Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 57768

200
17072
Fused Salt Electrolysis of Rare-Earth Materials from the Domestic Ore and Preparation of Rare-Earth Hydrogen Storage Alloys
Abstract:
Fused salt electrolysis was studied to make the high purity rare-earth metals using domestic rare-earth ore. The target metals of the fused salt electrolysis were Mm (Misch metal), La, Ce, Nd, etc. Fused salt electrolysis was performed with the supporting salt such as chloride and fluoride at the various temperatures and ampere. The metals made by fused salt electrolysis were analyzed to identify the phase and composition using the methods of XRD and ICP. As a result, the acquired rare-earth metals were the high purity ones which had more than 99% purity. Also, VIM (vacuum induction melting) was studied to make the kg level rare-earth alloy for the use of secondary battery and hydrogen storage. In order to indentify the physicochemical properties such as phase, impurity gas, alloy composition and hydrogen storage, the alloys were investigated. The battery characteristics were also analyzed through the various tests in the real production line of a battery company.
199
70325
Hydrogen Purity: Developing Low-Level Sulphur Speciation Measurement Capability
Abstract:
Fuel cell electric vehicles provide the potential to decarbonise road transport, create new economic opportunities, diversify national energy supply, and significantly reduce the environmental impacts of road transport. A potential issue, however, is that the catalyst used at the fuel cell cathode is susceptible to degradation by impurities, especially sulphur-containing compounds. A recent European Directive (2014/94/EU) stipulates that, from November 2017, all hydrogen provided to fuel cell vehicles in Europe must comply with the hydrogen purity specifications listed in ISO 14687-2; this includes reactive and toxic chemicals such as ammonia and total sulphur-containing compounds. This requirement poses great analytical challenges due to the instability of some of these compounds in calibration gas standards at relatively low amount fractions and the difficulty associated with undertaking measurements of groups of compounds rather than individual compounds. Without the available reference materials and analytical infrastructure, hydrogen refuelling stations will not be able to demonstrate compliance to the ISO 14687 specifications. The hydrogen purity laboratory at NPL provides world leading, accredited purity measurements to allow hydrogen refuelling stations to evidence compliance to ISO 14687. Utilising state-of-the-art methods that have been developed by NPL’s hydrogen purity laboratory, including a novel method for measuring total sulphur compounds at 4 nmol/mol and a hydrogen impurity enrichment device, we provide the capabilities necessary to achieve these goals. An overview of these capabilities will be given in this paper. As part of the EMPIR Hydrogen co-normative project ‘Metrology for sustainable hydrogen energy applications’, NPL are developing a validated analytical methodology for the measurement of speciated sulphur-containing compounds in hydrogen at low amount fractions pmol/mol to nmol/mol) to allow identification and measurement of individual sulphur-containing impurities in real samples of hydrogen (opposed to a ‘total sulphur’ measurement). This is achieved by producing a suite of stable gravimetrically-prepared primary reference gas standards containing low amount fractions of sulphur-containing compounds (hydrogen sulphide, carbonyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, 2-methyl-2-propanethiol and tetrahydrothiophene have been selected for use in this study) to be used in conjunction with novel dynamic dilution facilities to enable generation of pmol/mol to nmol/mol level gas mixtures (a dynamic method is required as compounds at these levels would be unstable in gas cylinder mixtures). Method development and optimisation are performed using gas chromatographic techniques assisted by cryo-trapping technologies and coupled with sulphur chemiluminescence detection to allow improved qualitative and quantitative analyses of sulphur-containing impurities in hydrogen. The paper will review the state-of-the art gas standard preparation techniques, including the use and testing of dynamic dilution technologies for reactive chemical components in hydrogen. Method development will also be presented highlighting the advances in the measurement of speciated sulphur compounds in hydrogen at low amount fractions.
198
63201
Effect of Hydrogen Content and Structure in Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on Hydrogen Permeation Properties
Abstract:
The hydrogen barrier properties of the coatings of diamond-like carbon (DLC) were evaluated. Using plasma chemical vapor deposition and sputtering, DLC coatings were deposited on Type 316L stainless steels. The hydrogen permeation rate was reduced to 1/1000 or lower by the DLC coatings. The DLC coatings with high hydrogen content had high hydrogen barrier function. For hydrogen diffusion in coatings, the movement of atoms through hydrogen trap sites such as pores in coatings, and crystal defects such as dislocations, is important. The DLC coatings are amorphous, and there are both sp3 and sp2 bonds, and excess hydrogen could be found in the interstitial space and the hydrogen trap sites. In the DLC coatings with high hydrogen content, these hydrogen trap sites are likely already filled with hydrogen atoms, and the movement of new hydrogen atoms could be limited.
197
36011
Transition to Hydrogen Cities in Korea and Japan
Abstract:
This study explores the plan of the Korean and Japanese governments to transition into the hydrogen economy. Two motor companies, Hyundai Motor Company from Korea and Toyota from Japan, released the Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle to monopolize the green energy automobile market. Although, they are the main countries which emit greenhouse gas, hydrogen energy can bring from a certain industry places, such as chemical plants and steel mills. Recent, the two countries have been focusing on the hydrogen industry including a fuel cell vehicle, a hydrogen station, a fuel cell plant, a residential fuel cell. The purpose of this paper is to find out the differences of the policies in the two countries to be hydrogen societies. We analyze the behavior of the public and private sectors in Korea and Japan about hydrogen energy and fuel cells for the transition of the hydrogen economy. Finally we show the similarities and differences of both countries in hydrogen fuel cells. And some cities have feature such as Hydrogen cities. Hydrogen energy can make impact environmental sustainability.
196
16765
The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel
Abstract:
This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.
195
29088
Bio-Oil Compounds Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming
Abstract:
Hydrogen is considered an important energy vector for the 21st century. Nowadays there are some difficulties for hydrogen economy implantation, and one of them is the high purity required for hydrogen. This energy vector is still being mainly produced from fuels, from wich hydrogen is produced as a component of a mixture containing other gases, such as CO, CO2 and H2O. A forthcoming sustainable pathway for hydrogen is steam-reforming of bio-oils derived from biomass, e.g. via fast pyrolysis. Bio-oils are a mixture of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, sugars phenols, guaiacols, syringols, furans, multi-functional compounds and also up to a 30 wt% of water. The sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR) process is attracting a great deal of attention due to the fact that it combines both hydrogen production and CO2 separation. In the SESR process, carbon dioxide is captured by an in situ sorbent, which shifts the reversible reforming and water gas shift reactions to the product side, beyond their conventional thermodynamic limits, giving rise to a higher hydrogen production and lower cost. The hydrogen containing mixture has been obtained from the SESR of bio-oil type compounds. Different types of catalysts have been tested. All of them contain Ni at around a 30 wt %. Two samples have been prepared with the wet impregnation technique over conventional (gamma alumina) and non-conventional (olivine) supports. And a third catalysts has been prepared over a hydrotalcite-like material (HT). The employed sorbent is a commercial dolomite. The activity tests were performed in a bench-scale plant (PID Eng&Tech), using a stainless steel fixed bed reactor. The catalysts were reduced in situ in the reactor, before the activity tests. The effluent stream was cooled down, thus condensed liquid was collected and weighed, and the gas phase was analysed online by a microGC. The hydrogen yield, and process behavior was analysed without the sorbent (the traditional SR where a second purification step will be needed but that operates in steady state) and the SESR (where the purification step could be avoided but that operates in batch state). The influence of the support type and preparation method will be observed in the produced hydrogen yield. Additionally, the stability of the catalysts is critical, due to the fact that in SESR process sorption-desorption steps are required. The produced hydrogen yield and hydrogen purity has to be high and also stable, even after several sorption-desorption cycles. The prepared catalysts were characterized employing different techniques to determine the physicochemical properties of the fresh-reduced and used (after the activity tests) materials. The characterization results, together with the activity results show the influence of the catalysts preparation method, calcination temperature, or can even explain the observed yield and conversion.
194
72074
Microstructure of Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings
Abstract:
Ceramics coatings consisting of fine crystal grains, with diameters of about 100 nm or less, provided superior hydrogen-permeation barriers. Applying TiN, TiC or Al₂O₃ coatings on a stainless steel substrate reduced the hydrogen permeation by a factor of about 100 to 5,000 compared with uncoated substrates. Effect of the microstructure of coatings on hydrogen-permeation behavior is studied. The test specimens coated with coatings, with columnar crystals grown vertically on the substrate, tended to exhibit higher hydrogen permeability. The grain boundaries of the coatings became trap sites for hydrogen, and microcrystalline structures with many grain boundaries are expected to provide effective hydrogen-barrier performance.
193
12194
Hydrogen Storage in Carbonized Coconut Meat (Kernel)
Abstract:
Carbons are being widely investigated as hydrogen storage material owing to their light weight, fast hydrogen absorption kinetics and low cost. However, these materials suffer from low hydrogen storage capacity at room temperature. The aim of the present study is to synthesize carbon based material which shows moderate hydrogen storage at room temperature. For this purpose, hydrogenation characteristics of natural precursor coconut kernel is studied in this work. The hydrogen storage measurement reveals that the as-synthesized materials have good hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with fast kinetics. The synthesized material absorbs 8 wt.% of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature and 2.3 wt.% at room temperature. This could be due to the presence of certain elements (KCl, Mg, Ca) which are confirmed by TEM.
192
89204
Titania Assisted Metal-Organic Framework Matrix for Elevated Hydrogen Generation Combined with the Production of Graphene Sheets through Water-Splitting Process
Abstract:
In this study, metal organic framework (Cr-MIL-101) and TiO₂ nanoparticles were utilized as two semiconductors for water splitting process. The coupling of both semiconductors in order to improve the photocatalytic reactivity for the hydrogen production in presence of methanol as a hole scavenger under visible light (sunlight) has been performed. The forementioned semiconductors and the collected samples after water splitting application are characterized by several techniques viz., XRD, N₂ adsorption-desorption, TEM, ED, EDX, Raman spectroscopy and the total content of carbon. The results revealed an efficient yield of H₂ production with maximum purity 99.3% with the in-situ formation of graphene oxide nanosheets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated over the surface of the physically mixed Cr-MIL-101–TiO₂ system. The amount of H₂ gas produced was stored when using Cr-MIL-101 catalyst individually. The obtained data in this work provides promising candidate materials for pure hydrogen production as a clean fuel acquired from the water splitting process. In addition, the in-situ production of graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes is counted as promising advances for the presented process.
191
8488
Thermal Stability of Hydrogen in ZnO Bulk and Thin Films: A Kinetic Monte Carlo Study
Abstract:
In this work, Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method was applied to study the thermal stability of hydrogen in ZnO bulk and thin films. Our simulation includes different possible events such as interstitial hydrogen (Hi) jumps, substitutional hydrogen (HO) formation and dissociation, oxygen and zinc vacancies jumps, hydrogen-VZn complexes formation and dissociation, HO-Hi complex formation and hydrogen molecule (H2) formation and dissociation. The obtained results show that the hidden hydrogen formed during thermal annealing or at room temperature is constituted of both hydrogen molecule and substitutional hydrogen. The ratio of this constituants depends on the initial defects concentration as well as the annealing temperature. For annealing temperature below 300°C hidden hydrogen was found to be constituted from both substitutional hydrogen and hydrogen molecule, however, for higher temperature it is composed essentially from HO defects only because H2 was found to be unstable. In the other side, our results show that the remaining hydrogen amount in sample during thermal annealing depend greatly on the oxygen vacancies in the material. H2 molecule was found to be stable for thermal annealing up to 200°C, VZnHn complexes are stable up to 350°C and HO was found to be stable up to 450°C.
190
46825
Process for Separating and Recovering Materials from Kerf Slurry Waste
Abstract:
Slurry waste is a byproduct generated from the slicing process of multi-crystalline silicon ingots. This waste can be used as a secondary resource to recover high purity silicon which has a great economic value. From the management perspective, the ever increasing generation of kerf slurry waste loss leads to significant challenges for the photovoltaic industry due to the current low use of slurry waste for silicon recovery. Slurry waste, in most cases, contains silicon, silicon carbide, metal fragments and mineral-oil-based or glycol-based slurry vehicle. As a result, of the global scarcity of high purity silicon supply, the high purity silicon content in slurry has increasingly attracted interest for research. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for high purity silicon recovery from kerf slurry waste. Hydrometallurgy is continuously a matter of study and research. However, in this review paper, several new techniques about the process of high purity silicon recovery from slurry waste are introduced. The purpose of the information presented is to improve the development of a clean and effective recovery process of high purity silicon from slurry waste.
189
28704
Recovery of Hydrogen Converter Efficiency Affected by Poisoning of Catalyst with Increasing of Temperature
Abstract:
The purpose of the H2 removal system is to reduce a content of hydrogen and other combustibles in the CO2 feed owing to avoid developing a possible explosive condition in the synthesis. In order to reduce the possibility of forming an explosive gas mixture in the synthesis as much as possible, the hydrogen percent in the fresh CO2, will be removed in hydrogen converter. Therefore the partly compressed CO2/Air mixture is led through Hydrogen converter (Reactor) where the H2, present in the CO2, is reduced by catalytic combustion to values less than 50 ppm (vol). According the following exothermic chemical reaction: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O + Heat. The catalyst in hydrogen converter consist of platinum on a aluminum oxide carrier. Low catalyst activity maybe due to catalyst poisoning. This will result in an increase of the hydrogen content in the CO2 to the synthesis. It is advised to shut down the plant when the outlet of hydrogen converter increased above 100 ppm, to prevent undesirable gas composition in the plant. Replacement of catalyst will be time exhausting and costly so as to prevent this, we increase the inlet temperature of hydrogen converter according to following Arrhenius' equation: K=K0e (-E_a/RT) K is rate constant of a chemical reaction where K0 is the pre-exponential factor, E_a is the activation energy, and R is the universal gas constant. Increment of inlet temperature of hydrogen converter caused to increase the rate constant of chemical reaction and so declining the amount of hydrogen from 125 ppm to 70 ppm.
188
94925
Hydrogen Embrittlement Properties of the Hot Stamped Carbon Steels
Abstract:
The effects of microstructural characteristics on the mechanical and hydrogen embrittlement properties of 1,800MPa grade hot stamping carbon steel were investigated experimentally. The tensile strength increased with increasing the hot stamping temperature until around 921°C, but that decreased with increasing the temperature in more than 921°C due to the increment of the size of lath martensite and prior austenite. With the hot stamping process, internal strain was slightly created in the sample, which led to the slight increment of the hardness value although no clear change of the microstructural formation was detected. Severity of hydrogen embrittlement was investigated using the hot stamped carbon steels after the immersion in a hydrogen gas, and that was directly attributed to the infiltration of the hydrogen into their grain boundaries. The high strength carbon steel with tiny lath martensite microstructure could make severe hydrogen brittleness as the hydrogen was strongly penetrated in the grain boundaries in the hydrogen gas for a month. Because of weak embrittlement for the as-received carbon (ferrite and pearlite), hydrogen embrittlement is caused by the high internal strain and high dislocation density. The hydrogen embrittlement for carbon steel is attributed to amount of the hydrogen immersed in-between grain boundaries, which is caused by the dislocation density and internal strain.
187
74911
Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance of a Methanol SI-Engine at City Driving Conditions
Abstract:
Methanol is one of the most suitable alternative fuels for replacing gasoline in present and future spark-ignited engines. However, for pure methanol engines, cold start problems and misfires are observed under certain operating conditions. Hydrogen provides a solution for such problems. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of hydrogen on the performance of a pure methanol SI-engine at city driving conditions (1500 rpm speed and 1.18 excess air ratio). Hydrogen was used as a part of methanol reformed syngas (67% hydrogen by volume). 4% by mass of the total methanol converted to hydrogen and other constituent gases, was used in each cycle. Port fuel injection was used to inject methanol and hydrogen-rich syngas into the 4-cylinder engine. The results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 5% with the addition of hydrogen, a decrease in brake specific fuel consumption up to 200 g/kWh, and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature by 100°C for all mean effective pressures. Hydrogen addition also decreased harmful exhaust emissions significantly. There was a reduction in THC emissions up to 95% and CO emissions up to 50%. NOx emissions were slightly increased (up to 15%), but they can be reduced to zero by lean burn strategy.
186
39206
The Effect of Immobilization Conditions on Hydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Abstract:
In this study, the optimization of hydrogen production using polyethylene glycol (PEG) immobilized sludge was investigated in batch tests. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is used as a substrate that can act as a carbon source. Experiment focus on the effect of some important affecting factors on fermentative hydrogen production. Results showed that immobilized sludge demonstrated the maximum hydrogen production rate of 340 mL/L-POME/h under follow optimal condition: amount of biomass 10 mg VSS/ g bead, PEG concentration 10%, and cell age 24 h or 40 h. More importantly, immobilized sludge not only enhanced hydrogen production but can also tolerate the harsh environment and produce hydrogen at the wide ranges of pH. The present results indicate the potential of PEG-immobilized sludge for large-scale operations as well; these factors play an important role in stable and continuous hydrogen production.
185
57559
Study on Pressurized Reforming System for the Application of Hydrogen Permeable Membrane Applying to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Abstract:
Fuel cells are spotlighted in the world for being highly efficient and environmentally friendly. A hydrogen fuel for a fuel cell is obtained from a number of sources. Most of fuel cell for APU(Auxiliary power unit) system using diesel fuel as a hydrogen source. Diesel fuel has many advantages, such as high hydrogen storage density, easy to transport and also well-infra structure. However, conventional diesel reforming system for PEMFC(Proton exchange membrane fuel cell) requires a large volume and complex CO removal system for the lower the CO level to less than 10ppm. In addition, the PROX(Preferential Oxidation) reaction cooling load is needed because of the strong exothermic reaction. However, the hydrogen separation membrane that we propose can be eliminated many disadvantages, because the volume is small and permeates only pure hydrogen. In this study, we were conducted to the pressurized diesel reforming and water-gas shift reaction experiment for the hydrogen permeable membrane application.
184
82416
Photocatalytic Conversion of Water/Methanol Mixture into Hydrogen Using Cerium/Iron Oxides Based Structures
Abstract:
This research work reports the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water-methanol mixture using three different 15% ceria/iron oxide catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by physical mixing, precipitation, and ultrasonication methods and labeled as catalysts A-C. The structural and texture properties of the obtained catalysts were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET-surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the three catalysts towards hydrogen generation was then tested. Promising hydrogen productivity was obtained by the three catalysts however different gases compositions were obtained by each type of catalyst. Specifically, catalyst A had produced hydrogen mixed with CO₂ while the composite structure (catalyst B) had generated only pure H₂. In the case of catalyst C, syngas made of H₂ and CO was revealed, as a novel product, for the first time, in such process.
183
62050
Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy
Abstract:
This paper presents an experimental study for hydrogen production using alkaline water electrolysis operated by solar energy. Two methods are used and compared for separation between the cathode and anode, which are acrylic separator and polymeric membrane. Further, the effects of electrolyte concentration, solar insolation, and space between the pair of electrodes on the amount of hydrogen produced and consequently on the overall electrolysis efficiency are investigated. It is found that the rate of hydrogen production increases using the polymeric membrane installed between the electrodes. The experimental results show also that, the performance of alkaline water electrolysis unit is dominated by the electrolyte concentration and the gap between the electrodes. Smaller gaps between the pair of electrodes are demonstrated to produce higher rates of hydrogen with higher system efficiency.
182
50480
Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys
Abstract:
Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.
181
28162
Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Four Stroke-Single Cylinder Diesel Engine
Abstract:
The present work attempts to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of an existing single-cylinder four-stroke compression-ignition engine operated in dual-fuel mode with hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels like hydrogen for internal combustion (IC) engines. In this experimental investigation, a diesel engine is made to run using hydrogen in dual fuel mode with diesel, where hydrogen is introduced into the intake manifold using an LPG-CNG injector and pilot diesel is injected using diesel injectors. A Timed Manifold Injection (TMI) system has been developed to vary the injection strategies. The optimized timing for the injection of hydrogen was 100 CA after top dead center (ATDC). From the study it was observed that with increasing hydrogen rate, enhancement in brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) of the engine has been observed with reduction in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC). Furthermore, Soot contents decrease with an increase in indicated specific NOx emissions with the enhancement of hydrogen flow rate.
180
10077
Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion
Abstract:
Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.
179
35740
Effect of Operating Conditions on the Process Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride
Abstract:
The risks of depletion of fossil fuel reserves and environmental problems caused by their consumption cause to consider alternative energy solutions. Hydrogen appears as a serious solution because its combustion produces only water. The objective of this study is to digitally analyze the effect of operating conditions on the process of absorption of hydrogen in a tank of metal hydride alloy Lanthanum - Nickel (LaNi 5). For this modeling of heat transfer and mass in the tank was carried .The results of numerical weather prediction are in good agreement with the experimental results.
178
67827
Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Binary Systems for Hydrogen Storage
Abstract:
Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, compatible with the sustainable energy concept. In this context, solid-state hydrogen-storage is the key challenge in developing hydrogen economy. The capability of absorption of large quantities of hydrogen makes intermetallic systems of particular interest. In this study, efforts have been devoted to the theoretical investigation of binary systems with constraints consideration. On the one hand, besides considering hydrogen-storage, a reinvestigation of crystal structures of the palladium-arsenic system shows, with experimental validations, that binary systems could still currently present new or unknown relevant structures. On the other hand, various binary Mg-based systems were theoretically scrutinized in order to find new interesting alloys for hydrogen storage. Taking the effect of pressure into account reveals a wide range of alternative structures, changing radically the stable compounds of studied binary systems. Similar constraints, induced by Pulsed Laser Deposition, have been applied to binary systems, and results are presented.
177
81621
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Butanol over Ag/TiO2
Abstract:
Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues which arise from occurrence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Exposure to these greenhouse gases results in health risk. Hydrogen is regarded as an alternative energy source which is a clean energy carrier for the future. There are different methods to produce hydrogen such as steam reforming, coal gasification etc., however the challenge with these processes is that they emit CO and CO2 gases and are costly. Photocatalytic reforming is a substitute process which is fascinating due to the combination of solar energy and renewable sources and the use of semiconductor materials such as catalysts. TiO2 is regarded as the most promising catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and Ag/TiO2 are being investigated for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from butanol. The samples were characterized by raman spectroscopy, TEM/SEM, XRD, XPS, EDAX, DRS and BET surface area. 2 wt% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticle showed enhanced hydrogen production compared to a non-doped TiO2. The results of characterization and photoactivity shows that TiO2 nanoparticles play a very important role in producing high hydrogen by utilizing solar irradiation.
176
40081
First-Principles Calculations of Hydrogen Adsorbed in Multi-Layer Graphene
Abstract:
Graphene-based materials have attracted much attention because they are candidates for post silicon materials. Since controlling of impurities is necessary to achieve nano device, we study hydrogen impurity in multi-layer graphene. We perform local spin Density approximation (LSDA) in which the plane wave basis set and pseudopotential are used. Previously hydrogen monomer and dimer in graphene is well theoretically studied. However, hydrogen on multilayer graphene is still not clear. By using first-principles electronic structure calculations based on the LSDA within the density functional theory method, we studied hydrogen monomers and dimers in two-layer graphene. We found that the monomers are spin-polarized and have magnetic moment 1 µB. We also found that most stable dimer is much more stable than monomer. In the most stable structures of the dimers in two-layer graphene, the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to the host carbon atoms which are nearest-neighbors. In this case two hydrogen atoms are located on the opposite sides. Whereas, when the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to the same sublattice of the host materials, magnetic moments of 2 µB appear in two-layer graphene. We found that when the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to third-nearest-neighbor carbon atoms, the electronic structure is nonmagnetic. We also studied hydrogen monomers and dimers in three-layer graphene. The result is same as that of two-layer graphene. These results are very important in the field of carbon nanomaterials as it is experimentally difficult to show the magnetic state of those materials.
175
3272
Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials
Abstract:
The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water/alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, repectively. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental conditions were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, WNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 were tested.
174
48556
CertifHy: Developing a European Framework for the Generation of Guarantees of Origin for Green Hydrogen
Abstract:
Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in the transition towards a low-carbon economy, especially within the transport sector, the energy sector and the (petro)chemical industry sector. However, the production and use of hydrogen only make sense if the production and transportation are carried out with minimal impact on natural resources, and if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced in comparison to conventional hydrogen or conventional fuels. The CertifHy project, supported by a wide range of key European industry leaders (gas companies, chemical industry, energy utilities, green hydrogen technology developers and automobile manufacturers, as well as other leading industrial players) therefore aims to: 1. Define a widely acceptable definition of green hydrogen. 2. Determine how a robust Guarantee of Origin (GoO) scheme for green hydrogen should be designed and implemented throughout the EU. It is divided into the following work packages (WPs). 1. Generic market outlook for green hydrogen: Evidence of existing industrial markets and the potential development of new energy related markets for green hydrogen in the EU, overview of the segments and their future trends, drivers and market outlook (WP1). 2. Definition of “green” hydrogen: step-by-step consultation approach leading to a consensus on the definition of green hydrogen within the EU (WP2). 3. Review of existing platforms and interactions between existing GoO and green hydrogen: Lessons learnt and mapping of interactions (WP3). 4. Definition of a framework of guarantees of origin for “green” hydrogen: Technical specifications, rules and obligations for the GoO, impact analysis (WP4). 5. Roadmap for the implementation of an EU-wide GoO scheme for green hydrogen: the project implementation plan will be presented to the FCH JU and the European Commission as the key outcome of the project and shared with stakeholders before finalisation (WP5 and 6). Definition of Green Hydrogen: CertifHy Green hydrogen is hydrogen from renewable sources that is also CertifHy Low-GHG-emissions hydrogen. Hydrogen from renewable sources is hydrogen belonging to the share of production equal to the share of renewable energy sources (as defined in the EU RES directive) in energy consumption for hydrogen production, excluding ancillary functions. CertifHy Low-GHG hydrogen is hydrogen with emissions lower than the defined CertifHy Low-GHG-emissions threshold, i.e. 36.4 gCO2eq/MJ, produced in a plant where the average emissions intensity of the non-CertifHy Low-GHG hydrogen production (based on an LCA approach), since sign-up or in the past 12 months, does not exceed the emissions intensity of the benchmark process (SMR of natural gas), i.e. 91.0 gCO2eq/MJ.
173
42980
Hydrogen Production from Solid Waste of Sago Processing Industries in Indonesia: Effect of Chemical and Biological Pretreatment
Abstract:
Hydrogen is the ultimate choice of energy carriers in future. It contents high energy density (42 kJ/g), emits only water vapor during combustion and has high energy conversion up to 50% in fuel cell application. One of the promising methods to produce hydrogen is from organic waste through dark fermentation method. It utilizes sugar-rich organic waste as substrate and hydrogen-producing microorganisms to generate the hydrogen. Solid waste of sago processing industries in Indonesia is one of the promising raw materials for both producing biofuel hydrogen and mitigating the environmental impact due to the waste disposal. This research was meant to investigate the effect of chemical and biological pretreatment i.e. acid treatment and mushroom cultivation toward lignocellulosic waste of these sago industries. Chemical pretreatment was conducted through exposing the waste into acid condition using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) (various molar i.e. 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 M and various duration of exposure i.e. 30, 60 and 90 minutes). Meanwhile, biological treatment was conducted through utilization of the solid waste as growth media of mushroom (Oyster and Ling-zhi) for 3 months. Dark fermentation was conducted at pH 5.0, temperature 27℃ and atmospheric pressure. It was noticed that chemical and biological pretreatment could improve hydrogen yield with the highest yield at 3.8 ml/g VS (31%v H2). The hydrogen production was successfully performed to generate high percentage of hydrogen, although the yield was still low. This result indicated that the explosion of acid chemical and biological method might need to be extended to improve degradability of the solid waste. However, high percentage of hydrogen was resulted from proper pretreatment of residual sludge of biogas plant to generate hydrogen-producing inoculum.
172
71610
Control System Design for a Simulated Microbial Electrolysis Cell
Abstract:
Hydrogen is considered as the most important energy carrier and fuel of the future because of its high energy density and zero emission properties. Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) is a new and promising approach for hydrogen production from organic matter, including wastewater and other renewable resources. By utilizing anode microorganism activity, MEC can produce hydrogen gas with smaller voltages (as low as 0.2 V) than those required for electrolytic hydrogen production ( ≥ 1.23 V). The hydrogen production processes of the MEC reactor are very nonlinear and highly complex because of the presence of microbial interactions and highly complex phenomena in the system. Increasing the hydrogen production rate and lowering the energy input are two important challenges of MEC technology. The mathematical model of the MEC is based on material balance with the integration of bioelectrochemical reactions. The main objective of the research is to produce biohydrogen by selecting the optimum current and controlling applied voltage to the MEC. Precise control is required for the MEC reactor, so that the amount of current required to produce hydrogen gas can be controlled according to the composition of the substrate in the reactor. Various simulation tests involving multiple set-point changes disturbance and noise rejection were performed to evaluate the performance using PID controller tuned with Ziegler Nichols settings. Simulation results shows that other good controller can provide better control effect on the MEC system, so that higher hydrogen production can be obtained.
