whereas the concentration of individual radionuclides was measured by gamma spectroscopy. The results showed marked reduction in the levels of heavy metal concentration from 3 µg/L (As)–670 µg/L (Na) in sewage into the plant to 2 µg/L (As)–170 µg/L (Fe) in the effluent. Beta activity was not detected in water samples except in the in-coming sewage, the concentration of which was within reference limits. However, the gross α activity in all the water samples (7.7-8.02 Bq/L) exceeded the 0.1 Bq/L limit set by World Health Organization (WHO). Gamma spectroscopy analysis revealed very high concentrations of 235U and 226Ra in water samples, with the lowest concentrations (9.35 and 5.44 Bq/L respectively) in the in-coming sewage and highest concentrations (73.8 and 47 Bq/L respectively) in the community water suggesting contamination along water processing line. All the values were considerably higher than the limits of South Africa Target Water Quality Range and WHO. However, the estimated total doses of the two radionuclides for the analyzed water samples (10.62 - 45.40 µSv yr-1) were all well below the reference level of the committed effective dose of 100 µSv yr-1 recommended by WHO.
Gambusia an Excellent Indicator of Metals Stress
The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied in freshwater fish exposed to two heavy metals lead and cadmium. Measurements were made after short exposures (4 and 7 days) at concentrations of 1, 5, and 7μg/L cadmium and 1.25, 2.25, and 5 mg/L of lead. Cadmium induced no significant increases in activity of AChE in the gills for the lowest dose. Except significant inhibition on 7 days. In muscle of Gambusia, under stress of metallic lead, the activity increases compared to the control are noted at 4 days of treatment and inhibitions to 7 days of exposure. The analysis of variance (time, treatment) indicates only a very significant time effect (p< 0.05), and as for cadmium, a significant body effect (p< 0.01) is recorded. This small fish sedentary, colonizing particularly quiet environments, polluted, can only be the ideal bioindicator of contamination and bioaccumulation of metals. The presence of lead and cadmium in the bodies of fish is a risk factor not only for the lives of these aquatic species, but also for the man who is the top predator at the end of the food chain.
Heavy Metals of Natural Phosphate Ore and the Way They Affect the Various Mineralurgic Modes of Treatment
The study focused on the qualitative and quantitative study of Trace elements contained in the natural phosphate ore of Djebel Onk layer and their behaviour to the various mineralurgic modes of treatment. The main objective is to locate the importance of these contents according to granulometry and their association with the existing mineralogical species and to define how the most appropriate treatment. The raw ore is in first submitted to a prior mechanical treatment consisting of homogenization operations, of grinding and of sifting, in order to separate it into three particle-size classes: fine 500 µm (G), and then treated by calcination, washing and floatation. The identification of the different mineralogical phases, the chemical composition and the thermal behaviour of these samples were realized by various techniques: MEB, DRX, ATG-ATD, etc. The study of Trace elements, carried out by ICP-MS, identified thirty items, consisting mainly of rare earths and of transition metals. A close relation between trace elements and various minerals phases (apatite, dolomite and silicates), through operations of substitution. These elements are distributed between several mineralogical phases, in particular apatite (strontium, uranium, chrome, barium, cadmium) and silicates (strontium, sodium, nickel, zinc and copper).
Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contamination and Assessment of the Suitability of Water for Irrigation: A Case Study of the Sand River, Limpopo Province, South Africa
The primary objective of this study was to determine heavy metal contamination in the water, sediment, grass and fish in Sand River, South Africa. This river passes through an urban area and sewage effluent is discharged into it. Water from the Sand river is subsequently used for irrigation downstream of the sewage treatment works. The suitability of this water and the surrounding boreholes for irrigation was determined. This study was undertaken between January, 2014 and January, 2015. Monthly samples were taken from four sites. Sites 1 was upstream of the Polokwane Wastewater Treatment Plant, sites 2, 3 and 4 were downstream. Ten boreholes in the vicinity of the Sand River were randomly selected and the water was tested for heavy metal contamination. The concentration of heavy metals in Sand River water followed the order Mn>Fe>Pb>Cu≥Zn≥Cd. Manganese concentration averaged 0.34 mg/L. Heavy metal concentration in the sediment, grass and fish followed the order Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. The bioaccumulation factor from grass to fish was highest in manganese (19.25), followed by zinc (16.39) and iron (14.14). Soil permeability index (PI) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) were used to determine the suitability of Sand River and borehole water for irrigation. The PI index for Sand River water was 75.1% and this indicates that Sand River water is suitable for irrigation of crops. The PI index for the borehole water ranged from 65.8-72.8% and again this indicates suitability of borehole water for crop irrigation. The sodium adsorption ratio also indicated that both Sand River and borehole water were suitable for irrigation. A risk assessment study is recommended to determine the suitability of the fish for human consumption.
An Evaluation of Air Pollutant Concentrations in Gyor, Hungary
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration levels of common inorganic gases, benzene and particulate matter (PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅) in ambient air of Győr (Hungary) based on the latest published monitoring data. The concentrations of PM10-bound heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As and Ni) and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also assessed. The levels of pollutants were compared with the Hungarian and EU limit or target values defined for health protection and the WHO air quality guidelines (AQGs) or estimated reference levels. Based on the Hungarian or the EU air quality standards and using the Hungarian Air Quality Index it was found that mainly an excellent (SO₂, CO, C₆H₆, heavy metals) or good (NO₂, O₃, PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)) air quality was observed in the urban area of Győr for the year 2016. The annual mean pollutant concentrations (excluding BaP) were not exceeded or just reached the WHO AQGs or reference levels.
Levels of Toxic Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf
In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.
Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Modified Fly Ash
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is the generation of acidic water from active as well as abandoned mines. AMD generates due to the oxidation of pyrites present in the rock in mining areas. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans acts as a catalyst in this oxidation process. The characteristics of AMD is extreme low pH (2-3) with elevated concentration of different heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such sulfate and chloride. AMD contaminate the ground water as well as surface water which leads to the degradation of water quality. Moreover, it carries detrimental effect for aquatic organism and degrade the environment. In the present study, AMD is treated with fly ash, modified with alkaline agent (NaOH). This modified fly ash (MFA) was experimentally proven as a very effective neutralizing agent for the treatment of AMD. It was observed that pH of treated AMD raised to 9.22 from 1.51 with 100g/L of MFA dose. Approximately, 99% removal of Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co took place with the same MFA dose. The treated water comply with the effluent discharge standard of (IS: 2490-1981).
Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon and Some Heavy Metal Polluted Wastewater Effluent of a Typical Refinery
Environment free of pollutants should be the concern of every individual but with industrialization and urbanization it is difficult to achieve. In view of achieving a pollution limited environment at low cost, a study was conducted on the use of bioremediation technology to remediate hydrocarbons and three heavy metals namely; copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) from a typical petroleum refinery wastewater in a closed system. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics on the wastewater sample revealed that it was polluted with the aforementioned pollutants. Isolation and identification of microorganisms present in the wastewater sample revealed the presence of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bioremediation experiments carried out on five batch reactors with different compositions but at same environmental conditions revealed that treatment T5 (boosted with the association of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus) gave the best result in terms of oil and grease content removal (i.e. 67% in 63 days). In addition, these microorganisms were able of reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in the sample. Treatments T5, T3 (boosted with Bacillus subtilis only) and T4 (boosted with Micrococcus luteus only) gave optimum percentage uptakes of 65, 75 and 25 for Cu, Zn and Fe respectively.
Toxicological Standardization of Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamination Haematinic Herbal Formulations Marketed in India
Backgound: In India, drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines such as Unani and Ayurveda since ancient times. WHO limit for Escherichia coli is 101/gm cfu, for Staphylococus aureus 105/gm cfu, and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 103/gm cfu and for Salmonella species nil cfu. WHO mentions maximum permissible limits in raw materials only for arsenic, cadmium, and lead, which amount to 1.0, 0.3, and 10 ppm, respectively. Aim: The main purpose of the investigation was to document evidence for the users, and practitioners of marketed haematinic herbal formulations. In the present study haematinic herbal formulations marketed in Yavatmal India were determined for the presence of microbial and heavy metal content. Method: The investigations were performed by using specific medias and atomic absorption spectrometry. Result: The present work indicates the presence of heavy metal contents in herbal formulations selected for study. It was found that arsenic content in formulations was below the permissible limit in all formulations. The cadmium and lead content in six formulations were above the permissible limits. Such formulations are injurious to health of patient if consumed regularly. The specific medias were used to determining the presence of Escherichia coli 4 samples, Staphylococcus aureus 3 samples, and P. aeruginosa 4 samples. The data indicated suggest that there is requirement of in process improvement to provide better quality for consumer health in order to be competitive in international markets. Summary/Conclusion: The presence of microbial and heavy metal content above WHO limits indicates that the GMP was not followed during manufacturing of herbal formulations marketed in India.
Adsorption Mechanism of Heavy Metals and Organic Pesticide on Industrial Construction and Demolition Waste and Its Runoff Behaviors
Adsorption of heavy metal pollutants (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu) and organic pesticide (phorate, dithiophosphate diethyl, triethyl phosphorothioate), along with their multi-contamination on the surface of industrial construction & demolition waste (C&D waste) was investigated. Brick powder was selected as the appropriate waste while its maximum equilibrium adsorption amount of heavy metal under single controlled contamination matrix reached 5.41, 0.81, 0.45, 1.13 and 0.97 mg/g, respectively. Effects of pH and spiking dose of ICDW was also investigated. Equilibrium adsorption amount of organic pesticide varied from 0.02 to 0.97 mg/g, which was negatively correlated to the size distribution and hydrophilism. Existence of organic pesticide on surface of ICDW caused various effects on the heavy metal adsorption, mainly due to combination of metal ions and the floccule formation along with wrapping behaviors by pesticide pollutants. Adsorption of Zn was sharply decreased from 7.1 to 0.15 mg/g compared with clean ICDW and phorate contaminated ICDW, while that of Pb, Cr and Cd experienced an increase- then decrease procedure. On the other hand, runoff of pesticide contaminants was investigated under 25 mm/h simulated rainfall. Results showed that the cumulative runoff amount fitted well with curve obtained from a power function, of which r2=0.95 and 0.91 for 1DAA (1 day between contamination and runoff) and 7DAA, respectively. This study helps provide evaluation of industrial construction and demolition waste contamination into aquatic systems.
Cadmium Separation from Aqueous Solutions by Natural Biosorbents
Removal of metal ions from different wastewaters has become important due to their effects on living beings. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals found in different industrial wastewaters. There are many conventional methods available to remove heavy metals from wastewaters like adsorption, membrane separations, precipitation, electrolytic methods, etc. and all of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. The present work deals with the use of natural biosorbents (chitin and chitosan) to separate cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption data were fitted with different isotherms and kinetics models. Amongst different adsorption isotherms used to fit the adsorption data, the Freundlich isotherm showed better fits for both the biosorbents. The kinetics data of adsorption of cadmium showed better fit with pseudo-second order model for both the biosorbents. Chitosan, the derivative from chitin, showed better performance than chitin. The separation results are encouraging.
Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediments of Tidal Flat Marsh, the Case Study: Shuangtai Estuary, China
Heavy metals in sediments can cause adverse ecological effects while it exceeds a given criteria. The present study investigated sediment environmental quality, pollutant enrichment, ecological risk, and source identification for copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, mercury, and arsenic in the sediments collected from tidal flat marsh of Shuangtai estuary, China. The arithmetic mean integrated pollution index, geometric mean integrated pollution index, fuzzy integrated pollution index, and principal component score were used to characterize sediment environmental quality; fuzzy similarity and geo-accumulation Index were used to evaluate pollutant enrichment; correlation matrix, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were used to identify source of pollution; environmental risk index and potential ecological risk index were used to assess ecological risk. The environmental qualities of sediment are classified to very low degree of contamination or low contamination. The similar order to element background of soil in the Liaohe plain is region of Sanjiaozhou, Honghaitan, Sandaogou, Xiaohe by pollutant enrichment analysis. The source identification indicates that correlations are significantly among metals except between copper and cadmium. Cadmium, lead, zinc, mercury, and arsenic will be clustered in the same clustering as the first principal component. Copper will be clustered as second principal component. The environmental risk assessment level will be scaled to no risk in the studied area. The order of potential ecological risk is As > Cd > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn.
Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Tissues of Ipomoea Batatas and Manihot Esculenta Irrigated with Water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria
Scarcity of quality water in many communities compels inhabitants to use any available water resources for domestic, recreational, industrial and agricultural purposes. Global concern on the potential health hazards of anthropogenic inputs into our ecosystems imposes the need for constant monitoring of levels of pollutants in order to ensure compliance with internationally acceptable criteria. In this research, assessment of bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn was carried out using tissues of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) irrigated with water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam in Kazaure, Jigawa State. The metal concentrations were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). The result of the analysis revealed the presence of the metals in varying concentrations. Cd and Co showed higher concentrations in the tubers of Manihot esculenta but all the other investigated metals were more concentrated in the leaves of the plant. Cd and Cu on the other hand showed higher concentration in the root of Ipomoea batatas while the remaining investigated metals were concentrated more in the leaves of the plant. The result of analysis of water samples from five sampling stations in the Dam showed the presence of the metals as follows: Cd, (0.063±0.02 mg/L), Co (0.086±0.03 mg/L), Cu (0.167±0.08 mg/L), Pb (0.22±0.01 mg/L) and Zn (0.047±0.01 mg/L) respectively. The results of bioaccumulation studies using the Bioaccumulation Factors (BAF) index indicated Ipomoea batatas to have higher bioaccumulation potential for Cd, Co and Cu while Pb and Zn were more accumulated in Manihot esculenta. The levels of the metals in both the water samples and plant tissues were all below the WHO permissible limit. This is indicative that the inhabitants of the community under investigation are not at any health risk.
