Heuristic for Accelerating Run-Time Task Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs
In this paper, we propose a new packing strategy to find free resources for run-time mapping of application tasks on NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoCs. The proposed strategy minimizes the task mapping time in addition to placing the communicating tasks close to each other. To evaluate our approach, a comparative study is carried out. Experiments show that our strategy provides better results when compared to latest dynamic mapping strategies reported in the literature.
Dynamic Communications Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs
In this paper, we propose heuristic for dynamic communications mapping that considers the placement of communications in order to optimize the overall performance. The mapping technique uses a newly proposed Algorithm to place communications between the tasks. The placement we propose of the communications leads to a better optimization of several performance metrics (time and energy consumption). Experimental results show that the proposed mapping approach provides significant performance improvements when compared to those using static routing.
Mapping Method to Solve a Nonlinear Schrodinger Type Equation
This paper studies solitons in optical materials with the help of Mapping Method. Two types of nonlinear media have been investigated, namely, the cubic nonlinearity and the quintic nonlinearity. The soliton solutions, shock wave solutions and singular solutions have been derives with certain constraint conditions.
Presenting a Knowledge Mapping Model According to a Comparative Study on Applied Models and Approaches to Map Organizational Knowledge
Mapping organizational knowledge is an innovative concept and useful instrument of representation, capturing and visualization of implicit and explicit knowledge. There are a diversity of methods, instruments and techniques presented by different researchers following mapping organizational knowledge to reach determined goals. Implicating of these methods, it is necessary to know their exigencies and conditions in which those can be used. Integrating identified methods of knowledge mapping and comparing them would help knowledge managers to select the appropriate methods. This research conducted to presenting a model and framework to map organizational knowledge. At first, knowledge maps, their applications and necessity are introduced because of extracting comparative framework and detection of their structure. At the next step techniques of researchers such as Eppler, Kim, Egbu, Tandukar and Ebner as knowledge mapping models are presented and surveyed. Finally, they compare and a superior model would be introduced.
Buzan Mind Mapping: An Efficient Technique for Note-Taking
Buzan mind mapping is an efficient system of note-taking that makes revision a fun thing to do for students. Tony Buzan has been teaching children all over the world for the past thirty years and has proved that mind maps are the magic formula in the classroom for everyone. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of Buzan mind mapping as a note-taking technique for the secondary school students. This paper also examines the mind mapping technique, advantages and disadvantages of hand-drawn mind maps. Samples of students’ mind maps were presented and discussed.
Sub-Pixel Mapping Based on New Mixed Interpolation
Due to the limited environmental parameters and the limited resolution of the sensor, the universal existence of the mixed pixels in the process of remote sensing images restricts the spatial resolution of the remote sensing images. Sub-pixel mapping technology can effectively improve the spatial resolution. As the bilinear interpolation algorithm inevitably produces the edge blur effect, which leads to the inaccurate sub-pixel mapping results. In order to avoid the edge blur effect that affects the sub-pixel mapping results in the interpolation process, this paper presents a new edge-directed interpolation algorithm which uses the covariance adaptive interpolation algorithm on the edge of the low-resolution image and uses bilinear interpolation algorithm in the low-resolution image smooth area. By using the edge-directed interpolation algorithm, the super-resolution of the image with low resolution is obtained, and we get the percentage of each sub-pixel under a certain type of high-resolution image. Then we rely on the probability value as a soft attribute estimate and carry out sub-pixel scale under the ‘hard classification’. Finally, we get the result of sub-pixel mapping. Through the experiment, we compare the algorithm and the bilinear algorithm given in this paper to the results of the sub-pixel mapping method. It is found that the sub-pixel mapping method based on the edge-directed interpolation algorithm has better edge effect and higher mapping accuracy. The results of the paper meet our original intention of the question. At the same time, the method does not require iterative computation and training of samples, making it easier to implement.
The Revised Completion of Student Internship Report by Goal Mapping
This study aims to explore the attitudes and behavior of goal mapping performed by the student in completing the internship report revised on time. The approach is phenomenological research with qualitative methods. Data sources include observation, interviews and questionnaires, focus group discussions. Research subject 5 students who have completed the internship report revisions in a timely manner. The analysis technique is an interactive model of Miles&Huberman data analysis techniques. The results showed that the students have a goal of mapping that includes the ultimate goal, formulate goals by identifying what are the things that need to be done, action to be taken and what kind of support is needed from the environment.
Algorithms for Run-Time Task Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs
Mapping parallelized tasks of applications onto these MPSoCs can be done either at design time (static) or at run-time (dynamic). Static mapping strategies find the best placement of tasks at design-time, and hence, these are not suitable for dynamic workload and seem incapable of runtime resource management. The number of tasks or applications executing in MPSoC platform can exceed the available resources, requiring efficient run-time mapping strategies to meet these constraints. This paper describes a new Spiral Dynamic Task Mapping heuristic for mapping applications onto NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoC. This heuristic is based on packing strategy and routing Algorithm proposed also in this paper. Heuristic try to map the tasks of an application in a clustering region to reduce the communication overhead between the communicating tasks. The heuristic proposed in this paper attempts to map the tasks of an application that are most related to each other in a spiral manner and to find the best possible path load that minimizes the communication overhead. In this context, we have realized a simulation environment for experimental evaluations to map applications with varying number of tasks onto an 8x8 NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoCs platform, we demonstrate that the new mapping heuristics with the new modified dijkstra routing algorithm proposed are capable of reducing the total execution time and energy consumption of applications when compared to state-of-the-art run-time mapping heuristics reported in the literature.
Algorithms for Run-Time Task Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs
Mapping parallelized tasks of applications onto these MPSoCs can be done either at design time (static) or at run-time (dynamic). Static mapping strategies find the best placement of tasks at design-time, and hence, these are not suitable for dynamic workload and seem incapable of runtime resource management. The number of tasks or applications executing in MPSoC platform can exceed the available resources, requiring efficient run-time mapping strategies to meet these constraints. This paper describes a new Spiral Dynamic Task Mapping heuristic for mapping applications onto NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoC. This heuristic is based on packing strategy and routing Algorithm proposed also in this paper. Heuristic try to map the tasks of an application in a clustering region to reduce the communication overhead between the communicating tasks. The heuristic proposed in this paper attempts to map the tasks of an application that are most related to each other in a spiral manner and to find the best possible path load that minimizes the communication overhead. In this context, we have realized a simulation environment for experimental evaluations to map applications with varying number of tasks onto an 8x8 NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoCs platform, we demonstrate that the new mapping heuristics with the new modified dijkstra routing algorithm proposed are capable of reducing the total execution time and energy consumption of applications when compared to state-of-the-art run-time mapping heuristics reported in the literature.
The Use of Semantic Mapping Technique When Teaching English Vocabulary at Saudi Schools
Vocabulary is essential factor of learning and mastering any languages, and it helps learners to communicate with others and to be understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether semantic mapping technique was helpful in terms of improving student's English vocabulary learning comparing to the traditional technique. The students’ age was between 11 and 13 years old. There were 60 students in total who participated in this study. 30 students were in the treatment group (target vocabulary items were taught with semantic mapping). The other 30 students were in the control group (the target vocabulary items were taught by a traditional technique). A t-test was used with the results of pre-test and post-test in order to examine the outcomes of using semantic mapping when teaching vocabulary. The results showed that the vocabulary mastery in the treatment group was increased more than the control group.
Plantation Forests Height Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial System
Plantation forests are useful for timber production, recreation, environmental protection and social development. Stands height is an important parameter for the estimation of forest volume and carbon stocks. Although lidar is suitable technology for the vertical parameters extraction of forests, but high costs make it not suitable for operational inventory. With the development of computer vision and photogrammetry, aerial photos from unmanned aerial system can be used as an alternative solution for height mapping. Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry technique can be used to extract DSM and DEM information. Canopy height model (CHM) can be achieved by subtraction DEM from DSM. Our result shows that overlapping aerial photos is a potential solution for plantation forests height mapping.