171
15790
Usage of Crude Glycerol for Biological Hydrogen Production, Experiments and Analysis
Abstract:
Majority of word’s steadily increasing energy consumption is provided by non-renewable fossil resources. Need to find an alternative energy resource is essential for further socio-economic development. Hydrogen is renewable, clean energy carrier with high energy density (142 MJ/kg, accordingly – oil has 42 MJ/kg). Biological hydrogen production is an alternative way to produce hydrogen from renewable resources, e.g. using organic waste material resource fermentation that facilitate recycling of sewage and are environmentally benign. Hydrogen gas is produced during the fermentation process of bacteria in anaerobic conditions. Bacteria are producing hydrogen in the liquid phase and when thermodynamic equilibrium is reached, hydrogen is diffusing from liquid to gaseous phase. Because of large quantities of available crude glycerol and the highly reduced nature of carbon in glycerol per se, microbial conversion of it seems to be economically and environmentally viable possibility. Such industrial organic waste product as crude glycerol is perspective for usage in feedstock for hydrogen producing bacteria. The process of biodiesel production results in 41% (w/w) of crude glycerol. The developed lab-scale test system (experimental bioreactor) with hydrogen micro-electrode (Unisense, Denmark) was used to determine hydrogen production yield and rate in the liquid phase. For hydrogen analysis in the gas phase the RGAPro-100 mass-spectrometer connected to the experimental test-system was used. Fermentative bacteria strains were tested for hydrogen gas production rates. The presence of hydrogen in gaseous phase was measured using mass spectrometer but registered concentrations were comparatively small. To decrease the hydrogen partial pressure in liquid phase reactor with a system for continuous bubbling with inert gas was developed. H2 production rate for the best producer in liquid phase reached 0,40 mmol H2/l, in gaseous phase - 1,32 mmol H2/l. Hydrogen production rate is time dependent – higher rate of hydrogen production is at the fermentation process beginning when concentration increases, but after three hours of fermentation, it decreases.
170
33284
An Approach in Design of Large-Scale Hydrogen Plants
Abstract:
Because of the stringent prerequisite of low sulfur and heavier raw oil feedstock more hydrogen will be devoured in the refineries. Specifically if huge scale limits are the reaction to an expanded hydrogen request, certain configuration and building background are obliged with, which will be depicted in this paper with an illustration. Chosen procedure plan prerequisite will be recorded and portrayed in agreement to the flowsheet. Also, a determination of imaginative outline elements, similar to process condensate reuse, safe reformer start up and prerequisites will be highlighted.
169
70130
Iridium-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Glycerol Aqueous-Phase Reforming
Abstract:
Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production that can be used for aqueous-phase reforming to obtain hydrogen. Iridium is a material that has high activity and hydrogen selectivity for steam phase reforming. Nevertheless, a drawback for the use of iridium in aqueous-phase reforming is the low activity in water-gas shift reaction. Therefore, in this work, it is proposed the use of nickel and copper as a second metal in the catalyst to reach a synergetic effect. Iridium, iridium-nickel and iridium-copper catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and evaluated in the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol using CeO₂ or La₂O₃ as support. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, and EDX. The reactions were carried out in a fixed bed reactor feeding a solution of glycerol 10 wt% in water at 270°C, and reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that IrNi/CeO₂ reached highest glycerol conversion and hydrogen production, slightly above 70% and 43 vol% respectively. In terms of conversion, iridium is a promising metal, and its activity for hydrogen production can be enhanced when adding a second metal.
168
23835
In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Graphene Oxide Films Containing Pt Nanoparticles in The Presense of Atomic Hydrogen
Abstract:
In-situ Raman spectroscopy of flexible graphene-oxide films examined upon exposure to hydrogen gas, air, and synthetic air. The changes in D and G peaks are attributed to defects responding to atomic hydrogen spilled over from the catalytic behavior of Pt nanoparticles distributed all over the film. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HRTEM) as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out to define the density of the samples.
167
19445
Evaluation of Marwit Rod El Leqah Quartz Deposits As A Strategic Source of High Purity Quartz
Abstract:
Pegmatite quartz deposits of Marwit Rod El Leqah area classify as medium purity quartz with 99.575 % average SiO2 content and therefore do not match the requirements of high technical applications (99.8 % SiO2 for solar cells, 99.8% SiO2 for electronics). Petrographic field and petrographic investigations reveal that, the reduction of the silica content attributed mainly to impurities of iron oxide, muscovite, rutile, orthoclase, granitic rafts and fluid inclusions. Such impurities resulted in raising Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, CaO, K2O and Na2O relative to the silica content. Structural impurities are the main source of trace elements in the quartz samples.
166
67125
Hydrogen Peroxide: A Future for Well Stimulation and Heavy Oil Recovery
Authors:
Abstract:
Well stimulation and heavy oil recovery continue to be a hot topic in our industry, particularly with formation damage and viscous oil respectively. Cyclic steam injection has been recognised for most of the operations related to heavy oil recovery. However, the cost of implementation is high and operation is time-consuming, moreover most of the viscous oil reservoirs such as oil sands, Bitumen deposits and oil shales require additional treatment of well stimulation. The use of hydrogen peroxide can efficiently replace the cyclic steam injection process as it can be used for both well stimulation and heavy oil recovery simultaneously. The decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen, superheated steam and heat. The increase in temperature causes clays to shrink, destroy carbonates and remove emulsion thus it can efficiently remove the near wellbore damage. The paper includes mechanisms, parameters to be considered and the challenges during the treatment for the effective hydrogen peroxide injection for both conventional and heavy oil reservoirs.
165
24956
Pharmacokinetic Model of Warfarin and Its Application in Personalized Medicine
Abstract:
In this study, we evaluated the impact of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants on binding and hydroxylation of warfarin. In silico data revealed that warfarin forms two hydrogen bonds with protein backbone i.e. I205 and S209, one hydrogen bond with protein side chain i.e. T301 and stacking interaction with F100 in CYP2C9*1. In CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants, two hydrogen bonds with protein backbone are disrupted. In double variant, all the hydrogen bonds are disrupted. The distances between C7 of S-warfarin and Fe-O in CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*2/*3 were 5.81A°, 7.02A°, 7.43° and 10.07°, respectively. The glide scores (Kcal/mol) were -7.698, -7.380, -6.821 and -6.986, respectively. Increase in warfarin/7-hydroxy warfarin ratio was observed with increase in variant alleles. To conclude, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants result in disruption of hydrogen bonding interactions with warfarin and longer distance between C7 and Fe-O thus impairing warfarin 7-hydroxylation due to lower binding affinity of warfarin.
164
23247
Calculation of Electronic Structures of Nickel in Interaction with Hydrogen by Density Functional Theoretical (DFT) Method
Abstract:
Hydrogen-Materials interaction and mechanisms can be modeled at nano scale by quantum methods. In this work, the effect of hydrogen on the electronic properties of a cluster material model «nickel» has been studied by using of density functional theoretical (DFT) method. Two types of clusters are optimized: Nickel and hydrogen-nickel system. In the case of nickel clusters (n = 1-6) without presence of hydrogen, three types of electronic structures (neutral, cationic and anionic), have been optimized according to three basis sets calculations (B3LYP/LANL2DZ, PW91PW91/DGDZVP2, PBE/DGDZVP2). The comparison of binding energies and bond lengths of the three structures of nickel clusters (neutral, cationic and anionic) obtained by those basis sets, shows that the results of neutral and anionic nickel clusters are in good agreement with the experimental results. In the case of neutral and anionic nickel clusters, comparing energies and bond lengths obtained by the three bases, shows that the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2 is most suitable to experimental results. In the case of anionic nickel clusters (n = 1-6) with presence of hydrogen, the optimization of the hydrogen-nickel (anionic) structures by using of the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2, shows that the binding energies and bond lengths increase compared to those obtained in the case of anionic nickel clusters without the presence of hydrogen, that reveals the armor effect exerted by hydrogen on the electronic structure of nickel, which due to the storing of hydrogen energy within nickel clusters structures. The comparison between the bond lengths for both clusters shows the expansion effect of clusters geometry which due to hydrogen presence.
163
5797
Computer Simulation of Hydrogen Superfluidity through Binary Mixing
Authors:
Abstract:
A superfluid is a fluid of bosons that flows without resistance. In order to be a superfluid, a substance’s particles must behave like bosons, yet remain mobile enough to be considered a superfluid. Bosons are low-temperature particles that can be in all energy states at the same time. If bosons were to be cooled down, then the particles will all try to be on the lowest energy state, which is called the Bose Einstein condensation. The temperature when bosons start to matter is when the temperature has reached its critical temperature. For example, when Helium reaches its critical temperature of 2.17K, the liquid density drops and becomes a superfluid with zero viscosity. However, most materials will solidify -and thus not remain fluids- at temperatures well above the temperature at which they would otherwise become a superfluid. Only a few substances currently known to man are capable of at once remaining a fluid and manifesting boson statistics. The most well-known of these is helium and its isotopes. Because hydrogen is lighter than helium, and thus expected to manifest Bose statistics at higher temperatures than helium, one might expect hydrogen to also be a superfluid. As of today, however, no one has yet been able to produce a bulk, hydrogen superfluid. The reason why hydrogen did not form a superfluid in the past is its intermolecular interactions. As a result, hydrogen molecules are much more likely to crystallize than their helium counterparts. The key to creating a hydrogen superfluid is therefore finding a way to reduce the effect of the interactions among hydrogen molecules, postponing the solidification to lower temperature. In this work, we attempt via computer simulation to produce bulk superfluid hydrogen through binary mixing. Binary mixture is a technique of mixing two pure substances in order to avoid crystallization and enhance super fluidity. Our mixture here is KALJ H2. We then sample the partition function using this Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC), which is well-suited for the equilibrium properties of low-temperature bosons and captures not only the statistics but also the dynamics of Hydrogen. Via this sampling, we will then produce a time evolution of the substance and see if it exhibits superfluid properties.
162
57794
The Prospect of Producing Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Idle Discharges of Water from Reservoirs and Recycling of Waste-Gas Condensates
Abstract:
The results of the studies for the hydrogen production by the application of water electrolysis and plasma-chemical processing of gas condensate-waste of natural gas production methods are presented. Thin coating covers the electrode surfaces in the process of water electrolysis. Therefore, water for electrolysis was first exposed to electrosedimentation. The threshold voltage is shifted to a lower value compared with the use of electrodes made of stainless steel. At electrolysis of electrosedimented water by use of electrodes from stainless steel, a significant amount of hydrogen is formed. Pyrolysis of gas condensates in the atmosphere of a nitrogen was followed by the formation of acetylene (3-7 vol.%), ethylene (4-8 vol.%), and pyrolysis carbon (10-15 wt.%).
161
43009
High Efficient Biohydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Processing Wastewater by Two Stage Thermophilic Fermentation and Electrohydrogenesis
Abstract:
A two-stage thermophilic fermentation and electrohydrogenesis process was used to convert cassava starch processing wastewater into hydrogen gas. Maximum hydrogen yield from fermentation stage by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum PSU-2 was 248 mL H2/g-COD at optimal pH of 6.5. Optimum hydrogen production rate of 820 mL/L/d and yield of 200 mL/g COD was obtained at HRT of 2 days in fermentation stage. Cassava starch processing wastewater fermentation effluent consisted of acetic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid. The effluent from fermentation stage was used as feedstock to generate hydrogen production by microbial electrolysis cell (MECs) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V in second stage with additional 657 mL H2/g-COD was produced. Energy efficiencies based on electricity needed for the MEC were 330 % with COD removals of 95 %. The overall hydrogen yield was 800-900 mL H2/g-COD. Microbial community analysis of electrohydrogenesis by DGGE shows that exoelectrogens belong to Acidiphilium sp., Geobacter sulfurreducens and Thermincola sp. were dominated at anode. These results show two-stage thermophilic fermentation, and electrohydrogenesis process improved hydrogen production performance with high hydrogen yields, high gas production rates and high COD removal efficiency.
160
25634
CFD Simulation of a Large Scale Unconfined Hydrogen Deflagration
Abstract:
In the present work, CFD simulations of a large scale open deflagration experiment are performed. Stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture occupies a 20 m hemisphere. Two combustion models are compared and are evaluated against the experiment. The Eddy Dissipation Model and a Multi-physics combustion model which is based on Yakhot’s equation for the turbulent flame speed. The values of models’ critical parameters are investigated. The effect of the turbulence model is also examined. k-ε model and LES approach were tested.
159
79063
A Selective and Fast Hydrogen Sensor Using Doped-LaCrO₃ as Sensing Electrode
Abstract:
As a clean energy, hydrogen shows many advantages such as renewability, high heat value, and extensive sources and may play an important role in the future society. However, hydrogen is a combustible gas because of its low ignition energy (0.02mJ) and wide explosive limit (4% ~ 74% in air). It is very likely to cause fire hazard or explosion once leakage is happened and not detected in time. Mixed-potential type sensor has attracted much attention in monitoring and detecting hydrogen due to its high response, simple support electronics and long-term stability. Typically, this kind of sensor is consisted of a sensing electrode (SE), a reference electrode (RE) and a solid electrolyte. The SE and RE materials usually display different electrocatalytic abilities to hydrogen. So hydrogen could be detected by measuring the EMF change between the two electrodes. Previous reports indicate that a high-performance sensing electrode is important for improving the sensing characteristics of the sensor. In this report, a planar type mixed-potential hydrogen sensor using La₀.₈Sr₀.₂Cr₀.₅Mn₀.₅O₃₋δ (LSCM) as SE, Pt as RE and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as solid electrolyte was developed. The reason for selecting LSCM as sensing electrode is that it shows the high electrocatalytic ability to hydrogen in solid oxide fuel cells. The sensing performance of the fabricated LSCM/YSZ/Pt sensor was tested systemically. The experimental results show that the sensor displays high response to hydrogen. The response values for 100ppm and 1000ppm hydrogen at 450 ºC are -70 mV and -118 mV, respectively. The response time is an important parameter to evaluate a sensor. In this report, the sensor response time decreases with increasing hydrogen concentration and get saturated above 500ppm. The steady response time at 450 ºC is as short as 4s, indicating the sensor shows great potential in practical application to monitor hydrogen. An excellent response repeatability to 100ppm hydrogen at 450 ˚C and a good sensor reproducibility among three sensors were also observed. Meanwhile, the sensor exhibits excellent selectivity to hydrogen compared with several interfering gases such as NO₂, CH₄, CO, C₃H₈ and NH₃. Polarization curves were tested to investigate the sensing mechanism and the results indicated the sensor abide by the mixed-potential mechanism.
158
81329
Absorbed Dose Estimation of ⁶⁸Ga-EDTMP in Human Organs
Abstract:
Bone metastases are observed in a wide range of cancers leading to intolerable pain. While, early detection can help the physicians in the decision of the type of treatment, various radiopharmaceuticals using phosphonates like 68Ga-EDTMP have been developed. In this work, due to the importance of absorbed dose, human absorbed dose of this new agent was calculated for the first time based on biodistribution data in Wild-type rats. 68Ga was obtained from 68Ge/68Ga generator with radionuclidic purity and radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in the optimized conditions. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) method using Whatman No. 2 paper and saline. The results indicated the radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabelled complex was injected into the Wild-type rats and its biodistribution was studied up to 120 min. As expected, major accumulation was observed in the bone. Absorbed dose of each human organ was calculated based on biodistribution in the rats using RADAR method. Bone surface and bone marrow with 0.112 and 0.053 mSv/MBq, respectively, received the highest absorbed dose. According to these results, the radiolabeled complex is a suitable and safe option for PET bone imaging.
157
37858
Characterization of Vegetable Wastes and Its Potential Use for Hydrogen and Methane Production via Dark Anaerobic Fermentation
Abstract:
The problem of fruit and vegetable waste management is a grave one and with ever increasing need to feed the exponentially growing population, more and more solid waste in the form of fruit and vegetables waste are generated and its management has become one of the key issues in protection of environment. Energy generation from fruit and vegetables waste by dark anaerobic fermentation is a recent an interesting avenue effective management of solid waste as well as for generating free and cheap energy. In the present study 17 vegetables were characterized for their physical as well as chemical properties, these characteristics were used to determine the hydrogen and methane potentials of vegetable from various models, and also lab scale batch experiments were performed to determine their actual hydrogen and methane production capacity. Lab scale batch experiments proved that vegetable waste can be used as effective substrate for bio hydrogen and methane production, however the expected yield of bio hydrogen and methane was much lower than predicted by models, this was due to the fact that other vital experimental parameters such as pH, total solids content, food to microorganism ratio was not optimized.
156
27332
Investigation of Dissolution in Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate Solutions of Gypsum
Abstract:
Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a mineral that is found in large quantities in the Turkey and in the World. The dissolution of this mineral in the diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions has not been studied so far. Investigation of the dissolution and dissolution kinetics gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions will be useful for evaluating of solid wastes containing gypsum. In this study, parameters such as diammonium hydrogen phosphate concentration, temperature and stirring speed affecting on the dissolution rate of the gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions were investigated. In experimental studies have researched effectiveness of the selected parameters. The dissolution of gypsum were examined in two parts at low and high temperatures. The experimental results were successfully correlated by linear regression using Statistica program. Dissolution curves were evaluated shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. The activation energy was found to be 34.58 kJ/mol and 44.45 kJ/mol for the low and the high temperatures. The dissolution of gypsum was controlled by chemical reaction both low temperatures and high temperatures. Reaction rate expressions of dissolution of gypsum at the low temperatures and the high temperatures controlled by chemical reaction are as follows, respectively. = k1.e-5159.5/T.t = k2.e-5346.8/T.t Where k1 and k2 are constants depending on the diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution concentration, the solid/liquid ratio, the stirring speed and the particle size.
155
52402
Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt from Off-Peak Electricity and Its Role in Balancing the Grid
Abstract:
The rapid growth of renewable energy sources and their integration into the grid have been motivated by the depletion of fossil fuels and environmental issues. Unfortunately, the grid is unable to cope with the predicted growth of renewable energy which would lead to its instability. To solve this problem, energy storage devices could be used. Electrolytic hydrogen production from an electrolyser is considered a promising option since it is a clean energy source (zero emissions). Choosing flexible operation of an electrolyser (producing hydrogen during the off-peak electricity period and stopping at other times) could bring about many benefits like reducing the cost of hydrogen and helping to balance the electric systems. This paper investigates the price of hydrogen during flexible operation compared with continuous operation, while serving the customer (hydrogen filling station) without interruption. The optimization algorithm is applied to investigate the hydrogen station in both cases (flexible and continuous operation). Three different scenarios are tested to see whether the off-peak electricity price could enhance the reduction of the hydrogen cost. These scenarios are: Standard tariff (1 tier system) during the day (assumed 12 p/kWh) while still satisfying the demand for hydrogen; using off-peak electricity at a lower price (assumed 5 p/kWh) and shutting down the electrolyser at other times; using lower price electricity at off-peak times and high price electricity at other times. This study looks at Derna city, which is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (32° 46′ 0 N, 22° 38′ 0 E) with a high potential for wind resource. Hourly wind speed data which were collected over 24½ years from 1990 to 2014 were in addition to data on hourly radiation and hourly electricity demand collected over a one-year period, together with the petrol station data.
154
12766
Assessment of Solar Hydrogen Production in Energetic Hybrid PV-PEMFC System
Abstract:
This paper discusses the design and analysis of a hybrid PV-Fuel cell energy system destined to power a DC load. The system is composed of a photovoltaic array, a fuel cell, an electrolyzer and a hydrogen tank. HOMER software is used in this study to calculate the optimum capacities of the power system components that their combination allows an efficient use of solar resource to cover the hourly load needs. The optimal system sizing allows establishing the right balance between the daily electrical energy produced by the power system and the daily electrical energy consumed by the DC load using a 28 KW PV array, a 7.5 KW fuel cell, a 40KW electrolyzer and a 270 Kg hydrogen tank. The variation of powers involved into the DC bus of the hybrid PV-fuel cell system has been computed and analyzed for each hour over one year: the output powers of the PV array and the fuel cell, the input power of the elctrolyzer system and the DC primary load. Equally, the annual variation of stored hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer has been assessed. The PV array contributes in the power system with 82% whereas the fuel cell produces 18%. 38% of the total energy consumption belongs to the DC primary load while the rest goes to the electrolyzer.
153
88214
Numerical Model of Crude Glycerol Autothermal Reforming to Hydrogen-Rich Syngas
Abstract:
Hydrogen is a clean source of energy for power production and transportation. The main source of hydrogen in this research is biodiesel. Glycerol also called glycerine is a by-product of biodiesel production by transesterification of vegetable oils and methanol. This is a reliable and environmentally-friendly source of hydrogen production than fossil fuels. A typical composition of crude glycerol comprises of glycerol, water, organic and inorganic salts, soap, methanol and small amounts of glycerides. Crude glycerol has limited industrial application due to its low purity thus, the usage of crude glycerol can significantly enhance the sustainability and production of biodiesel. Reforming techniques is an approach for hydrogen production mainly Steam Reforming (SR), Autothermal Reforming (ATR) and Partial Oxidation Reforming (POR). SR produces high hydrogen conversions and yield but is highly endothermic whereas POR is exothermic. On the downside, PO yields lower hydrogen as well as large amount of side reactions. ATR which is a fusion of partial oxidation reforming and steam reforming is thermally neutral because net reactor heat duty is zero. It has relatively high hydrogen yield, selectivity as well as limits coke formation. The complex chemical processes that take place during the production phases makes it relatively difficult to construct a reliable and robust numerical model. Numerical model is a tool to mimic reality and provide insight into the influence of the parameters. In this work, we introduce a finite volume numerical study for an 'in-house' lab-scale experiment of ATR. Previous numerical studies on this process have considered either using Comsol or nodal finite difference analysis. Since Comsol is a commercial package which is not readily available everywhere and lab-scale experiment can be considered well mixed in the radial direction. One spatial dimension suffices to capture the essential feature of ATR, in this work, we consider developing our own numerical approach using MATLAB. A continuum fixed bed reactor is modelled using MATLAB with both pseudo homogeneous and heterogeneous models. The drawback of nodal finite difference formulation is that it is not locally conservative which means that materials and momenta can be generated inside the domain as an artifact of the discretization. Control volume, on the other hand, is locally conservative and suites very well problems where materials are generated and consumed inside the domain. In this work, species mass balance, Darcy’s equation and energy equations are solved using operator splitting technique. Therefore, diffusion-like terms are discretized implicitly while advection-like terms are discretized explicitly. An upwind scheme is adapted for the advection term to ensure accuracy and positivity. Comparisons with the experimental data show very good agreements which build confidence in our modeling approach. The models obtained were validated and optimized for better results.
152
54608
Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane
Abstract:
Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.
151
47191
Effect of Inoculum Ratio on Dark Fermentative Hydrogen Production
Abstract:
Fuel reserve requirements due to depletion of fossil fuels have increased interest in biohydrogen since the 1990’s. In fermentative hydrogen production, pure, mixed, and co-cultures can be used to produce hydrogen. Several previous studies have evaluated hydrogen production by pure cultures of Clostridium butyricum or Enterobacter aerogenes. Evaluating hydrogen production by co-culture of these microorganisms is an interestıng approach since E. aerogenes is a facultative microorganism with resistance to oxygen in contrast to the strict anaerobe C. butyricum, and therefore has the ability to maintain anaerobic conditions. It was found that using co-cultures of facultative E. aerogenes (as a reducing agent and H2 producer) and the obligate anaerobe C. butyricum for producing hydrogen increases the yield of hydrogen by about 50% compared to C. butyricum by itself. Also, using different types of microorganisms for hydrogen production eliminates the need to use expensive reducing agents. C. butyricum strain pre-cultured anaerobically at 37 0C for 15h by inoculating 100 mL of GP medium (pH 6.8) consisting of 1% glucose, 2% polypeptone, 0.2% KH2PO4, 0.05% yeast extract, 0.05% MgSO4. 7H2O and E. aerogenes strain was pre-cultured aerobically at 30 0C, 150 rpm for 9 h by inoculating 100 mL of TGY medium (pH 6.8), consisting of 0.1% glucose, 0.5% tryptone, 0.1% K2HPO4, 0.5% yeast extract. All duplicate batch experiments were conducted in 100 mL bottles with different inoculum ratios of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobater aerogenes (C:E) using 5x diluted rich media (GP) consisting of 2 g/L glucose, 4g/L polypeptone, 0.4 g/L KH2PO4, 0.1 g/L yeast extract, 0.1 MgSO4.7H2O. The range of inoculum ratio of C. butyricum to E. aerogenes were 2:1,4:1,8:1, 1:2,1:4, 1:8, 1:0, 0:1. Using glucose as a carbon source aided in the observation of microbial behavior as well as making the effect of inoculum ratio more evident. Nearly all the glucose in the medium was used to produce hydrogen, except at a 1:0 ratio of inoculum (i.e. containing only C. butyricum). Low glucose consumption leads to a higher hydrogen yield due to cumulative hydrogen production and consumption of glucose, but not as much as C:E, 8:1. The lowest hydrogen yield was achieved in 1:8 inoculum ratio of C:E, 71.9 mL, 1.007±0.01 mol H2/mol glucose and the highest cumulative hydrogen, hydrogen yield and dry cell weight were achieved in 8:1 inoculum ratio of C:E, 117.4 mL, 2.035±0.082 mol H2/mol glucose, 0.4 g/L respectively. In this study effect of inoculum ratio on dark fermentative biohydrogen production using C. butyricum and E. aerogenes was investigated. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.035mol H2/mol glucose was obtained using 2g/L glucose, an initial pH of 6 and an inoculum ratio of C. butyricum to E. aerogenes of 8:1. Results showed that inoculum ratio is an important parameter on hydrogen production due to competition between the two microorganisms in using substrate for growth and production of by-products. The results presented here could be of great significance for further waste management studies using co-culture hydrogen production.
150
47448
The Manufacturing of Metallurgical Grade Silicon from Diatomaceous Silica by an Induction Furnace
Abstract:
The metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) is obtained from the reduction of silica (SiO2) in an induction furnace or an electric arc furnace. Impurities inherent in reduction process also depend on the quality of the raw material used. Among the applications of the silicon, it is used as a substrate for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy and this conversion is wider as the purity of the substrate is important. Research is being done where the purpose is looking for new methods of manufacturing and purification of silicon, as well as new materials that can be used as substrates for the photovoltaic conversion of light energy. In this research, the technique of production of silicon in an induction furnace, using a high vacuum for fusion. Diatomaceous Silica (SiO2) used is 99 mass% initial purities, the carbon used is 6N of purity and the particle size of 63μm as starting materials. The final achieved purity of the material was above 50% by mass. These results demonstrate that this method is a technically reliable, and allows obtaining a better return on the amount 50% of silicon.
149
35735
Parametric Studies of Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process
Abstract:
Ethylene dichloride is a colorless liquid with a smell like chloroform. EDC is classified in the simple hydrocarbon group which is obtained from chlorinating ethylene gas. Its chemical formula is C2H2Cl2 which is used as the main mediator in VCM production. Therefore, the purification process of EDC is important in the petrochemical process. In this study, the purification unit of EDC was simulated, and then validation was performed. Finally, the impact of process parameter was studied for the degree of EDC purity. The results showed that by increasing the feed flow, the reflux impure combinations increase and result in an EDC purity decrease.
148
54684
Radiochemical Purity of 68Ga-BCA-Peptides: Separation of All 68Ga Species with a Single iTLC Strip
Abstract:
In the present study, highly effective iTLC single strip method for the determination of radiochemical purity (RCP) of 68Ga-BCA-peptides was developed (with no double-developing, changing of eluents or other additional manipulation). In this method iTLC-SG strips and commonly used eluent TFAaq. (3-5 % (v/v)) are used. The method allows determining each of the key radiochemical forms of 68Ga (colloidal, bound, ionic) separately with the peaks separation being no less than 4 σ. Rf = 0.0-0.1 for 68Ga-colloid; Rf = 0.5-0.6 for 68Ga-BCA-peptides; Rf = 0.9-1.0 for ionic 68Ga. The method is simple and fast: For developing length of 75 mm only 4-6 min is required (versus 18-20 min for pharmacopoeial method). The method has been tested on various compounds (including 68Ga-DOTA-TOC, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE, 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD2 etc.). The cross-validation work for every specific form of 68Ga showed good correlation between method developed and control (pharmacopoeial) methods. The method can become convenient and much more informative replacement for pharmacopoeial methods, including HPLC.
147
66190
Separate Production of Hydrogen and Methane from Ethanol Wastewater Using Two-Stage UASB: Micronutrient Transportation
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of COD loading rate on hydrogen and methane production and micronutrient transportation using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under mesophilic temperature (37°C) with a constant recycle ratio of 1:1 (final effluent flow rate: feed flow rate). The first (hydrogen) UASB unit having 4 L liquid holding volume was controlled at pH 5.5 but the second (methane) UASB unit having 24 L liquid holding volume had no pH control. The two-stage UASB system operated at different COD loading rates from 8 to 20 kg/m³d based on total UASB working volume. The results showed that, at the optimum COD loading rate of 13 kg/m³d, the produced gas from the hydrogen UASB unit contained 1.5% H₂, 16.5% CH₄, and 82% CO₂ with H₂S of 252 ppm and also provided a hydrogen yield of 1.66 mL/g COD removed (or 0.56 mL/g COD applied) and a specific hydrogen production rate of 156.85 ml H₂/LRd (or 5.12 ml H₂/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, the produced gas from the methane UASB unit mainly contained methane and carbon dioxide without hydrogen of 74 and 26%, respectively with hydrogen sulfide of 287 ppm and the system also provided a maximum methane yield of 407.00 mL/g COD removed (or 263.23 mL/g COD applied) and a specific methane production rate of 2081.44 ml CH₄/LRd (or 99.75 ml CH₄/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, all micronutrients markedly dropped by the sulfide precipitation reactions. The reduction of micronutrients mostly appeared in the methane UASB unit. Under the studied conditions, both Co and Ni were found to be greatly precipitated out, causing the deficiency to microbial activity. It is hypothesized that an addition of both Co and Ni can improve the methanogenic activity.