Physical, Chemical and Environmental Properties of Natural and Construction/Demolition Recycled Aggregates
Uncontrolled disposal of construction and demolition waste (C & DW) in embankments in the periphery of cities causes both environmental and social problems, namely erosion, deforestation, water contamination and human conflicts. One of the milestones of EU Horizon 2020 Programme is the management of waste as a resource. To achieve this purpose for C & DW, a detailed analysis of the properties of these materials should be done. In this work we report the physical, chemical and environmental properties of C & DW aggregates from 25 different origins. The results are compared with those of common natural aggregates used in construction. Assays were performed according to European Standards. Additional analysis of heavy metals and organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were performed to evaluate their environmental impact. Finally, properties of concrete prepared with C & DW aggregates are also reported. Physical analyses of C & DW aggregates indicated lower quality properties than natural aggregates, particularly for concrete preparation and unbound layers of road pavements. Chemical properties showed that most samples (80%) meet the values required by European regulations for concrete and unbound layers of road pavements. Analyses of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and Zn in the C&DW leachates showed levels below the limits established by the Council Decision of 19 December 2002. Identification and quantification of PCBs and PAHs indicated that few samples shows the presence of these compounds. The measured levels of PCBs and PAHs are also below the limits. Other compounds identified in the C&DW leachates include phthalates and diphenylmethanol. In conclusion, the characterized C&DW aggregates show lower quality properties than natural aggregates but most samples showed to be environmentally safe. A continuous monitoring of the presence of heavy metals and organic compounds should be made to trial safe C&DW aggregates. C&DW aggregates provide a good economic and environmental alternative to natural aggregates.
Effluent from Royal LERD Wastewater Treatment Systems to Furnish Nutrients for Phytoplankton to Generate the Abundance of Hard Clam (Meretrix spp.) on Muddy Beach
The King’s Royally Initiated Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Development Project (“the Royal LERD Project”) is located in Laem Phak Bia Sub-District, Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi Province, Thailand. Phetchaburi municipal wastewater was treated with a simple technology by using aquatic plants, constructed wetland, oxidation ponds through a nature-by-nature process. The effluent from the Royal LERD Project was discharged into Laem Phak Bia muddy beach. The soil sediment samples were collected from two zones (200 and 600 meters from the coast of the beach), and tested for cation-exchange capacity (CEC), pH and organic matter and soil particles content. The marine water samples were also collected from the beach in wet and dry seasons and analyzed for its quality and compositions, including but not limited to, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), nutrients, heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb), and phytoplankton at high and low tides. The soil texture was sandy loam with high concentration of calcium and magnesium which showed a property of base (pH 8). The marine water was qualified with the standard limits of coastal water quality. A dominant species was Coscinodiscus sp. It was found approximately 70.46% of total phytoplankton species in Meretrix casta gastrointestinal tract. The concentration of the heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) in the tissues and water content of two species of hard clams indicated that heavy metals in Meretrix casta were higher than those in Meretrix meretrix. However, the heavy metals in both species were under the standard limits and safe for consumption. It can be concluded that nutrients in effluent from the wastewater treatment systems play important role in promoting the growth of phytoplankton and generating abundance of hard clams on muddy beach.
Experimental Studies on Fly Ash-Waste Sludge Mix Reinforced with Geofibres
The aim of the present study is to carry out investigations on Class F fly ash obtained from NTPC thermal power plant, Dadri, U.P. (India) and electroplating waste sludge from Aligarh, U.P. (India) along with geofibre for its subsequent utilization in various geotechnical and highway engineering applications. The experimental studies such as California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were carried out to evaluate the strength of plain fly ash as well as fly ash-waste sludge mix reinforced with geofibre, as the CBR value is the vital parameters used in the design of flexible and rigid pavements. Results of the study show that the strength of the mix is highly dependent on the curing period and the sludge and geofibre content. The CBR values were determined for mix containing fly ash (83.5-93.5%), waste sludge (5-15%) and 1-2% geofibre. However, out of the various combinations of mixes the CBR value of the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%GF at 28 days of curing was found to be 53.52% when compared with the strength of plain fly ash. It has been observed that the fibre inclusion increases the strength of the plain fly ash and fly ash-waste sludge specimens by changing their brittle to ductile behavior. The TCLP leaching test was also conducted to determine the heavy metal concentration in the optimized mix. The results of TCLP test show that the heavy metal concentration in the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%G at 28 days of curing reduced substantially from 24 to 98% when compared with the concentration of heavy metals in the waste sludge collected from source. It has also been observed that the pH of the leachate of this mix is between 9-11, which ensures the proper stabilization of the heavy metals present in the mix. Hence, this study will certainly help in mass scale utilization of two industrial wastes viz., electroplating waste and fly ash, which are causing pollution to the environment to a great extent.
Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Surfactants and Biosurfactants
The objective of this work is the use of natural surfactant (biosurfactant) and synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween 80) for environmental application. In fact the solubility of the polycyclic hydrocarbon (naphthalene) and the desorption of the heavy metals in the presence of surfactants. The microorganisms selected in this work are bacterial strain (Bacillus licheniformis) for the production of biosurfactant for use in this study. In the first part of this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants solubilization certain hydrocarbons few soluble in water such as polyaromatic (case naphthalene). Tests have shown that from the critical micelle concentration, decontamination is performed. The second part presents the results on the desorption of heavy metals (for copper) by the three surfactants, using concentrations above the critical micelle concentration. The comparison between the desorption of copper by the three surfactants, it is shown that the biosurfactant is more effective than tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate.
Toxicological Effects of Heavy Metals; Copper, Lead and Chromium on Brain and Liver Tissue of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
The present study deals with the toxicological effects of copper, lead and chromium on brain and liver tissues of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The average length of experimental fish was 8.5 ± 5.5 cm and weighed 9.5 ± 6.5 g. Grass carp was exposed to lethal concentration (LC₁₅) of copper, lead and chromium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. (LC₁₅) for copper was 1.5, 1.4, 1.2 and 1mgL⁻¹. Similarly, LC₁₅ of lead was 250, 235, 225 and 216mgL⁻¹ while (LC₁₅) for chromium was 25.5, 22.5, 20 and 18mgL⁻¹ respectively. During the time of exposure against various doses of heavy metals the grass carp showed some behavioral changes. In the initial stages of experiment, the rapid movements and gulping of air were observed. Several times the fish tried to jump to scat from the toxic median. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals in different tissues of grass carp particularly in liver and brain tissues were observed. Lead was highly accumulated in brain tissue after the exposure of fish for 24 and 48 hours, while highly accumulated in liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 72 and 96 hours. Chromium was highly accumulated in the liver tissues after the exposure of fish for 24 hours while its accumulation was found highly in the brain tissues after the exposure of fish for 48, 72 and 96 hours. Similarly, accumulation of copper concentration was found highly in brain tissues after the exposure of 48 and 96 hours while its accumulation was high in liver tissues after the exposure of 24 and 72 hours. Comparatively maximum accumulation of lead was found in brain and liver tissues of grass carp followed by chromium and copper. Furthermore, accumulation of these metals caused many abnormalities like gliosis, destruction of cell, change in cell shape and shrinkage of cells in brain tissue while in liver tissues aggregation in hepatocytes, widen space between cells and also destruction of cell was observed. These experiments and observations can be useful to monitor the aquatic pollution and quality of aquatic environment system.