Genetic Algorithm Approach for Inverse Mapping of Weld Bead Geometry in Shielded Metal Arc-Welding
In the field of welding, various studies had been made by some of the previous investigators to predict as well as optimize weld bead geometric descriptors. Modeling of weld bead shape is important for predicting the quality of welds. In most of the cases design of experiments technique to postulate multiple linear regression equations have been used. Nowadays Genetic Algorithm (GA) an intelligent information treatment system with the characteristics of treating complex relationships as seen in welding processes used as a tool for inverse mapping/optimization of the process is attempted.
Inverse Mapping of Weld Bead Geometry in Shielded Metal Arc-Welding: Genetic Algorithm Approach
In the field of welding, various studies had been made by some of the previous investigators to predict as well as optimize weld bead geometric descriptors. Modeling of weld bead shape is important for predicting the quality of welds. In most of the cases, design of experiments technique to postulate multiple linear regression equations have been used. Nowadays, Genetic Algorithm (GA) an intelligent information treatment system with the characteristics of treating complex relationships as seen in welding processes used as a tool for inverse mapping/optimization of the process is attempted.
Exploring the Capabilities of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A Data for Landslide Mapping
Landslides are one of the most frequent and devastating natural disasters in Indonesia. Many studies have been conducted regarding this phenomenon. However, there is a lack of attention in the landslide inventory mapping. The natural condition (dense forest area) and the limited human and economic resources are some of the major problems in building landslide inventory in Indonesia. Considering the importance of landslide inventory data in susceptibility, hazard, and risk analysis, it is essential to generate landslide inventory based on available resources. In order to achieve this, the first thing we have to do is identify the landslides' location. The presence of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data gives new insights into land monitoring investigation. The free access, high spatial resolution, and short revisit time, make the data become one of the most trending open sources data used in landslide mapping. Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data have been used broadly for landslide detection and landuse/landcover mapping. This study aims to generate landslide map by integrating Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data use change detection method. The result will be validated by field investigation to make preliminary landslide inventory in the study area.
Assessment of Planet Image for Land Cover Mapping Using Soft and Hard Classifiers
Planet image is a new data source from planet lab. This research is concerned with the assessment of Planet image for land cover mapping. Two pixel based classifiers and one subpixel based classifier were compared. Firstly, rectification of Planet image was performed. Secondly, a comparison between minimum distance, maximum likelihood and neural network classifications for classification of Planet image was performed. Thirdly, the overall accuracy of classification and kappa coefficient were calculated. Results indicate that neural network classification is best followed by maximum likelihood classifier then minimum distance classification for land cover mapping.
A Proposal for Systematic Mapping Study of Software Security Testing, Verification and Validation
Software vulnerabilities are increasing and not only impact services and processes availability as well as information confidentiality, integrity and privacy, but also cause changes that interfere in the development process. Security test could be a solution to reduce vulnerabilities. However, the variety of test techniques with the lack of real case studies of applying tests focusing on software development life cycle compromise its effective use. This paper offers an overview of how a Systematic Mapping Study (MS) about security verification, validation and test (VVT) was performed, besides presenting general results about this study.
Continuous Functions Modeling with Artificial Neural Network: An Improvement Technique to Feed the Input-Output Mapping
The artificial neural network is one of the interesting techniques that have been advantageously used to deal with modeling problems. In this study, the computing with artificial neural network (CANN) is proposed. The model is applied to modulate the information processing of one-dimensional task. We aim to integrate a new method which is based on a new coding approach of generating the input-output mapping. The latter is based on increasing the neuron unit in the last layer. Accordingly, to show the efficiency of the approach under study, a comparison is made between the proposed method of generating the input-output set and the conventional method. The results illustrated that the increasing of the neuron units, in the last layer, allows to find the optimal network’s parameters that fit with the mapping data. Moreover, it permits to decrease the training time, during the computation process, which avoids the use of computers with high memory usage.
Data Hiding in Gray Image Using ASCII Value and Scanning Technique
This paper presents an approach for data hiding methods which provides a secret communication between sender and receiver. The data is hidden in gray-scale images and the boundary of gray-scale image is used to store the mapping information. In this an approach data is in ASCII format and the mapping is in between ASCII value of hidden message and pixel value of cover image, since pixel value of an image as well as ASCII value is in range of 0 to 255 and this mapping information is occupying only 1 bit per character of hidden message as compared to 8 bit per character thus maintaining good quality of stego image.
Urban Flood Risk Mapping–a Review
Floods are one of the most frequent natural disasters, causing widespread devastation, economic damage and threat to human lives. Hydrologic impacts of climate change and intensification of urbanization are two root causes of increased flood occurrences, and recent research trends are oriented towards understanding these aspects. Due to rapid urbanization, population of cities across the world has increased exponentially leading to improperly planned developments. Climate change due to natural and anthropogenic activities on our environment has resulted in spatiotemporal changes in rainfall patterns. The combined effect of both aggravates the vulnerability of urban populations to floods. In this context, an efficient and effective flood risk management with its core component as flood risk mapping is essential in prevention and mitigation of flood disasters. Urban flood risk mapping involves zoning of an urban region based on its flood risk, which depicts the spatiotemporal pattern of frequency and severity of hazards, exposure to hazards, and degree of vulnerability of the population in terms of socio-economic, environmental and infrastructural aspects. Although vulnerability is a key component of risk, its assessment and mapping is often less advanced than hazard mapping and quantification. A synergic effort from technical experts and social scientists is vital for the effectiveness of flood risk management programs. Despite an increasing volume of quality research conducted on urban flood risk, a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach towards flood risk mapping still remains neglected due to which many of the input parameters and definitions of flood risk concepts are imprecise. Thus, the objectives of this review are to introduce and precisely define the relevant input parameters, concepts and terms in urban flood risk mapping, along with its methodology, current status and limitations. The review also aims at providing thought-provoking insights to potential future researchers and flood management professionals.
Whole School Environmental Mapping Framework in Preventing Childhood Obesity in Selangor
The school environment is one of many factors related to the increment of overweight and obesity among children. There is an evidence to suggest that the school environmental factor has an independent effect towards health-related behaviour of children and school culture. It may have a significant impact towards the emergence of childhood obesity through their influence on eating pattern and physical activity level. The objective of this study is to identify the school environmental factors (i.e. physical, economic, political and socio-cultural) towards healthy eating and physical activity of urban and rural primary school children in preventing childhood obesity. This can be identified by examining the compliance of rural and urban school environment with whole-school environmental mapping framework. The study design was a cross-sectional study. A total of 60 schools were randomly selected (30 urban and 30 rural) in Selangor, Western Peninsular Malaysia in 2013 and 60 teachers (responsible for student affairs and the school curriculum) have been interviewed face to face by using a whole school mapping questionnaire followed by observation of the school environment . This study has demonstrated that schools in both areas (rural and urban) comply mostly with the physical environmental mapping (83.3%), followed by socio-cultural environmental mapping, 65%. Meanwhile, the political environmental mappings in both urban and rural schools show a low compliance percentage, which is 56.7%. For economic environmental mapping, only 10% of both schools are complied. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated that schools in both areas do not fully comply with the whole school environmental mapping framework, especially economic and political. However, holistic approach is needed and many improvements can be proposed to promote healthy eating and physical activities among school children. Government, families and schools as well as communities and the media should be included together with any strategies for preventing childhood obesity.
Model-Based Automotive Partitioning and Mapping for Embedded Multicore Systems
This paper introduces novel approaches to partitioning and mapping in terms of model-based embedded multicore system engineering and further discusses benefits, industrial relevance and features in common with existing approaches. In order to assess and evaluate results, both approaches have been applied to a real industrial application as well as to various prototypical demonstrative applications, that have been developed and implemented for different purposes. Evaluations show, that such applications improve significantly according to performance, energy efficiency, meeting timing constraints and covering maintaining issues by using the AMALTHEA platform and the implemented approaches. Further- more, the model-based design provides an open, expandable, platform independent and scalable exchange format between OEMs, suppliers and developers on different levels. Our proposed mechanisms provide meaningful multicore system utilization since load balancing by means of partitioning and mapping is effectively performed with regard to the modeled systems including hardware, software, operating system, scheduling, constraints, configuration and more data.