146
11966
Correlation Between Hydrogen Charging and Charpy Impact of 4340 Steel
Abstract:
Current methods of testing for hydrogen charging are slow and time consuming. The objective of this paper was to determine if hydrogen charging can be detected quantitatively through the use of Charpy Impact (CI) testing. CI is a much faster and simpler process than current methods for detecting hydrogen charging. Steel plates were Electro Discharge Machined (EDM) into ninety-six 4340 steel CI samples and forty-eight tensile bars. All the samples were heat treated at 900°C to austentite and then rapidly quenched in water to form martensite. The samples were tempered at eight different target strengths/target temperatures (145, 160, 170, 180, 190, 205, 220, to 250KSI, thousands of pounds per square inch)/(1100, 1013, 956, 898, 840, 754, 667, 494 degrees Celsius). After a tedious process of grinding and machining v-notches to the Charpy samples, they were divided into four groups. One group was kept as received baseline for comparison while the other three groups were sent to Alcoa (Fasteners) Inc. in Torrance to be cadmium coated. The three groups were coated with three thicknesses (2, 3 and 5 mils). That means that the samples were charged with ascending hydrogen levels. The samples were CI tested and tensile tested, and the data was tabulated and compared to the baseline group of uncharged samples of the same material. The results of this study were successful and indicated that CI testing was able to quantitatively detect hydrogen charging.
145
62891
Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source
Abstract:
The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.
144
89008
Experimental and Numerical Studies on Hydrogen Behavior in a Small-Scale Container with Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner
Abstract:
One of the most important issue is to ensure the safety of long-term waste storage containers in which fuel debris and radioactive materials are accumulated. In this case, hydrogen generated by water decomposition by radiation is accumulated in the container for a long period of time, so it is necessary to reduce the concentration of hydrogen in the container. In addition, a condition that any power supplies from the outside of the container are unnecessary is requested. Then, radioactive waste storage containers with the passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) would be effective. The radioactive waste storage container with PAR was used for moving the fuel debris of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 to the storage location. However, the effect of PAR is not described in detail. Moreover, the reduction of hydrogen concentration during the long-term storage period was performed by the venting system, which was installed on the top of the container. Therefore, development of a long-term storage container with PAR was started with the aim of safely storing fuel debris picked up at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant for a long period of time. A fundamental experiment for reducing the concentration of hydrogen which generates in a nuclear waste long-term storage container was carried out using a small-scale container with PAR. Moreover, the circulation flow behavior of hydrogen in the small-scale container resulting from the natural convection by the decay heat was clarified. In addition, preliminary numerical analyses were performed to predict the experimental results regarding the circulation flow behavior and the reduction of hydrogen concentration in the small-scale container. From the results of the present study, the validity of the container with PAR was experimentally confirmed on the reduction of hydrogen concentration. In addition, it was predicted numerically that the circulation flow behavior of hydrogen in the small-scale container is blocked by steam which generates by chemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen.
143
86797
Increasing Photosynthetic H2 Production by in vivo Expression of Re-Engineered Ferredoxin-Hydrogenase Fusion Protein in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Abstract:
The most urgent challenge of our time is to replace the depleting resources of fossil fuels by sustainable environmentally friendly alternatives. Hydrogen is a promising CO2-neutral fuel for a more sustainable future especially when produced photo-biologically. Hydrogen can be photosynthetically produced in unicellular green alga like Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, catalysed by the inducible highly active and bidirectional [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes (HydA). However, evolutionary and physiological constraints severely restrict the hydrogen yield of algae for industrial scale-up, mainly due to its competition among other metabolic pathways on photosynthetic electrons. Among them, a major challenge to be resolved is the inferior competitiveness of hydrogen production (catalysed by HydA) with NADPH production (catalysed by ferredoxin-NADP+-reductase (FNR)), which is essential for cell growth and takes up ~95% of photosynthetic electrons. In this work, the in vivo hydrogen production efficiency of mutants with ferredoxin-hydrogenase (Fd*-HydA1*) fusion protein construct, where the electron donor ferredoxin (Fd*) is fused to HydA1* and expressed in the model organism C. reinhardtii was investigated. Once Fd*-HydA1* fusion gene is expressed in algal cells, the fusion enzyme is able to draw the redistributed photosynthetic electrons and use them for efficient hydrogen production. From preliminary data, mutants with Fd*-HydA1* transgene showed a ~2-fold increase in the photosynthetic hydrogen production rate compared with its parental strain, which only possesses the native HydA in vivo. Therefore, a solid method of having more efficient hydrogen production in microalgae can be achieved through the expression of the synthetic enzymes.
142
35419
Large Eddy Simulation of Hydrogen Deflagration in Open Space and Vented Enclosure
Abstract:
This paper discusses the applicability of the numerical model for a damage prediction method of the accidental hydrogen explosion occurring in a hydrogen facility. The numerical model was based on an unstructured finite volume method (FVM) code “NuFD/FrontFlowRed”. For simulating unsteady turbulent combustion of leaked hydrogen gas, a combination of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and a combustion model were used. The combustion model was based on a two scalar flamelet approach, where a G-equation model and a conserved scalar model expressed a propagation of premixed flame surface and a diffusion combustion process, respectively. For validation of this numerical model, we have simulated the previous two types of hydrogen explosion tests. One is open-space explosion test, and the source was a prismatic 5.27 m3 volume with 30% of hydrogen-air mixture. A reinforced concrete wall was set 4 m away from the front surface of the source. The source was ignited at the bottom center by a spark. The other is vented enclosure explosion test, and the chamber was 4.6 m × 4.6 m × 3.0 m with a vent opening on one side. Vent area of 5.4 m2 was used. Test was performed with ignition at the center of the wall opposite the vent. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen concentrations close to 18% vol. were used in the tests. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with the previous experimental data for the accuracy of the numerical model, and we have verified that the simulated overpressures and flame time-of-arrival data were in good agreement with the results of the previous two explosion tests.
141
27457
Dissolution Leaching Kinetics of Ulexite in Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Solutions
Abstract:
The aim of this study was investigate the leaching kinetics of ulexite in disodium hydrogen phosphate solutions in a mechanical agitation system. Reaction temperature, concentration of disodium hydrogen phosphate solutions, stirring speed, solid/liquid ratio and ulexite particle size were selected as parameters. The experimental results were successfully correlated by linear regression using Statistica program. Dissolution curves were evaluated shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. It was observed that increase in the reaction temperature and decrease in the solid/liquid ratio causes an increase the dissolution rate of ulexite. The activation energy was found to be 63.4 kJ/mol. The leaching of ulexite was controlled by chemical reaction.
140
45960
The Optimization of Immobilization Conditions for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Industry Wastewater
Abstract:
Clostridium sp. LS2 was immobilised by entrapment in polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel beads to improve the biohydrogen production rate from palm oil mill effluent (POME). We sought to explore and optimise the hydrogen production capability of the immobilised cells by studying the conditions for cell immobilisation, including PEG concentration, cell loading and curing times, as well as the effects of temperature and K2HPO4 (500–2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (0.1–5.0 mg/L), FeCl2 (100–400 mg/L) MgSO4 (50–200 mg/L) concentrations on hydrogen production rate. The results showed that by optimising the PEG concentration (10% w/v), initial biomass (2.2 g dry weight), curing time (80 min) and temperature (37 °C), as well as the concentrations of K2HPO4 (2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (1 mg/L), FeCl2 (300 mg/L) and MgSO4 (100 mg/L), a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7.3 L/L-POME/day and a yield of 0.31 L H2/g chemical oxygen demand were obtained during continuous operation. We believe that this process may be potentially expanded for sustained and large-scale hydrogen production.
139
67384
Steel Industry Waste as Recyclable Raw Material for the Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys
Abstract:
The study aims to assess if high-purity iron powder in iron-aluminum alloys can be replaced by SAE 1020 steel chips with an atomicity proportion of 50% for each element. Chips of SAE 1020 are rejected in industrial processes. Thus, the use of SAE 1020 as a replaceable composite for iron increase the sustainability of ferrous alloys by recycling industrial waste. The alloys were processed by high energy milling, of which the main advantage is the minimal loss of raw material. The raw material for three of the six samples were high purity iron powder and recyclable aluminum cans. For the other three samples, the high purity iron powder has been replaced with chips of SAE 1020 steel. The process started with the separate milling of chips of aluminum and SAE 1020 steel to obtain the powder. Subsequently, the raw material was mixed in the pre-defined proportions, milled together for five hours and then underwent a closed-die hot compaction at the temperature of 500 °C. Thereafter, the compacted samples underwent heat treatments known as sintering and solubilization. All samples were sintered one hour, and 4 samples were solubilized for either 4 or 10 hours under well-controlled atmosphere conditions. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. The samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing. The results of the analysis showed a similar chemical composition and interesting hardness levels with low standard deviations. This verified that the use of SAE 1020 steel chips can be a low-cost alternative for high-purity iron powder and could possibly replace high-purity Iron in industrial applications.
138
20069
The Proton Flow Battery for Storing Renewable Energy: Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Selected Activated Carbon Electrodes Made from Brown Coal
Abstract:
Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in activated carbon electrodes as part of a reversible fuel cell offers a potentially attractive option for storing surplus electrical energy from inherently variable solar and wind energy resources. Such a system – which we have called a proton flow battery – promises to have roundtrip energy efficiency comparable to lithium ion batteries, while having higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. Activated carbons with high internal surface area, high pore volume, light weight and easy availability have attracted considerable research interest as a solid-state hydrogen storage medium. This paper compares the physical characteristics and hydrogen storage capacities of four activated carbon electrodes made by different methods from brown coal. The fabrication methods for these samples are explained. Their proton conductivity was measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their hydrogen storage capacity by galvanostatic charging and discharging in a three-electrode electrolytic cell with 1 mol sulphuric acid as electrolyte. The highest hydrogen storage capacity obtained was 1.29 wt%, which compares favourably with metal hydrides used in commercially available solid-state hydrogen storages. The hydrogen storage capacity of the samples increased monotonically with increasing BET surface area (calculated from CO2 adsorption method). The results point the way towards selecting high-performing electrodes for proton flow batteries that the competitiveness of this energy storage technology.
137
89600
Magnetron Sputtered Thin-Film Catalysts with Low Noble Metal Content for Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis
Abstract:
Hydrogen economy is a concept of low-emission society which harvests most of its energy from renewable sources (e.g., wind and solar) and in case of overproduction, electrochemically turns the excess amount into hydrogen, which serves as an energy carrier. Proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers (PEMWE) are the backbone of this concept. By fast-response electricity to hydrogen conversion, the PEMWEs will not only stabilize the electrical grid but also provide high-purity hydrogen for variety of fuel cell powered devices, ranging from consumer electronics to vehicles. Wider commercialization of PEMWE technology is however hindered by high prices of noble metals which are necessary for catalyzing the redox reactions within the cell. Namely, platinum for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), running on cathode, and iridium for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on anode. Possible way of how to lower the loading of Pt and Ir is by using conductive high-surface nanostructures as catalyst supports in conjunction with thin-film catalyst deposition. The presented study discusses unconventional technique of membrane electron assembly (MEA) preparation. Noble metal catalysts (Pt and Ir) were magnetron sputtered in very low loadings onto the surface of porous sublayers (located on gas diffusion layer or directly on membrane), forming so to say localized three-phase boundary. Ultrasonically sprayed corrosion resistant TiC-based sublayer was used as a support material on anode, whereas magnetron sputtered nanostructured etched nitrogenated carbon (CNx) served the same role on cathode. By using this configuration, we were able to significantly decrease the amount of noble metals (to thickness of just tens of nanometers), while keeping the performance comparable to that of average state-of-the-art catalysts. Complex characterization of prepared supported catalysts includes in-cell performance and durability tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Our research proves that magnetron sputtering is a suitable method for thin-film deposition of electrocatalysts. Tested set-up of thin-film supported anode and cathode catalysts with combined loading of just 120 ug.cm⁻² yields remarkable values of specific current. Described approach of thin-film low-loading catalyst deposition might be relevant when noble metal reduction is the topmost priority.
136
29760
Interventions to Control Listeria Monocytogenes on Sliced Mushrooms
Abstract:
The following reports on a comparative study on the efficacy of different decontamination technologies to decrease Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto white sliced mushrooms and assesses the fate of residual levels during posttreatment storage under aerobic conditions at 8uC. The treatments were chemical (hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, ozonated water, electrolyzed water, chitosan, lactic acid), biological (Listeria bacteriophages), and physical (UV-C, UV:hydrogen peroxide). None of the treatments achieved .1.2 log CFU reduction in L. monocytogenes levels; bacteriophages at a multiplicity of infection of 100 and 3% (vol/vol) hydrogen peroxide were the most effective of the treatments tested. However, growth of residual L. monocytogenes during posttreatment storage attained levels equal to or greater than levels in the nontreated controls. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited on mushrooms treated with chitosan, electrolyzed water, peroxyacetic acid, or UV. Yet, L. monocytogenes inoculated onto mushrooms and treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide decreased during posttreatment storage, through a combination of sublethal injury and dehydration of the mushroom surface. Although mushrooms treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide became darker during storage, the samples were visually acceptable relative to controls. In conclusion, of the treatments evaluated, UV:hydrogen peroxide holds promise to control L. monocytogenes on mushroom surfaces.
135
27238
Preparation of Amorphous silica from Algerian Diatomite and Its Properties
Abstract:
In this work there is a facile method to produce pure amorphous silica from Algerian diatomite with an economic and ecological method. The sodium silicate is commonly used as precursor in silica gel diatomite preparation. In this study, the preparation of sodium silicate is preceded by acid washing of raw diatomite; the acid is then slowly added to precipitate silica at different pH values to obtain silica gel. The silica gel is characterized by EDX, ICP-MS and XRD. The EDX revels that the purity of silica from diatom is 98% after purification compared to raw diatom.
134
10237
The Effect of Hydrogen on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO: A Density Functional Tight Binding Study
Abstract:
The ferromagnetic properties of carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO) and hydrogenated carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO+H) are investigated using the density functional tight binding (DFTB) method. Our results reveal that CO-doped ZnO is a ferromagnetic material with a magnetic moment of 1.3 μB per carbon atom. The presence of hydrogen in the material in the form of CO-H complex decreases the total magnetism of the material without suppressing ferromagnetism. However, the system in this case becomes quickly antiferromagnetic when the C-C separation distance was increased.
133
39820
Application of Hydrogen Peroxide and Polialuminum Chloride to Treat Palm Oil Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation
Abstract:
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and hydrogen peroxide on COD removal by electrocoagulation. The current density was varied between 30-80 mA cm−2, polyaluminum chloride (1-3 g L-1) as coagulant aid and 1 and 2 percent of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. It has been shown that 86.67% of COD was removed by the iron electrode in 180 min while 81.11% of COD was removed by the aluminum electrode in 210 min which indicate that iron was more effective than aluminum. As much as 88.25% COD was removed by using 80 mA cm−2 as compared to 72.86% by using 30 mA cm−2 in 240 min. When PAC and H2O2 increased, the percent of COD removal was increasing as well. The highest removal efficiency of 95.08% was achieved by adding 2% of H2O2 in addition of 3 g L−1 PAC. The general results demonstrate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve more than 70% COD removal in 180 min at current density 30-80 mAcm-2 depending on the concentration of H2O2 and coagulant aid.
132
40013
H2 Production and Treatment of Cake Wastewater Industry via Up-Flow Anaerobic Staged Reactor
Abstract:
Hydrogen production from cake wastewater by anaerobic dark fermentation via upflow anaerobic staged reactor (UASR) was investigated in this study. The reactor was continuously operated for four months at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 21.57 hr, PH value of 6 ± 0.6, temperature of 21.1°C, and organic loading rate of 2.43 gCOD/l.d. The hydrogen production was 5.7 l H2/d and the hydrogen yield was 134.8 ml H2 /g CODremoved. The system showed an overall removal efficiency of TCOD, TBOD, TSS, TKN, and Carbohydrates of 40 ± 13%, 59 ± 18%, 84 ± 17%, 28 ± 27%, and 85 ± 15% respectively during the long term operation period. Based on the available results, the system is not sufficient for the effective treatment of cake wastewater, and the effluent quality of UASR is not complying for discharge into sewerage network, therefore a post treatment is needed (not covered in this study).
131
93824
Time Dependent Biodistribution Modeling of 177Lu-DOTATOC Using Compartmental Analysis
Abstract:
In this study, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared under optimized conditions (radiochemical purity: > 99%, radionuclidic purity: > 99%). The percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID/g) was calculated for organs up to 168 h post injection. Compartmental model was applied to mathematical description of the drug behaviour in tissue at different times. The biodistribution data showed the significant excretion of the radioactivity from the kidneys. The adrenal and pancreas, as major expression sites for somatostatin receptor (SSTR), had significant uptake. A pharmacokinetic model of 177Lu-DOTATOC was presented by compartmental analysis which demonstrates the behavior of the complex.
130
62871
NiAl-Layered Double Hydroxide: Preparation, Characterization and Applications in Photo-Catalysis and Hydrogen Storage
Abstract:
NiAl-Layered Double Hydroxide (NiAl-LDH), one of anionic functional layered materials, has been prepared by a simple co-precipitation process. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of the desired compounds of NiAl hydroxide single phase and the crystallite size was found to be about 4.6 nm. The morphology of the prepared samples was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and the layered structure was appeared under the transmission electron microscope. The thermal stability and the function groups of NiAl-LDH were investigated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) respectively. NiAl-LDH was investigated as a photo-catalyst for the degradation of some toxic dyes such as toluidine blue and bromopyrogallol red. It shows good catalytic efficiency in visible light and even in dark. For the first time NiAl-LDH was used for hydrogen storage application. NiAl-LDH samples were exposed to 20 bar applied hydrogen pressure at room temperature, 100 and -193 oC. NiAl-LDH samples appear to have feasible hydrogen storage capacity. It was capable to adsorb 0.1wt% at room temperature, 0.15 wt% at 100oC and storage capacity reached 0.3 wt% at -193 oC.
129
21938
Electrodeposited Silver Nanostructures: A Non-Enzymatic Sensor for Hydrogen Peroxide
Abstract:
Silver nanostructures have been successfully fabricated by using electrodeposition method onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) techniques were employed for characterization of silver nanostructures. The results show nanostructures with different morphology and electrochemical properties can be obtained by various the deposition potentials and times. Electrochemical behavior of the nanostructures has been studied by using cyclic voltammetry. Silver nanostructures exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2. The presented electrode can be employed as sensing element for hydrogen peroxide.
128
23149
Development of 90y-Chitosan Complex for Radiosynovectomy
Abstract:
Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common autoimmune disease, leading to the destruction of the joints. The aim of this study was the preparation of 90Y-chitosan complex as a novel agent for radiosynovectomy. The complex was prepared in the diluted acetic acid solution. At the optimized condition, the radiochemical purity of higher than 99% was obtained by ITLC method on Whatman No. 1 and by using a mixture of methanol/water/acetic acid (4:4:2) as the mobile phase. The complex was stable in acidic media (pH=3) and its radiochemical purity was above 98% even after 48 hours. The biodistribution data in rats showed that there was no significant leakage of the injected activity even after 48 h. Considering all of the excellent features of the complex, 90Y-chitosan can be used to manipulate synovial inflammation effectively.
127
14202
Methanol Steam Reforming with Heat Recovery for Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production
Abstract:
This study is to develop a methanol steam reformer with a heat recovery zone, which recovers heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine, and to investigate waste heat recovery ratio at the required reaction temperature. The operation conditions of the reformer are reaction temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, and 300 °C), steam to carbonate (S/C) ratio (0.9, 1.1, and 1.3), and N2 volume flow rate (40 cm3/min, 70 cm3/min, and 100 cm3/min). Finally, the hydrogen concentration, the CO, CO2, and N2 concentrations are measured and recorded to calculate methanol conversion efficiency, hydrogen flow rate, and assisting combustion gas and impeding combustion gas ratio. The heat source of this reformer comes from electric heater and waste heat of exhaust gas from diesel engines. The objective is to recover waste heat from the engine and to make more uniform temperature distribution within the reformer. It is beneficial for the reformer to enhance the methanol conversion efficiency and hydrogen-rich gas production. Experimental results show that the highest hydrogen flow rate exists at N2 of the volume rate 40 cm3/min and reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C and the value is 19.6 l/min. With the electric heater and heat recovery from exhaust gas, the maximum heat recovery ratio is 13.18 % occurring at water-methanol (S/C) ratio of 1.3 and the reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C.
126
31130
Stoner Impurity Model in Nickel Hydride
Abstract:
The effect of hydrogen adsorption on the magnetic properties of fcc Ni has been calculated using the linear-muffin-tin-orbital formalism and using the local-density approximation for the exchange y correlation. The calculations for the ground state show that the sequential addition of hydrogen atoms is found to monotonically reduce the total magnetic moment of the Ni fcc structure, as a result of changes in the exchange-splitting parameter and in the Fermi energy. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization reduction as the Hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a Stoner impurity model to describe the influence of H impurity on the magnetic properties of Nickel.
125
68206
Viability Analysis of a Centralized Hydrogen Generation Plant for Use in Oil Refining Industry
Abstract:
The global energy system is experiencing a change of scenery. Unstable energy markets, an increasing focus on climate change and its sustainable development is forcing businesses to pursue new solutions in order to ensure future economic growth. This has led to the interest in using hydrogen as an energy carrier in transportation and industrial applications. As an energy carrier, hydrogen is accessible and holds a high gravimetric energy density. Abundant in hydrocarbons, hydrogen can play an important role in the shift towards low-emission fossil value chains. By combining hydrogen production by natural gas reforming with carbon capture and storage, the overall CO2 emissions are significantly reduced. In addition, the flexibility of hydrogen as an energy storage makes it applicable as a stabilizer in the renewable energy mix. The recent development in hydrogen fuel cells is also raising the expectations for a hydrogen powered transportation sector. Hydrogen value chains exist to a large extent in the industry today. The global hydrogen consumption was approximately 50 million tonnes (7.2 EJ) in 2013, where refineries, ammonia, methanol production and metal processing were main consumers. Natural gas reforming produced 48% of this hydrogen, but without carbon capture and storage (CCS). The total emissions from the production reached 500 million tonnes of CO2, hence alternative production methods with lower emissions will be necessary in future value chains. Hydrogen from electrolysis is used for a wide range of industrial chemical reactions for many years. Possibly, the earliest use was for the production of ammonia-based fertilisers by Norsk Hydro, with a test reactor set up in Notodden, Norway, in 1927. This application also claims one of the world’s largest electrolyser installations, at Sable Chemicals in Zimbabwe. Its array of 28 electrolysers consumes 80 MW per hour, producing around 21,000 Nm3/h of hydrogen. These electrolysers can compete if cheap sources of electricity are available and natural gas for steam reforming is relatively expensive. Because electrolysis of water produces oxygen as a by-product, a system of Autothermal Reforming (ATR) utilizing this oxygen has been analyzed. Replacing the air separation unit with electrolysers produces the required amount of oxygen to the ATR as well as additional hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the technical and economic potential of large-scale production of hydrogen for oil refining industry. Sensitivity analysis of parameters such as investment costs, plant operating hours, electricity price and sale price of hydrogen and oxygen are performed.
124
86053
Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of TiCl₄
Abstract:
With increasing demands for high performance materials, intensive interest on the Ti has been focused. Especially, low cost production process of Ti has been extremely necessitated from wide parts and various industries. Tetrachloride (TiCl₄) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO₂ feedstock and used as an intermediate product for the production of metal titanium sponge. Reduction of TiCl₄ is usually conducted by Kroll process using magnesium as a reduction reagent, producing metallic Ti in the shape of sponge. The process is batch type and takes very long time including post processes treating sponge. As an alternative reduction reagent, hydrogen in the state of plasma has long been strongly recommended. Experimental confirmation has not been completely reported yet and more strict analysis is required. In the present study, hydrogen plasma reduction process has been thermodynamically analyzed focusing the effects of temperature, pressure and concentration. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage® thermodynamical software.
123
97396
A Failure Investigations of High-Temperature Hydrogen Attack at Plat Forming Unit Furnace Elbow
Abstract:
High-temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) failure is the common phenomena at elevated temperature in hydrogen environment in oil and gas field. The failure occurred once after four years at the internal surface of Platforming elbow. Both visual and microscopic examinations revealed that the failure was initiated due to blistering forming followed by large cracking at the inner surface. Crack morphology showed that the crack depth was about 50% of material wall thickness and its behavior generally was intergranular. This study concluded that the main reason led to failure due to incorrect material selection comparing to the platforming conditions.
122
73382
Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Rotary-Swaged Wire of Commercial-Purity Titanium
Abstract:
Bars made of titanium grade 2 and grade 4 were subjected to rotary forging with up to 2.2 true strain reduction in the cross-section from 10 to 3.81 mm. During progressive deformation, grain refinement in the transverse direction took place. In the longitudinal direction, ultrafine microstructure has not developed. It has been demonstrated that titanium grade 2 strengthens more than grade 4. The ultimate tensile strength increased from 650 MPa to 1040 MPa in titanium grade 4. Hardness profiles on the cross section in both materials show an increase in the centre of the wire.
121
20659
Activated Carbons Prepared from Date Pits for Hydrogen Storage
Abstract:
In this study, activated carbons were prepared from Algerian date pits using thermal activation with CO2 or steam. The prepared activated carbons were doped by vanadium oxide in order to increase the H2 adsorption capacity. The adsorbents were characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption at 77 K and 273K, respectively. The hydrogen adsorption experiments were carried at 298K in the 0–100 bar pressure range using a volumetric equipment. The results show that the H2 adsorption capacity is influenced by the size and volume of micropores in the activated carbon adsorbent. Furthermore, vanadium doping of activated carbons has a slight positive effect on H2 storage.
120
100183
Techno-Economic Analysis of Offshore Hybrid Energy Systems with Hydrogen Production
Abstract:
Even though most of the electricity produced in the entire world still comes from fossil fuels, new policies are being implemented in order to promote a more sustainable use of energy sources. Offshore renewable resources have become increasingly attractive thanks to the huge entity of power potentially obtained. However, the intermittent nature of renewables often limits the capacity of the systems and creates mismatches between supply and demand. Hydrogen is foreseen to be a promising vector to store and transport large amounts of excess renewable power by using existing oil and gas infrastructure. In this work, an offshore hybrid energy system integrating wind energy conversion with hydrogen production was conceptually defined and applied to offshore gas platforms. A techno-economic analysis was performed by considering two different locations for the installation of the innovative power system, i.e., the North Sea and the Adriatic Sea. The water depth, the distance of the platform from the onshore gas grid, the hydrogen selling price and the green financial incentive were some of the main factors taken into account in the comparison. The results indicated that the use of well-defined indicators allows to capture specifically different cost and revenue features of the analyzed systems, as well as to evaluate their competitiveness in the actual and future energy market.
119
16484
Biohydrogen Production from Starch Residues
Abstract:
This review summarizes the potential of starch agroindustrial residues as substrate for biohydrogen production. Types of potential starch agroindustrial residues, recent developments and bio-processing conditions for biohydrogen production will be discussed. Biohydrogen is a clean energy source with great potential to be an alternative fuel, because it releases energy explosively in heat engines or generates electricity in fuel cells producing water as only by-product. Anaerobic hydrogen fermentation or dark fermentation seems to be more favorable, since hydrogen is yielded at high rates and various organic waste enriched with carbohydrates as substrate result in low cost for hydrogen production. Abundant biomass from various industries could be source for biohydrogen production where combination of waste treatment and energy production would be an advantage. Carbohydrate-rich nitrogen-deficient solid wastes such as starch residues can be used for hydrogen production by using suitable bioprocess technologies. Alternatively, converting biomass into gaseous fuels, such as biohydrogen is possibly the most efficient way to use these agroindustrial residues.
118
18049
A Computational Study of N–H…O Hydrogen Bonding to Investigate Cooperative Effects
Abstract:
In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy parameters of 14N (Nitrogen in imidazole ring) in N–H…O hydrogen bonding for Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate were calculated via density functional theory. We considered a five-molecule model system of Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate. Also, we examined the trends of environmental effect on hydrogen bonds as well as cooperativity. The functional used in this research is M06-2X which is a good functional and the obtained results have shown good agreement with experimental data. This functional was applied to calculate the NMR and NQR parameters. Some correlations among NBO parameters, NMR, and NQR parameters have been studied which have shown the existence of strong correlations among them. Furthermore, the geometry optimization has been performed using M062X/6-31++G(d,p) method. In addition, in order to study cooperativity and changes in structural parameters, along with increase in cluster size, natural bond orbitals have been employed.