The Bioaccumulation of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), and Chromium (Cr) in Relation to Personal and Social Habits in Electronic Repair Technicians in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria: A Pilot Study
The presence and bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in blood, urine, nail, and hair samples of electronic repair technicians in Kaduna-Nigeria were assessed using Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. 10 electronic repair technicians from within Kaduna Metropolis volunteered for the pilot study. The mean blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr in the subjects were 29.33 ± 4.80, 7.78 ± 10.57, and 24.78 ± 21.77 µg/dL, respectively. The mean urine concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr were 24.18 ± 2.98, 6.81 ± 10.05, and 14.78 ± 14.20 µg/dL, respectively. Mean nail metal values of 37.13 ± 4.08, 1.00 ± 1.21, and 18.49 ± 12.71 µg/g were obtained for Pb, Cd, and Cr, respectively while mean hair metal values of 39.41 ± 5.63, 1.09 ± 1.14, and 19.13 ± 11.61 µg/g for Pb, Cd, and Cr, respectively. Positive Pearson correlation coefficients were observed between Pb/Cd, Pb/Cr, and Cd/Cr in all samples and they indicate the metals are likely from the same pollution source. The mean concentrations of the metals in all samples were higher than the WHO, ILO, and ACGIH standards, implying the repairers are likely occupationally exposed and are subject to serious health concerns. Social habits like smoking were found to significantly affect the concentrations of these metals. The level of education, use of safety devices, period of exposure, the nature of electronics and the age of the repairers were also found to remarkably affect the concentrations of the metals.
Effect of Vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhiza on Phytoremedial Potential and Physiological Changes in Solanum melongena Plants Grown under Heavy Metal Stress
Heavy metal contamination of soil is a growing area of concern since the soil is the matrix that supports flora and impacts humans directly. Phytoremediation of contaminated sites is gaining popularity due to its cost effectiveness and solar driven nature. Some hyperaccumulators have been identified for their potential. Metal-accumulating plants have various mechanisms to cope up with stress and one of them is increasing antioxidative capacity. The aim of this research is to assess the effect of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) application on the phytoremedial potential of Solanum melongena (Eggplant) and level of photosynthetic pigments along with antioxidative enzymes. Results showed that VAM application increased shoot length, root proliferation pattern of plants. The level of photosynthetic pigments, proline, SOD, CAT, APX altered significantly in response to heavy metal treatment. In conclusion, VAM increased the uptake of heavy metals which lead to the activation of the defense system in plants for scavenging free radicals.
Safe Disposal of Processed Industrial Biomass as Alternative Organic Manure in Agriculture
It is necessary to dispose of generated industrial wastes in the proper way to overcome the further pollution for a safe environment. Waste can be used in agriculture for good quality higher food production. In order to evaluate the effect and rate of processed industrial biomass on yield, contents, uptake and soil status in maize, a field experiment was conducted during 2009 - 2011 at Anand on loamy sand soil for two years. The treatments of different levels of NPK i.e. 100% RD, 75% RD and 50% RD were kept to study the possibility of reduction in fertilizer application with the use of processed biomass (BM) in different proportion with FYM. (Where, RD= Recommended dose, FYM= Farm Yard Manure, BM= Processed Biomass.) The significantly highest grain yield of maize was recorded under the treatment of 75% NPK + BM application @ 10t ha-1. The higher (10t ha-1) and lower (5t ha-1) application rate of BM with full dose of NPK was found beneficial being at par with the treatment 75% NPK along with BM application @ 10t ha-1. There is saving of 25% recommended dose of NPK when combined with BM application @ 10.0t ha-1 or 50% saving of organics when applied with full dose (100%) of NPK. The highest straw yield (7734 kg ha-1) of maize on pooled basis was observed under the treatment of recommended dose of NPK along with FYM application at 7.5t ha-1 coupled with BM application at 2.5t ha-1. It was also observed that highest straw yield was at par under all the treatments except control and application of 100% recommended dose of NPK coupled with BM application at 7.5t ha-1. The Fe content of maize straw were found altered significantly due to different treatments on pooled basis and it was noticed that biomass application at 7.5t ha-1 along with recommended dose of NPK showed significant enhancement in Fe content of straw over other treatments. Among heavy metals, Co, Pb and Cr contents of grain were found significantly altered due to application of different treatments variably during the pooled. While, Ni content of maize grain was not altered significantly due to application of different organics. However, at higher rate of BM application i.e. of 10t ha-1, there was slight increase in heavy metal content of grain/ straw as well as DTPA heavy metals in soil; although the increase was not alarming Thus, the overall results indicated that the application of BM at 5t ha-1 along with full dose of NPK is beneficial to get higher yield of maize without affecting soil / plant health adversely. It also indicated that the 5t BM ha-1 could be utilized in place of 10t FYM ha-1 where FYM availability is scarce. The 10t BM ha-1 helps to reduce a load of chemical fertilizer up to 25 percent in agriculture. The lower use of agro-chemicals always favors safe environment. However, the continuous use of biomass needs periodical monitoring to check any buildup of heavy metals in soil/ plant over the years.
Assessment of Proximate Composition and Heavy Metal in Vigna unguculata (White Beans) Sold in Kazaure Market, Jigawa State, Nigeria
Leguminous plants such as beans have been considered as a source of protein in this present work. The proximate analysis on beans (Vigna unguiculata) were determined in order to identify the nutritional content as well as presence of some heavy metals accumulation in washed and unwashed beans (white Beans) sold in Kazaure market Jigawa State Nigeria. On the average comparative analysis, the result has indicated that, the Vigna unguiculata had protein content of 61.1%, fibre 4.5%, ash 10.4%, moisture 5%, carbohydrate 15.8% and total lipid 4.9%, therefore it could be suggested that beans has enough nutritional content that helps the people health. The heavy metal analysis of unwashed white beans showed that Fe (17.37 ± 6.71)mg/kg had the highest concentration followed by Zn (6.41 ± 3.09), Cu (5.69 ± 2.42), Cd (0.46 ± 0.65) and Pb (0.57 ± 0.94)mg/kg , while the washed beans shows that Zn (0.11 ± 0.17), Fe (0.01 ± 0.006), Cd (0.02 ± 0.01), Cu (0.03 ± 0.021), Pb (0.01 ± 0.006)mg/kg. The washed white beans are safe for consumption and also the concentration of heavy metal are negligible and of nontoxic effect to human health.