Subjective Mapping Methodologies: Mapping Local Perceptions with Geographic Information Systems
Participatory GIS (geographic information systems) are designed for community mapping exercises in order to produce spatial representations of local knowledge. Ideally, participatory GIS caters to public participation through the use of spatial data in order to increase community-led policy-and decision-making. Having defined a spatial object, such as a neighborhood, subjective mapping involves attaining a description of the spatial, physical, social and psychological characteristics of that spatial object. This paper highlights an emerging appreciation of the subjective component, particularly in spatial analyses. The beliefs, feelings, and behaviors associated with an urban area reflect its sense of place for an individual or a group. It is important therefore to understand what types of beliefs, emotions, and behavioral patterns are relevant to particular resident, groups and urban scales. In this sense, resident’s emotional attachment to their urban areas motivates civic engagement and facilitates awareness of its strengths and its problems. Similarly, subjective perceptions act in complex ways to influence the formation and maintenance of social identity and quality of life. This paper reports on findings from a case study of immigrant population in Norwegian cities, their residential conditions and their relationship to quality of urban life. Cognitive mapping methodologies are used in this study to understand local perceptions of urban qualities. Thus, measures to alleviate disadvantages and improve quality of urban life are more likely to be effective when they are informed by an understanding of a place as constructed by those who live in it, meaning their subjective perceptions about it.
Exact Solutions of K(N,N)-Type Equations Using Jacobi Elliptic Functions
In this paper, modified K(n,n) and K(n+1,n+1) equations have been solved using mapping methods which give a variety of solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. The solutions when m approaches 0 and 1, with m as the modulus of the JEFs have also been deduced. The role of constraint conditions has been discussed.
Making the Neighbourhood: Analyzing Mapping Procedures to Deal with Plurality and Conflict
Spatial projects are often contested. Despite participatory trajectories in official spatial development processes, citizens engage often by their power to say no. Participatory mapping helps to produce more legible and democratic ways of decision-making. It has proven its value in producing a multitude of knowledges and views, for individuals and community groups and local stakeholders to imagine desired and undesired futures and to give them the rhetorical power to present their views throughout the development process. From this perspective, mapping works as a social process in which individuals and groups share their knowledge, learn from each other and negotiate their relationship with each other as well as with space and power. In this way, these processes eventually aim to activate communities to intervene in cooperation in real problems. However, these are fragile and bumpy processes, sometimes leading to (local) conflict and intractable situations. Heterogeneous subjectivities and knowledge that become visible during the mapping process and which are contested by members of the community, is often the first trigger. This paper discusses a participatory mapping project conducted in a residential subdivision in Flanders to provide a deeper understanding of how or under which conditions the mapping process could moderate discordant situations amongst inhabitants, local organisations and local authorities, towards a more constructive outcome. In our opinion, this implies a thorough documentation and presentation of the different steps of the mapping process to design and moderate an open and transparent dialogue. The mapping project ‘Make the Neighbourhood’, is set up in the aftermath of a socio-spatial design intervention in the neighbourhood that led to polarization within the community. To start negotiation between the diverse claims that came to the fore, we co-create a desired future map of the neighbourhood together with local organisations and inhabitants as a way to engage them in the development of a new spatial development plan for the area. This mapping initiative set up a new ‘common’ goal or concern, as a first step to bridge the gap that we experienced between different sociocultural groups, bottom-up and top-down initiatives and between professionals and non-professionals. An atlas of elements (materials), an atlas of actors with different roles and an atlas of ways of cooperation and organisation form the work and building material of the future neighbourhood map, assembled in two co-creation sessions. Firstly, we will consider how the mapping procedures articulate the plurality of claims and agendas. Secondly, we will elaborate upon how social relations and spatialities are negotiated and reproduced during the different steps of the map making. Thirdly, we will reflect on the role of the rules, format, and structure of the mapping process in moderating negotiations between much divided claims. To conclude, we will discuss the challenges of visualizing the different steps of mapping process as a strategy to moderate tense negotiations in a more constructive direction in the context of spatial development processes.
Resources-Based Ontology Matching to Access Learning Resources
Nowadays, ontologies are used for achieving a
common understanding within a user community and for sharing
domain knowledge. However, the de-centralized nature of the web
makes indeed inevitable that small communities will use their own
ontologies to describe their data and to index their own resources.
Certainly, accessing to resources from various ontologies created
independently is an important challenge for answering end user
queries. Ontology mapping is thus required for combining ontologies.
However, mapping complete ontologies at run time is a
computationally expensive task. This paper proposes a system in
which mappings between concepts may be generated dynamically as
the concepts are encountered during user queries. In this way, the
interaction itself defines the context in which small and relevant
portions of ontologies are mapped. We illustrate application of the
proposed system in the context of Technology Enhanced Learning
(TEL) where learners need to access to learning resources covering
Correlation Mapping for Measuring Platelet Adhesion
Platelets can be activated by the surrounding blood flows where a blood vessel is narrowed as a result of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the relation between platelets activation and thrombus formation. To measure platelet adhesion, this study proposes an image analysis technique. Blood samples are delivered in the microfluidic channel, and then platelets are activated by a stenotic micro-channel with 90% severity. By applying proposed correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) was estimated without labeling platelets. In order to evaluate the performance of correlation mapping on the detection of platelet adhesion, the effect of tile size was investigated by calculating 2D correlation coefficients with binary images obtained by manual labeling and the correlation mapping method with different sizes of the square tile ranging from 3 to 50 pixels. The maximum 2D correlation coefficient is observed with the optimum tile size of 5×5 pixels. As the area of the platelet adhesion increases, the platelets plug the channel and there is only a small amount of blood flows. This image analysis could provide new insights for better understanding of the interactions between platelet aggregation and blood flows in various physiological conditions.
Enhancing Students’ Achievement, Interest and Retention in Chemistry through an Integrated Teaching/Learning Approach
This study concerns the effects of concept mapping-guided discovery integrated teaching approach on the learning style and achievement of chemistry students. The sample comprised 162 senior secondary school (SS 2) students drawn from two science schools in Nasarawa State which have equivalent mean scores of 9.68 and 9.49 in their pre-test. Five instruments were developed and validated while the sixth was purely adopted by the investigator for the study, Four null hypotheses were tested at α = 0.05 level of significance. Chi square analysis showed that there is a significant shift in students’ learning style from accommodating and diverging to converging and assimilating when exposed to concept mapping- guided discovery approach. Also t-test and ANOVA that those in experimental group achieve and retain content learnt better. Results of the Scheffe’s test for multiple comparisons showed that boys in the experimental group performed better than girls. It is therefore concluded that the concept mapping-guided discovery integrated approach should be used in secondary schools to successfully teach electrochemistry. It is strongly recommended that chemistry teachers should be encouraged to adopt this method for teaching difficult concepts.
Informing, Enabling and Inspiring Social Innovation by Geographic Systems Mapping: A Case Study in Workforce Development
The nonprofit and public sectors are increasingly turning to Geographic Information Systems for data visualizations which can better inform programmatic and policy decisions. Additionally, the private and nonprofit sectors are turning to systems mapping to better understand the ecosystems within which they operate. This study explores the potential which combining these data visualization methods—a method which is called geographic systems mapping—to create an exhaustive and comprehensive understanding of a social problem’s ecosystem may have in social innovation efforts. Researchers with Grand Valley State University collaborated with Talent 2025 of West Michigan to conduct a mixed-methods research study to paint a comprehensive picture of the workforce development ecosystem in West Michigan. Using semi-structured interviewing, observation, secondary research, and quantitative analysis, data were compiled on workforce development organizations’ locations, programming, metrics for success, partnerships, funding sources, and service language. To best visualize and disseminate the data, a geographic system map was created which identifies programmatic, operational, and geographic gaps in workforce development services of West Michigan. By combining geographic and systems mapping methods, the geographic system map provides insight into the cross-sector relationships, collaboration, and competition which exists among and between workforce development organizations. These insights identify opportunities for and constraints around cross-sectoral social innovation in the West Michigan workforce development ecosystem. This paper will discuss the process utilized to prepare the geographic systems map, explain the results and outcomes, and demonstrate how geographic systems mapping illuminated the needs of the community and opportunities for social innovation. As complicated social problems like unemployment often require cross-sectoral and multi-stakeholder solutions, there is potential for geographic systems mapping to be a tool which informs, enables, and inspires these solutions.