117
58967
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production, Effect of Metal Particle Size and Their Electronic/Optical Properties on the Reaction
Authors:
Abstract:
Hydrogen production from water is one of the most promising methods to secure renewable sources or vectors of energy for societies in general and for chemical industries in particular. At present over 90% of the total amount of hydrogen produced in the world is made from non-renewable fossil fuels (via methane reforming). There are many methods for producing hydrogen from water and these include reducible oxide materials (solar thermal production), combined PV/electrolysis, artificial photosynthesis and photocatalysis. The most promising of these processes is the one relying on photocatalysis; yet serious challenges are hindering its success so far. In order to make this process viable considerable improvement of the photon conversion is needed. Among the key studies that our group has been conducting in the last few years are those focusing on synergism between the semiconductor phases, photonic band gap materials, pn junctions, plasmonic resonance responses, charge transfer to metal cations, in addition to metal dispersion and band gap engineering. In this work results related to phase transformation of the anatase to rutile in the case of TiO2 (synergism), of Au and Ag dispersion (electron trapping and hydrogen-hydrogen recombination centers) as well as their plasmon resonance response (visible light conversion) are presented and discussed. It is found for example that synergism between the two common phases of TiO2 (anatase and rutile) is sensitive to the initial particle size. It is also found, in agreement with previous results, that the rate is very sensitive to the amount of metals (with similar particle size) on the surface unlike the case of thermal heterogeneous catalysis.
116
104826
Obtaining High Purity Hydroxyapatite from Bovine Bone: Effect of Chemical and Thermal Treatments
Abstract:
The biological hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone arouses great interest in its application as a material for bone regeneration due to its better bioactive behavior in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite. For this reason, the objective of the present investigation was to determine the effect of chemical and thermal treatments in obtaining biological bovine hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity. Two different chemical reagents were evaluated (NaOH and HCl) with the aim to remove the organic matrix of the bovine cortical bone. On the other hand, for analyzing the effect of thermal treatment temperature was ranged between 500 and 1000°C for a holding time of 4 hours. To accomplish the above, the materials before and after the chemical and thermal treatments were characterized by elemental compositional analysis (CHN), infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transform (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results allowed to establish that NaOH is more effective in the removal of the organic matrix of the bone when compared to HCl, whereas a thermal treatment at 700ºC for 4 hours was enough to obtain biological hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity.
115
64395
Renewable Energy and Hydrogen On-Site Generation for Drip Irrigation and Agricultural Machinery
Abstract:
The energy used in agriculture is a source of global emissions of greenhouse gases. The two main types of this energy are electricity for pumping and diesel for agricultural machinery. In order to reduce these emissions, the European project LIFE REWIND addresses the supply of this demand from renewable sources. First of all, comprehensive data on energy demand and available renewable resources have been obtained in several case studies. Secondly, a set of simulations and optimizations have been performed, in search of the best configuration and sizing, both from an economic and emission reduction point of view. For this purpose, it was used software based on genetic algorithms. Thirdly, a prototype has been designed and installed, that it is being used for the validation in a real case. Finally, throughout a year of operation, various technical and economic parameters are being measured for further analysis. The prototype is not connected to the utility grid, avoiding the cost and environmental impact of a grid extension. The system includes three kinds of photovoltaic fields. One is located on a fixed structure on the terrain. Another one is floating on an irrigation raft. The last one is mounted on a two axis solar tracker. Each has its own solar inverter. The total amount of nominal power is 44 kW. A lead acid battery with 120 kWh of capacity carries out the energy storage. Three isolated inverters support a three phase, 400 V 50 Hz micro-grid, the same characteristics of the utility grid. An advanced control subsystem has been constructed, using free hardware and software. The electricity produced feeds a set of seven pumps used for purification, elevation and pressurization of water in a drip irrigation system located in a vineyard. Since the irrigation season does not include the whole year, as well as a small oversize of the generator, there is an amount of surplus energy. With this surplus, a hydrolyser produces on site hydrogen by electrolysis of water. An off-road vehicle with fuel cell feeds on that hydrogen and carries people in the vineyard. The only emission of the process is high purity water. On the one hand, the results show the technical and economic feasibility of stand-alone renewable energy systems to feed seasonal pumping. In this way, the economic costs, the environmental impacts and the landscape impacts of grid extensions are avoided. The use of diesel gensets and their associated emissions are also avoided. On the other hand, it is shown that it is possible to replace diesel in agricultural machinery, substituting it for electricity or hydrogen of 100% renewable origin and produced on the farm itself, without any external energy input. In addition, it is expected to obtain positive effects on the rural economy and employment, which will be quantified through interviews.
114
45962
Investigation of the Thermal Flow inside the Catalytic Combustor for Lean CH4-Air Mixture on a Platinum Catalyst with H2 Addition
Abstract:
In order to elaborate the main idea of investigating the flow physics inside the catalytic combustor, the characteristics of the catalytic surface reactions are analyzed by employing the CHEMKIN methodology with detailed gas and surface chemistries. The presence of a catalyst inside an engine enables complete combustion at lower temperatures which promotes desired chemical reactions. A single channel from the honeycomb monolith catalytic combustor is preferred to analyze the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed considering the fact that every channel in the honeycomb monolith behaves in similar fashion. The simplified approach with single catalyst channel using plug flow reactor can be used to predict the flow behavior inside the catalytic combustor. The hydrogen addition to the combustion reactants offers a way to light-off catalytic combustion of methane on platinum catalyst and aids to reduce the surface ignition temperature. Indeed, the hydrogen adsorption is higher on the uncovered Pt(s) surface sites because the sticking coefficient of hydrogen is larger than that of methane. The location of flame position in the catalyst bed is validated by igniting the methane fuel with the presence of hydrogen for corresponding multistep surface reactions.
113
80317
Manganese Imidazole Complexes: Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production
Abstract:
Hydrogen is one of the most abundant elements present on earth’s crust and considered to be the simplest element in existence. It is not found naturally as a gas on earth and thus has to be manufactured. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of sources, i.e., water, fossil fuels, or biomass and it is a byproduct of many chemical processes. It is also considered as a secondary source of energy commonly referred to as an energy carrier. Though hydrogen is not widely used as a fuel, it still has the potential for greater use in the future as a clean and renewable source of energy. Electrocatalysis is one of the important source for the production of hydrogen which could contribute to this prominent challenge. Metals such as platinum and palladium are considered efficient for hydrogen production but with limited applications. As a result, a wide variety of metal complexes with earth abundant elements and varied ligand environments have been explored for the electrochemical production of hydrogen. In nature, [FeFe] hydrogenase enzyme present in DesulfoVibrio desulfuricans and Clostridium pasteurianum catalyses the reversible interconversion of protons and electrons into dihydrogen. Since the first structure for the enzyme was reported in 1990s, a range of iron complexes has been synthesized as structural and functional mimics of the enzyme active site. Mn is one of the most desirable element for sustainable catalytic transformations, immediately behind Fe and Ti. Only limited number manganese complexes have been reported in the last two decades as catalysts for proton reduction. Furthermore, redox reactions could be carried out in a facile manner, due to the capability of manganese complexes to be stable at different oxidation states. Herein are reported, four µ2-thiolate bridged manganese complexes [Mn₂(CO)₆(μ-S₂N₄C₁₄H₁₀)] 1, [Mn₂(CO)7(μ- S₂N₄C₁₄H₁₀)] 2, Mn₂(CO)₆(μ-S₄N₂C₁₄H₁₀)] 3 and [Mn₂(CO)(μ- S₄N₂C₁₄H₁₀)] 4 have been synthesized and characterized. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes displayed irreversible reduction peaks in the range - 0.9 to -1.3 V (vs. Fc⁺/Fc in acetonitrile at 0.1 Vs⁻¹). The complexes were catalytically active towards proton reduction in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid as seen from electrochemical investigations.
112
42682
Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach
Abstract:
This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.
111
41726
Kinetics of Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Biogas Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds
Abstract:
Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated and then grown on salak fruit seeds forming a biofilm on the surface. Their performances in sulfide removal were experimentally observed. In doing so, the salak fruit seeds containing biofilm were then used as packing material in a cylinder. Biogas obtained from biological treatment, which contains 27.95 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was flown through the packed bed. The hydrogen sulfide from the biogas was absorbed in the biofilm and then degraded by the microbes in the biofilm. The hydrogen sulfide concentrations at a various axial position and various times were analyzed. A set of simple kinetics model for the rate of the sulfide removal and the bacterial growth was proposed. Since the biofilm is very thin, the sulfide concentration in the Biofilm at a certain axial position is assumed to be uniform. The simultaneous ordinary differential equations obtained were then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The values of the parameters were also obtained by curve-fitting. The accuracy of the model proposed was tested by comparing the calculation results using the model with the experimental data obtained. It turned out that the model proposed can describe the removal of sulfide liquid using bio-filter in the packed bed. The biofilter could remove 89,83 % of the hydrogen sulfide in the feed at 2.5 hr of operation and biogas flow rate of 30 L/hr.
110
78345
Molecular-Dynamics Study of H₂-C₃H₈-Hydrate Dissociation: Non-Equilibrium Analysis
Abstract:
Hydrogen is looked upon as the next-generation clean-energy carrier; the search for an efficient material and method for storing hydrogen has been, and is, pursued relentlessly. Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds wherein guest gas molecules like hydrogen are trapped in a host water-lattice framework. These types of materials can be categorised as potentially attractive hosting environments for physical hydrogen storage (i.e., no chemical reaction upon storage). Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of propane-hydrate interfaces with liquid water at 270-300 K, with the propane hydrate containing either one or no hydrogen molecule in each of its small cavities. In addition, two types of hydrate-surface water-lattice molecular termination were adopted, at the hydrate edge with water: a 001-direct surface cleavage and one with completed cages. The geometric hydrate-ice-liquid distinction criteria of Báez and Clancy were employed to distinguish between the hydrate, ice lattices, and liquid-phase. Consequently, the melting temperatures of interface were estimated, and dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher dissociation rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. The different hydrate-edge terminations for the hydrate-water interface led to statistically-significant differences in the observed melting point and dissociation profile: it was found that the clathrate with the planar interface melts at around 280 K, whilst the melting temperature of the cage-completed interface was determined to be circa 270 K.
109
27355
Porous Ni Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production
Abstract:
In this work new macroporous Ni electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles for hydrogen production have been developed. The supporting macroporous Ni electrodes have been obtained by means of the electrodeposition at high current densities. Then, the Au nanoparticles were synthesized and added to the electrode surface. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the developed electrocatalysts was studied by means of pseudo-steady-state polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen discharge curves. The size of the Au synthetized nanoparticles shows a monomodal distribution, with a very sharp band between 10 and 50 nm. The characteristic parameters d10, d50 and d90 were 14, 20 and 31 nm respectively. From Tafel polarization data has been concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the catalytic activity of the developed electrodes towards the HER respect to the macroporous Ni electrodes. EIS permits to obtain the electrochemically active area by means of the roughness factor value. All the developed electrodes show roughness factor values in the same order of magnitude. From the activation energy results it can be concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the intrinsic catalytic activity of the macroporous Ni electrodes.
108
2273
Simulation of Polymeric Precursors Production from Wine Industrial Organic Wastes
Abstract:
The production of dimethyl acetal, isovaleradehyde, and pyridine were simulated using Aspen Plus simulation. Upgrading cleaning water from wine industrial production is the main objective of the project. The winery waste composes of acetaldehyde, methanol, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, water, isoamyl alcohol, and isobutanol. The project is separated into three parts; separation, reaction, and purification. Various processes were considered to maximize the profit along with obtaining high purity and recovery of each component with optimum heat duty. The results show a significant value of the product with purity more than 75% and recovery over 98%.
107
56542
Properties of Magnesium-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloy Added with Palladium and Titanium Hydride
Abstract:
Nowadays, the great majority believe that there is great potentiality in hydrogen storage alloy storing hydrogen by physical and chemical absorption. However, the hydrogen storage alloy is limited by high operation temperature. Scientists find that adding transition elements can improve the properties of hydrogen storage alloy. In this research, outstanding improvements of kinetic and thermal properties are given by the addition of Palladium and Titanium hydride to Magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloy. Magnesium-based alloy is the main material, into which TiH2 / Pd are added separately. Following that, materials are milled by a Planetary Ball Miller at 650 rpm. TGA/DSC and PCT measure the capacity, spending time and temperature of abs/des-orption. Additionally, SEM and XRD analyze the structures and components of material. It is clearly shown that Pd is beneficial to kinetic properties. 2MgH2-0.1Pd has the highest capacity of all the alloys listed, approximately 5.5 wt%. Secondly, there are not any new Ti-related compounds found from XRD analysis. Thus, TiH2, considered as the catalyst, leads to the condition of 2MgH2-TiH2 and 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd efficiently absorbing hydrogen in low temperature. 2MgH2-TiH2 can reach roughly 3.0 wt% in 82.4 minutes at 50°C and 8 minutes at 100°C, while2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd can reach 2.0 wt% in 400 minutes at 50°C and in 48 minutes at 100°C. The lowest temperature of 2MgH2-0.1Pd and 2MgH2-TiH2 is similar (320°C), otherwise the lowest temperature of 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd decrease by 20°C. From XRD, it can be observed that PdTi2 and Pd3Ti are produced by mechanical alloying when adding Pd as well as TiH2 into MgH2. Due to the synergistic effects between Pd and TiH2, 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd owns the lowest dehydrogenation temperature. Furthermore, the Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) curve of 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd is measured at different temperature, 370°C, 350°C, 320°C and 300°C separately. The plateau pressure is given form the PCT curves above. In accordance to different plateau pressures, enthalpy and entropy in the Van’t Hoff equation can be solved. In 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd, the enthalpy is 74.9 KJ/mol and the entropy is 122.9 J/mol. Activation means that hydrogen storage alloy undergoes repeat abs/des-orpting processes. It plays an important role in the abs/des-orption. Activation shortens the abs/des-orption time because of the increase in surface area. From SEM, it is clear that the grain size and surface become smaller and rougher
106
106004
Controlling the Fluid Flow in Hydrogen Fuel Cells through Material Porosity Designs
Abstract:
Hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) are environmentally friendly, energy converter devices that convert the chemical energy of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen) to electricity through electrochemical reactions. The level of the electricity production of HFCs mainly increases depending on the oxygen distribution in the HFC’s cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL). With a constant porosity of the GDL, the electrochemical reaction can have a great variation that reduces the cell’s productivity and stability. Our findings bring a methodology in finding porosity designs of the diffusion layer to improve the oxygen distribution such that it results in a stable oxygen-hydrogen reaction. We first introduce a mathematical model involving the mass and momentum transport equations, in which a porosity function of the GDL is incorporated as a control for the fluid flow. We then derive numerical methods for solving the mathematical model. In conclusion, we present our numerical results to show how to design the GDL porosity to result in a uniform oxygen distribution.
105
62153
Device for Reversible Hydrogen Isotope Storage with Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Case
Abstract:
Minimization of tritium diffusion leakage when developing devices handling tritium-containing media is key problems whose solution will at least allow essential enhancement of radiation safety and minimization of diffusion losses of expensive tritium. One of the ways to solve this problem is to use Al₂O₃ high-strength non-porous ceramics as a structural material of the bed body. This alumina ceramics offers high strength characteristics, but its main advantages are low hydrogen permeability (as against the used structural material) and high dielectric properties. The latter enables direct induction heating of an hydride-forming metal without essential heating of the pressure and containment vessel. The use of alumina ceramics and induction heating allows: - essential reduction of tritium extraction time; - several orders reduction of tritium diffusion leakage; - more complete extraction of tritium from metal hydrides due to its higher heating up to melting in the event of final disposal of the device. The paper presents computational and experimental results for the tritium bed designed to absorb 6 liters of tritium. Titanium was used as hydrogen isotope sorbent. Results of hydrogen realize kinetic from hydride-forming metal, strength and cyclic service life tests are reported. Recommendations are also provided for the practical use of the given bed type.
104
27439
Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Biogas Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds
Abstract:
Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated and then grown on snakefruits seeds forming biofilm. Their performance in sulfide removal were experimentally observed. Snakefruit seeds were then used as packing material in a cylindrical tube. Biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide from biogas was investigated using biofilm on packed bed of snakefruits seeds. Biogas containing 27,9512 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was flown through the bed. Then the hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the outlet at various times were analyzed. A set of simple kinetics model for the rate of the sulfide removal and the bacterial growth was proposed. The axial sulfide concentration gradient in the flowing liquid are assumed to be steady-state. Mean while the biofilm grows on the surface of the seeds and the oxidation takes place in the biofilm. Since the biofilm is very thin, the sulfide concentration in the biofilm is assumed to be uniform. The simultaneous ordinary differential equations obtained were then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The acuracy of the model proposed was tested by comparing the calcultion results using the model with the experimental data obtained. It turned out that the model proposed can be applied to describe the removal of sulfide liquid using bio-filter in packed bed. The values of the parameters were also obtained by curve-fitting. The biofilter could remove 89,83 % of the inlet of hydrogen sulfide from biogas for 2.5 h, and optimum loading of 8.33 ml/h.
103
83964
Determination of Unknown Radionuclides Using High Purity Germanium Detectors
Abstract:
The decay chain of radioactive elements in the laboratory and the verification of natural radioactivity of the human body was investigated using the High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Properties of the HPGe detectors were also investigated. The efficiency and energy resolution of HPGe detector used in the laboratory was found to be excellent. The detector was calibrated three times so as to cover a wider energy range. Also the Centroid C of the detector was found to have a linear relationship with the energies of the known gamma-rays. Using the three calibrations of the detector, the energy of an unknown radionuclide was found to follow the decay chain of thorium-232 (232Th) and it was also found that an average adult has about 2.5g Potasium-40 (40K) in the body.
102
67026
A First-Principles Investigation of Magnesium-Hydrogen System: From Bulk to Nano
Abstract:
Bulk MgH2 has drawn much attention for the purpose of hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (~7.7 wt %) as well as low cost and abundant availability. However, its practical usage has been hindered because of its high hydrogen desorption enthalpy (~0.8 eV/H2 molecule), which results in an undesirable desorption temperature of 3000C at 1 bar H2 pressure. To surmount the limitations of bulk MgH2 for the purpose of hydrogen storage, a detailed first-principles density functional theory (DFT) based study on the structure and stability of neutral (Mgm) and positively charged (Mgm+) Mg nanoclusters of different sizes (m = 2, 4, 8 and 12), as well as their interaction with molecular hydrogen (H2), is reported here. It has been found that due to the absence of d-electrons within the Mg atoms, hydrogen remained in molecular form even after its interaction with neutral and charged Mg nanoclusters. Interestingly, the H2 molecules do not enter into the interstitial positions of the nanoclusters. Rather, they remain on the surface by ornamenting these nanoclusters and forming new structures with a gravimetric density higher than 15 wt %. Our observation is that the inclusion of Grimme’s DFT-D3 dispersion correction in this weakly interacting system has a significant effect on binding of the H2 molecules with these nanoclusters. The dispersion corrected interaction energy (IE) values (0.1-0.14 eV/H2 molecule) fall in the right energy window, that is ideal for hydrogen storage. These IE values are further verified by using high-level coupled-cluster calculations with non-iterative triples corrections i.e. CCSD(T), (which has been considered to be a highly accurate quantum chemical method) and thereby confirming the accuracy of our ‘dispersion correction’ incorporated DFT calculations. The significance of the polarization and dispersion energy in binding of the H2 molecules are confirmed by performing energy decomposition analysis (EDA). A total of 16, 24, 32 and 36 H2 molecules can be attached to the neutral and charged nanoclusters of size m = 2, 4, 8 and 12 respectively. Ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation shows that the outermost H2 molecules are desorbed at a rather low temperature viz. 150 K (-1230C) which is expected. However, complete dehydrogenation of these nanoclusters occur at around 1000C. Most importantly, the host nanoclusters remain stable up to ~500 K (2270C). All these results on the adsorption and desorption of molecular hydrogen with neutral and charged Mg nanocluster systems indicate towards the possibility of reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of bulk MgH2 by designing new Mg-based nano materials which will be able to adsorb molecular hydrogen via this weak Mg-H2 interaction, rather than the strong Mg-H bonding. Notwithstanding the fact that in practical applications, these interactions will be further complicated by the effect of substrates as well as interactions with other clusters, the present study has implications on our fundamental understanding to this problem.
101
32545
Preparation and Quality Control of a Novel Radiolabeled Complex of 166ho for the Treatment of Somatostatin Receptor Expressing Tumours
Abstract:
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is nowadays used for the treatment of various abnormalities with somatostatin receptors. In this study, 166Ho-DOTATOC was prepared and the best conditions for its radiolabeling was obtained. For this purpose, a certain of DOTATOC was added to a vial containing 166Ho. various experiments by varying ligand concentration, pH, temperature and time were performed to determine the best conditions. Radiochemical purity of the complex was assessed by instant thin layer chromatography method utilizing 0.9% NaCl as the mobile phase. 166Ho-DOTATOC was prepared with radiochemical purity of higher than 95% at the optimized condition (pH=4, temperature: 95° C, time:30 min). In 0.9% NaCl, free Ho cation was developed at Rf of 0.8 while the complex was remained at the front of the paper.
100
64653
Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Addition in the Intake Air of Compressed Engines Running on Biodiesel Blend
Abstract:
This study investigates experimentally the effects of hydrogen addition in the intake manifold of a diesel generator operating with a 7% biodiesel-diesel oil blend (B7). An experimental apparatus setup was used to conduct performance and emissions tests in a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine. This setup consisted of a generator set connected to a wirewound resistor load bank that was used to vary engine load. In addition, a flowmeter was used to determine hydrogen volumetric flowrate and a digital anemometer coupled with an air box to measure air flowrate. Furthermore, a digital precision electronic scale was used to measure engine fuel consumption and a gas analyzer was used to determine exhaust gas composition and exhaust gas temperature. A thermopar was installed near the exhaust collection to measure cylinder temperature. In-cylinder pressure was measured using an AVL Indumicro data acquisition system with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. An AVL optical encoder was installed in the crankshaft and synchronized with in-cylinder pressure in real time. The experimental procedure consisted of injecting hydrogen into the engine intake manifold at different mass concentrations of 2,6,8 and 10% of total fuel mass (B7 + hydrogen), which represented energy fractions of 5,15, 20 and 24% of total fuel energy respectively. Due to hydrogen addition, the total amount of fuel energy introduced increased and the generators fuel injection governor prevented any increases of engine speed. Several conclusions can be stated from the test results. A reduction in specific fuel consumption as a function of hydrogen concentration increase was noted. Likewise, carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) decreased as hydrogen concentration increased. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx) increased due to average temperatures inside the cylinder being higher. There was also an increase in peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate inside the cylinder, since the fuel ignition delay was smaller due to hydrogen content increase. All this indicates that hydrogen promotes faster combustion and higher heat release rates and can be an important additive to all kind of fuels used in diesel generators.
99
34769
Estimation of Hydrogen Production from PWR Spent Fuel Due to Alpha Radiolysis
Abstract:
Spent nuclear fuel generates a mixed field of ionizing radiation to the water. This radiation field is generally dominated by gamma rays and a limited flux of fast neutrons. The fuel cladding effectively attenuates beta and alpha particle radiation. Small fraction of the spent nuclear fuel exhibits some degree of fuel cladding penetration due to pitting corrosion and mechanical failure. Breaches in the fuel cladding allow the exposure of small volumes of water in the cask to alpha and beta ionizing radiation. The safety of the transport of radioactive material is assured by the package complying with the IAEA Requirements for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material SSR-6. It is of high interest to avoid generation of hydrogen inside the cavity which may to an explosive mixture. The risk of hydrogen production along with other radiation gases should be analyzed for a typical spent fuel for safety issues. This work aims to perform a realistic study of the production of hydrogen by radiolysis assuming most penalizing initial conditions. It consists in the calculation of the radionuclide inventory of a pellet taking into account the burn up and decays. Westinghouse 17X17 PWR fuel has been chosen and data has been analyzed for different sets of enrichment, burnup, cycles of irradiation and storage conditions. The inventory is calculated as the entry point for the simulation studies of hydrogen production by radiolysis kinetic models by MAKSIMA-CHEMIST. Dose rates decrease strongly within ~45 μm from the fuel surface towards the solution(water) in case of alpha radiation, while the dose rate decrease is lower in case of beta and even slower in case of gamma radiation. Calculations are carried out to obtain spectra as a function of time. Radiation dose rate profiles are taken as the input data for the iterative calculations. Hydrogen yield has been found to be around 0.02 mol/L. Calculations have been performed for a realistic scenario considering a capsule containing the spent fuel rod. Thus, hydrogen yield has been debated. Experiments are under progress to validate the hydrogen production rate using cyclotron at > 5MeV (at ARRONAX, Nantes).
98
45623
Bioethanol Synthesis Using Cellulose Recovered from Biowaste
Abstract:
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates, Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as castor shell waste, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production Cellulose extracted from biomass sources is considered the future feedstock for many products due to the availability and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. In this study, castor shell (CS) biowaste resulted from the extraction of Castor oil from castor seeds was evaluated as a potential source of cellulose. The cellulose was extracted after pretreatment process was done on the CS. The pretreatment process began with the removal of other extractives from CS, then an alkaline treatment, bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide, and followed by a mixture of acetic and nitric acids. CS cellulose was analysed by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result showed that the overall process was adequate to produce cellulose with high purity and crystallinity from CS waste. The cellulose was then hydrolyzed to produce glucose and then fermented to bioethanol.
97
37558
Investigating the Difference in Stability of Various Isomeric Hydrogen Bonded Dimers
Authors:
Abstract:
The structures and energetics of various isomeric hydrogen bonded dimers, such as (FH…OC, FH…CO), (FH…CNH, FH…NCH), (FH…N2O, FH…ON2), and (FH…NHCO, FH…OCNH) have been investigated using DFT B3LYP with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set and by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. For each isomeric pair we calculated: H-bond energy (ΔEB…H), charge-transfer (QCT), where B is atom bearing lone-pairs in CO, CNH, NCH, N2O, and NHCO, H-bond distances (RB…H), the elongation of HF bond (ΔRHF) and the red-shift of HF stretching frequency (ΔVHF). We conclude that the principle difference in the relative stability between each isomeric pair is attributed to distinctive interaction of carbon and oxygen lone pairs of CO, carbon and nitrogen lone-pairs of CNH and NCH, and nitrogen and oxygen lone pairs of N2O and NHCO into the unfilled antibond on HF (σ*HF).
96
54893
Anaerobic Fermentation Process for Production of Biohydrogen from Pretreated Fruit Wastes
Abstract:
Fruit waste was used as a feedstock to produce biohydrogen in this study. Fruit waste used in this study was collected from several fruit juice stalls in Singapore. Based on our observation, the fruit waste contained 35-40% orange, 10-20% watermelon, 10-15% apple, 10-15% pineapple, 1-5% mango. They were mixed with water (1:1 ratio based on wet biomass) and blended to attain homogenous mixtures. Later, fruit waste was subjected to one of the following pretreatments: autoclave (121 °C for 20min), microwave (20min) or both. After pretreatment, the total sugar concentration in the hydrolysate was high (>12g/l) when both autoclave and microwave were applied. In contrast, samples without pretreatment measured only less than 2g/l of sugar. While using these hydrolysates as carbon sources, Clostridium strain BOH3 produces 2526-3126 ml/l of hydrogen after 72h of anaerobic fermentation. The hydrogen yield was 295-300 ml/g of sugar which is close to the hydrogen yields from glucose (338 ml/gm) and xylose (330 ml/gm). Our HPLC analysis showed that fruit waste hydrolysate contained oligosugars (25-27%), sucrose (18-23%), fructose (25-30%), glucose (10-15%) and mannose (2-5%). Additionally, pretreatment led to the release of free amino acids (160-512 mg/l), calcium (7.8-12.9 ppm), magnesium (4.32-6.55 ppm), potassium (5.4-65.1 ppm) and sodium (0.4-0.5 ppm) into the hydrolysate. These nutrients were able to support strain-BOH3 to grow and produce high level of hydrogen. Notably, unlike other pretreatment methods (with strong acids and bases), these pretreatment techniques did not generate any inhibitors (e.g. furfural and phenolic acids) to suppress the hydrogen production. Interestingly, strain BOH3 can also ferment pretreated fruit waste slurry and produce hydrogen with a high yield (156-343 ml/gm fruit waste). While fermenting pretreated fruit waste slurry, strain-BOH3 excreted several saccharolytic enzymes majorly xylanase (1.84U/ml), amylase (1.10U/ml), pectinase (0.36U/ml) and cellulase (0.43U/ml). Due to expressions of these enzymes, strain BOH3 was able to directly utilize pretreated fruit waste hydrolysate and produces high-level of hydrogen.
95
85105
Assessement of Aminopolyether on ¹⁸F-FDG Samples
Abstract:
The quality control procedures of a radiopharmaceutical include the assessment of its chemical purity. The method suggested by international pharmacopoeias consiste of a thin layer chormatographic run. In this paper, the method proposed by United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is compared to a direct method to determine the final concentration of aminopolyether in ¹⁸F-FDG preparations. The new approach (no chromatographic run) was achieved by placing the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate directly on an iodine vapor chamber. Both methods were validated and showed adequate results to determine the concentration of aminopolyether in ¹⁸F-FDG preparations. However, the direct method is more sensitive, faster and simpler when compared to the compendial method (with chromatographic run), and it may be chosen for use in routine quality control of ¹⁸F-FDG.