Valorization of Beer Brewing Wastes by Composting
The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the residual yeast and diatomaceous earth (RYDE) slurry generated by the beer brewing industry by composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: cow manure/RYDE slurry (Pile CM) and sheep manure/RYDE slurry (Pile SM). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters. The compost quality was assessed by the heavy metals content and phytotoxicity. Both piles reached a thermophilic phase in the first day, however having different trends. The pH showed a slight alkaline character. The C/N reached values lower than 19 at the end of composting process. Generally, all the piles exhibited absence of heavy metals. However, the pile SM exhibited phytotoxicity. This study showed that RYDE slurry can be valorized by composting with cow manure.
Biosorption of Metal Ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage by Immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis in a Fixed-Bed Column
Heavy metals have a damaging impact for the environment, animals and humans due to their extreme toxicity and removing them from wastewaters is a very important and interesting task in the field of water pollution control. Biosorption is a relatively new method for treatment of wastewaters and recovery of heavy metals. In this study, a continuous fixed bed study was carried out by using Bacillus thuringiensis as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu and Mn ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height on the sorption characteristics of B. thuringiensis was investigated at pH 6.0 for each metal ion. The experimental results showed that the breakthrough time decreased with increasing flow rate and decreasing bed height. The data also indicated that the equilibrium uptake of both metals increased with decreasing flow rate and increasing bed height. BDST, Thomas, and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves. All models were found suitable for describing the whole dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. In order to regenerate the adsorbent, an elution step was carried out with 1 M HCl and five adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in continuous manner.
Impact of Long Term Application of Municipal Solid Waste on Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters and Heavy Metal Distribution in Soils in Accordance to Its Agricultural Uses
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), being a rich source of organic materials, can be used for agricultural applications as an important source of nutrients for soil and plants. This is also an alternative beneficial management practice for MSW generated in developing countries. In the present study, MSW treated soil samples from last four to six years at farmer&rsquo;s field in Rohtak and Gurgaon states (Haryana, India) were collected. The samples were analyzed for all-important agricultural parameters and compared with the control untreated soil samples. The treated soil at farmer&rsquo;s field showed increase in total N by 48 to 68%, P by 45.7 to 51.3%, and K by 60 to 67% compared to untreated soil samples. Application of sewage sludge at different sites led to increase in microbial biomass C by 60 to 68% compared to untreated soil. There was significant increase in total Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn in all sewage sludge amended soil samples; however, concentration of all the metals were still below the current permitted (EU) limits. To study the adverse effect of heavy metals accumulation on various soil microbial activities, the sewage sludge samples (from wastewater treatment plant at Gurgaon) were artificially contaminated with heavy metal concentration above the EU limits. They were then applied to soil samples with different rates (0.5 to 4.0%) and incubated for 90 days under laboratory conditions. The samples were drawn at different intervals and analyzed for various parameters like pH, EC, total N, P, K, microbial biomass C, carbon mineralization, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) exactable heavy metals. The results were compared to the uncontaminated sewage sludge. The increasing level of sewage sludge from 0.5 to 4% led to build of organic C and total N, P and K content at the early stages of incubation. But, organic C was decreased after 90 days because of decomposition of organic matter. Biomass production was significantly increased in both contaminated and uncontaminated sewage soil samples, but also led to slight increases in metal accumulation and their bioavailability in soil. The maximum metal concentrations were found in treatment with 4% of contaminated sewage sludge amendment.
Application of Nanoparticles on Surface of Commercial Carbon-Based Adsorbent for Removal of Contaminants from Water
Adsorption/sorption is believed to be one of the optimal processes for the removal of heavy metals from water due to its low operational and capital cost as well as its high removal efficiency. Different materials have been reported in literature as adsorbent for heavy metal removal in waste water such as natural sorbents, organic polymers (synthetic) and mineral materials (inorganic). The selection of adsorbents and development of new functional materials that can achieve good removal of heavy metals from water is an important practice and depends on many factors, such as the availability of the material, cost of material, and material safety and etc. In this study we reported the synthesis of doped Activated carbon and Carbon nanotube (CNT) with different loading of metal oxide nanoparticles such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles and their application in removal of heavy metals, hydrocarbon, and organics from waste water. Commercial AC and CNT with different loadings of mentioned nanoparticle were prepared and effect of pH, adsorbent dosage, sorption kinetic, and concentration effects are studied and optimum condition for removal of heavy metals from water is reported. The prepared composite sorbent is characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption technique, and Zeta potential. The composite materials showed higher removal efficiency and superior adsorption capacity compared to commercially available carbon based adsorbent. The specific surface area of AC increased by 50% reaching up to 2000 m2/g while the CNT specific surface area of CNT increased by more than 8 times reaching value of 890 m2/g. The increased surface area is one of the key parameters along with surface charge of the material determining the removal efficiency and removal efficiency. Moreover, the surface charge density of the impregnated CNT and AC have enhanced significantly where can benefit the adsorption process. The nanoparticles also enhance the catalytic activity of material and reduce the agglomeration and aggregation of material which provides more active site for adsorbing the contaminant from water. Some of the results for treating wastewater includes 100% removal of BTEX, arsenic, strontium, barium, phenolic compounds, and oil from water. The results obtained are promising for the use of AC and CNT loaded with metal oxide nanoparticle in treatment and pretreatment of waste water and produced water before desalination process. Adsorption can be very efficient with low energy consumption and economic feasibility.
Removal of Heavy Metal, Dye and Salinity from Industrial Wastewaters by Banana Rachis Cellulose Micro Crystal-Clay Composite
The consumption of water by various industries is increasing day by day, and the wastewaters from them are increasing as well. These wastewaters consist of various kinds of color, dissolved solids, toxic heavy metals, residual chlorine, and other non-degradable organic materials. If these wastewaters are exposed directly to the environment, it will be hazardous for the environment and personal health. So, it is very necessary to treat these wastewaters before exposing into the environment. In this research, we have demonstrated the successful processing and utilization of fully bio-based cellulose micro crystal (CMC) composite for the removal of heavy metals, dyes, and salinity from industrial wastewaters. Banana rachis micro-cellulose were prepared by acid hydrolysis (H₂SO₄) of banana (Musa acuminata L.) rachis fiber, and Bijoypur raw clay were treated by organic solvent tri-ethyl amine. Composites were prepared with varying different composition of banana rachis nano-cellulose and modified Bijoypur (north-east part in Bangladesh) clay. After the successful characterization of cellulose micro crystal (CMC) and modified clay, our targeted filter was fabricated with different composition of cellulose micro crystal and clay in the locally fabricated packing column with 7.5 cm as thickness of composites fraction. Waste-water was collected from local small textile industries containing basic yellow 2 as dye, lead (II) nitrate [Pb(NO₃)₂] and chromium (III) nitrate [Cr(NO₃)₃] as heavy metals and saline water was collected from Khulna to test the efficiency of banana rachis cellulose micro crystal-clay composite for removing the above impurities. The filtering efficiency of wastewater purification was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Finally, our all characterizations data are shown with very high expected results for in industrial application of our fabricated filter.