A Tuning Method for Microwave Filter via Complex Neural Network and Improved Space Mapping
This paper presents an intelligent tuning method of
microwave filter based on complex neural network and improved
space mapping. The tuning process consists of two stages: the initial
tuning and the fine tuning. At the beginning of the tuning, the return
loss of the filter is transferred to the passband via the error of phase.
During the fine tuning, the phase shift caused by the transmission line
and the higher order mode is removed by the curve fitting. Then, an
Cauchy method based on the admittance parameter (Y-parameter) is
used to extract the coupling matrix. The influence of the resonant
cavity loss is eliminated during the parameter extraction process. By
using processed data pairs (the amount of screw variation and the
variation of the coupling matrix), a tuning model is established by
the complex neural network. In view of the improved space mapping
algorithm, the mapping relationship between the actual model and
the ideal model is established, and the amplitude and direction of the
tuning is constantly updated. Finally, the tuning experiment of the
eight order coaxial cavity filter shows that the proposed method has
a good effect in tuning time and tuning precision.
A Novel Computer-Generated Hologram (CGH) Achieved Scheme Generated from Point Cloud by Using a Lens Array
We proposed a novel computer-generated hologram (CGH) achieved scheme, wherein the CGH is generated from a point cloud which is transformed by a mapping relationship of a series of elemental images captured from a real three-dimensional (3D) object by using a lens array. This scheme is composed of three procedures: mapping from elemental images to point cloud, hologram generation, and hologram display. A mapping method is figured out to achieve a virtual volume date (point cloud) from a series of elemental images. This mapping method consists of two steps. Firstly, the coordinate (x, y) pairs and its appearing number are calculated from the series of sub-images, which are generated from the elemental images. Secondly, a series of corresponding coordinates (x, y, z) are calculated from the elemental images. Then a hologram is generated from the volume data that is calculated by the previous two steps. Eventually, a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a green laser beam are utilized to display this hologram and reconstruct the original 3D object. In this paper, in order to show a more auto stereoscopic display of a real 3D object, we successfully obtained the actual depth data of every discrete point of the real 3D object, and overcame the inherent drawbacks of the depth camera by obtaining point cloud from the elemental images.
The Discriminate Analysis and Relevant Model for Mapping Export Potential
There are pending discussions over the mapping of country export potential in order to refocus export strategy of firms and its evidence-based promotion by the Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and other permitted vehicles of governments. In this paper we develop our version of an applied model that offers “stepwise” elimination of unattractive markets. We modify and calibrate the model for the particular features of the Czech Republic and specific pilot cases where we apply an individual approach to each sector.
Use of Landsat OLI Images in the Mapping of Landslides: Case of the Taounate Province in Northern Morocco
Northern Morocco is characterized by relatively young mountains experiencing a very important dynamic compared to other areas of Morocco. The dynamics associated with the formation of the Rif chain (Alpine tectonics), is accompanied by instabilities essentially related to tectonic movements. The realization of important infrastructures (Roads, Highways,...) represents a triggering factor and favoring landslides. This paper is part of the establishment of landslides susceptibility map and concerns the mapping of unstable areas in the province of Taounate. The landslide was identified using the components of the false color (FCC) of images Landsat OLI: i) the first independent component (IC1), ii) The main component (PC), iii) Normalized difference index (NDI). This mapping for landslides class is validated by in-situ surveys.
Community-based Mapping as a Planning Tool; Examples from Pakistan
Since several decades, unplanned urbanization and rapid growth of informal settlements have evolved and increased in size and number. Large cities such as Karachi have been impacted with sprawl and rising share of unplanned settlements where poor communities reside. Threats of eviction, deteriorating law and order situation, lack of essential amenities and infrastructure, extortion and bullying from local and non-local musclemen and feeble response of government agencies towards their development needs are some predicaments. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have caused important interventions in such locations. Appraisal of the community-based mapping as a tool in supporting the development work in less privileged areas in Karachi has been the objective of this research. The Orangi Pilot Project (OPP), under the leadership of its slain director Perween Rahman had a significant role to play in developing and extending this approach in low income locations in Karachi and beyond. The paper investigates the application of mapping in the process of peri urban land invasion causing rapid transformation of traditional settlements in Karachi. Mixed methodology components comprising literature review, archival research, and unstructured interviews with key informants and case studies have been used.
Mapping the Intrinsic Vulnerability of the Quaternary Aquifer of the Eastern Mitidja (Northern Algeria)
The Neogene basin of the Eastern Mitidja, object of the study area, represents potential water resources and especially groundwater reserves. This water is an important economic; this resource is highly sensitive which need protection and preservation. Unfortunately, these waters are exposed to various forms of pollution, whether from urban, agricultural, industrial or merely accidental. This pollution is a permanent risk of limiting resource. In this context, the work aims to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer to protect and preserve the quality of this resource. It will focus on the disposal of water and land managers a cartographic document accessible to locate the areas where the water has a high vulnerability.
Vulnerability mapping of the Easter Mitidja quaternary aquifer is performed by applying three methods (DRASTIC, DRIST, and GOD).
Comparison and validation results show that the DRASTIC method is the most suitable method for aquifer vulnerability of the study area.
The Laser Line Detection for Autonomous Mapping Based on Color Segmentation
Laser projection or laser footprint detection is today widely used in many fields of robotics, measurement, or electronics. The system accuracy strictly depends on precise laser footprint detection on target objects. This article deals with the laser line detection based on the RGB segmentation and the component labeling. As a measurement device was used the developed optical rangefinder. The optical rangefinder is equipped with vertical sweeping of the laser beam and high quality camera. This system was developed mainly for automatic exploration and mapping of unknown spaces. In the first section is presented a new detection algorithm. In the second section are presented measurements results. The measurements were performed in variable light conditions in interiors. The last part of the article present achieved results and their differences between day and night measurements.
Application and Verification of Regression Model to Landslide Susceptibility Mapping
Identification of regions having potential for landslide occurrence is one of the basic measures in natural resources management. Different landslide hazard mapping models are proposed based on the environmental condition and goals. In this research landslide hazard map using multiple regression model were provided and applicability of this model is investigated in Baghdasht watershed. Dependent variable is landslide inventory map and independent variables consist of information layers as Geology, slope, aspect, distance from river, distance from road, fault and land use. For doing this, existing landslides have been identified and an inventory map made. The landslide hazard map is based on the multiple regression provided. The level of similarity potential hazard classes and figures of this model were compared with the landslide inventory map in the SPSS environments. Results of research showed that there is a significant correlation between the potential hazard classes and figures with area of the landslides. The multiple regression model is suitable for application in the Baghdasht Watershed.
Investigating Students' Understanding about Mathematical Concept through Concept Map
The main purpose of studying lies in improving students’ understanding. Teachers usually use written test to measure students’ understanding about learning material especially mathematical learning material. This common method actually has a lack point, such that in mathematics content, written test only show procedural steps to solve mathematical problems. Therefore, teachers unable to see whether students actually understand about mathematical concepts and the relation between concepts or not. One of the best tools to observe students’ understanding about the mathematical concepts is concept map. The goal of this research is to describe junior high school students understanding about mathematical concepts through Concept Maps based on the difference of mathematical ability. There were three steps in this research; the first step was choosing the research subjects by giving mathematical ability test to students. The subjects of this research are three students with difference mathematical ability, high, intermediate and low mathematical ability. The second step was giving concept mapping training to the chosen subjects. The last step was giving concept mapping task about the function to the subjects. Nodes which are the representation of concepts of function were provided in concept mapping task. The subjects had to use the nodes in concept mapping. Based on data analysis, the result of this research shows that subject with high mathematical ability has formal understanding, due to that subject could see the connection between concepts of function and arranged the concepts become concept map with valid hierarchy. Subject with intermediate mathematical ability has relational understanding, because subject could arranged all the given concepts and gave appropriate label between concepts though it did not represent the connection specifically yet. Whereas subject with low mathematical ability has poor understanding about function, it can be seen from the concept map which is only used few of the given concepts because subject could not see the connection between concepts. All subjects have instrumental understanding for the relation between linear function concept, quadratic function concept and domain, co domain, range.