94
79076
Investigations into the Efficiencies of Steam Conversion in Three Reactor Chemical Looping
Abstract:
This paper analyzes a three reactor chemical looping process for hydrogen production from natural gas, allowing for carbon dioxide capture through chemical looping technology. An oxygen carrier is circulated to separate carbon dioxide, to reduce steam for hydrogen production and to supply oxygen for combustion. In this study, the emphasis is placed on the steam conversion in the steam reactor by investigating the hydrogen efficiencies of the complete system at steam conversions of 15.8% and 50%. An Aspen Plus model was developed for a Three Reactor Chemical Looping process to study the effects of operational parameters on hydrogen production is investigated. Maximum hydrogen production was observed under stoichiometric conditions. Different conversions in the steam reactor, which was modelled as a Gibbs reactor, were found when Gibbs-identified products and user identified products were chosen. Simulations were performed for different oxygen carriers, which consist of an active metal oxide on an inert support material. For the same metal oxide mass flowrate, the fuel reactor temperature decreased for different support materials in the order: aluminum oxide (Al2O3) > magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) > zirconia (ZrO2). To achieve the same fuel reactor temperature for the same oxide mass flow rate, the inert mass fraction was found to be 0.825 for ZrO2, 0.7 for MgAl2O4 and 0.6 for Al2O3. The effect of poisoning of the oxygen carrier was also analyzed. With 3000 ppm sulfur-based impurities in the feed gas, the hydrogen product energy rate of the process were found to decrease by 0.4%.
93
86031
Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide
Abstract:
Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.
92
57325
Production of Amorphous Boron Powder via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
Abstract:
Boron exhibits the properties of high melting temperature (2273K to 2573 K), high hardness (Mohs: 9,5), low density (2,340 g/cm3), high chemical resistance, high strength, and semiconductivity (band gap:1,6-2,1 eV). These superior properties enable to use it in several high-tech areas from electronics to nuclear industry and especially in high temperature metallurgy. Amorphous boron and crystalline boron have different application areas. Amorphous boron powder (directly amorphous and/or α-rhombohedral) is preferred in rocket firing, airbag inflating and in fabrication of superconducting MgB2 wires. The conventional ways to produce elemental boron with a purity of 85 pct to 95 prc are metallothermic reduction, fused salt electrolysis and mechanochemical synthesis; but the only way to produce high-purity boron powders is Chemical Vapour Deposition (Hot Surface CVD). In this study; amorphous boron powders with a minimum purity of 99,9 prc were synthesized in quartz tubes using BCl3-H2 gas mixture by CVD. Process conditions based on temperature and gas flow rate were determined. Thermodynamical interpretation of BCl3-H2 system for different temperatures and molar rates were performed using Fact Sage software. The characterization of powders was examined by using Xray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Stereo Microscope (SM), Helium gas pycnometer analysis. The purities of final products were determined by titration after lime fusion.
91
90599
Anti-Diabetic Effect of High Purity Epigallocatechin Gallate from Green Tea
Abstract:
Green tea, which is one of the most popular of tea, contains various ingredients that help health. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the main active polyphenolic compound possessing diverse biologically beneficial effects such as anti-oxidation, anti-cancer founding in green tea. This study was performed to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of high-purity EGCG ( > 98%) in a spontaneous diabetic mellitus animal model, db/db mouse. Four-week-old male db/db mice, which was induced to diabetic mellitus by the high-fat diet, were orally administered with high-purity EGCG (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Daily weight and diet efficiency were examined, and blood glucose level was assessed once a week. After 4 weeks of EGCG administration, fasting blood glucose level was measured. Then, the mice were sacrificed and total abdominal fat was sampled to examine the change in fat weight. Plasma was separated from the blood and the levels of aspartate amino-transferase (ALT) and alanine amino-transferase (AST) were investigated. As results, blood glucose and body weight were significantly decreased by EGCG treatment compared to the control group. Also, the amount of abdominal fat was down-regulated by EGCG. However, ALT and AST levels, which are indicators of liver function, were similar to those of control group. Taken together, our study suggests that high purity EGCG is capable of treating diabetes mellitus based in db / db mice with safety and has a potent to develop a therapeutics for metabolic disorders. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry (IPET) through High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (317034-03-2-HD030)
90
47771
Molecular Genetic Purity Test Using SSR Markers in Pigeon Pea
Abstract:
In agriculture using quality seeds of improved varieties is very important to ensure higher productivity thereby food security and sustainability. To ensure good productivity, seeds should have characters as described by the breeder. To know whether the characters as described by the breeder are expressing in a variety such as genuineness or genetic purity, field grow out test (GOT) is done. In pigeon pea which is long durational crop, conducting a GOT may take very long time and expensive also. Since in pigeon pea flower character is a most distinguishing character from the contaminants, conducting a field grow out test require 120-130 days or till flower emergence, which may increase cost of storage and seed production. This will also delay the distribution of seed inventory to the pigeon pea growing areas. In this view during 2014-15 with financial support of Govt. of Karnataka, India, a project to develop a molecular genetic test for newly developed variety of pigeon pea cv.TS3R was commissioned at Seed Unit, UAS, Raichur. A molecular test was developed with the help SSR markers to identify pure variety from possible off types in newly released pigeon pea variety TS3R. In the investigation, 44 primer pairs were screened to identify the specific marker associated with this variety. Pigeon pea cv. TS3R could be clearly identified by using the primer CCM 293 based on the banding pattern resolved on gel electrophoresis and PCR reactions. However some of the markers like AHSSR 46, CCM 82 and CCM 57 can be used to test other popular varieties in the region like Asha, GRG-811 and Maruti respectively. Further to develop this in to a lab test, the seed sample size was standardized to 200 seeds and a grow out matrix was developed. This matrix was used to sample 12 days old leaves to extract DNA. The lab test results were validated with actual field GOT test results and found variations within the acceptable limit of 1%. This molecular method can now be employed to test the genetic purity in pigeon pea cv TS3R which reduces the time and can be a cheaper alternative method for field GOT.
89
22596
Excitonic Refractive Index Change in High Purity GaAs Modulator at Room Temperature for Optical Fiber Communication Network
Abstract:
In this paper, we have compared and analyzed the electron absorption properties between with and without excitonic effect bulk in high purity GaAs spatial light modulator for an optical fiber communication network. The electroabsorption properties such as absorption spectra, change in absorption spectra, change in refractive index and extinction ratio have been calculated. We have also compared the result of absorption spectra and change in absorption spectra with the experimental results and found close agreement with experimental results.
88
34298
Preparation and Quality Control of a New Radiolabelled Complex of Spion
Abstract:
Nowadays, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as the multitask agents have showed advantageous characteristics. The aim of this study was the preparation and quality control of 153Sm-DTPA-DA-SPION complex. Samarium-153 was produced by neutron irradiation of the enriched 152Sm2O3 in a research reactor for 5 d. For radiolabeling purposes, 8 mg of the ligand was added to the vial containing 153SmCl3 and the mixture was sonicated 30 min, while pH was adjusted to 7-8. The radiochemical purity of the complex was checked by the ITLC method using NH4OH:MeOH:H2O (0.2:2:4) as the mobile phase. This new radiolabeled complex was prepared with a radiochemical purity of higher than 98% in 30 min at the optimized condition. The complex was kept at room temperature and in human serum at 37 °C for 48 h, showed no loss of 153Sm from the complex. Considering all of these features, this new radiolabeled complex can be considered as a good therapeutic agent; however, further studies on its biological behavior are still needed.
87
71579
Impact of Different Fuel Inlet Diameters onto the NOx Emissions in a Hydrogen Combustor
Abstract:
The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) is creating awareness for the overall reduction of NOx emissions by 80% in its vision 2020. Hence this promotes the researchers to work on novel technologies, one such technology is the use of alternative fuels. Among these fuels hydrogen is of interest due to its one and only significant pollutant NOx. The influence of NOx formation due to hydrogen combustion depends on various parameters such as air pressure, inlet air temperature, air to fuel jet momentum ratio etc. Appropriately, this research is motivated to investigate the impact of the air to fuel jet momentum ratio onto the NOx formation in a hydrogen combustion chamber for aircraft engines. The air to jet fuel momentum is defined as the ratio of impulse/momentum of air with respect to the momentum of fuel. The experiments were performed in an existing combustion chamber that has been previously tested for methane. Premix of the reactants has not been considered due to the high reactivity of the hydrogen and high risk of a flashback. In order to create a less rich zone of reaction at the burner and to decrease the emissions, a forced internal recirculation flow has been achieved by integrating a plate similar to honeycomb structure, suitable to the geometry of the liner. The liner has been provided with an external cooling system to avoid the increase of local temperatures and in turn the reaction rate of the NOx formation. The injected air has been preheated to aim at so called flameless combustion. The air to fuel jet momentum ratio has been inspected by changing the area of fuel inlets and keeping the number of fuel inlets constant in order to alter the fuel jet momentum, thus maintaining the homogeneity of the flow. Within this analysis, promising results for a flameless combustion have been achieved. For a constant number of fuel inlets, it was seen that the reduction of the fuel inlet diameter resulted in decrease of air to fuel jet momentum ratio in turn lowering the NOx emissions.
86
43809
Processes for Valorization of Valuable Products from Kerf Slurry Waste
Abstract:
Although solar cells manufacturing is a conservative industry, economics drivers continue to encourage innovation, feedstock savings and cost reduction. Kerf slurry waste is a complex product containing both valuable substances as well as contaminants. The valuable substances are: i) high purity silicon, ii) polyethylene glycol, and iii) silicon carbide. The contaminants mainly include metal fragments and organics. Therefore, recycling of the kerf slurry waste is an important subject not only from the treatment of waste but also from the recovery of valuable products. The present paper relates to processes for the recovery of valuable products from the kerf slurry waste in which they are contained, such products comprising nanoparticles, polyethylene glycol, high purity silicon, and silicon carbide.
85
38353
Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-1,2-Propylene Di-Amino Tetra (Methylenephosphonic Acid)
Abstract:
Bone metastases occur in many patients with solid malignant tumors. Recently, 1,2 propylene di-amino tetra methylenephosphonic acid (PDTMP) has been introduced as a suitable carrier in the development of therapeutic bone-avid radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, due to the desirable characteristics of 68Ga, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A stock solution of PDTMP was prepared by dissolving in 2 N NaOH. A certain volume of the stock solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared in only 15 min with radiochemical purity of more than 98%. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.
84
50304
Development of a Complete Single Jet Common Rail Injection System Gas Dynamic Model for Hydrogen Fueled Engine with Port Injection Feeding System
Abstract:
Modeling of hydrogen fueled engine (H2ICE) injection system is a very important tool that can be used for explaining or predicting the effect of advanced injection strategies on combustion and emissions. In this paper, a common rail injection system (CRIS) is proposed for 4-strokes 4-cylinders hydrogen fueled engine with port injection feeding system (PIH2ICE). For this system, a numerical one-dimensional gas dynamic model is developed considering single injection event for each injector per a cycle. One-dimensional flow equations in conservation form are used to simulate wave propagation phenomenon throughout the CR (accumulator). Using this model, the effect of common rail on the injection system characteristics is clarified. These characteristics include: rail pressure, sound velocity, rail mass flow rate, injected mass flow rate and pressure drop across injectors. The interaction effects of operational conditions (engine speed and rail pressure) and geometrical features (injector hole diameter) are illustrated; and the required compromised solutions are highlighted. The CRIS is shown to be a promising enhancement for PIH2ICE.
83
85490
Green Synthesis of Spinach Derived Carbon Dots for Photocatalytic Generation of Hydrogen from Sulfide Wastewater
Abstract:
Sulfide is one of the major pollutants of tannery effluent which is mainly generated during the process of unhairing. Recovery of Hydrogen green fuel from sulfide wastewater using photocatalysis is a ‘Cleaner Production Method’, since renewable solar energy is utilized. It has triple advantages of the generation of H2, waste minimization and odor or pollution control. Designing of safe and green photocatalysts and developing suitable solar photoreactor is important for promoting this technology to large-scale application. In this study, green photocatalyst i.e., spinach derived carbon dots (SCDs 5 wt % and 10 wt %)/TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized for generation of H2 from sulfide wastewater using lab-scale solar photocatalytic reactor. The physical characterization of the synthesized solar light responsive nanocomposites were studied by using DRS UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR and FESEM analysis. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles is extended to visible region by the incorporation of SCDs, which was used for converting noxious pollutant sulfide into eco-friendly solar fuel H2. The SCDs (10 wt%)-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibits enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production i.e. ~27 mL of H2 (180 min) from simulated sulfide wastewater under LED visible light irradiation which is higher as compared to SCDs. The enhancement in the photocatalytic generation of H2 is attributed to combining of SCDs which increased the charge mobility. This work may provide new insights to usage of naturally available and cheap materials to design novel nanocomposite as a visible light active photocatalyst for the generation of H2 from sulfide containing wastewater.
82
80301
Sustainable and Efficient Recovery of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymer from Cupriavidus necator Using Environment Friendly Solvents
Abstract:
An imprudent use of environmentally hazardous petrochemical-based plastics and limited availability of fossil fuels have provoked research interests towards production of biodegradable plastics - polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHAs). However, the industrial application of PHAs based products is primarily restricted by their high cost of recovery and extraction protocols. Moreover, solvents used for the extraction and purification are toxic and volatile which causes adverse environmental hazards. Development of efficient downstream recovery strategies along with utilization of non-toxic solvents will accelerate their commercialization. In this study, various extraction strategies were designed for sustainable and cost-effective recovery of PHAs from Cupriavidus necator using non-toxic environment friendly solvents viz. 1,2-propylene carbonate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, butyl acetate. The effect of incubation time i.e. 10, 30 and 50 min and temperature i.e. 60, 80, 100, 120°C was tested to identify the most suitable solvent. PHAs extraction using a recyclable solvent, 1,2 propylene carbonate, showed the highest recovery yield (90%) and purity (93%) at 120°C and 30 min incubation. Ethyl acetate showed the better capacity to recover PHAs from cells than butyl acetate. Extraction with ethyl acetate exhibited high recovery yield and purity of 96% and 92%, respectively at 100°C. Effect of non-toxic surfactant such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LAS) was also studied at 40, 60 and 80°C, and detergent pH range of 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 for the extraction of PHAs from the cells. LAS gave highest yield of 86% and purity of 88% at temperature 80°C and 5.0 pH.
81
4061
Simulation of the Performance of the Reforming of Methane in a Primary Reformer
Abstract:
Steam reforming is industrially important as it is incorporated in several major chemical processes including the production of ammonia, methanol, hydrogen and ox alcohols. Due to the strongly endothermic nature of the process, a large amount of heat is supplied by fuel burning (commonly natural gas) in the furnace chamber. Reaction conversions, tube catalyst life, energy consumption and CO2 emission represent the principal factors affecting the performance of this unit and are directly influenced by the high operating temperatures and pressures. This study presents a simulation of the performance of the reforming of methane in a primary reformer, through a developed empirical relation which enables to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as the pressure, temperature, steam to carbon ratio on the production of hydrogen, as well as the fraction of non-converted methane. It appears from this analysis that the exit temperature Te, the operating pressure as well the steam to carbon ratio has an important effect on the reforming of methane.
80
34358
Preparation and Biological Evaluation of 186/188Re-Chitosan for Radiosynovectomy
Abstract:
Chitosan is a natural and biodegradable polysaccharide with special characteristic for application in intracavital therapy. 166Ho-chitosan has been reported for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and RSV with promising results. The aim of this study was to prepare 186/188Re-chitosan for radiosynovectomy purposes and investigate the probability of its leakage from the knee joint. 186/188Re was produced by neutron irradiation of the natural rhenium in a research reactor. Chemical processing was performed to obtain (186/188Re)-NaReO4- according to the IAEA manual. A stock solution of chitosan was prepared by dissolving in 1 % acetic acid aqueous solution (10 mg/mL). 1.5 mL of this stock solution was added to the vial containing the activity and the mixture was stirred for 5 min in the room temperature. The radiochemical purity of the complex was checked by the ITLC method, showing the purity of higher than 98%. Distribution of the radiolabeled complex was determined after intra-articular injection into the knees of rats. Excellent retention was observed in the joint with approximately no activity in the other organs.
79
41208
Quantum Sieving for Hydrogen Isotope Separation
Authors:
Abstract:
One of the challenges in modern separation science and technology is the separation of hydrogen isotopes mixtures since D2 and H2 consist of almost identical size, shape and thermodynamic properties. Recently, quantum sieving of isotopes by confinement in narrow space has been proposed as an alternative technique. Despite many theoretical suggestions, however, it has been difficult to discover a feasible microporous material up to now. Among various porous materials, the novel class of microporous framework materials (COFs, ZIFs and MOFs) is considered as a promising material class for isotope sieving due to ultra-high porosity and uniform pore size which can be tailored. Hence, we investigate experimentally the fundamental correlation between D2/H2 molar ratio and pore size at optimized operating conditions by using different ultramicroporous frameworks. The D2/H2 molar ratio is strongly depending on pore size, pressure and temperature. An experimentally determined optimum pore diameter for quantum sieving lies between 3.0 and 3.4 Å which can be an important guideline for designing and developing feasible microporous frameworks for isotope separation. Afterwards, we report a novel strategy for efficient hydrogen isotope separation at technologically relevant operating pressure through the development of quantum sieving exploited by the pore aperture engineering. The strategy involves installation of flexible components in the pores of the framework to tune the pore surface.
78
18894
Production and Quality Control of a Novel 153Sm-Complex for Radiotherapy of Bone-Metastases
Abstract:
Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease, however their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation of 153Sm-(4-{[bis-(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (BPAMD) for bone pain palliation therapy. 153Sm was produced at Tehran research reactor via 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. 200 µl of 1mg/ml BPAMD solution was added to the vial containing 1 mCi 153Sm and the mixture was heated up to 90 0C for 1 h. The radiochemical purity of the complex was measured by ITLC method. The final solution with radiochemical purity of more than 95% was injected to BALB mice and bio distribution was determined up to 48 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. While high bone uptake was confirmed by both the bio distribution studies and SPECT imaging, accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 153Sm-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for bone pain palliation therapy.
77
51710
The Prospect of Producing Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Idle Discharges of Water from Reservoirs and Recycling of Waste-Gas Condensates
Abstract:
Among problems that the whole world faces, it is climate change that poses a serious threat for all natural and economic complexes, including water and land resources. It is obvious that in processes of global climate change the key factor is a concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The main pollutants of the Central Asia Region atmosphere are the weighed particles (35%) and SO2 (31%), CO2 (14 %) and nitrogen oxides (10 %). In the present work, there are problems in the use of water resources from upstream countries of the Central Asian Transboundary Rivers and the surplus of the electric power during the summer period for production of hydrogen by electrolysis and the possibility of storage and hydrogen transportation for long distances are considered. Gaseous hydrogen is transportable and can be stored in huge quantities in natural underground storehouses. An identical section pressure passes through the pipelines in the form of hydrogen or methane with the same quantity of energy. Transportation through pipelines in the form of hydrogen is approximately 4 times more favorable, in comparison with the transfer of the same energy in the form of electricity. In Tajikistan 15 Billion kWt/h, hydropower is produced and used, which increases in the summer period. However, nowadays condition of hydropower use is not purposeful. With acceptance in the reform of hydropower, raising the effectiveness of hydropower decreased the demand up to 25%. We can own the valuable hydropower 6 billion kWt/h only for the production of hydrogen gas. In the future, Tajikistan is building two large hydropower stations Rogun (3600 MWt) and Sangtuda (670 MWt) are continued, the hydropower source can increase. Use of these two stations will bring an additional 20 billion kWt of hydropower annually. The electrodes from stainless steel and copper for an electrolysis are used. The subject of electrolysis was river water and the water after electro-sedimentation. If you use river water without pre-treatment were found deposition on the electrodes conglomerates of complex composition and process for the electrolysis of water was not almost observed. To release the gas bubbles from the electrodes was used to mechanical vibration. Pyrolysis of gas condensate in nitric plasma has shown about the basic possibility of production of no limiting hydrocarbons and cyanic hydrogen. Essential influence of cooling processes and training on the target products exit established. The dependence of a percentage parity of the no limiting hydrocarbons and cyanic hydrogen exits from the plasma stream specific power and time of stay of raw materials in a plasma stream specifies in possibilities of management of the process of pyrolysis on maintenance of the maximum exit of separate components of products of the reaction is shown.
76
98384
Using RASCAL and ALOHA Codes to Establish an Analysis Methodology for Hydrogen Fluoride Evaluation
Abstract:
In this study, the RASCAL and ALOHA codes are used to establish an analysis methodology for hydrogen fluoride (HF) evaluation. There are three main steps in this study. First, the UF6 data were collected. Second, one postulated case was analyzed by using the RASCAL and UF6 data. This postulated case assumes that fire occurring and UF6 is releasing from a building. Third, the results of RASCAL for HF mass were as the input data of ALOHA. Two postulated cases of HF were analyzed by using ALOHA code and the results of RASCAL. These postulated cases assume fire occurring and HF is releasing with no raining (Case 1) or raining (Case 2) condition. According to the analysis results of ALOHA, the HF concentration of Case 2 is smaller than Case 1. The results can be a reference for the preparing of emergency plans for the release of HF.
75
99106
Using RASCAL and ALOHA Codes to Establish an Analysis Methodology for Hydrogen Fluoride Evaluation
Abstract:
In this study, the RASCAL and ALOHA codes are used to establish an analysis methodology for HF (hydrogen fluoride) evaluation. There are three main steps in this study. First, the UF₆ data was collected. Second, one postulated case was analyzed by using the RASCAL and UF₆ data. This postulated case assumes fire occurring and UF₆ is releasing from a building. Third, the results of RASCAL for HF mass were as the input data of ALOHA. Two postulated cases of HF were analyzed by using ALOHA code and the results of RASCAL. These postulated cases assume fire occurring and HF is releasing with no raining (Case 1) or raining (Case 2) condition. According to the analysis results of ALOHA, the HF concentration of Case 2 is smaller than Case 1. The results can be a reference for the preparing of emergency plans for the release of HF.
74
38532
Operation System for Aluminium-Air Cell: A Strategy to Harvest the Energy from Secondary Aluminium
Abstract:
Aluminium (Al) -air cell holds a high volumetric capacity density of 8.05 Ah cm-3, benefit from the trivalence of Al ions. Additional benefits of Al-air cell are low price and environmental friendliness. Furthermore, the Al energy conversion process is characterized of 100% recyclability in theory. Along with a large base of raw material reserve, Al attracts considerable attentions as a promising material to be integrated within the global energy system. However, despite the early successful applications in military services, several problems exist that prevent the Al-air cells from widely civilian use. The most serious issue is the parasitic corrosion of Al when contacts with electrolyte. To overcome this problem, super-pure Al alloyed with various traces of metal elements are used to increase the corrosion resistance. Nevertheless, high-purity Al alloys are costly and require high energy consumption during production process. An alternative approach is to add inexpensive inhibitors directly into the electrolyte. However, such additives would increase the internal ohmic resistance and hamper the cell performance. So far these methods have not provided satisfactory solutions for the problem within Al-air cells. For the operation of alkaline Al-air cell, there are still other minor problems. One of them is the formation of aluminium hydroxide in the electrolyte. This process decreases ionic conductivity of electrolyte. Another one is the carbonation process within the gas diffusion layer of cathode, blocking the porosity of gas diffusion. Both these would hinder the performance of cells. The present work optimizes the above problems by building an Al-air cell operation system, consisting of four components. A top electrolyte tank containing fresh electrolyte is located at a high level, so that it can drive the electrolyte flow by gravity force. A mechanical rechargeable Al-air cell is fabricated with low-cost materials including low grade Al, carbon paper, and PMMA plates. An electrolyte waste tank with elaborate channel is designed to separate the hydrogen generated from the corrosion, which would be collected by gas collection device. In the first section of the research work, we investigated the performance of the mechanical rechargeable Al-air cell with a constant flow rate of electrolyte, to ensure the repeatability experiments. Then the whole system was assembled together and the feasibility of operating was demonstrated. During experiment, pure hydrogen is collected by collection device, which holds potential for various applications. By collecting this by-product, high utilization efficiency of aluminum is achieved. Considering both electricity and hydrogen generated, an overall utilization efficiency of around 90 % or even higher under different working voltages are achieved. Fluidic electrolyte could remove aluminum hydroxide precipitate and solve the electrolyte deterioration problem. This operation system provides a low-cost strategy for harvesting energy from the abundant secondary Al. The system could also be applied into other metal-air cells and is suitable for emergency power supply, power plant and other applications. The low cost feature implies great potential for commercialization. Further optimization, such as scaling up and optimization of fabrication, will help to refine the technology into practical market offerings.
73
22843
In-Situ Synthesis of Zinc-Containing MCM-41 and Investigation of Its Capacity for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Crude Oil
Abstract:
Hydrogen sulfide is the most toxic gas of crude oil. Adsorption is an energy-efficient process used to remove undesirable compounds such as H2S in gas or liquid streams by passing the stream through a media bed composed of an adsorbent. In this study, H2S of Iran crude oil was separated via cold stripping then zinc incorporated MCM-41 was synthesized via an in-situ method. ZnO functionalized mesoporous silica samples were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption and TEM. The obtained results of adsorption of H2S showed superior ability of all the materials and with an increase in ZnO amount adsorption was increased.
72
17444
Origin of Hydrogen Bonding: Natural Bond Orbital Electron Donor-Acceptor Interactions
Authors:
Abstract:
We perform computational investigation using density functional theory, B3LYP with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set followed by natural bond orbital analysis (NBO), which provides best single “natural Lewis structure” (NLS) representation of chosen wavefunction (Ψ) with natural resonance theory (NRT) to provide an analysis of molecular electron density in terms of resonance structures (RS) and weights (w). We selected for the study a wide range of gas phase dimers (B…HA), with hydrogen bond dissociation energies (ΔEB…H) that span more than two orders of magnitude. We demonstrate that charge transfer from a donor Lewis-type NBO (nB:) to an acceptor non-Lewis-type NBO (σHA*) is the primary cause for H-bonding not classical electrostatic (dipole-dipole or ionic). We provide a variety of structure, and spectroscopic descriptors to support the conclusion, such as IR frequency shift (ΔνHA), H-bond penetration distance (ΔRB..H), bond order (bB..H), charge-transfer (CTB→HA) and the corresponding donor-acceptor stabilization energy (ΔE(2)).
71
64086
Energy Management Method in DC Microgrid Based on the Equivalent Hydrogen Consumption Minimum Strategy
Abstract:
An energy management method based on equivalent hydrogen consumption minimum strategy is proposed in this paper aiming at the direct-current (DC) microgrid consisting of photovoltaic cells, fuel cells, energy storage devices, converters and DC loads. The rational allocation of fuel cells and battery devices is achieved by adopting equivalent minimum hydrogen consumption strategy with the full use of power generated by photovoltaic cells. Considering the balance of the battery’s state of charge (SOC), the optimal power of the battery under different SOC conditions is obtained and the reference output power of the fuel cell is calculated. And then a droop control method based on time-varying droop coefficient is proposed to realize the automatic charge and discharge control of the battery, balance the system power and maintain the bus voltage. The proposed control strategy is verified by RT-LAB hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform. The simulation results show that the designed control algorithm can realize the rational allocation of DC micro-grid energy and improve the stability of system.
70
19973
The Proton Flow Battery for Storing Renewable Energy: A Theoretical Model of Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in an Activated Carbon Electrode
Abstract:
Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in activated carbon electrodes as part of a reversible fuel cell offers a potentially attractive option for storing surplus electrical energy from inherently variable solar and wind energy resources. Such a system – which we have called a proton flow battery – promises to have a roundtrip energy efficiency comparable to lithium ion batteries, while having higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented of the process of H+ ion (proton) conduction through an acid electrolyte into a highly porous activated carbon electrode where it is neutralised and absorbed on the inner surfaces of pores. A Butler-Volmer type equation relates the rate of adsorption to the potential difference between the activated carbon surface and the electrolyte. This model for the hydrogen storage electrode is then incorporated into a more general computer model based on MATLAB software of the entire electrochemical cell including the oxygen electrode. Hence a theoretical voltage-current curve is generated for given input parameters for a particular activated carbon electrode. It is shown that theoretical VI curves produced by the model can be fitted accurately to experimental data from an actual electrochemical cell with the same characteristics. By obtaining the best-fit values of input parameters, such as the exchange current density and charge transfer coefficient for the hydrogen adsorption reaction, an improved understanding of the adsorption reaction is obtained. This new model will assist in designing improved proton flow batteries for storing solar and wind energy.
69
49929
Further Investigation of Core Degradation Using Quench Test Facility Results
Abstract:
This paper presents an application of the ASTEC V2r3p3 computer code for simulation of QUENCH-12 experiment. The test has been performed to investigate the behavior of VVER type of fuel assemblies during severe accident conditions. In the performed analyses it has been assessed the mass of generated hydrogen during the experiment flooding of overheated core. The comparison of ASTECv2r3p3 calculated results with measured test data shows good agreement.
68
46244
Forecasting Etching Behavior Silica Sand Using the Design of Experiments Method
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to show how the Design of Experiments Method (DOE) can be put into use as a practical approach for silica sand etching behavior modeling during its primary step of leaching. In the present work, we have studied etching effect on particle size during a primary step of leaching process on Algerian silica sand with florid acid (HF) at 20% and 30 % during 4 and 8 hours. Therefore, a new purity of the sand is noted depending on the time of leaching. This study was expanded by a numerical approach using a method of experiment design, which shows the influence of each parameter and the interaction between them in the process and approved the obtained experimental results. This model is a predictive approach using hide software. Based on the measured parameters experimentally in the interior of the model, the use of DOE method can make it possible to predict the outside parameters of the model in question and can give us the optimize response without making the experimental measurement.