Assessment of Chemical and Physical Properties of Surface Water Resources in Flood Affected Area
Flood event that occurred in mid-December 2014 in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia has driven attention from the public nationwide. Apart from loss and damage of properties and belongings, the massive flood event has introduced environmental disturbances on surface water resources in such flood affected area. A study has been conducted to measure the physical and chemical composition of Galas River and Pergau River prior to identification the flood impact towards environmental deterioration in surrounding area. Samples that have been collected were analyzed in-situ using YSI portable instrument and also in the laboratory for acid digestion and heavy metals analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that range of temperature (0C), DO (mg/L), Ec (µs/cm), TDS (mg/L), turbidity (NTU), pH, and salinity were 25.05-26.65, 1.51-5.85, 0.032-0.054, 0.022-0.035, 23.2-76.4, 3.46-7.31, and 0.01-0.02 respectively. The results from this study could be used as a primary database to evaluate the status of water quality of the respective river after the massive flood.
The Study of Chitosan beads Adsorption Properties for the Removal of Heavy Metals
In this study, a predicted pH model was used to determine adsorption equilibrium properties of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of Cape rock-lobsters, collected from the surroundings of Cape Town, South Africa. The beads were cross-linked with gluteraldehyde to restore its chemical stability in acid media. The chitosan beads were characterized; the beads water contents and pKa varied in the range of 90-96% and 4.3-6.0 respectively and the degree of crosslinking for the beads was 18%. A pH-model, which described the reversibility of the metal adsorbed onto the beads, was used to predict the equilibrium properties of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium adsorption onto the cross-linked beads. The model accounts for the effect of pH and the important model parameters; the equilibrium adsorption constant (Kads) and to a lesser extent the adsorbent adsorption capacity (qmax). The adsorption equilibrium constant for copper, lead, zinc and cadmium were found to be 2.58×10-3, 2.22×0-3, 9.55×0-3, and 4.79×0-3, respectively. The adsorbent maximum capacity was determined to be 4.2 mmol/g.
Competitive Adsorption of Heavy Metals onto Natural and Activated Clay: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Modeling
The aim of this work is to present a low cost adsorbent for removing toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Therefore, we are interested to investigate the efficiency of natural clay minerals collected from south Tunisia and their modified form using sulfuric acid in the removal of toxic metal ions: Zn(II) and Pb(II) from synthetic waste water solutions. The obtained results indicate that metal uptake is pH-dependent and maximum removal was detected to occur at pH 6. Adsorption equilibrium is very rapid and it was achieved after 90 min for both metal ions studied. The kinetics results show that the pseudo-second-order model describes the adsorption and the intraparticle diffusion models are the limiting step. The treatment of natural clay with sulfuric acid creates more active sites and increases the surface area, so it showed an increase of the adsorbed quantities of lead and zinc in single and binary systems. The competitive adsorption study showed that the uptake of lead was inhibited in the presence of 10 mg/L of zinc. An antagonistic binary adsorption mechanism was observed. These results revealed that clay is an effective natural material for removing lead and zinc in single and binary systems from aqueous solution.
Concentration of Some Hazardous Metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) in Egg Samples Analysed from Poultry Farms Located near Automechanics Workshops, Industrial Areas and Roadsides in Kano and Kaduna
The aim of this work is to study the effect of farm site location by determining the levels of hazardous metals in poultry eggs samples collected near auto mechanics, industrial areas and roadsides in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for the analysis of the metals. The mean concentration ranges of the metals analysed in egg white and egg yolk were Pb: 0.05-0.10mgkg⁻¹, Ni: 0.10-0.30mgkg⁻¹ and Cd: not detected -0.03mgkg⁻¹. It was concluded that farm site locations has very low significant effect on the concentration of hazardous metals level.
Pollution Analysis of the Basin High in the Bogota River, Colombia
The water is an essential factor for the development and the conservation of biological diversity in Colombia; its abundant natural wealth has its origin in their water sources. These during the past few years have been altered by anthropogenic activities, in particular pollutants such as heavy metals, given its ability to infiltrate the sediments reducing its natural capacity of absorption and clean of the ecosystem. The pollutant loads by bio-accumulation remain in the ecosystem for many years; the Bogota River, located in the Cundinamarca Department, is an example of this process. Since that form in the Villapinzón municipality up to its mouth in the Magdalena River, in the Girardot municipality, along with its route it receives large amount of polluted waters from different sources. The study focused on five points of the high basin of the river; this allowed the analysis of the impact that generates the economic development of the neighboring municipalities and where the poor conditions of the ecosystem, along with low levels of oxygen generates the high values of BOD, dissolved QOD, SS TSS and DS. They have been decisive factors in the decline of the species of its own and a decrease in the supply of the eco-services.
Benthic Foraminiferal Responses to Coastal Pollution for Some Selected Sites along Red Sea, Egypt
Due to the economic importance of Safaga Bay, Quseir harbor and Ras Gharib harbor , a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to invistigate 27 surfecial sediment samples from the three sites and 9 samples for each in order to use the benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators for characterization of the environmental variations. Grain size analyses indicate that the bottom facies in the inner part of quseir is muddy while the inner part of Ras Gharib and Safaga is silty sand and those close to the entrance of Safaga bay and Ras Gharib is sandy facies while quseir still also muddy facies. geochemical data show high concentration of heavy-metals mainly in Ras Gharib due to oil leakage from the hydrocarbon oil field and Safaga bay due to the phosphate mining while quseir is medium concentration due to anthropocentric effect.micropaelontological analyses indicate the boundaries of the highest concentration of heavy metals and those of low concentration as well.the dominant benthic foraminifera in these three sites are Ammonia beccarii, Amphistigina and sorites. the study highlights the worsening of environmental conditions and also show that the areas in need of a priority recovery.