Raman Line Mapping on Melt Spun Polycarbonate/MWNT Fiber-Based Nanocomposites
Raman spectroscopy was used for characterization of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) and Polycarbonate/multi-wall carbon nanotube (PC/MWNT) based fibers with 0.55% and 0.75% of MWNT (PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75). PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75 fibers was prepared by melt spinning device using nanocomposites made by two different route, viz., solvent casting and melt extrusion. Fibers prepared from melt extruded nanocomposites showed smooth and uniform morphology as compared to solvent casting based nanocomposites. The Raman mapping confirmed that the melt extruded based nanocomposites had better dispersion of MWNT in Polycarbonate (PC) than solvent casting carbon nanotube.
Effective Method of Paneling for Source/Vortex/Doublet Panel Methods Using Conformal Mapping
This paper presents an effective method to divide panels for mesh-less methods of source, vortex and doublet panel methods. In this research study the physical domain of air-foils were transformed into computational domain of a circle using conformal mapping technique of Joukowsky transformation. Then the circle is divided into panels of equal length and the co-ordinates were remapped into physical domain of the air-foil. With this method the leading edge and the trailing edge of the air-foil is panelled with a high density of panels and the rest of the body is panelled with low density of panels. The high density of panels in the leading edge and the trailing edge will increase the accuracy of the solutions obtained from panel methods where the fluid flow at the leading and trailing edges are complex.
Marine Ecosystem Mapping of Taman Laut Labuan: The First Habitat Mapping Effort to Support Marine Parks Management in Malaysia
The marine ecosystem in Malaysia holds invaluable potential in terms of economics, food security, pharmaceuticals components and protection from natural hazards. Although exploration of oil and gas industry and fisheries are active within Malaysian waters, knowledge of the seascape and ecological functioning of benthic habitats is still extremely poor in the marine parks around Malaysia due to the lack of detailed seafloor information. Consequently, it is difficult to manage marine resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas and set legislation to safeguard the marine parks. The limited baseline data hinders scientific linkage to support effective marine spatial management in Malaysia. This became the main driver behind the first seabed mapping effort at the national level. Taman Laut Labuan (TLL) is located to the west coast of Sabah and to the east of South China Sea. The total area of TLL is approximately 158.15 km2, comprises of three islands namely Pulau Kuraman, Rusukan Besar and Rusukan Kecil and is characterised by shallow fringing reef with few submerged shallow reef. The unfamiliar rocky shorelines limit the survey of multibeam echosounder to area with depth more than 10 m. Whereas, singlebeam and side scan sonar systems were used to acquire the data for area with depth less than 10 m. By integrating data from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter with singlebeam bathymetry and side sonar images, we produce a substrate map and coral coverage map for the TLL using i) marine landscape mapping technique and ii) RSOBIA ArcGIS toolbar (developed by T. Le Bas). We take the initiative to explore the ability of aerial drone and satellite image (WorldView-3) to derive the depths and substrate type within the intertidal and subtidal zone where it is not accessible via acoustic mapping. Although the coverage was limited, the outcome showed a promising technique to be incorporated towards establishing a guideline to facilitate a standard practice for efficient marine spatial management in Malaysia.
Use of Remote Sensing for Seasonal and Temporal Monitoring in Wetlands: A Case Study of Akyatan Lagoon
Wetlands are the areas which have important effects and functions on protecting human life, adjust to nature, and biological variety, besides being potential exploitation sources. Observing the changes in these sensitive areas is important to study for data collecting and correct planning for the future. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System are being increasingly used for environmental studies such as biotope mapping and habitat monitoring. Akyatan Lagoon, one of the most important wetlands in Turkey, has been facing serious threats from agricultural applications in recent years. In this study, seasonal and temporal monitoring in wetlands system are determined by using remotely sensed data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) between 1985 and 2015. The research method is based on classifying and mapping biotopes in the study area. The natural biotope types were determined as coastal sand dunes, salt marshes, river beds, coastal woods, lakes, lagoons.
Mapping of Adrenal Gland Diseases Research in Middle East Countries: A Scientometric Analysis, 2007-2013
The aim of the study was to map scientific research on adrenal gland diseases in the Middle East countries through the Web of Science database using scientometric analysis. Data were analyzed with Excel software; and HistCite was used for mapping of the scientific texts. In this study, from a total of 268 retrieved records, 1125 authors from 328 institutions published their texts in 138 journals. Among 17 Middle East countries, Turkey ranked first with 164 documents (61.19%), Israel ranked second with 47 documents (15.53%) and Iran came in the third place with 26 documents. Most of the publications (185 documents, 69.2%) were articles. Among the universities of the Middle East, Istanbul University had the highest science production rate (9.7%). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism had the highest TGCS (243 citations). In the scientific mapping, 7 clusters were formed based on TLCS (Total Local Citation Score) & TGCS (Total Global Citation Score). considering the study results, establishment of scientific connections and collaboration with other countries and use of publications on adrenal gland diseases from high ranking universities can help in the development of this field and promote the medical practice in this regard. Moreover, investigation of the formed clusters in relation to Congenital Hyperplasia and puberty related disorders can be research priorities for investigators.
Use of Remote Sensing for Seasonal and Temporal Monitoring in Wetlands: A Case Study of Akyatan Lagoon
Wetlands are the areas which have important effects and functions on protecting human life, adjust to nature, and biological variety, besides being potential exploitation sources. Observing the changes in these sensitive areas is important to study for data collecting and correct planning for the future. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System are being increasingly used for environmental studies such as biotope mapping and habitat monitoring. Akyatan Lagoon, one of the most important wetlands in Turkey, has been facing serious threats from agricultural applications in recent years. In this study, seasonal and temporal monitoring in wetlands system are determined by using remotely sensed data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) between 1985 and 2015. The research method is based on classifying and mapping biotopes in the study area. The natural biotope types were determined as coastal sand dunes, salt marshes, river beds, coastal woods, lakes, lagoons.
Flexible Mixed Model Assembly Line Design: A Strategy to Respond for Demand Uncertainty at Automotive Part Manufacturer in Indonesia
In an era of customer centricity, automotive parts manufacturer in Indonesia must be able to keep up with the uncertainty and fluctuation of consumer demand. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a strategy to react to predicted and unpredicted changes of demand in automotive industry. This research is about flexible mixed model assembly line design through Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Line Balancing in mixed model assembly line prior to simulation. It uses value stream mapping to identify and reduce waste while finding the best position to add or reduce manpower. Line balancing is conducted to minimize or maximize production rate while increasing assembly line productivity and efficiency. Results of this research is a recommendation of standard work combination for specifics demand scenario which can enhance assembly line efficiency and productivity.
Building Scalable and Accurate Hybrid Kernel Mapping Recommender
Recommender systems uses artificial intelligence practices for ﬁltering obscure information and can predict if a user likes a specified item. Kernel mapping Recommender systems have been proposed which are accurate and state-of-the-art algorithms and resolve recommender system’s design objectives such as; long tail, cold-start, and sparsity. The aim of research is to propose hybrid framework that can efficiently integrate different versions— namely item-based and user-based KMR— of KMR algorithm. We have proposed various heuristic algorithms that integrate different versions of KMR (into a unified framework) resulting in improved accuracy and elimination of problems associated with conventional recommender system. We have tested our system on publically available movies dataset and benchmark with KMR. The results (in terms of accuracy, precision, recall, F1 measure and ROC metrics) reveal that the proposed algorithm is quite accurate especially under cold-start and sparse scenarios.