67
83519
Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Rice Stubble Cellulose
Abstract:
Rice stubble consists of a high content of cellulose and can be synthesized as a cellulose derivative such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to value added products from agricultural waste. Therefore, the synthesis conditions and characterization the properties of CMC from rice stubble (CMCr) were investigated. Hemicellulose and lignin were first removed from the rice stubble using 10% NaOH at 55 C for 3 h and 5% NaOCl at 75 C for 15 min, respectively. Rice stubble cellulose was swollen in 30% NaOH and isopropanol as a solvent. The content of chloroacetic acid (5–7 g in 5 g of alkali cellulose), reaction temperature (50 and 70 C) and time (180, 270 and 360 min) were explored to obtain CMC. It was found that synthesis conditions did not affect significantly on moisture content and pH of CMCr. The best quality of CMCr was synthesized by using 7 g of chloroacetic acid and reacted at 50 C for 180 min based on 5 g of rice stubble cellulose. Degree of substitution (DS), viscosity and purity of CMCr were 0.64, 36.03 cP and 90.18 %, respectively. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl substituents. CMCr was categorized in commercial scale as a low viscosity material and it can be used as film forming packaging materials for food and pharmaceutical product applications.
66
26077
Electron Density Analysis and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Zwitterionic Compound
Abstract:
Zwitterionic compounds have received the interest of chemists and physicists due to their applications as nonlinear optical materials. Recently, zwitterionic compounds exhibiting high nonlinear optical activity have been investigated. In this context, the molecular electron charge density distribution of the title compound is described accurately using the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. The net atomic charge and the molecular dipole moment have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter- and intramolecular charge transfer. The study reveals the nature of intermolecular interactions including charge transfer and hydrogen bonds in the title compound. In this crystal, the molecules form dimers via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The dimers are further linked by C–H...O hydrogen bonds into chains along the c crystallographic axis. This study has also allowed us to determine various nonlinear optical properties such as molecular electrostatic potential, polarizability, and hyperpolarizability of the title compound.
65
18400
Facile Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles on Graphene via Galvanic Displacement Reaction for Sensing Application
Abstract:
We report a facile synthesis of metal nano particles (NPs) on graphene layer via galvanic displacement reaction between graphene-buffered copper (Cu) and metal ion-containing salts. Diverse metal NPs can be formed on graphene surface and their morphologies can be tailored by controlling the concentration of metal ion-containing salt and immersion time. The obtained metal NP-decorated single-layer graphene (SLG) has been used as hydrogen gas (H2) sensing material and exhibited highly sensitive response upon exposure to 2% of H2.
64
104305
Energy Harvesting and Storage System for Marine Applications
Abstract:
Rigorous international maritime regulations are in place to limit boat and ship hydrocarbon emissions. The global sustainability goals are reducing the fuel consumption and minimizing the emissions from the ships and boats. These maritime sustainability goals have attracted a lot of research interest. Energy harvesting and storage system is designed in this study based on hybrid renewable and conventional energy systems. This energy harvesting and storage system is designed for marine applications, such as, boats and small ships. These systems can be utilized for mobile use or off-grid remote electrification. This study analyzed the use of micro power generation for boats and small ships. The energy harvesting and storage system has two distinct systems i.e. dockside shore-based system and on-board system. The shore-based system consists of a small wind turbine, photovoltaic (PV) panels, small gas turbine, hydrogen generator and high-pressure hydrogen storage tank. This dockside system is to provide easy access to the boats and small ships for supply of hydrogen. The on-board system consists of hydrogen storage tanks and fuel cells. The wind turbine and PV panels generate electricity to operate electrolyzer. A small gas turbine is used as a supplementary power system to contribute in case the hybrid renewable energy system does not provide the required energy. The electrolyzer performs the electrolysis on distilled water to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen is stored in high-pressure tanks. The hydrogen from the high-pressure tank is filled in the low-pressure tanks on-board seagoing vessels to operate the fuel cell. The boats and small ships use the hydrogen fuel cell to provide power to electric propulsion motors and for on-board auxiliary use. For shore-based system, a small wind turbine with the total length of 4.5 m and the disk diameter of 1.8 m is used. The small wind turbine dimensions make it big enough to be used to charge batteries yet small enough to be installed on the rooftops of dockside facility. The small dimensions also make the wind turbine easily transportable. In this paper, PV, sizing and solar flux are studied parametrically. System performance is evaluated under different operating and environmental conditions. The parametric study is conducted to evaluate the energy output and storage capacity of energy storage system. Results are generated for a wide range of conditions to analyze the usability of hybrid energy harvesting and storage system. This energy harvesting method significantly improves the usability and output of the renewable energy sources. It also shows that small hybrid energy systems have promising practical applications.
63
20122
A Homogeneous Catalytic System for Decolorization of a Mixture of Orange G Acid and Naphthol Blue-Black Dye Based on Hydrogen Peroxide and a Recyclable DAWSON Type Heteropolyanion
Abstract:
The color removal from industrial effluents is a major concern in wastewater treatment. The main objective of this work was to study the decolorization of a mixture of Orange G acid (OG) and naphthol blue black dye (NBB) in aqueous solution by hydrogen peroxide using [H1,5Fe1,5P2W12Mo6O61,23H2O] as catalyst. [H1,5Fe1,5P2 W12Mo6O61,23H2O] is a recyclable DAWSON type heteropolyanion. Effects of various experimental parameters of the oxidation reaction of the dye were investigated. The studied parameters were: the initial pH, H2O2 concentration, the catalyst mass and the temperature. The optimum conditions had been determined, and it was found that efficiency of degradation obtained after 15 minutes of reaction was about 100%. The optimal parameters were: initial pH = 3; [H2O2]0 = 0.08 mM; catalyst mass = 0.05g; for a concentration of dyes = 30mg/L.
62
66354
Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Microwave-Synthesized Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Supported Ni Catalysts
Abstract:
Due to the globally growing demands of petroleum fuel and fossil fuels, the scarcity or even depletion of fossil fuel sources could be inevitable. Alternatively, the utilization of renewable sources, such as biomass, has become attractive to the community. Biomass can be converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. In water phase of bio-oil, acetic acid which is one of its main components can be converted to hydrogen with high selectivity over effective catalysts in steam reforming process. Steam reforming of acetic acid as model compound has been intensively investigated for hydrogen production using various metal oxide supported nickel catalysts and yet they seem to be rapidly deactivated depending on the support utilized. A catalyst support such as Ce1-xZrxO2 mixed oxide was proposed for alleviating this problem with the anticipation of enhancing hydrogen yield. However, catalyst preparation methods play a significant role in catalytic activity and performance of the catalysts. In this work, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 mixed oxide solid solution support was prepared by urea hydrolysis using microwave as heat source. After that nickel metal was incorporated at 15 wt% by incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques including BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, SEM, and TEM as well as tested for the steam reforming of acetic acid at various operating conditions. Preliminary results showed that a hydrogen yield of ca. 32% with a relatively high acetic conversion was attained at 650°C.
61
35449
Fiber-Optic Sensors for Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Measurement
Abstract:
This paper reports on the response of a fiber-optic sensing probe to small concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapor at room temperature. H2O2 has extensive applications in industrial and medical environments. Conversely, H2O2 can be a health hazard by itself. For example, H2O2 induces cellular damage in human cells and its presence can be used to diagnose illnesses such as asthma and human breast cancer. Hence, development of reliable H2O2 sensor is of vital importance to detect and measure this species. Ferric ferrocyanide, referred to as Prussian blue (PB), was deposited on the tip of a multimode optical fiber through the single source precursor technique and served as an indicator of H2O2 in a spectroscopic manner. Sensing tests were performed in H2O2-H2O vapor mixtures with different concentrations of H2O2. The results of sensing tests show the sensor is able to detect H2O2 concentrations in the range of 50.6 ppm to 229.5 ppm. Furthermore, the sensor response to H2O2 concentrations is linear in a log-log scale with the adjacent R-square of 0.93. This sensing behavior allows us to detect and quantify the concentration of H2O2 in the vapor phase.
60
72426
Dependence of Ionomer Loading on the Hydrogen Generation Rate of a Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer
Abstract:
Membrane electrode assemblies MEAs for proton exchange membrane PEM water electrolyzers were prepared by employing 175um perfluorosulfonic acid PFSA membranes as the PEM, onto which iridium oxide catalyst was coated on one side as the anode and platinum catalyst was coated on the other side as the cathode. The cathode catalyst ink was prepared so that the weight ratio of the catalyst powder to ionomer was 75:25, 70:30, 65:35, 60:40, and 55:45, respectively. Whereas, the ratio of catalyst powder to ionomer of the anode catalyst ink keeps constant at 50:50. All the MEAs have a catalyst coated area of 5cm*5cm. The test cell employs a platinum plated titanium grid as anode gas diffusion media; whereas, carbon paper was employed as the cathode gas diffusion media. The measurements of the MEA gases production rate were carried out by holding the cell voltage ranging from 1.6 to 2.8 volts at room temperature. It was found that the MEA with cathode catalyst to ionomer ratio of 65:35 gives the largest hydrogen production rate which is 2.8mL/cm2*min.
59
80237
Green Synthesized Palladium Loaded Titanium Nanotube Arrays for Simultaneous Azo-Dye Degradation and Hydrogen Production
Abstract:
In this study, palladium loaded titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (Pd/TNAs) was successfully synthesized by anodic oxidation etching method combined with microwave hydrothermal method, using tea or coffee as a green reductant. Pd/TNAs was employed as an electrode in a photoelectrochemcial (PEC) system to simultaneously remove azo-dye and to generate hydrogen in the anodic and cathodic chamber, respectively. The chemical and physical properties of as-synthesized Pd/TNAs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM image indicates the diameter and the length of Pd/TNAs were approximately 300 nm and 2.5 μm, respectively. XPS analyses indicate that 1.13% (atomic %) of Pd was loaded onto the surface of TNAs. UV-vis results show that the band gap of TNAs was reduced from 3.2 eV to 2.37 eV after Pd loading. In addition, the electrochemical performances of Pd/TNAs were investigated by photocurrent density test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The photocurrent (4.0 mA/cm²) of Pd /TNAs was higher than that of the uncoated TNAs (1.4 mA/cm²) at a bias potential of 1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), indicating that Pd/TNAs-C can effectively separate photogenerated electrons and holes. The mechanism of our PEC system was proposed and discussed in detail in this study.
58
89402
Solar Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Glycerol Reforming Using Ternary Cu/TiO2/Graphene
Abstract:
A ternary Cu/TiO2/rGO photocatalysts was prepared using solvothermal method. Firstly, pure anatase TiO2 hollow spheres were prepared with titanium butoxide, ethanol, ammonium sulphate, and urea via hydrothermal method; and Cu nanoparticles were subsequently loaded on the surface of the hollow spheres by wet impregnation. During the solvothermal process, the deposition and well dispersion of Cu-TiO2 hollow spheres composites onto the graphene oxide surface, as well as the reduction of graphene oxide to graphene were achieved. The morphological and structural properties of the prepared samples were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet (BET), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis DRS, and photoelectrochemical. The activities of the prepared catalysts were tested for hydrogen production via simultaneous photocatalytic water-splitting and glycerol reforming under visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of the Cu-TiO2-hollow-spheres/rGO catalyst was attributed the rGO which acts as both storage and transferor of electrons generated at the Cu and TiO2 heterojunction, thus increasing the electron-hole pairs separation. This paper reports the preparation of photocatalyst which is highly active by coupling reduced graphene oxide with nano-structured TiO2 with high surface area that can efficiently harvest the visible light for effective water-splitting and glycerol photocatalytic reforming in order to achieve efficient hydrogen evolution.
57
73326
Extractive Desulfurization of Fuels Using Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents
Abstract:
Desulfurization process is required by most, if not all refineries, to achieve ultra-low sulfur fuel, that contains less than 10 ppm sulfur. A lot of research works and many effective technologies have been studied to achieve deep desulfurization process in moderate reaction environment, such as adsorption desulfurization (ADS), oxidative desulfurization (ODS), biodesulfurization and extraction desulfurization (EDS). Extraction desulfurization using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is considered as simple, cheap, highly efficient and environmentally friend process. In this work, four DESs were designed and synthesized. Choline chloride (ChCl) was selected as typical hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), and ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (Gl), urea (Ur) and thiourea (Tu) were selected as hydrogen bond donors (HBD), from which a series of deep eutectic solvents were synthesized. The experimental data showed that the synthesized DESs showed desulfurization affinities towards the thiophene species in cyclohexane solvent. Ethylene glycol molecules showed more affinity to create hydrogen bond with thiophene instead of choline chloride. Accordingly, ethylene glycol choline chloride DES has the highest extraction efficiency.
56
17224
Instability of H2-O2-CO2 Premixed Flames on Flat Burner
Abstract:
The combustion of hydrogen-oxygen (H2-O2) mixtures was investigated to consider the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) as the greenhouse emission. Normally, the flame speed of combustion H2-O2 mixtures are very fast thus it is necessary to control the limit of mixtures with CO2 addition as H2-O2-CO2 combustion. The limit of hydrogen was set and replaced by CO2 with O2:CO2 ratio as 1:3.76, 1:4 and 1:5 for this study. In this study, the combustion of H2-O2 -CO2 on flat burner at equivalence ratio =0.5 was investigated for 10, 15 and 20 L/min of flow rate mixtures. When the ratio of CO2 increases, the power spectral density is lower, the size of attractor and cellular flame become larger because the decrease of hydrogen replaced by CO2 affects the diffusive-thermal instability. Moreover, the flow rate mixtures increases, the power spectral density increases, the size of reconstructed attractor and cell size become smaller due to decreasing of instability. The results show that the variation of CO2 and mixture flow rate affects the instability of cellular premixed flames on flat burner.
55
14160
The Hydrolysis of Phosphate Esters Can Be Enhanced by Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding
Abstract:
The research project aim is to study the hydrolysis of 8-diethylphosphate-1-naphthalenol with hydroxylamine in water. 8-diethylphosphate-1-naphthalenol, 1 was successfully synthesized and its rate of reaction with hydroxylamine was studied at 60°C. Pseudo first order behavior was observed. The rate of P-O cleavage of 1 at 60°C (7.43 x 10-3 M-1s-1) was found to be 178 fold and 7 fold slower than diethyl 8-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl phosphate, 3 at 60°C (1.32 M-1s-1) and diethyl 8-amino-1-naphthyl phosphate, 2 at 90 °C (5.5 x 10-2 M-1s-1) respectively. The rate of P-O cleavage of 1 with hydroxylamine was found to be faster than that of 4-chlorophenyl-1-cyclopropylphosphate triester, 5 where the reaction was too slow to observe at 60°C.
54
43962
Radiation Stability of Structural Steel in the Presence of Hydrogen
Abstract:
As the service life of an operating nuclear power plant (NPP) increases, the potential misunderstanding of the degradation of aging components must receive more attention. Integrity assurance analysis contributes to the effective maintenance of adequate plant safety margins. In essence, the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is the key structural component determining the NPP lifetime. Environmentally induced cracking in the stainless steel corrosion-preventing cladding of RPV’s has been recognized to be one of the technical problems in the maintenance and development of light-water reactors. Extensive cracking leading to failure of the cladding was found after 13000 net hours of operation in JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). Some of the cracks have reached the base metal and further penetrated into the RPV in the form of localized corrosion. Failures of reactor internal components in both boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors have increased after the accumulation of relatively high neutron fluences (5´1020 cm–2, E>0,5MeV). Therefore, in the case of cladding failure, the problem arises of hydrogen (as a corrosion product) embrittlement of irradiated RPV steel because of exposure to the coolant. At present when notable progress in plasma physics has been obtained practical energy utilization from fusion reactors (FR) is determined by the state of material science problems. The last includes not only the routine problems of nuclear engineering but also a number of entirely new problems connected with extreme conditions of materials operation – irradiation environment, hydrogenation, thermocycling, etc. Limiting data suggest that the combined effect of these factors is more severe than any one of them alone. To clarify the possible influence of the in-service synergistic phenomena on the FR structural materials properties we have studied hydrogen-irradiated steel interaction including alternating hydrogenation and heat treatment (annealing). Available information indicates that the life of the first wall could be expanded by means of periodic in-place annealing. The effects of neutron fluence and irradiation temperature on steel/hydrogen interactions (adsorption, desorption, diffusion, mechanical properties at different loading velocities, post-irradiation annealing) were studied. Experiments clearly reveal that the higher the neutron fluence and the lower the irradiation temperature, the more hydrogen-radiation defects occur, with corresponding effects on the steel mechanical properties. Hydrogen accumulation analyses and thermal desorption investigations were performed to prove the evidence of hydrogen trapping at irradiation defects. Extremely high susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement was observed with specimens which had been irradiated at relatively low temperature. However, the susceptibility decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. To evaluate methods for the RPV’s residual lifetime evaluation and prediction, more work should be done on the irradiated metal–hydrogen interaction in order to monitor more reliably the status of irradiated materials.
53
80226
Biodistribution Studies of 177Lu-DOTATOC in Mouse Tumor Model: Possible Utilization in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer Treatment
Abstract:
Despite the appropriate characteristics of 177Lu and DOTATOC, to our best knowledge, the therapeutic benefit of 177Lu-DOTATOC complex in breast cancer has not been reported until now. In this study, biodistribution of 177Lu-DOTA-TOC in mouse tumor model for evaluation of possible utilization of this complex in breast cancer treatment was investigated.177Lu was prepared with the specific activity of 2.6-3 GBq.mg-1 and radionuclidic purity higher than 99%. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in the optimized conditions with the radiochemical purity higher than 99%. The final solution was injected to the BALB/c mice with adenocarcinoma breast cancer. The biodistribution results showed major accumulation in the kidneys as the major excretion route and the somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas compared with the other tissues. Also, significant uptake was observed in tumor even in longer time after injection. According to the results obtained in this research study, somatostatin receptors expressed in breast cancers can be targeted with DOTATOC analogues especially with 177Lu-DOTATOC as an ideal therapeutic agent.
52
86646
One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen
Abstract:
One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.
51
40292
Modeling and Analysis the Effects of Temperature and Pressure on the Gas-Crossover in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzer
Abstract:
Hydrogen produced by means of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEME) is one of the most promising methods due to clean and renewable energy source. In the process, some energy loss due to mass transfer through a PEM is caused by diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and the pressure difference between the cathode channel and anode channel. In PEME water molecules and ionic particles transferred between the electrodes from anode to cathode, Extensive mixing of the hydrogen and oxygen at anode channel due to gases cross-over must be avoided. In recent times the consciousness of safety issue in high pressure PEME where the oxygen mix with hydrogen at anode channel could create, explosive conditions have generated a lot of concern. In this paper, the steady state and simulation analysis of gases crossover in PEME on the temperature and pressure effect are presented. The simulations have been analysis in MATLAB based on the well-known Fick’s Law of molecular diffusion. The simulation results indicated that as temperature increases, there is a significant decrease in operating voltage.
50
45051
Similitude for Thermal Scale-up of a Multiphase Thermolysis Reactor in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production
Abstract:
The thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is considered as a sustainable and efficient technology for a hydrogen production, when linked with clean-energy systems such as nuclear reactors or solar thermal plants. In the Cu-Cl cycle, water is decomposed thermally into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of intermediate reactions. This paper investigates the thermal scale up analysis of the three phase oxygen production reactor in the Cu-Cl cycle, where the reaction is endothermic and the temperature is about 530 oC. The paper focuses on examining the size and number of oxygen reactors required to provide enough heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. The type of the multiphase reactor used in this paper is the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) that is heated by a half pipe jacket. The thermal resistance of each section in the jacketed reactor system is studied to examine its effect on the heat balance of the reactor. It is found that the dominant contribution to the system thermal resistance is from the reactor wall. In the analysis, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be driven by a nuclear reactor where two types of nuclear reactors are examined as the heat source to the oxygen reactor. These types are the CANDU Super Critical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR) and High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR). It is concluded that a better heat transfer rate has to be provided for CANDU-SCWR by 3-4 times than HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also examined in this paper and is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Finally, a comparison between the results of heat balance and existing results of mass balance is performed and is found that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.
49
13434
Strength & Density of an Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Using Various Air Entraining Agent
Abstract:
The purpose of the present paper is to study the changes in the strength characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and also the density when different expansion agents are used. The expansion agent so used releases air in the concrete thereby making it lighter by reducing its density. It also increases the workability of the concrete. The various air entraining agents used for this study are hydrogen peroxide, oleic acid, and olive oil. The addition of these agents causes the concrete to rise like cake but it reduces the strength of concrete due to the formation of air voids. The amount of agents chosen for concrete production are 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% by weight of cement.
48
27087
Extraction of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis by Isoelectric Point Precipitation and Salting Out for Scale Up Processes
Abstract:
Phycocyanin is a blue pigment protein with fluorescent activity produced by cyanobacteria. It has been recently studied to determine its anticancer, antioxidant and antiinflamatory potential. Since 2014 it was approved as a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) proteic pigment for the food industry. Therefore, phycocyanin shows potential for the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and diagnostics industry. Conventional phycocyanin extraction includes buffer solutions and ammonium sulphate followed by chromatography or ATPS for protein separation. Therefore, further purification steps are time-requiring, energy intensive and not suitable for scale-up processing. This work presents an alternative to conventional methods that also allows large scale application with commercially available equipment. The extraction was performed by exposing the dry biomass to mechanical cavitation and salting out with NaCl to use an edible reagent. Also, isoelectric point precipitation was used by addition of HCl and neutralization with NaOH. The results were measured and compared in phycocyanin concentration, purity and extraction yield. Results showed that the best extraction condition was the extraction by salting out with 0.20 M NaCl after 30 minutes cavitation, with a concentration in the supernatant of 2.22 mg/ml, a purity of 3.28 and recovery from crude extract of 81.27%. Mechanical cavitation presumably increased the solvent-biomass contact, making the crude extract visibly dark blue after centrifugation. Compared to other systems, our process has less purification steps, similar concentrations in the phycocyanin-rich fraction and higher purity. The contaminants present in our process edible NaCl or low pHs that can be neutralized. It also can be adapted to a semi-continuous process with commercially available equipment. This characteristics make this process an appealing alternative for phycocyanin extraction as a pigment for the food industry.
47
33333
A Supramolecular Cocrystal of 2-Amino-4-Chloro-6-Methylpyrimidine with 4-Methylbenzoic Acid: Synthesis, Structural Determinations and Quantum Chemical Investigations
Abstract:
The 1:1 co-crystal of 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine (2A4C6MP) with 4-methylbenzoic acid (4MBA) (I) has been prepared by slow evaporation method in methanol, which was crystallized in monoclinic C2/c space group, Z = 8, a = 28.431 (2) Å, b = 7.3098 (5) Å, c = 14.2622 (10) Å, and β = 109.618 (3)°. The presence of unionized –COOH functional group in co-crystal I was identified both by spectral methods (1H and 13C NMR, FTIR) and X-ray diffraction structural analysis. The 2A4C6MP molecule interact with the carboxylic group of the respective 4MBA molecule through N—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a cyclic hydrogen –bonded motif R22(8). The crystal structure was stabilized by Npyrimidine-H⋯O=C and C=O-H⋯Npyrimidine types hydrogen bonding interactions. Theoretical investigations have been computed by HF and density function (B3LYP) method with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational frequencies together with 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts have been calculated on the fully optimized geometry of co-crystal I. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. Solvent-free formation of this co-crystal I is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis.
46
10781
Methods for Mitigating Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid in Sewerage Systems: State of the Art Review
Abstract:
Corrosion is an imminent process in nature, which affects all types of materials. In sewerage systems, the corrosion process caused by microorganisms, also known as biogenic sulfuric acid attack, has been studied. This affects the structural integrity of the concrete drainage pipes and the sewage treatment plants. This article is a review of research which focuses on the study of how to reduce the production of hydrogen sulfide, how to improve the resistance of concrete through the use of additives and the implementation of antimicrobial techniques to reduce bacterial growth.
45
71268
Producing Sustained Renewable Energy and Removing Organic Pollutants from Distillery Wastewater using Consortium of Sludge Microbes
Abstract:
Distillery wastewater in the form of spent wash is a complex and strong industrial effluent, with high load of organic pollutants that may deplete dissolved oxygen on being discharged into aquatic systems and contaminate groundwater by leaching of pollutants, while untreated spent wash disposed on land acidifies the soil. Stringent legislative measures have therefore been framed in different countries for discharge standards of distillery effluent. Utilising the organic pollutants present in various types of wastes as food by mixed microbial populations is emerging as an eco-friendly approach in the recent years, in which complex organic matter is converted into simpler forms, and simultaneously useful gases are produced as renewable and clean energy sources. In the present study, wastewater from a rice bran based distillery has been used as the substrate in a dark fermenter, and native microbial consortium from the digester sludge has been used as the inoculum to treat the wastewater and produce hydrogen. After optimising the operational conditions in batch reactors, sequential batch mode and continuous flow stirred tank reactors were used to study the best operational conditions for enhanced and sustained hydrogen production and removal of pollutants. Since the rate of hydrogen production by the microbial consortium during dark fermentation is influenced by concentration of organic matter, pH and temperature, these operational conditions were optimised in batch mode studies. Maximum hydrogen production rate (347.87ml/L/d) was attained in 32h dark fermentation while a good proportion of COD also got removed from the wastewater. Slightly acidic initial pH seemed to favor biohydrogen production. In continuous stirred tank reactor, high H2 production from distillery wastewater was obtained from a relatively shorter substrate retention time (SRT) of 48h and a moderate organic loading rate (OLR) of 172 g/l/d COD.
44
16011
Progressive Loading Effect of Co Over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane
Abstract:
Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to CO/CO2 free hydrogen and carbon nano materials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800 oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, TPR, XRD, SEM, TEM, and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity and stability up to 10 h time-on-stream at 750 oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at a higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs, and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature, were obtained. The TG data showed that a higher yield of MWCNTs was achieved over 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst compared to other catalysts.
43
42782
Economic Analysis of Domestic Combined Heat and Power System in the UK
Abstract:
A combined heat and power (CHP) system is an efficient and clean way to generate power (electricity). Heat produced by the CHP system can be used for water and space heating. The CHP system which uses hydrogen as fuel produces zero carbon emission. Its’ efficiency can reach more than 80% whereas that of a traditional power station can only reach up to 50% because much of the thermal energy is wasted. The other advantages of CHP systems include that they can decentralize energy generation, improve energy security and sustainability, and significantly reduce the energy cost to the users. This paper presents the economic benefits of using a CHP system in the domestic environment. For this analysis, natural gas is considered as potential fuel as the hydrogen fuel cell based CHP systems are rarely used. UK government incentives for CHP systems are also considered as the added benefit. Results show that CHP requires a significant initial investment in return it can reduce the annual energy bill significantly. Results show that an investment may be paid back in 7 years. After the back period, CHP can run for about 3 years as most of the CHP manufacturers provide 10-year warranty.
42
38645
Thermal Characteristics of Sewage Sludge to Develop an IDPG Technology
Abstract:
Sewage sludge is regarded as the residue produced by the waste water treatment process, during which liquids and solids are being separated. Thermal treatments are interesting techniques to stabilize the sewage sludge for disposal. Among the thermal treatments, pyrolysis and/or gasification has been being applied to the sewage sludge. The final goal of our NRF research is to develop a microwave In-line Drying-Pyrolysis-Gasification (IDPG) technology for the dewatered sewage sludge for the bio-waste to energy conversion. As a first step, the pyrolysis characteristics in a bench scale electric furnace was investigated at 800℃ for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge samples of which moisture contents are almost 80% and 0%, respectively. Main components of producer gas are hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Particularly, higher hydrogen for the dewatered sludge is shown as 75%. The hydrogen production for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge are 56% and 32%, respectively. However, the pyrolysis for the dried sludge produces higher carbon dioxide and other gases, while higher methane and carbon dioxide are given to 74% and 53%, respectively. Tar also generates during the pyrolysis process, showing lower value for case of the dewatered sludge. Gravimetric tar is 195 g/m3, and selected light tar like benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene are 9.4 g/m3, 2.1 g/m3, 0.5 g/m3, 0.3 g/m3, respectively. After the pyrolysis process, residual char for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge remain 1g and 1.3g, showing weight reduction rate of 93% and 57%, respectively. Through the results, this could be known that the dewatered sludge can be used to produce a clean hydrogen-rich gas fuel without the drying process. Therefore, the IDPG technology can be applied effectively to the energy conversion for dewater sludge waste without a drying pretreatment. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No. 2015R1A2A2A03003044).
41
14405
Evaluation of Hydrogen Particle Volume on Surfaces of Selected Nanocarbons
Abstract:
This paper describes an approach to the adsorption phenomena modeling aimed at specifying the adsorption mechanisms on localized or nonlocalized adsorbent sites, when applied to the nanocarbons. The concept comes from the fundamental thermodynamic description of adsorption equilibrium and is based on numerical calculations of the hydrogen adsorbed particles volume on the surface of selected nanocarbons: single-walled nanotube and nanocone. This approach enables to obtain information on adsorption mechanism and then as a consequence to take appropriate mathematical adsorption model, thus allowing for a more reliable identification of the material porous structure. Theoretical basis of the approach is discussed and newly derived results of the numerical calculations are presented for the selected nanocarbons.