Determination of Acid Volatile Sulfides–Simultaneously Extracted Metal Relationship and Toxicity in Contaminated Sediment Layer in Mid-Black Sea Coasts
Sediment refers to the accumulation of varying amounts of sediment material in natural waters and the formation of bottom sludge. Sediments are the most important sources of pollutants as well as important future sources and carriers of pollutants. The accumulation of pollutants in sediments can cause serious environmental problems for the surrounding areas. Heavy metals (such as Cr, Cd, Al, Pb, Cu, Al, Zn) disrupt the water quality, affect the useful use of sediment, affect the ecosystem and have a toxic effect on the life of the sediment layer. This effect, which accumulates in the aquatic organisms, can enter the human body with the food chain and affect health seriously. Potential metal toxicity can be determined by comparing acid volatile sulfides (AVS) – simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) ratio in anoxic sediments to determine the effect of metals. Determination of the concentration of SEM and AVS is useful in screening sediments for potential toxicity due to the high metal concentration. In the case of SEM/AVS < 0 (anoxic sediment); in terms of AVS biomass production, its toxicity can be controlled. No toxic effects may be observed when SEM / AVS < 0. SEM / AVS > 0 (in the case of oxic sediment); metals with sensitive fraction such as Cu, As, Ag, Zn are stored. In this study, AVS and SEM measurements of sediment samples collected from five different points in the district of Tekkeköy in Samsun province were performed. The SEM - AVS ratio was greater than 0 in all samples. Therefore, it is necessary to test the toxicity against the risks that may occur in the ecosystem.
Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals by Phragmites Australis at Oeud Meboudja Annaba Algeria
The Phytoremediation has now become a necessity. Thus, in our work, we are interested in the biological wastewater treatment of Oued Meboudja. The physicochemical analysis of water after treatment showed a significant reduction of suspended matter, COD and BOD5 and rate of metals in roots for example iron and zinc. We also highlighted some significant changes in biometric and physiological parameters such as increasing the number of roots and increased respiratory metabolism through the oxygen consumption in isolated roots of Phragmites australis, placed in a polluted environment.
Feasibility Study of Mine Tailing’s Treatment by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM 26636
Among the diverse types of pollutants produced by anthropogenic activities, metals represent a serious threat, due to their accumulation in ecosystems and their elevated toxicity. The mine tailings of abandoned mines contain high levels of metals such as arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb), which do not suffer any degradation process, they are accumulated in environment. Abandoned mine tailings potentially could contaminate rivers and aquifers representing a risk for human health due to their high metal content. In an attempt to remove the metals and thereby mitigate the environmental pollution, an environmentally friendly and economical method of bioremediation has been introduced. Bioleaching has been actively studied over the last several years, and it is one of the bioremediation solutions used to treat heavy metals contained in sewage sludge, sediment and contaminated soil. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, an extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, gram-negative, rod shaped microorganism, which is typically related to Cu mining operations (bioleaching), has been well studied for industrial applications. The sulfuric acid produced plays a major role in bioleaching. Specifically, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain DSM 26636 has been able to leach Al, Ni, V, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ni contained in slags from coal combustion wastes. The present study reports the ability of A. thiooxidans DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals contained in two different mine tailing samples (MT1 and MT2). It was observed that Al, Fe, and Mn were removed in 36.3&plusmn;1.7, 191.2&plusmn;1.6, and 4.5&plusmn;0.2 mg/kg for MT1, and in 74.5&plusmn;0.3, 208.3&plusmn;0.5, and 20.9&plusmn;0.1 for MT2. Besides, &lt; 1.5 mg/kg of Au and Ru were also bioleached from MT1; in MT2, bioleaching of Zn was observed at 55.7&plusmn;1.3 mg/kg, besides removal of &lt; 1.5 mg/kg was observed for As, Ir, Li, and 0.6 for Os in this residue. These results show the potential of strain DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals that came from different mine tailings.
Application of Acer velutinum for Absorbing Heavy Metal, Mercury, from the Environment
One-year seedlings of Acer velutinum were provided from plantations and the solution of Mercuric chloride was developed in 20,40 and 60 mg/l concentrations, then this solution was added to the soil and the Acer velutinum were placed in a vase. Six months after seedlings’ growth, the leaf, stem and roots were separated. The results were investigated by variance analysis and Duncan test. The highest level of mercury accumulation in the organs of leaf, stem and root was 45.67, 40 and 55 mg/kg, respectively. According to the obtained results from this research, the velutinum species was appropriate for refining the soils contaminated by mercury.
Determination of Iodine and Heavy Metals in Two Brands of Iodised Salt
A study was conducted to investigate the storage stability of Mr Chef and Annapurna salts. The salts were bought from Mile 12 market in Lagos State and were stored for a period of six months. The stability of the iodine content was then investigated by storing some at ambient temperature (24-30oC) and some at atmospheric temperature (21-35 oC), and from each storage condition, a sample each was taken every month to analyze for the iodine and moisture contents. The result shows that there was a significant difference between Mr Chef and the standard and Annapurna and the standard. The iodine content of Mr Chef stored at ambient and atmospheric temperature decreases progressively from 48.70±0.00-37.00±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-11.60±0.00 respectively. And that of Annapurna at both ambient and atmospheric temperature also decreases progressively from 47.60±0.00-36.60±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-10.60±0.00 respectively. Also, the moisture content of both salts at the zero month to the sixth month both at room temperature and atmospheric temperature increases from 1.11±0.00-1.70±0.00 and 1.11±0.00-2.40±0.00 respectively. The results of the heavy metals shows that only Copper, Zinc and Cobalt were detected at the first and the sixth month in both Mr Chef and Annapurna which ranges from 0.15±0.00-0.38±0.00 and 0.18±0.00 - 3.50±0.00 respectively. Hence, the stability of iodine in salt is influenced by the storage conditions it is subjected to and the length of time it is been stored.
Impact of Environmental Pollution on Oxidative Stress Indices in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Araromi River in Ondo State, Nigeria
The effects of man’s activities on the environment include depletion of natural resources alongside pollution of water bodies. Petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has compromised the aquatic environment with grave consequences on the entire ecosystem. In this study, we assessed the environmental safety of Araromi River, located in an oil-producing area in Ondo State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria by determining the levels of heavy metals (copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and some biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and reduced glutathione) in Clarias gariepinus (350-400g) from the river using standard methods. Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm in the same geographical location as the reference site (Ilesannmi fishery) was used as a control. Water samples from both sites were also analysed for some physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and bacterial contamination. Our findings show a significant increase in malondialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) as well as alterations in antioxidant status in the organs of Clarias gariepinus from Araromi River compared with control. A significant increase in bacterial contaminants, heavy metal pollutants, and particulate matter deposits were also observed in the water sample from Araromi River compared with control. In conclusion, high levels of indicators of environmental pollution observed in the water sample from Araromi River coupled with induction of oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus from the river show that Araromi River is polluted; therefore, consumption of fishes and other aquatic organisms from the river may be unsafe for the people in that community.