Selection of Appropriate Classification Technique for Lithological Mapping of Gali Jagir Area, Pakistan
Satellite images interpretation and analysis assist geologists by providing valuable information about geology and minerals of an area to be surveyed. A test site in Fatejang of district Attock has been studied using Landsat ETM+ and ASTER satellite images for lithological mapping. Five different supervised image classification techniques namely maximum likelihood, parallelepiped, minimum distance to mean, mahalanobis distance and spectral angle mapper have been performed on both satellite data images to find out the suitable classification technique for lithological mapping in the study area. Results of these five image classification techniques were compared with the geological map produced by Geological Survey of Pakistan. The result of maximum likelihood classification technique applied on ASTER satellite image has the highest correlation of 0.66 with the geological map. Field observations and XRD spectra of field samples also verified the results. A lithological map was then prepared based on the maximum likelihood classification of ASTER satellite image.
Advanced Magnetic Field Mapping Utilizing Vertically Integrated Deployment Platforms
This paper presents development and implementation of new and innovative data collection and analysis methodologies based on deployment of total field magnetometer arrays. Our research has focused on the development of a vertically-integrated suite of platforms all utilizing common data acquisition, data processing and analysis tools. These survey platforms include low-altitude helicopters and ground-based vehicles, including robots, for terrestrial mapping applications. For marine settings the sensor arrays are deployed from either a hydrodynamic bottom-following wing towed from a surface vessel or from a towed floating platform for shallow-water settings. Additionally, sensor arrays are deployed from tethered remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) for underwater settings where high maneuverability is required. While the primary application of these systems is the detection and mapping of unexploded ordnance (UXO), these system are also used for various infrastructure mapping and geologic investigations. For each application, success is driven by the integration of magnetometer arrays, accurate geo-positioning, system noise mitigation, and stable deployment of the system in appropriate proximity of expected targets or features. Each of the systems collects geo-registered data compatible with a web-enabled data management system providing immediate access of data and meta-data for remote processing, analysis and delivery of results. This approach allows highly sophisticated magnetic processing methods, including classification based on dipole modeling and remanent magnetization, to be efficiently applied to many projects. This paper also briefly describes the initial development of magnetometer-based detection systems deployed from low-altitude helicopter platforms and the subsequent successful transition of this technology to the marine environment. Additionally, we present examples from a range of terrestrial and marine settings as well as ongoing research efforts related to sensor miniaturization for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) magnetic field mapping applications.
Bayesian Flexibility Modelling of the Conditional Autoregressive Prior in a Disease Mapping Model
The basic model usually used in disease mapping, is the Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) model and which combines the spatially structured and spatially unstructured priors as random effects. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) model is a disease mapping method that is commonly used for smoothening the relative risk of any disease as used in the Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) model. This model (CAR), which is also usually assigned as a prior to one of the spatial random effects in the BYM model, successfully uses information from adjacent sites to improve estimates for individual sites. To our knowledge, there are some unrealistic or counter-intuitive consequences on the posterior covariance matrix of the CAR prior for the spatial random effects. In the conventional BYM (Besag, York and Mollie) model, the spatially structured and the unstructured random components cannot be seen independently, and which challenges the prior definitions for the hyperparameters of the two random effects. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to construct and utilize an extended Bayesian spatial CAR model for studying tuberculosis patterns in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and then compare for flexibility with some existing CAR models. The results of the study revealed the flexibility and robustness of this alternative extended CAR to the commonly used CAR models by comparison, using the deviance information criteria. The extended Bayesian spatial CAR model is proved to be a useful and robust tool for disease modeling and as a prior for the structured spatial random effects because of the inclusion of an extra hyperparameter.
Mapping Crime against Women in India: Spatio-Temporal Analysis, 2001-2012
Women are most vulnerable to crime despite occupying central position in shaping a society as the first teacher of children. In India too, having equal rights and constitutional safeguards, the incidences of crime against them are large and grave. In this context of crime against women, especially rape has been increasing over time. This paper explores the spatial and temporal aspects of crime against women in India with special reference to rape. It also examines the crime against women with its spatial, socio-economic and demographic associates using related data obtained from the National Crime Records Bureau India, Indian Census and other government sources of the Government of India. The simple statistical, choropleth mapping and other cartographic representation methods have been used to see the crime rates, spatio-temporal patterns of crime, and association of crime with its correlates. The major findings are visible spatial variations across the country and are also in the rising trends in terms of incidence and rates over the reference period. The study also indicates that the geographical associations are somewhat observed. However, selected indicators of socio-economic factors seem to have no significant bearing on crime against women at this level.
Secure Distance Bounding Protocol on Ultra-WideBand Based Mapping Code
Ultra WidBand-IR physical layer technology has seen a
great development during the last decade which makes it a promising
candidate for short range wireless communications, as they bring
considerable benefits in terms of connectivity and mobility. However,
like all wireless communication they suffer from vulnerabilities in
terms of security because of the open nature of the radio channel. To
face these attacks, distance bounding protocols are the most popular
counter measures. In this paper, we presented a protocol based on
distance bounding to thread the most popular attacks: Distance Fraud,
Mafia Fraud and Terrorist fraud. In our work, we study the way
to adapt the best secure distance bounding protocols to mapping
code of ultra-wideband (TH-UWB) radios. Indeed, to ameliorate the
performances of the protocol in terms of security communication
in TH-UWB, we combine the modified protocol to ultra-wideband
impulse radio technology (IR-UWB). The security and the different
merits of the protocols are analyzed.
The Effect of Paper Based Concept Mapping on Students' Academic Achievement and Attitude in Science Education
The concept map is known to be a powerful tool to organize the ideas and concepts of an individuals’ mind. This tool is a kind of visual map that illustrates the relationships between the concepts of a certain subject. The effect of concept mapping on cognitive and affective qualities is one of the research topics among educational researchers for last decades. We educators want to utilize it both as an instructional tool or an assessment tool in classes. For that reason, this study aimed to determine the effect of concept mapping as a learning strategy in science classes on students’ academic achievement and attitude. The research employed a randomized pre-test post-test control group design. Data collected from 60 sixth grade students participated in the study from a randomly selected primary school in Turkey. Sixth-grade classes of the school were analyzed according to students’ academic achievement, science attitude, gender, mathematics, science courses grades, and their GPAs before the implementation. Two of the classes found to be equivalent (t=0,983, p>0,05) and one of them was defined as experimental and the other one control group randomly. During a 5-weeks period, the experimental group students (N=30) used the paper-based concept mapping method while the control group students (N=30) were taught with the traditional approach according to the science and technology education curriculum for light and sound subject. Both groups were taught by the same teacher who is experienced using concept mapping in science classes. Before the implementation, the teacher explained the theory of the concept maps and showed how to create paper-based concept mapping individually to the experimental group students for two hours. Then for two following hours she asked them to create some concept maps related to their former science subjects and gave them feedback by reviewing their concept maps to be sure that they can create during the implementation. The data were collected by science achievement test, science attitude scale and personal information form. Science achievement test and science attitude scale were implemented as pre-test and post-test while personal information form was implemented just as once. The reliability coefficient of the achievement test was KR20=0,76 and Cronbach’s Alpha of the attitude scale was 0,89. SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. According to the results, there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control group for academic achievement but not for attitude. The experimental group had significantly greater gains from academic achievement test than the control group (t=0,02, p< 0,05). The findings showed that the paper-and-pencil concept mapping can be used as an effective method for students’ academic achievement in science classes. The results have implications for further researches.
Integrating Practice-Based Learning in Accounting Education: Bolstering Students Engagement and Learning
This paper focuses on sharing experience gained through a pilot project undertaken to teach an introductory accounting subject linking real-life ground realities with the fundamental concepts of accounting. In view of the practical dimensions of Accounting it has been observed that adopting a teaching approach based on practical illustrations help students to motivate and generate interests to take accounting profession as their career. The paper reports that students’ perception about accounting as ‘dreary’ has been changed to ‘interesting’ due to adoption of practice based approach in teaching. The authors argue that ‘concept mapping’ can play a vital role in facilitating practice based education in accounting which promotes a rewarding learning experience among the students. The paper considers taking into account generic skills development, student centric learning, development of innovative assessment tasks, making students aware of the potential benefits of practice based education primarily through concept mapping, and engaging them both inside and outside of the class rooms are critical for ensuring success of this approach.