40
104173
Software Tool Design for Heavy Oil Upgrading by Hydrogen Donor Addition in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Process
Abstract:
The hydrodynamic cavitation is a process in which the energy that the fluids have in the phase changes is used. From this energy, local temperatures greater than 5000 °C are obtained where thermal cracking of the fluid molecules takes place. The process applied to heavy oil affects variables such as viscosity, density, and composition, which constitutes an important improvement in the quality of crude oil. In this study, the need to design a software through mathematical integration models of mixing, cavitation, kinetics, and reactor, allows modeling changes in density, viscosity, and composition of a heavy oil crude, when the fluid passes through a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. In order to evaluate the viability of this technique in the industry, a heavy oil of 18° API gravity, was simulated using naphtha as a hydrogen donor at concentrations of 1, 2 and 5% vol, where the simulation results showed an API gravity increase to 0.77, 1.21 and 1.93° respectively and a reduction viscosity by 9.9, 12.9 and 15.8%. The obtained results allow to have a favorable panorama on this technological development, an appropriate visualization on the generation of innovative knowledge of this technique and the technical-economic opportunity that benefits the development of the hydrocarbon sector related to heavy crude oil that includes the largest world oil production.
39
103267
Software Tool Design for Heavy Oil Upgrading by Hydrogen Donor Addition in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Process
Abstract:
The hydrodynamic cavitation is a process in which the energy that the fluids have in the phase changes is used. From this energy, local temperatures greater than 5000 °C are obtained where thermal cracking of the fluid molecules takes place. The process applied to heavy oil affects variables such as viscosity, density, and composition, which constitutes an important improvement in the quality of crude oil. In this study, the need to design a software through mathematical integration models of mixing, cavitation, kinetics, and reactor, allows modeling changes in density, viscosity, and composition of a heavy oil crude, when the fluid passes through a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. In order to evaluate the viability of this technique in the industry, a heavy oil of 18° API gravity, was simulated using naphtha as a hydrogen donor at concentrations of 1, 2 and 5% vol, where the simulation results showed an API gravity increase to 0.77, 1.21 and 1.93° respectively and a reduction viscosity by 9.9, 12.9 and 15.8%. The obtained results allow to have a favorable panorama on this technological development, an appropriate visualization on the generation of innovative knowledge of this technique and the technical-economic opportunity that benefits the development of the hydrocarbon sector related to heavy crude oil that includes the largest world oil production.
38
85789
Evaluation of the Integration of a Direct Reduction Process into an Existing Steel Mill
Abstract:
In the context of climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in all economic sectors is considered to be an important factor in order to meet the demands of a sustainable energy system. The steel industry as one of the large industrial CO₂ emitters is currently highly dependent on fossil resources. In order to reduce coke consumption and thereby CO₂ emissions while still being able to further utilize existing blast furnaces, the possibility of including a direct reduction process (DRP) into a fully integrated steel mill was investigated. Therefore, a blast furnace model, derived from literature data and implemented in Aspen Plus, was used to analyze the impact of DRI in the blast furnace process. Furthermore, a state-of-the-art DRP was modeled to investigate the possibility of substituting the reducing agent natural gas with hydrogen. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to find the boundary percentage of hydrogen as a reducing agent without penalty to the DRI quality. Lastly, the two modeled process steps were combined to form a route of producing pig iron. By varying boundary conditions of the DRP while recording the CO₂ emissions of the two process steps, the overall potential for the reduction of CO₂ emissions was estimated. Within the simulated range, a maximum reduction of CO₂ emissions of 23.5% relative to typical emissions of a blast furnace could be determined.
37
94709
The Use of Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirton and Microbial Biotechnologies for Restoration of Degraded Pastoral Lands: The Case of the Middle Atlas of Morocco
Abstract:
Green tea, which is one of the most popular of tea, contains various ingredients that help health. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the main active polyphenolic compound possessing diverse biologically beneficial effects such as anti-oxidation, anti-cancer founding in green tea. This study was performed to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of high-purity EGCG ( > 98%) in a spontaneous diabetic mellitus animal model, db/db mouse. Four-week-old male db/db mice, which was induced to diabetic mellitus by the high-fat diet, were orally administered with high-purity EGCG (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Daily weight and diet efficiency were examined, and blood glucose level was assessed once a week. After 4 weeks of EGCG administration, fasting blood glucose level was measured. Then, the mice were sacrificed and total abdominal fat was sampled to examine the change in fat weight. Plasma was separated from the blood and the levels of aspartate amino-transferase (ALT) and alanine amino-transferase (AST) were investigated. As results, blood glucose and body weight were significantly decreased by EGCG treatment compared to the control group. Also, the amount of abdominal fat was down-regulated by EGCG. However, ALT and AST levels, which are indicators of liver function, were similar to those of control group. Taken together, our study suggests that high purity EGCG is capable of treating diabetes mellitus based in db / db mice with safety and has a potent to develop a therapeutics for metabolic disorders. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry (IPET) through High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (317034-03-2-HD030)
36
36649
Development of Adsorbents for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Using Pyrolytic Carbon Black form Waste Tires
Abstract:
It is estimated that 1.5 billion tires are produced worldwide each year which will eventually end up as waste tires representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. Pyrolysis has been great interest in alternative treatment processes for waste tires to produce valuable oil, gas and solid products. The oil and gas products may be used directly as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. The solid produced from the pyrolysis of tires ranges typically from 30 to 45 wt% and have high carbon contents of up to 90 wt%. However, most notably the solid have high sulfur contents from 2 to 3 wt% and ash contents from 8 to 15 wt% related to the additive metals. Upgrading tire pyrolysis products to high-value products has concentrated on solid upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are one of the common malodorous compounds that can be found in emissions from many sewages treatment plants and industrial plants. Therefore, removing these harmful gasses from emissions is of significance in both life and industry because they can cause health problems to human and detrimental effects on the catalysts. In this work, pyrolytic carbon black from waste tires was used to develop adsorbent with good adsorption capacity for removal of hydrogen and ammonia. Pyrolytic carbon blacks were prepared by pyrolysis of waste tire chips ranged from 5 to 20 mm under the nitrogen atmosphere at 600℃ for 1 hour. Pellet-type adsorbents were prepared by a mixture of carbon black, metal oxide and sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid, and their adsorption capacities were estimated by using the breakthrough curve of a continuous fixed bed adsorption column at ambient condition. The adsorbent was manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, iron oxide(III), and sodium hydroxide showed the maximum working capacity of hydrogen sulfide. For ammonia, maximum working capacity was obtained by the adsorbent manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, copper oxide(II), and hydrochloric acid.
35
96692
Preparation of Nb Silicide-Based Alloy Powder by Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation (HDH) Reaction
Abstract:
The Nb silicide-based alloy has the excellent high-temperature strength and relatively lower density than the Ni-based superalloy; therefore, it has been receiving a lot of attention for the next generation high-temperature material. To enhance the high temperature creep property and oxidation resistance, Si was added to the Nb-based alloy, resulting in a multi-phase microstructure with metal solid solution and silicide phase. Since the silicide phase has a low machinability due to its brittle nature, it is necessary to fabricate components using the powder metallurgy. However, powder manufacturing techniques for the alloys have not yet been developed. In this study, we tried to fabricate Nb-based alloy powder by the hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reaction. The Nb-based alloy ingot was prepared by vacuum arc melting and it was annealed in the hydrogen atmosphere for the hydrogenation. After annealing, the hydrogen concentration was increased from 0.004wt% to 1.22wt% and Nb metal phase was transformed to Nb hydride phase. The alloy after hydrogenation could be easily pulverized into powder by ball milling due to its brittleness. For dehydrogenation, the alloy powders were annealed in the vacuum atmosphere. After vacuum annealing, the hydrogen concentration was decreased to 0.003wt% and Nb hydride phase was transformed back to Nb metal phase.
34
19282
Acclimatation of Bacterial Communities for Biohydrogen Production by Co-Digestion Process in Batch and Continuous Systems
Abstract:
The co-digestion process of crude cheese whey (CCW) with fruit vegetable waste (FVW) for biohydrogen production was investigated in batch and continuous systems, in stirred 1.8 L bioreactors at 37°C. Five different C/N ratios (7, 17, 21, 31, and 46) were tested in batch systems. While, in continuous system eight conditions were evaluated, hydraulic retention time (from 60 to 10 h) and organic load rate (from 21.96 to 155.87 g COD/L d). Data in batch tests showed a maximum specific biohydrogen production rate of 10.68 mmol H2/Lh and a biohydrogen yield of 449.84 mL H2/g COD at a C/N ratio of 21. In continuous co-digestion system, the optimum hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate were 17.5 h and 80.02 g COD/L d, respectively. Under these conditions, the highest volumetric production hydrogen rate (VPHR) and hydrogen yield were 11.02 mmol H2/L h, 800 mL H2/COD, respectively. A pyrosequencing analysis showed that the main acclimated microbial communities for co-digestion studies consisted of Bifidobacterium, with 85.4% of predominance. Hydrogen producing bacteria such as Klebsiella (9.1%), Lactobacillus (0.97%), Citrobacter (0.21%), Enterobacter (0.27%), and Clostridium (0.18%) were less abundant at this culture period. The microbial population structure was correlated with the lactate, acetate, and butyrate profiles obtained. Results demonstrated that the co-digestion of CCW with FVW improves biohydrogen production due to a better nutrient balance and improvement of the system’s buffering capacity.
33
54624
H2 Permeation Properties of a Catalytic Membrane Reactor in Methane Steam Reforming Reaction
Abstract:
Cylindrical alumina microfiltration membrane (GMITM Corporation, inside diameter=9 mm, outside diameter=13 mm, length= 50 mm) with an average pore size of 0.5 micrometer and porosity of about 0.35 was used as the support for membrane reactor. This support was soaked in boehmite sols, and the mean particle size was adjusted in the range of 50 to 500 nm by carefully controlling hydrolysis time, and calcined at 650 °C for two hours. This process was repeated with different boehmite solutions in order to achieve an intermediate layer with an average pore size of about 50 nm. The resulting substrate was then coated with a thin and dense layer of silica by counter current chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. A boehmite sol with 10 wt.% of nickel which was prepared by a standard procedure was used to make the catalytic layer. BET, SEM, and XRD analysis were used to characterize this layer. The catalytic membrane reactor was placed in an experimental setup to evaluate the permeation and hydrogen separation performance for a steam reforming reaction. The setup consisted of a tubular module in which the membrane was fixed, and the reforming reaction occurred at the inner side of the membrane. Methane stream, diluted with nitrogen, and deionized water with a steam to carbon (S/C) ratio of 3.0 entered the reactor after the reactor was heated up to 500 °C with a specified rate of 2 °C/ min and the catalytic layer was reduced at presence of hydrogen for 2.5 hours. Nitrogen flow was used as sweep gas through the outer side of the reactor. Any liquid produced was trapped and separated at reactor exit by a cold trap, and the produced gases were analyzed by an on-line gas chromatograph (Agilent 7890A) to measure total CH4 conversion and H2 permeation. BET analysis indicated uniform size distribution for catalyst with average pore size of 280 nm and average surface area of 275 m2.g-1. Single-component permeation tests were carried out for hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide at temperature range of 500-800 °C, and the results showed almost the same permeance and hydrogen selectivity values for hydrogen as the composite membrane without catalytic layer. Performance of the catalytic membrane was evaluated by applying membranes as a membrane reactor for methane steam reforming reaction at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 10,000 h−1 and 2 bar. CH4 conversion increased from 50% to 85% with increasing reaction temperature from 600 °C to 750 °C, which is sufficiently above equilibrium curve at reaction conditions, but slightly lower than membrane reactor with packed nickel catalytic bed because of its higher surface area compared to the catalytic layer.
32
71565
Design of Low-Emission Catalytically Stabilized Combustion Chamber Concept
Abstract:
The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) is cognizant for the overall reduction of NOx emissions by 80% in its vision 2020. Moreover small turbo engines have higher fuel specific emissions compared to large engines due to their limited combustion chamber size. In order to fulfill these requirements, novel combustion concepts are essential. This motivates to carry out the research on the current state of art, catalytic stabilized combustion chamber using hydrogen in small jet engines which are designed and investigated both numerically and experimentally during this project. Catalytic combustion concepts can also be adopted for low caloric fuels and are therefore not constrained to only hydrogen. However, hydrogen has high heating value and has the major advantage of producing only the nitrogen oxides as pollutants during the combustion, thus eliminating the interest on other emissions such as Carbon monoxides etc. In the present work, the combustion chamber is designed based on the ‘Rich catalytic Lean burn’ concept. The experiments are conducted for the characteristic operating range of an existing engine. This engine has been tested successfully at Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics (ITTM), Technical University Graz. One of the facts that the efficient combustion is a result of proper mixing of fuel-air mixture, considerable significance is given to the selection of appropriate mixer. This led to the design of three diverse configurations of mixers and is investigated experimentally and numerically. Subsequently the best mixer would be equipped in the main combustion chamber and used throughout the experimentation. Furthermore, temperatures and pressures would be recorded at various locations inside the combustion chamber and the exhaust emissions will also be analyzed. The instrumented combustion chamber would be inspected at the engine relevant inlet conditions for nine different sets of catalysts at the Hot Flow Test Facility (HFTF) of the institute.
31
40473
Catalytic Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes over Metal/SiO2 Core-Shell Catalyst from Plastic Wastes Gasification
Abstract:
Nowadays, plastic product and utilization are extensive and have greatly improved our life. Yet, plastic wastes are stable and non-biodegradable challenging issues to the environment. Waste-to-energy strategies emerge a promising way for waste management. This work investigated the co-production of hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from the syngas which was from the gasification of polypropylene. A nickel-silica core-shell catalyst was applied for syngas reaction from plastic waste gasification in a fixed-bed reactor. SiO2 were prepared through various synthesis solvents by Stöber process. Ni plays a role as modified SiO2 support, which were synthesized by deposition-precipitation method. Core-shell catalysts have strong interaction between active phase and support, in order to avoid catalyst sintering. Moreover, Fe or Co metal acts as promoter to enhance catalytic activity. The effects of calcined atmosphere, second metal addition, and reaction temperature on hydrogen production and carbon yield were examined. In this study, the catalytic activity and carbon yield results revealed that the Ni/SiO2 catalyst calcined under H2 atmosphere exhibited the best performance. Furthermore, Co promoted Ni/SiO2 catalyst produced 3 times more than Ni/SiO2 on carbon yield at long-term operation. The structure and morphological nature of the calcined and spent catalysts were examined using different characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction. In addition, the quality and thermal stability of the nano-carbon materials were also evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.
30
72706
CO₂ Recovery from Biogas and Successful Upgrading to Food-Grade Quality: A Case Study
Abstract:
The reduction of CO₂ emission into the atmosphere as a result of human activity is one of the most important environmental challenges to face in the next decennia. Emission of CO₂, related to the use of fossil fuels, is believed to be one of the main causes of global warming and climate change. In this scenario, the production of biomethane from organic waste, as a renewable energy source, is one of the most promising strategies to reduce fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission. Unfortunately, biogas upgrading still produces the greenhouse gas CO₂ as a waste product. Therefore, this work presents a case study on biogas upgrading, aimed at the simultaneous purification of methane and CO₂ via different steps, including CO₂/methane separation by polymeric membranes. The original objective of the project was the biogas upgrading to distribution grid quality methane, but the innovative aspect of this case study is the further purification of the captured CO₂, transforming it from a useless by-product to a pure gas with food-grade quality, suitable for commercial application in the food and beverage industry. The study was performed on a pilot plant constructed by Tecno Project Industriale Srl (TPI) Italy. This is a model of one of the largest biogas production and purification plants. The full-scale anaerobic digestion plant (Montello Spa, North Italy), has a digestive capacity of 400.000 ton of biomass/year and can treat 6.250 m3/hour of biogas from FORSU (organic fraction of solid urban waste). The entire upgrading process consists of a number of purifications steps: 1. Dehydration of the raw biogas by condensation. 2. Removal of trace impurities such as H₂S via absorption. 3.Separation of CO₂ and methane via a membrane separation process. 4. Removal of trace impurities from CO₂. The gas separation with polymeric membranes guarantees complete simultaneous removal of microorganisms. The chemical purity of the different process streams was analysed by a certified laboratory and was compared with the guidelines of the European Industrial Gases Association and the International Society of Beverage Technologists (EIGA/ISBT) for CO₂ used in the food industry. The microbiological purity was compared with the limit values defined in the European Collaborative Action. With a purity of 96-99 vol%, the purified methane respects the legal requirements for the household network. At the same time, the CO₂ reaches a purity of > 98.1% before, and 99.9% after the final distillation process. According to the EIGA/ISBT guidelines, the CO₂ proves to be chemically and microbiologically sufficiently pure to be suitable for food-grade applications.
29
15613
Keto-Enol Tautomerism of Salicylideneaniline Substituted
Abstract:
Schiff bases derived from o-hydroxybenzaldehyde has attracted a great interest not only for its promising applications towards linear and non-linear optical properties, biological activity and technological applications but also used as model compounds for the theory of hydrogen bonding. Due to its intramolecular hydrogen bonding, depending on the position of proton in the hydrogen bond o-hydroxy salicylidene Schiff bases exhibit two tautomeric forms, enol-imine (E-form) and keto-enamine (K-form) both in solution and in crystalline state. A zwitterionic structure also appears due to a proton transfer in enol – imine and keto – amine tautomer. These classes of compounds also exhibit thermochromic and photochromic behavior. We undertook in this study the synthesis of ten compounds of hydroxy Schiff bases from the condensation of salicylic aldehyde and aniline substituted in the ortho, meta and para by the methyl, chloro and nitro groups. To study the keto-enol equilibrium of the compounds; UV-VIS spectra were studied in different polarity solvents. The compounds were in tautomeric equilibrium (enol imine O–H•••N, keto-amine O•••H–N forms). For some derivatives of salicylideneanilines the keto-amine form was observed in both ethanol and dioxane. IR results showed that all Schiff bases studied favor the enol-imine form over the keto form.
28
85177
Implementation of Synthesis and Quality Control Procedures of ¹⁸F-Fluoromisonidazole Radiopharmaceutical
Abstract:
Tissue hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors leading to decreased sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the clinical context, tumor hypoxia assessment employing the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer ¹⁸F-fluoromisonidazole ([¹⁸F]FMISO) is helpful for physicians for planning and therapy adjusting. The aim of this work was to implement the synthesis of 18F-FMISO in a TRACERlab® MXFDG module and also to establish the quality control procedure. [¹⁸F]FMISO was synthesized at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN/Brazil) using an automated synthesizer (TRACERlab® MXFDG, GE) adapted for the production of [¹⁸F]FMISO. The FMISO chemical standard was purchased from ABX. 18O- enriched water was acquired from Center of Molecular Research. Reagent kits containing eluent solution, acetonitrile, ethanol, 2.0 M HCl solution, buffer solution, water for injections and [¹⁸F]FMISO precursor (dissolved in 2 ml acetonitrile) were purchased from ABX. The [¹⁸F]FMISO samples were purified by Solid Phase Extraction method. The quality requirements of [¹⁸F]FMISO are established in the European Pharmacopeia. According to that reference, quality control of [¹⁸F]FMISO should include appearance, pH, radionuclidic identity and purity, radiochemical identity and purity, chemical purity, residual solvents, bacterial endotoxins, and sterility. The duration of the synthesis process was 53 min, with radiochemical yield of (37.00 ± 0.01) % and the specific activity was more than 70 GBq/µmol. The syntheses were reproducible and showed satisfactory results. In relation to the quality control analysis, the samples were clear and colorless at pH 6.0. The spectrum emission, measured by using a High-Purity Germanium Detector (HPGe), presented a single peak at 511 keV and the half-life, determined by the decay method in an activimeter, was (111.0 ± 0.5) min, indicating no presence of radioactive contaminants, besides the desirable radionuclide (¹⁸F). The samples showed concentration of tetrabutylammonium (TBA) < 50μg/mL, assessed by visual comparison to TBA standard applied in the same thin layer chromatographic plate. Radiochemical purity was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results were 100%. Regarding the residual solvents tested, ethanol and acetonitrile presented concentration lower than 10% and 0.04%, respectively. Healthy female mice were injected via lateral tail vein with [¹⁸F]FMISO, microPET imaging studies (15 min) were performed after 2 h post injection (p.i), and the biodistribution was analyzed in five-time points (30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min) after injection. Subsequently, organs/tissues were assayed for radioactivity with a gamma counter. All parameters of quality control test were in agreement to quality criteria confirming that [¹⁸F]FMISO was suitable for use in non-clinical and clinical trials, following the legal requirements for the production of new radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil.
27
70163
Approaches for Minimizing Radioactive Tritium and ¹⁴C in Advanced High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors
Abstract:
High temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are considered as one of the next-generation advanced nuclear reactors, in which porous nuclear graphite is used as neutron moderators, reflectors, structure materials, and cooled by inert helium. Radioactive tritium and ¹⁴C are generated in terms of reactions of thermal neutrons and ⁶Li, ¹⁴N, ¹⁰B impurely within nuclear graphite and the coolant during HTGRs operation. Currently, hydrogen and nitrogen diffusion behavior together with nuclear graphite microstructure evolution were investigated to minimize the radioactive waste release, using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, the BET and mercury standard porosimetry methods. It is found that the peak value of graphite weight loss emerged at 573-673 K owing to nitrogen diffusion from graphite pores to outside when the system was subjected to vacuum. Macropore volume became larger while porosity for mesopores was smaller with temperature ranging from ambient temperature to 1073 K, which was primarily induced by coalescence of the subscale pores. It is suggested that the porous nuclear graphite should be first subjected to vacuum at 573-673 K to minimize the nitrogen and the radioactive 14°C before operation in HTGRs. Then, results on hydrogen diffusion show that the diffusible hydrogen and tritium could permeate into the coolant with diffusion coefficients of > 0.5 × 10⁻⁴ cm²·s⁻¹ at 50 bar. As a consequence, the freshly-generated diffusible tritium could release quickly to outside once formed, and an effective approach for minimizing the amount of radioactive tritium is to make the impurity contents extremely low in nuclear graphite and the coolant. Besides, both two- and three-dimensional observations indicate that macro and mesopore volume along with total porosity decreased with temperature at 50 bar on account of synergistic effects of applied compression strain, sharpened pore morphology, and non-uniform temperature distribution.
26
34600
Human Absorbed Dose Estimation of a New In-111 Imaging Agent Based on Rat Data
Abstract:
The measurement of organ radiation exposure dose is one of the most important steps to be taken initially, for developing a new radiopharmaceutical. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis, 111In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10 tetraethylene phosphonic acid (111In-DOTMP) complex, have been carried out to estimate the dose in human organs based on the data derived from rats. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity in the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex was investigated in the male Syrian rats at selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was made based on data derived from the rats by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-DOTMP complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity of >99% (ITLC). Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In-DOTMP was 0.061 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose with respect to the critical organs is satisfactory within the acceptable range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In-DOTMP has interesting characteristics and can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis in the near future.
25
19270
Structural Determination of Nanocrystalline Si Films Using Raman Spectroscopy and the Ellipsometry
Abstract:
Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at relatively low growth temperatures (Ts=100 °C). The films grown on glass substrate in order to use the new generation of substrates sensitive to elevated temperatures. Raman spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of the argon gas diluted in hydrogen, on the structural properties and the evolution of the micro structure in the films. Raman peak position, intensity and line width were used to characterize the quality and the percentage of the crystallites in the films. The results of this investigation suggest the existence of a threshold dilution around a gas mixture of argon (40%) and hydrogen (60%) for which the crystallization occurs, even at low deposition temperatures. The difference between the amorphous and the crystallized structures is well confirmed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique.
24
96277
Wet Chemical Synthesis for Fe-Ni Alloy Nanocrystalline Powder
Abstract:
We have synthesized nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloy powders where Ni varies as 10, 30 and 50 mole% by a wet chemical route (sol-gel auto-combustion) followed by reduction in hydrogen atmosphere. The ratio of citrate to nitrate was maintained at 0.3 where citric acid has worked as a fuel during combustion. The reduction of combusted powders was done at 700°C/1h in hydrogen atmosphere using an atmosphere controlled quartz tube furnace. Phase and microstructure analysis has shown the formation of α-(Fe,Ni) and γ-(Fe,Ni) phases after reduction. An increase in Ni concentration resulted in more γ-(Fe,Ni) formation where complete γ-(Fe,Ni) formation was achieved at 50 mole% Ni concentration. Formation of particles below 50 nm size range was confirmed using Scherrer’s formula and Transmission Electron Microscope. The work is aimed at the effect of Ni concentration on phase, microstructure and magnetic properties of synthesized alloy powders.
23
20592
Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects
Abstract:
Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.
22
96095
Additional Method for the Purification of Lanthanide-Labeled Peptide Compounds Pre-Purified by Weak Cation Exchange Cartridge
Abstract:
Aim: Purification of the final product, which is the last step in the synthesis of lanthanide-labeled peptide compounds, can be accomplished by different methods. Among these methods, the two most commonly used methods are C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) and weak cation exchanger cartridge elution. SPE C18 solid phase extraction method yields high purity final product, while elution from the weak cation exchanger cartridge is pH dependent and ineffective in removing colloidal impurities. The aim of this work is to develop an additional purification method for the lanthanide-labeled peptide compound in cases where the desired radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the final product can not be achieved because of pH problem or colloidal impurity. Material and Methods: For colloidal impurity formation, 3 mL of water for injection (WFI) was added to 30 mCi of 177LuCl3 solution and allowed to stand for 1 day. 177Lu-DOTATATE was synthesized using EZAG ML-EAZY module (10 mCi/mL). After synthesis, the final product was mixed with the colloidal impurity solution (total volume:13 mL, total activity: 40 mCi). The resulting mixture was trapped in SPE-C18 cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 10 ml saline to remove impurities to the waste vial. The product trapped in the cartridge was eluted with 2 ml of 50% ethanol and collected to the final product vial via passing through a 0.22μm filter. The final product was diluted with 10 mL of saline. Radiochemical purity before and after purification was analysed by HPLC method. (column: ACE C18-100A. 3µm. 150 x 3.0mm, mobile phase: Water-Acetonitrile-Trifluoro acetic acid (75:25:1), flow rate: 0.6 mL/min). Results: UV and radioactivity detector results in HPLC analysis showed that colloidal impurities were completely removed from the 177Lu-DOTATATE/ colloidal impurity mixture by purification method. Conclusion: The improved purification method can be used as an additional method to remove impurities that may result from the lanthanide-peptide synthesis in which the weak cation exchange purification technique is used as the last step. The purification of the final product and the GMP compliance (the final aseptic filtration and the sterile disposable system components) are two major advantages.
21
106247
Analysis of Reduced Mechanisms for Premixed Combustion of Methane/Hydrogen/Propane/Air Flames in Geometrically Modified Combustor and Its Effects on Flame Properties
Authors:
Abstract:
Combustion has been used for a long time as a means of energy extraction. However, in recent years, there has been a further increase in air pollution, through pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, acid etc. In order to solve this problem, there is a need to reduce carbon and nitrogen oxides through learn burning modifying combustors and fuel dilution. A numerical investigation has been done to investigate the effectiveness of several reduced mechanisms in terms of computational time and accuracy, for the combustion of the hydrocarbons/air or diluted with hydrogen in a micro combustor. The simulations were carried out using the ANSYS Fluent 19.1. To validate the results “PREMIX and CHEMKIN” codes were used to calculate 1D premixed flame based on the temperature, composition of burned and unburned gas mixtures. Numerical calculations were carried for several hydrocarbons by changing the equivalence ratios and adding small amounts of hydrogen into the fuel blends then analyzing the flammable limit, the reduction in NOx and CO emissions, then comparing it to experimental data. By solving the conservations equations, several global reduced mechanisms (2-9-12) were obtained. These reduced mechanisms were simulated on a 2D cylindrical tube with dimensions of 40 cm in length and 2.5 cm diameter. The mesh of the model included a proper fine quad mesh, within the first 7 cm of the tube and around the walls. By developing a proper boundary layer, several simulations were performed on hydrocarbon/air blends to visualize the flame characteristics than were compared with experimental data. Once the results were within acceptable range, the geometry of the combustor was modified through changing the length, diameter, adding hydrogen by volume, and changing the equivalence ratios from lean to rich in the fuel blends, the results on flame temperature, shape, velocity and concentrations of radicals and emissions were observed. It was determined that the reduced mechanisms provided results within an acceptable range. The variation of the inlet velocity and geometry of the tube lead to an increase of the temperature and CO2 emissions, highest temperatures were obtained in lean conditions (0.5-0.9) equivalence ratio. Addition of hydrogen blends into combustor fuel blends resulted in; reduction in CO and NOx emissions, expansion of the flammable limit, under the condition of having same laminar flow, and varying equivalence ratio with hydrogen additions. The production of NO is reduced because the combustion happens in a leaner state and helps in solving environmental problems.
20
72527
A Kinetic Study on Recovery of High-Purity Rutile TiO₂ Nanoparticles from Titanium Slag Using Sulfuric Acid under Sonochemical Procedure
Abstract:
High-purity TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) with size ranging between 50 nm and 100 nm are synthesized from titanium slag through sulphate route under sonochemical procedure. The effect of dissolution parameters such as the sulfuric acid/slag weight ratio, caustic soda concentration, digestion temperature and time, and initial particle size of the dried slag on the extraction efficiency of TiO₂ and removal of iron are examined. By optimizing the digestion conditions, a rutile TiO₂ powder with surface area of 42 m²/g and mean pore diameter of 22.4 nm were prepared. A thermo-kinetic analysis showed that the digestion temperature has an important effect, while the acid/slag weight ratio and initial size of the slag has a moderate effect on the dissolution rate. The shrinking-core model including both chemical surface reaction and surface diffusion is used to describe the leaching process. A low value of activation energy, 38.12 kJ/mol, indicates the surface chemical reaction model is a rate-controlling step. The kinetic analysis suggested a first order reaction mechanism with respect to the acid concentrations.