Exposure Assessment for Worker Exposed to Heavy Metals during Road Marking Operations
The present study was conducted to characterize exposure concentrations, concentrations deposited on the different respiratory regions, and resultant health risks associated with heavy metal exposures for road marking workers. Road marking workers of three similar exposure groups (SEGs) were selected, including the paint pouring worker, marking worker, and preparing worker. Personal exposure samples were collected using an inhalable dust sampler (IOM), and the involved particle size distribution samples were estimated using an eight-stage Marple personal cascade impactor during five working days. In total, 25 IOM samples and 20 Marple samples were collected. All collected samples were analyzed for their heavy metal contents using the ICP/MS. The resultant heavy metal particle size distributions were also used to estimate the fractions of particle deposited on the head airways (Chead), tracheobronchial (Cthorac) and alveolar regions (Cresp) of the exposed workers. In addition, Pb and Cr were selected to estimate the incremental cancer risk, and Zn, Ti, and Mo were selected to estimate the corresponding non-cancer risk in the present study. Results show that three heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, and Ti, were found with the highest concentrations for the SEG of the paint pouring worker (=0.585±2.98, 0.307±1.71, 0.902±2.99 μg/m³, respectively). For the fraction of heavy metal particle deposited on the respiratory tract, both alveolar and head regions were found with the highest values (=23-43% and 39-61%, respectively). For both SEGs of the paint pouring and marking, 51% of Cr, 59-61% of Zn, and 48-51% of Ti were found to be deposited on the alveolar region, and 41-43% of Pb was deposited on the head region. Finally, the incremental cancer risk for the SEGs of the paint pouring, marking, and preparing were found as 1.08×10⁻⁵, 2.78×10⁻⁶, and 2.20×10⁻⁶, respectively. In addition, the estimated non-cancer risk for the above three SEGs was found to be consistently less than unity. In conclusion, though the estimated non-cancer risk was less than unity, all resultant incremental cancer risk was greater than 10⁻⁶ indicating the abatement of workers’ exposure is necessary. It is suggested that strategies, including placing on the molten kettle, substitution the currently used paints for less heavy metal containing paints, and wearing fume protecting personal protective equipment can be considered in the future from reducing the worker’s exposure aspect.
Evaluation the Concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr in Rainbow Trout and Water of Haraz River
Being the second largest river in the southern Caspian Sea basin, the Haraz River flows northwards through the Alborz mountains in the central region of Mazandaran province.The Haraz basin has specific geological characteristics affecting the river water quality.This area has been a rich source of minerals from times immemorial. About 45 mines (coal, limestone, sand and gravel, etc.) have been operational for the last eight decades. In the other hand this region is one of the most famous fish culturing area around Tehran & many farms are located beside this river .The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Zn, Cd, Cr, pb , Cu, Ni in fish muscles & water in Haraz river. In order to determine the heavy metals concentration in all parts of the river , 4 station (Haraz , Razan , chelrood & Amol)were selected . Totally 32 samples were colleted from 8 farms (4 sample from each farm and 2 farms from each station). 4 water samples were collected. Biometeric were performed , then 10 grams of fish muscle were dissected and samples were prepared according to standard method. Heavy metal concentration were determined by atomic absorption method. The mean concentration of Zn in fish muscles & water in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood and Amool were 0.72 , 0.32,0.522,0.5 & 1.72,1.81,1.77,1.7 ppm respectively. Ni didn't detect in fish samples but the mean concentration in water samples in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood and Amool were 1.1 ,0.9,1.1,1.1 ppm respectively. The mean concentration of Cr in fish muscles & water in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood and Amool were 0.586,0.492,0.5,0.552 & 2.2 , 2.2,2.1,2.22 ppm respectively . Cd didn't detect in any sample. Pb concentration in fish samples & water in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood & Amool were 0.44,0.34, o.37,0.48 & 0.11,0.11,0.11,0.14 ppm repectively .The mean concentration of Cu in fish muscles & water in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood and Amool were 0.754,0.372,0.539,2.3 &0.11,0.21,0.17,0.37 ppm respectively. Cu concentration in The fish muscles and water was increased significantly in Amol station .The results of this study showed that heavy metal concentration in fish muscles and water are lower than standards.
Antibacterial Studies on Cellulolytic Bacteria for Termite Control
Termites are considered as important pests that could cause severe wood damage and economic losses in urban, agriculture and forest of Malaysia. The ability of termites to degrade cellulose depends on association of gut cellulolytic microflora or better known as mutual symbionts. With the idea of disrupting the mutual symbiotic association, better pest control practices can be attained. This study is aimed to isolate cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of termites and carry out antibacterial studies for the termite. Confirmation of cellulase activity is done by qualitative and quantitative methods. Impacts of antibiotics and their combinations, as well as heavy metals and disinfectants, are conducted by using disc diffusion method. Effective antibacterial agents are then subjected for termite treatment to study the effectiveness of the agents as termiticides. 24 cellulolytic bacteria are isolated, purified and screened from the gut of termites. All isolates were identified as Gram-negative with either rod or cocci in shape. For antibacterial studies result, isolates were found to be 100% sensitive to 4 antibiotics (rifampicin, tetracycline, gentamycin, and neomycin), 2 heavy metals (cadmium and mercury) and 3 disinfectants (lactic acid, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide). 22 out of 36 antibiotic combinations showed synergistic effect while 15 antibiotic combinations showed an antagonistic effect on isolates. The 2 heavy metals and 3 disinfectants that showed 100% effectiveness, as well as 22 antibiotic combinations, that showed synergistic effect were used for termite control. Among the 27 selected antibacterial agents, 12 of them were found to be effective to kill all the termites within 1 to 6 days. Mercury, lactic acid, formalin and hydrogen peroxide were found to be the most effective termiticides in which all termites were killed within 1 day only. These effective antibacterial agents possess a great potential to be a new application to control the termite pest species in the future.
Chemical and Health Assessment of Bakhour: Risks of Traditional Practices
Bakhour, or Arabian incense, is traditionally used to perfume houses, shops and clothing as part of cultural or religious practices in several Middle Eastern countries. Conventionally, Bakhour consists of a mixture of natural ingredients such as chips of agarwood (oud), musk and sandalwoods that are soaked in scented oil. Bakhour is usually burned by charcoal or by using gas or electric burners to produce the scented smoke. It is necessary to evaluate the impact of such practice on human health and environment especially that the burning of Bakhour is usually done on a regular basis and in closed areas without proper ventilation. Although significant amount of research has been reported in scientific literature on the chemical analysis of various types of incense smoke, unfortunately, only very few of them focused specifically on the health impacts of Bakhour. Raw Bakhour samples, their smoke emissions and the ash residue were analyzed to assess the existence of toxic ingredients and their possible influence on health and the environment. Three brands of Bakhour samples were analyzed for the presence of harmful heavy metals and organic compounds. Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to identify organic compounds while Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) were used to analyze the presence of toxic and heavy metals.. Organic compounds from the smoke were collected on specific tenax and activated carbon adsorption tubes. More than 850 chemical compounds were identified. The presence of 19 carcinogens, 23 toxins, and 173 irritants were confirmed. Additionally, heavy metals were detected in amounts similar to those present in cigarettes. However, it was noticed that many of the detected compounds in the smoke lacked clinical studies on their health effects which shows the need for further clinical studies to be devoted to this area of study.