Critical Appraisal of Different Drought Indices of Drought Predection and Their Application in KBK Districts of Odisha
Mapping of the extreme events (droughts) is one of the adaptation strategies to consequences of increasing climatic inconsistency and climate alterations. There is no operational practice to forecast the drought. One of the suggestions is to update mapping of drought prone areas for developmental planning. Drought indices play a significant role in drought mitigation. Many scientists have worked on different statistical analysis in drought and other climatological hazards. Many researchers have studied droughts individually for different sub-divisions or for India. Very few workers have studied district wise probabilities over large scale. In the present study, district wise drought probabilities over KBK (Kalahandi-Balangir-Koraput) districts of Odisha, India, Which are seriously prone to droughts, has been established using Hydrological drought index and Meteorological drought index along with the remote sensing drought indices to develop a multidirectional approach in the field of drought mitigation. Mapping for moderate and severe drought probabilities for KBK districts has been done and regions belonging different class intervals of probabilities of drought have been demarcated. Such type of information would be a good tool for planning purposes, for input in modelling and better promising results can be achieved.
Topographic Mapping of Farmland by Integration of Multiple Sensors on Board Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial System
This paper introduced a topographic mapping system with time-saving and simplicity advantages based on integration of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Post Processing Kinematic Global Positioning System (PPK GPS) data. This topographic mapping system used a low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a platform to conduct land survey in a low-cost, efficient, and totally autonomous manner. An experiment in a small-scale sugarcane farmland was conducted in Queensland, Australia. Subsequently, we synchronized LiDAR distance measurements that were corrected by using attitude information from gyroscope with PPK GPS coordinates for generation of precision topographic maps, which could be further utilized for such applications like precise land leveling and drainage management. The results indicated that LiDAR distance measurements and PPK GPS altitude reached good accuracy of less than 0.015 m.
Weak Convergence of Mann Iteration for a Hybrid Pair of Mappings in a Banach Space
We prove the weak convergence of Mann iteration for a hybrid pair of maps to a common fixed point of a selfmap f and a multivalued f nonexpansive mapping T in Banach space E.
Mapping Methods to Solve a Modified Korteweg de Vries Type Equation
In this paper, we employ mapping methods to construct exact travelling wave solutions for a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We have derived periodic wave solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, kink solutions and singular wave solutions in terms of hyperbolic functions.
Comparative Study of Accuracy of Land Cover/Land Use Mapping Using Medium Resolution Satellite Imagery: A Case Study
Classification of satellite imagery is very important for the assessment of its accuracy. In order to determine the accuracy of the classified image, usually the assumed-true data are derived from ground truth data using Global Positioning System. The data collected from satellite imagery and ground truth data is then compared to find out the accuracy of data and error matrices are prepared. Overall and individual accuracies are calculated using different methods. The study illustrates advanced classification and accuracy assessment of land use/land cover mapping using satellite imagery. IRS-1C-LISS IV data were used for classification of satellite imagery. The satellite image was classified using the software in fourteen classes namely water bodies, agricultural fields, forest land, urban settlement, barren land and unclassified area etc. Classification of satellite imagery and calculation of accuracy was done by using ERDAS-Imagine software to find out the best method. This study is based on the data collected for Bhopal city boundaries of Madhya Pradesh State of India.
Mapping of Siltations of AlKhod Dam, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Using Low-Cost Multispectral Satellite Data
Remote sensing plays a vital role in mapping of resources and monitoring of environments of the earth. In the present research study, mapping and monitoring of clay siltations occurred in the Alkhod Dam of Muscat, Sultanate of Oman are carried out using low-cost multispectral Landsat and ASTER data. The dam is constructed across the Wadi Samail catchment for ground water recharge. The occurrence and spatial distribution of siltations in the dam are studied with five years of interval from the year 1987 of construction to 2014. The deposits are mainly due to the clay, sand, and silt occurrences derived from the weathering rocks of ophiolite sequences occurred in the Wadi Samail catchment. The occurrences of clays are confirmed by minerals identification using ASTER VNIR-SWIR spectral bands and Spectral Angle Mapper supervised image processing method. The presence of clays and their spatial distribution are verified in the field. The study recommends the technique and the low-cost satellite data to similar region of the world.
Spatial Orientation of Land Use Activities along Buffalo River Estuary: A Study in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, Eastern Cape South Africa
South Africa is one of the developing countries rich in estuary ecosystem. Previous studies have identified many impacts of land use activities on the pollution status of the estuaries. These land use activity and related practices are often blamed for the many pollution problems affecting the estuaries. For example, the estuarine ecosystems on a global scale are experiencing vast transformations from anthropogenic influences; Buffalo River Estuary is one of the influenced estuaries whereby the sources of pollution are unknown. These problems consequently lead to the degradation of the estuaries. The aim of the research was to establish the factors that have the potential to impact pollution status of Buffalo river estuary. Study focuses on Identifying and mapping land use activities along Buffalo River Estuary. Questionnaire survey, structured interviews, direct observation, GPS survey and ArcGIS mapping were the methods used for data collection in the area, and results were analyzed and presented by ANOVA and Microsoft Excel statistical methods. The results showed that harbour is the main source of pollution, in Buffalo River Estuary, through Ballast water discharge. Therefore that requires more concern for protecting and cleaning the estuary.
Underrepresentation of Right Middle Cerebral Infarct: A Statistical Parametric Mapping
Prior studies have shown that patients with right hemispheric stroke are likely to seek medical service compared with those with left hemispheric stroke. However, the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. In the present study, we generated lesion probability maps in a patient with right and left middle cerebral artery infarct and statistically compared. We found that precentral gyrus-Brodmann area 44, a language area in the left hemisphere - involvement was significantly higher in patients with left hemispheric stroke. This finding suggests that a language dysfunction was more noticeable, thereby taking more patients to hospitals.
Dissection of Genomic Loci for Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistance in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas)
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas L. Moench) or lady’s finger is an important vegetable crop belonging to the Malvaceae family. Unfortunately, production and productivity of Okra are majorly affected by Yellow Vein mosaic virus (YVMV). The AO: 189 (resistant parent) X AO: 191(susceptible parent) used for the development of mapping population. The mapping population has 143 individuals (F₂:F₃). Population was characterized by physiological and pathological observations. Screening of 360 DNA markers was performed to survey for parental polymorphism between the contrasting parents’, i.e., AO: 189 and AO: 191. Out of 360; 84 polymorphic markers were used for genotyping of the mapping population. Total markers were distributed into four linkage groups (LG1, LG2, LG3, and LG4). LG3 covered the longest span (106.8cM) with maximum number of markers (27) while LG1 represented the smallest linkage group in terms of length (71.2cM). QTL identification using the composite interval mapping approach detected two prominent QTLs, QTL1 and QTL2 for resistance against YVMV disease. These QTLs were placed between the marker intervals of NBS-LRR72-Path02 and NBS-LRR06- NBS-LRR65 on linkage group 02 and linkage group 04 respectively. The LOD values of QTL1 and QTL2 were 5.7 and 6.8 which accounted for 19% and 27% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The findings of this study provide two linked markers which can be used as efficient diagnostic tools to distinguish between YVMV resistant and susceptible Okra cultivars/genotypes. Lines identified as highly resistant against YVMV infection can be used as donor lines for this trait. This will be instrumental in accelerating the trait improvement program in Okra and will substantially reduce the yield losses due to this viral disease.
Quick Similarity Measurement of Binary Images via Probabilistic Pixel Mapping
In this paper we present a quick technique to measure the similarity between binary images. The technique is based on a probabilistic mapping approach and is fast because only a minute percentage of the image pixels need to be compared to measure the similarity, and not the whole image. We exploit the power of the Probabilistic Matching Model for Binary Images (PMMBI) to arrive at an estimate of the similarity. We show that the estimate is a good approximation of the actual value, and the quality of the estimate can be improved further with increased image mappings. Furthermore, the technique is image size invariant; the similarity between big images can be measured as fast as that for small images. Examples of trials conducted on real images are presented.