19
63024
Selective Extraction Separation of Vanadium and Chromium in the Leaching/Aqueous Solution with Trioctylamine
Authors:
Abstract:
Efficient extraction for separation of V and Cr in the leaching/aqueous solution is essential to the reuse of V and Cr in the V-Cr slag. Trioctylamine, a common tertiary amine extractant, with some good characters (e.g., weak base, insoluble in water and good stability) different from N1923, was investigated in this paper. The separation factor of Cr and V can be reached to 230.71 when initial pH of the aqueous solution is 0.5, so trioctylamine can be used for extracting Cr from the leaching/aqueous solution contained V and Cr. The highest extraction percentages of Cr and V were 98.73% and 90.22% when the initial pH values were 0.5 and 1.5, respectively. Via FT-IR spectra of loaded organic phase and trioctylamine, the hydrogen bond association mechanism of extracting V and Cr was investigated, which was the same with the way of extracting the two metals with primary amine N1923.
18
30363
Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy
Abstract:
Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.
17
56768
Electrochemical Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of Structural Materials for Oil and Gas Applications in Simulated Deep-Sea Well Environments
Abstract:
Structural materials used in today’s oil and gas exploration and drilling of both onshore and offshore oil and gas wells must possess superior tensile properties, excellent resistance to corrosive degradation that includes general, localized (pitting and crevice) and environment assisted cracking such as stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement. The High Pressure and High Temperature (HPHT) wells are typically operated at temperature and pressure that can exceed 300-3500F and 10,000psi (69MPa) respectively which necessitates the use of exotic materials in these exotic sources of natural resources. This research investigation is focussed on the evaluation of tensile properties and corrosion behavior of AISI 4140 High-Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA) possessing tempered martensitic microstructure and Duplex 2205 Stainless Steel (DSS) having austenitic and ferritic phase. The selection of this two alloys are primarily based on economic considerations as 4140 HSLA is cheaper when compared to DSS 2205. Due to the harsh aggressive chemical species encountered in deep oil and gas wells like chloride ions (Cl-), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) along with other mineral organic acids, DSS 2205, having a dual-phase microstructure can mitigate the degradation resulting from the presence of both chloride ions (Cl-) and hydrogen simultaneously. Tensile properties evaluation indicates a ductile failure of DSS 2205 whereas 4140 HSLA exhibit quasi-cleavage fracture due to the phenomenon of ‘tempered martensitic embrittlement’. From the potentiodynamic polarization testing, it is observed that DSS 2205 has higher corrosion resistance than 4140 HSLA; the former exhibits passivity signifying resistance to localized corrosion while the latter exhibits active dissolution in all the environmental parameters space that was tested. From the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) evaluation, it is understood that stable pits appear in DSS 2205 only when the temperature exceeds the critical pitting temperature (CPT). SEM observation of the corroded 4140 HSLA specimen tested in aqueous 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution reveals intergranular cracking which appears due to the adsorption and diffusion of hydrogen during polarization, thus, causing hydrogen-induced cracking/hydrogen embrittlement. General corrosion testing of DSS 2205 in acidic brine (pH~3.0) solution at ambient temperature using coupons indicate no weight loss even after three months whereas the corrosion rate of AISI 4140 HSLA is significantly higher after one month of testing.
16
45837
Folding of β-Structures via the Polarized Structure-Specific Backbone Charge (PSBC) Model
Abstract:
Proteins are the biological machinery that executes specific vital functions in every cell of the human body by folding into their 3D structures. When a protein misfolds from its native structure, the machinery will malfunction and lead to misfolding diseases. Although in vitro experiments are able to conclude that the mutations of the amino acid sequence lead to incorrectly folded protein structures, these experiments are unable to decipher the folding process. Therefore, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are employed to simulate the folding process so that our improved understanding of the folding process will enable us to contemplate better treatments for misfolding diseases. MD simulations make use of force fields to simulate the folding process of peptides. Secondary structures are formed via the hydrogen bonds formed between the backbone atoms (C, O, N, H). It is important that the hydrogen bond energy computed during the MD simulation is accurate in order to direct the folding process to the native structure. Since the atoms involved in a hydrogen bond possess very dissimilar electronegativities, the more electronegative atom will attract greater electron density from the less electronegative atom towards itself. This is known as the polarization effect. Since the polarization effect changes the electron density of the two atoms in close proximity, the atomic charges of the two atoms should also vary based on the strength of the polarization effect. However, the fixed atomic charge scheme in force fields does not account for the polarization effect. In this study, we introduce the polarized structure-specific backbone charge (PSBC) model. The PSBC model accounts for the polarization effect in MD simulation by updating the atomic charges of the backbone hydrogen bond atoms according to equations derived between the amount of charge transferred to the atom and the length of the hydrogen bond, which are calculated from quantum-mechanical calculations. Compared to other polarizable models, the PSBC model does not require quantum-mechanical calculations of the peptide simulated at every time-step of the simulation and maintains the dynamic update of atomic charges, thereby reducing the computational cost and time while accounting for the polarization effect dynamically at the same time. The PSBC model is applied to two different β-peptides, namely the Beta3s/GS peptide, a de novo designed three-stranded β-sheet whose structure is folded in vitro and studied by NMR, and the trpzip peptides, a double-stranded β-sheet where a correlation is found between the type of amino acids that constitute the β-turn and the β-propensity.
15
67668
Analysis of Secondary Peak in Hα Emission Profile during Gas Puffing in Aditya Tokamak
Abstract:
Efficient gas fueling is a critical aspect that needs to be mastered in order to maintain plasma density, to carry out fusion. This requires a fair understanding of fuel recycling in order to optimize the gas fueling. In Aditya tokamak, multiple gas puffs are used in a precise and controlled manner, for hydrogen fueling during the flat top of plasma discharge which has been instrumental in achieving discharges with enhanced density as well as energy confinement time. Following each gas puff, we observe peaks in temporal profile of Hα emission, Soft X-ray (SXR) and chord averaged electron density in a number of discharges, indicating efficient gas fueling. Interestingly, Hα temporal profile exhibited an additional peak following the peak corresponding to each gas puff. These additional peak Hα appeared in between the two gas puffs, indicating the presence of a secondary hydrogen source apart from the gas puffs. A thorough investigation revealed that these secondary Hα peaks coincide with Hard X- ray bursts which come from the interaction of runaway electrons with vessel limiters. This leads to consider that the runaway electrons (REs), which hit the wall, in turn, bring out the absorbed hydrogen and oxygen from the wall and makes the interaction of REs with limiter a secondary hydrogen source. These observations suggest that runaway electron induced recycling should also be included in recycling particle source in the particle balance calculations in tokamaks. Observation of two Hα peaks associated with one gas puff and their roles in enhancing and maintaining plasma density in Aditya tokamak will be discussed in this paper.
14
71305
Implications of Oxidative Stress for Monoterpenoid Oxindole Alkaloid Production in Uncaria tomentosa Cultures
Abstract:
The conditions of biotic and abiotic stress in plants can lead to the generation of high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads through a signaling cascade and second messengers to different antioxidant defense responses including the production of secondary metabolites. A limited number of species of plants like Uncaria tomentosa (cat claw) typical of the Amazon region produce monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids (MOA) such as isopteropodine, mitraphylline, rhynchophylline and its isomers. Moreover, in cultivated roots, the glucoindole alkaloid 3α-dihydrocadambine (DHC) is also accumulated. Several studies have demonstrated that MAO has antioxidant properties and possess important pharmacological activities such as antitumor and immunostimulant while DHC, has hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects. In order the study the regulatory concerns operating in MAO production, the links between oxidative stress and antioxidant alkaloid production in U. tomentosa root cultures were examined. Different amount of hydrogen peroxide between 0.2 -1.0 mM was added to 12 days old roots cultures showing that, this substance had a differential effect on the production of DHC and MOA whereas the viability remained in 80% after six days. Addition of 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide increased approximately 65% MAO and DHC production (0,540 ± 0.018 and 0.618 ± 0.029 mg per g dry weight, respectively) relative to the control. On contrast, after the addition of 0.6 mM and 1 mM hydrogen peroxide, DHC accumulation into the roots gradually decreased to 53% and 93% respectively, without changes in MAO concentration, which was in relation to a twice increase of the intracellular hydrogen peroxide content. On the other hand, concentrations of DHC (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM in methanol) demonstrated free-radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The calculated IC50 for all tested concentrations was 0.180 mg per ml (0.33 mM) while the calculated TE50 was 276 minutes. Our results suggest that U. tomentosa root cultures both MAO and DHC have antioxidant capacities and respond to oxidative stress with a stimulation of their production; however, in presence of a higher concentration of ROS into the roots, DHC could be oxidized.
13
74819
NOx Prediction by Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model of Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Engine
Abstract:
The dependency on the fossil fuels can be minimized by using the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) in the transportation vehicles. However, the NOx emissions of HCNG engines are significantly higher, and this turned to be its major drawback. Therefore, the study of NOx emission of HCNG engines is a very important area of research. In this context, the experiments have been performed at the different hydrogen percentage, ignition timing, air-fuel ratio, manifold-absolute pressure, load and engine speed. Afterwards, the simulation has been accomplished by the quasi-dimensional combustion model of HCNG engine. In order to investigate the NOx emission, the NO mechanism has been coupled to the quasi-dimensional combustion model of HCNG engine. The three NOx mechanism: the thermal NOx, prompt NOx and N2O mechanism have been used to predict NOx emission. For the validation purpose, NO curve has been transformed into NO packets based on the temperature difference of 100 K for the lean-burn and 60 K for stoichiometric condition. While, the width of the packet has been taken as the ratio of crank duration of the packet to the total burnt duration. The combustion chamber of the engine has been divided into three zones, with the zone equal to the product of summation of NO packets and space. In order to check the accuracy of the model, the percentage error of NOx emission has been evaluated, and it lies in the range of ±6% and ±10% for the lean-burn and stoichiometric conditions respectively. Finally, the percentage contribution of each NO formation has been evaluated.
12
18685
Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Smelted Low-Grade WEEE
Authors:
Abstract:
Poster shows a comparison of hydrometallurgical routes of copper recovery from low-grade e-waste. Electronic scrap was smelted to produce Cu–Zn–Ag alloy. The alloy was then treated in the following ways: (a) anodic dissolution with simultaneous metal electrodeposition using ammoniacal and sulfuric acid solutions. This resulted in the separation of metals, where lead, silver and tin accumulated mainly in the slimes, while copper was transferred to the electrolyte and then recovered on the cathode. The best conditions of the alloy treatment were obtained in the sulfuric acid, where the final product was metal of high purity (99% Cu) at the current efficiency of 90%. (b) leaching in ammoniacal solutions of various compositions and then copper electrowinning. Alloy was leached in chloride, carbonate, sulfate and thiosulfate baths. This resulted in the separation of the metals, wherein copper and zinc were transferred to the electrolyte, while metallic tin and silver as well as lead salts remained in the slimes. Copper was selectively recovered from the ammoniacal solutions by the electrolysis, leaving zinc ions in the electrolyte. The best conditions of the alloy treatment were obtained in the ammonia-carbonate system, where the final product was copper of high purity (99.9%) at the current efficiency of 60%. Thiosulfate solution was not applicable for the leaching of the copper alloy due to secondary reactions of the formation of copper (I) thiosulfate complexes and precipitation of copper (I) sulfide.
11
44298
Experimental and Simulation Results for the Removal of H2S from Biogas by Means of Sodium Hydroxide in Structured Packed Columns
Abstract:
Biogas is a promising technology which can be used as a vehicle fuel, for heat and electricity production, or injected in the national gas grid. It is storable, transportable, not intermittent and substitutable for fossil fuels. This gas produced from the wastewater treatment by degradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide. To be used as a renewable fuel, biogas, whose energy comes only from methane, must be purified from carbon dioxide and other impurities such as water vapor, siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide. Purification of biogas for this application particularly requires the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which negatively affects the operation and viability of equipment especially pumps, heat exchangers and pipes, causing their corrosion. Several methods are available to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from biogas. Herein, reactive absorption in structured packed column by means of chemical absorption in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions is considered. This study is based on simulations using Aspen Plus™ V8.0, and comparisons are done with data from an industrial pilot plant treating 85 Nm3/h of biogas which contains about 30 ppm of hydrogen sulfide. The rate-based model approach has been used for simulations in order to determine the efficiencies of separation for different operating conditions. To describe vapor-liquid equilibrium, a γ/ϕ approach has been considered: the Electrolyte NRTL model has been adopted to represent non-idealities in the liquid phase, while the Redlich-Kwong equation of state has been used for the vapor phase. In order to validate the thermodynamic model, Henry’s law constants of each compound in water have been verified against experimental data. Default values available in Aspen Plus™ V8.0 for the properties of pure components properties as heat capacity, density, viscosity and surface tension have also been verified. The obtained results for physical and chemical properties are in a good agreement with experimental data. Reactions involved in the process have been studied rigorously. Equilibrium constants for equilibrium reactions and the reaction rate constant for the kinetically controlled reaction between carbon dioxide and the hydroxide ion have been checked. Results of simulations of the pilot plant purification section show the influence of low temperatures, concentration of sodium hydroxide and hydrodynamic parameters on the selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide. These results show an acceptable degree of accuracy when compared with the experimental data obtained from the pilot plant. Results show also the great efficiency of sodium hydroxide for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. The content of this compound in the gas leaving the column is under 1 ppm.
10
62181
Simulation and Optimization of an Annular Methanol Reformer
Abstract:
This research aims to design a heat-exchanger type of methanol reformer coupled with a preheating design in gPROMS® environment. The endothermic methanol steam reforming reaction (MSR) and the exothermic preferential oxidation reaction (PROX) occur in the inner tube and the outer tube of the reformer, respectively. The effective heat transfer manner between the inner and outer tubes is investigated. It is verified that the countercurrent-flow type reformer provides the higher hydrogen yield than the cocurrent-flow type. Since the hot spot temperature appears in the outer tube, an improved scheme is proposed to suppress the hot spot temperature by splitting the excess air flowing into two sites. Finally, an optimization algorithm for maximizing the hydrogen yield is employed to determine optimal operating conditions.
9
81522
Buoyant Gas Dispersion in a Small Fuel Cell Enclosure: A Comparison Study Using Plain and Pressed Louvre Vent Passive Ventilation Schemes
Abstract:
The transition from a ‘carbon rich’ fossil fuel dependent to a ‘sustainable’ and ‘renewable’ hydrogen based society will see the deployment of hydrogen fuel cells (HFC) in transport applications and in the generation of heat and power for buildings, as part of a decentralised power network. Many deployments will be low power HFCs for domestic combined heat and power (CHP) and commercial ‘transportable’ HFCs for environmental situations, such as lighting and telephone towers. For broad commercialisation of small fuel cells to be achieved there needs to be significant confidence in their safety in both domestic and environmental applications. Low power HFCs are housed in protective steel enclosures. Standard enclosures have plain rectangular ventilation openings intended for thermal management of electronics and not the dispersion of a buoyant gas. Degradation of the HFC or supply pipework in use could lead to a low-level leak and a build-up of hydrogen gas in the enclosure. Hydrogen’s wide flammable range (4-75%) is a significant safety concern, with ineffective enclosure ventilation having the potential to cause flammable mixtures to develop with the risk of explosion. Mechanical ventilation is effective at managing enclosure hydrogen concentrations, but drains HFC power and is vulnerable to failure. This is undesirable in low power and remote installations and reliable passive ventilation systems are preferred. Passive ventilation depends upon buoyancy driven flow, with the size, shape and position of ventilation openings critical for producing predictable flows and maintaining low buoyant gas concentrations. With environmentally sited enclosures, ventilation openings with pressed horizontal and angled louvres are preferred to protect the HFC and electronics inside. There is an economic cost to adding louvres, but also a safety concern. A question arises over whether the use of pressed louvre vents impairs enclosure passive ventilation performance, when compared to same opening area plain vents. Comparison small enclosure (0.144m³) tests of same opening area pressed louvre and plain vents were undertaken. A displacement ventilation arrangement was incorporated into the enclosure with opposing upper and lower ventilation openings. A range of vent areas were tested. Helium (used as a safe analogue for hydrogen) was released from a 4mm nozzle at the base of the enclosure to simulate a hydrogen leak at leak rates from 1 to 10 lpm. Helium sensors were used to record concentrations at eight heights in the enclosure. The enclosure was otherwise empty. These tests determined that the use of pressed and angled louvre ventilation openings on the enclosure impaired the passive ventilation flow and increased helium concentrations in the enclosure. High-level stratified buoyant gas layers were also found to be deeper than with plain vent openings and were within the flammable range. The presence of gas within the flammable range is of concern, particularly as the addition of the fuel cell and electronics in the enclosure would further reduce the available volume and increase concentrations. The opening area of louvre vents would need to be greater than equivalent plain vents to achieve comparable ventilation flows or alternative schemes would need to be considered.
8
56275
Effect of Citric Acid on Hydrogen-Bond Interactions and Tensile Retention Properties of Citric Acid Modified Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites
Abstract:
The tensile retention and waterproof properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were significantly enhanced by modifying with proper amounts of citric acid (CA) and by melt-blending with poly(lactic acid) (PLA), although no distinguished chemical reaction occurred between CA and starch molecules. As evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analyses, disruption of intra and interhydrogen-bondings within starch molecules did occur during the modification processes of CA modified TPS (i.e. TPS100CAx) specimens. The tensile strength (σf) retention values of TPS specimens reduced rapidly from 27.8 to 20.5 and 0.4 MPa, respectively, as the conditioning time at 20°C/50% relative humidity (RH) increased from 0 to 7 and 70 days, respectively. While the elongation at break (εf) retention values of TPS specimens increased rapidly from 5.9 to 6.5 and 34.8%, respectively, as the conditioning time increased from 0 to 7 and 70 days. After conditioning at 20°C/50% RH for 70 days, the σf and εf retention values of the best prepared (TPS100CA0.1)30PLA70 specimen are equivalent to 85% and 167% of its initial σf and εf values, respectively, and are more than 105 times higher but 48% lower than those of TPS specimens conditioned at 20°C/50% RH for the same amount of time. Demarcated diffraction peaks, new melting endotherms of recrystallized starch crystals and distinguished ductile characteristics with drawn debris were found for many conditioned TPS specimens, however, only slight retrogradation effect and much less drawn debris was found for most conditioned TPS100CAx and/or (TPS100CA0.1)xPLAy specimens. The significantly improved water proof, tensile retention properties and relatively unchanged in retrogradation effect found for most conditioned TPS100CAx and/or (TPS100CA0.1)xPLAy specimens are apparently due to the efficient blocking of the moisture-absorbing hydroxyl groups (free or hydrogen bonded) by hydrogen-bonding CA with starch molecules during their modification processes.
7
96364
Hydrogen Production from Auto-Thermal Reforming of Ethanol Catalyzed by Tri-Metallic Catalyst
Abstract:
The increasing of the world energy demand makes today biomass an attractive energy source, based on the minimizing of CO2 emission and on the global warming reduction purposes. Recently, COP-21, the international meeting on global climate change, defined the roadmap for sustainable worldwide development, based on low-carbon containing fuel. Hydrogen is an energy vector able to substitute the conventional fuels from petroleum. Ethanol for hydrogen production represents a valid alternative to the fossil sources due to its low toxicity, low production costs, high biodegradability, high H2 content and renewability. Ethanol conversion to generate hydrogen by a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions is generally called auto-thermal reforming (ATR). The ATR process is advantageous due to the low energy requirements and to the reduced carbonaceous deposits formation. Catalyst plays a pivotal role in the ATR process, especially towards the process selectivity and the carbonaceous deposits formation. Bimetallic or trimetallic catalysts, as well as catalysts with doped-promoters supports, may exhibit high activity, selectivity and deactivation resistance with respect to the corresponding monometallic ones. In this work, NiMoCo/GDC, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC (where GDC is Gadolinia Doped Ceria support and the metal composition is 60:30:10 for all catalyst) have been prepared by impregnation method. The support, Gadolinia 0.2 Doped Ceria 0.8, was impregnated by metal precursors solubilized in aqueous ethanol solution (50%) at room temperature for 6 hours. After this, the catalysts were dried at 100°C for 8 hours and, subsequently, calcined at 600°C in order to have the metal oxides. Finally, active catalysts were obtained by reduction procedure (H2 atmosphere at 500°C for 6 hours). All sample were characterized by different analytical techniques (XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, CHNS, H2-TPR and Raman Spectorscopy). Catalytic experiments (auto-thermal reforming of ethanol) were carried out in the temperature range 500-800°C under atmospheric pressure, using a continuous fixed-bed microreactor. Effluent gases from the reactor were analyzed by two Varian CP4900 chromarographs with a TCD detector. The analytical investigation focused on the preventing of the coke deposition, the metals sintering effect and the sulfur poisoning. Hydrogen productivity, ethanol conversion and products distribution were measured and analyzed. At 600°C, all tri-metallic catalysts show the best performance: H2 + CO reaching almost the 77 vol.% in the final gases. While NiMoCo/GDC catalyst shows the best selectivity to hydrogen whit respect to the other tri-metallic catalysts (41 vol.% at 600°C). On the other hand, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC demonstrated high sulfur poisoning resistance (up to 200 cc/min) with respect to the NiMoCo/GDC catalyst. The correlation among catalytic results and surface properties of the catalysts will be discussed.
6
22113
Leaching of Copper from Copper Ore Using Sulphuric Acid in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidizing Agent: An Optimized Process
Authors:
Abstract:
Leaching with acids are the most commonly reagents used to remove copper ions from its copper ores. It is important that the process conditions are optimized to improve the leaching efficiency. In the present study the effects of pH, oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide), stirring speed, solid to liquid ratio and acid concentration on the leaching of copper ions from it ore were investigated using a pH Stat apparatus. Copper ions were analyzed at the end of each experiment using Atomic Absorption (AAS) machine. Results showed that leaching efficiency improved with an increase in acid concentration, stirring speed, oxidizing agent, pH and decreased with an increase in the solid to liquid ratio.
5
61363
Starchy Wastewater as Raw Material for Biohydrogen Production by Dark Fermentation: A Review
Abstract:
High amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in starchy waste can be harmful to the environment. In common practice, starch processing wastewater is discharged to the river without proper treatment. However, starchy waste still contains complex sugars and organic acids. By the right pretreatment method, the complex sugar can be hydrolyzed into more readily digestible sugars which can be utilized to be converted into more valuable products. At the same time, the global demand of energy is inevitable. The continuous usage of fossil fuel as the main source of energy can lead to energy scarcity. Hydrogen is a renewable form of energy which can be an alternative energy in the future. Moreover, hydrogen is clean and carries the highest energy compared to other fuels. Biohydrogen produced from waste has significant advantages over chemical methods. One of the major problems in biohydrogen production is the raw material cost. The carbohydrate-rich starchy wastes such as tapioca, maize, wheat, potato, and sago wastes is a promising candidate to be used as a substrate in producing biohydrogen. The utilization of those wastes for biohydrogen production can provide cheap energy generation with simultaneous waste treatment. Therefore this paper aims to review variety source of starchy wastes that has been widely used to synthesize biohydrogen. The scope includes the source of waste, the performance in yielding hydrogen, the pretreatment method and the type of culture that is suitable for starchy waste.
4
21361
Effects of Residence Time on Selective Absorption of Hydrogen Suphide
Abstract:
Selective absorption of Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) using methyldiethanol amine (MDEA) has become a point of interest as means of minimizing capital and operating costs of gas sweetening plants. This paper discusses the prominence of optimum design of column internals to best achieve H2S selectivity using MDEA. To this end, a kinetics-based process simulation model has been developed for a commercial gas sweetening unit. Trends of sweet gas H2S & CO2 contents as function of fraction active area (and hence residence time) have been explained through analysis of interdependent heat and mass transfer phenomena. Guidelines for column internals design in order to achieve desired degree of H2S selectivity are provided. Also the effectiveness of various operating conditions in achieving H2S selectivity for an industrial absorber with fixed internals is investigated.
3
30579
Influence of the Substitution of C for Mg and Ni on the Microstructure and Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of Mg2Ni Alloys
Abstract:
Nano-crystalline Mg2Ni-based powder was produced by mechanical alloying technique using binary and ternary powder mixtures with stoichiometric compositions of Mg2Ni, Mg1.9C0.1Ni and Mg2C0.1Ni0.9. The structures and morphologies of the milled products were studied by XRD, SEM and HRTEM. Their electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics were investigated in 6 M KOH solution. X-Ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the milled products showed the formation of Mg2Ni-based nano-crystallites after 5, 15 and 30 h of milling using the initial powder mixtures of Mg1.9C0.1Ni, Mg2Ni and Mg2C0.1Ni0.9, respectively. It was found that partial substitution of C for Mg has beneficial effect on the formation kinetic of nano-crystalline Mg2Ni. Contrary to this, partial substitution of C for Ni was resulted in retardation of formation kinetic of nano-crystalline Mg2Ni. In addition, the negative electrode made from Mg1.9C0.1Ni ternary milled product after 30 hour of milling exhibited the highest initial discharge capacity and longest discharge life. Thus, partial substitution of C for Mg is beneficial to electrode properties of the Mg2Ni-based crystallites. The relation between the discharge capacity and cycling number of mechanically alloyed products was proposed on the basis of the fact that the degradation of discharge capacity was mainly caused by the oxidation of magnesium and nickel. The experimental data fitted the deduced equation well.
2
50228
Loading Forces following Addition of 5% Cu in Nickel-Titanium Alloy Used for Orthodontics
Abstract:
Aims: This study aims to address the amount of force delivered by a NiTiCu orthodontic wire with a ternary composition ratio of 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu and to compare the results with a commercial NiTiCu 35 °C orthodontic archwire. Materials and Methods: Nickel (purity 99.9%), Titanium (purity 99.9%), and Copper (purity 99.9%) were used in this study with the atomic weight ratio 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu. The elements were melted to form an alloy using an electrolytic arc furnace in argon gas atmosphere and homogenized at 800 °C for 1 hr. The alloys were subsequently sliced into thin plates (1.5mm) by EDM wire cutting machine to obtain the specimens and were cold-rolled with 30% followed by heat treatment in a furnace at 400 °C for 1 hour. Then, the three newly fabricated NiTiCu specimens were cut in nearly identical wire sizes of 0.016 inch x0.022 inch. Commercial preformed Ormco NiTiCu35 °C archwire with size 0.016 inch x 0.022 inches were used for comparative purposes. Three-point bending test was performed using a Universal Testing Machine to investigate the force of the load-deflection curve at oral temperature (36 °C+ 1) with deflection points at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0. 1.25, and 1.5 mm. Descriptive statistics was used to evaluate each variables and independent t-test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. Results: Both NiTiCu wires presented typical superelastic properties as observed from the load-deflection curve. The average force was 341.70 g for loading, and 264.18 g for unloading for 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire. Similarly, the values were 299.88 g for loading, and 201.96 g for unloading of Ormco NiTiCu35°C. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean loading and unloading forces between the two NiTiCu wires. The deflection forces in loading and unloading force for Ormco NiTiCu at each point were less than 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire, except at the deflection point of 0.25mm. Regarding the force difference between each deflection point of loading and unloading force, Ormco NiTiCu35 °C exerted less force than 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire, except at difference deflection at 1.5-1.25 mm of unloading force. However, there were still within the acceptable limits for orthodontic use. Conclusion: The fabricated ternary alloy of 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu (atomic weight) with 30% reduction and heat treatment at 400°C for 1 hr. and Ormco 35 °C NiTiCu presented the characteristics of the shape memory in their wire form. The unloading forces of both NiTiCu wires were in the range of orthodontic use. This should be a good foundation for further studies towards development of new orthodontic NiTiCu archwires.
1
93704
Theoretical Modeling of Self-Healing Polymers Crosslinked by Dynamic Bonds
Authors:
Abstract:
Dynamic polymer networks (DPNs) crosslinked by dynamic bonds have received intensive attention because of their special crack-healing capability. Diverse DPNs have been synthesized using a number of dynamic bonds, including dynamic covalent bond, hydrogen bond, ionic bond, metal-ligand coordination, hydrophobic interaction, and others. Despite the promising success in the polymer synthesis, the fundamental understanding of their self-healing mechanics is still at the very beginning. Especially, a general analytical model to understand the interfacial self-healing behaviors of DPNs has not been established. Here, we develop polymer-network based analytical theories that can mechanistically model the constitutive behaviors and interfacial self-healing behaviors of DPNs. We consider that the DPN is composed of interpenetrating networks crosslinked by dynamic bonds. bonds obey a force-dependent chemical kinetics. During the self-healing process, we consider the The network chains follow inhomogeneous chain-length distributions and the dynamic polymer chains diffuse across the interface to reform the dynamic bonds, being modeled by a diffusion-reaction theory. The theories can predict the stress-stretch behaviors of original and self-healed DPNs, as well as the healing strength in a function of healing time. We show that the theoretically predicted healing behaviors can consistently match the documented experimental results of DPNs with various dynamic bonds, including dynamic covalent bonds (diarylbibenzofuranone and olefin metathesis), hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds. We expect our model to be a powerful tool for the self-healing community to invent, design, understand, and optimize self-healing DPNs with various dynamic bonds.