Analysis of Noise Environment and Acoustics Material in Residential Building
Acoustic phenomena create an acoustic interpretation condition that describes the characteristics of the environment. In urban areas, the tendency of heterogeneous and simultaneous human activity form a soundscape that is different from other regions, one of the characteristics of urban areas that developing the soundscape is the presence of vertical model houses or residential building. Activities both within the building and surrounding environment are able to make the soundscape with certain characteristics. The acoustics comfort of residential building becomes an important aspect, those demand lead the building features become more diverse. Initial steps in mapping acoustic conditions in a soundscape are important, this is the method to determine uncomfortable condition. Noise generated by road traffic, railway, and plane is an important consideration, especially for urban people, therefore the proper design of the building becomes very important as an effort to bring appropriate acoustics comfort. In this paper the authors developed noise mapping on the location of the residential building. Mapping done by taking some point referring to the noise source. The mapping result become the basis for modeling the acoustics wave interacted with the building model. Material selection is done based on literature study and modeling simulation using Insul by considering the absorption coefficient and Sound Transmission Class. The analysis of acoustics rays is ray tracing method using Comsol simulator software that can show the movement of acoustics rays and their interaction with a boundary. The result of this study can be used to consider boundary material in residential building as well as consideration for improving the acoustic quality in the acoustics zones that are formed.
Capture Zone of a Well Field in an Aquifer Bounded by Two Parallel Streams
In this paper, the velocity potential and stream
function of capture zone for a well field in an aquifer bounded by two
parallel streams with or without a uniform regional flow of any
directions are presented. The well field includes any number of
extraction or injection wells or a combination of both types with any
pumping rates. To delineate the capture envelope, the potential and
streamlines equations are derived by conformal mapping method.
This method can help us to release constrains of other methods. The
equations can be applied as useful tools to design in-situ groundwater
remediation systems, to evaluate the surface–subsurface water
interaction and to manage the water resources.
Algorithms for Computing of Optimization Problems with a Common Minimum-Norm Fixed Point with Applications
This research is aimed to study a two-step iteration
process defined over a finite family of σ-asymptotically
quasi-nonexpansive nonself-mappings. The strong convergence
is guaranteed under the framework of Banach spaces with some
additional structural properties including strict and uniform
convexity, reflexivity, and smoothness assumptions. With similar
projection technique for nonself-mapping in Hilbert spaces, we
hereby use the generalized projection to construct a point within
the corresponding domain. Moreover, we have to introduce the use
of duality mapping and its inverse to overcome the unavailability
of duality representation that is exploit by Hilbert space theorists.
We then apply our results for σ-asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive
nonself-mappings to solve for ideal efficiency of vector optimization
problems composed of finitely many objective functions. We also
showed that the obtained solution from our process is the closest to
the origin. Moreover, we also give an illustrative numerical example
to support our results.
Body, Experience, Sense, and Place: Past and Present Sensory Mappings of Istiklal Street in Istanbul
An attempt to recognize the undiscovered bounds of Istiklal Street in Istanbul between its sensory experiences (intangible qualities) and physical setting (tangible qualities) could be taken as the first inspiration point for this study. ‘The dramatic physical changes’ and ‘their current impacts on sensory attributions’ of Istiklal Street have directed this study to consider the role of changing the physical layout on sensory dimensions which have a subtle but important role in the examination of urban places. The public places have always been subject to transformation, so in the last years, the changing socio-cultural structure, economic and political movements, law and city regulations, innovative transportation and communication activities have resulted in a controversial modification of Istanbul. And, as the culture, entertainment, tourism, and shopping focus of Istanbul, Istiklal Street has witnessed different changing stages within the last years. In this process, because of the projects being implemented, many buildings such as cinemas, theatres, and bookstores have restored, moved, converted, closed and demolished which have been significant elements in terms of the qualitative value of this area. And, the multi-layered socio-cultural, and architectural structure of Istiklal Street has been changing in a dramatical and controversial way. But importantly, while the physical setting of Istiklal Street has changed, the transformation has not been spatial, socio-cultural, economic; avoidably the sensory dimensions of Istiklal Street which have great importance in terms of intangible qualities of this area have begun to lose their distinctive features. This has created the challenge of this research. As the main hypothesis, this study claims that the physical transformations have led to change in the sensory characteristic of Istiklal Street, therefore the Sensescape of Istiklal Street deserve to be recorded, decoded and promoted as expeditiously as possible to observe the sensory reflections of physical transformations in this area. With the help of the method of ‘Sensewalking’ which is an efficient research tool to generate knowledge on sensory dimensions of an urban settlement, this study suggests way of ‘mapping’ to understand how do ‘changes of physical setting’ play role on ‘sensory qualities’ of Istiklal Street which have been changed or lost over time. Basically, this research focuses on the sensory mapping of Istiklal Street from the 1990s until today to picture, interpret, criticize the ‘sensory mapping of Istiklal Street in present’ and the ‘sensory mapping of Istiklal Street in past’. Through the sensory mapping of Istiklal Street, this study intends to increase the awareness about the distinctive sensory qualities of places. It is worthwhile for further studies that consider the sensory dimensions of places especially in the field of architecture.
Exact Solutions of a Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation with Kerr Law Nonlinearity
A nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been considered for solving by mapping methods in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (JEFs). The equation under consideration has a linear evolution term, linear and nonlinear dispersion terms, the Kerr law nonlinearity term and three terms representing the contribution of meta materials. This equation which has applications in optical fibers is found to have soliton solutions, shock wave solutions, and singular wave solutions when the modulus of the JEFs approach 1 which is the infinite period limit. The equation with special values of the parameters has also been solved using the tanh method.
Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy for Assessment in Engineering Education
The goal of every faculty is to guide students to learn fundamental concepts and also improve thinking skills. Curriculum questionnaires must be framed, which would facilitate students to improve their thinking skills. Improving thinking skill is a difficult task and one of the ways to achieve this is to frame questionnaires using Bloom’s Taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy helps the faculty to assess the students in a systematic approach which involves students performing successfully at each level in a systematic manner. In this paper, we have discussed on Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and how to frame our questions based on the taxonomy for assessment. We have also presented mapping the questions with the taxonomy table which shows the mapping of the questions in knowledge and cognitive domain.
Tensor Deep Stacking Neural Networks and Bilinear Mapping Based Speech Emotion Classification Using Facial Electromyography
Speech emotion classification is a dominant research field in finding a sturdy and profligate classifier appropriate for different real-life applications. This effort accentuates on classifying different emotions from speech signal quarried from the features related to pitch, formants, energy contours, jitter, shimmer, spectral, perceptual and temporal features. Tensor deep stacking neural networks were supported to examine the factors that influence the classification success rate. Facial electromyography signals were composed of several forms of focuses in a controlled atmosphere by means of audio-visual stimuli. Proficient facial electromyography signals were pre-processed using moving average filter, and a set of arithmetical features were excavated. Extracted features were mapped into consistent emotions using bilinear mapping. With facial electromyography signals, a database comprising diverse emotions will be exposed with a suitable fine-tuning of features and training data. A success rate of 92% can be attained deprived of increasing the system connivance and the computation time for sorting diverse emotional states.
A New Approach to the Digital Implementation of Analog Controllers for a Power System Control
In this paper, a comparison of discrete time PID, PSS controllers is presented through small signal stability of power system comprising of one machine connected to infinite bus system. This comparison achieved by using a new approach of discretization which converts the S-domain model of analog controllers to a Z-domain model to enhance the damping of a single machine power system. The new method utilizes the Plant Input Mapping (PIM) algorithm. The proposed algorithm is stable for any sampling rate, as well as it takes the closed loop characteristic into consideration. On the other hand, the traditional discretization methods such as Tustin’s method is produce satisfactory results only; when the sampling period is sufficiently low.
Course Outcomes to Programme Outcomes Mapping: A Methodology Based on Key Elements
In a world of tremendous technical developments, effective and efficient higher education has always been a major challenge. The rising number of educational institutions have made it mandatory for healthy competitions among the institutions. To evaluate the qualitative competence of these educations institutions in engineering and technology and related disciplines, an efficient assessment technique in internal and external quality has to be followed. To achieve this, the curriculum is to be developed into courses, and each course has to be presented in the form teaching lesson plan consisting of topics and session outcome known as Course Outcomes (COs), that easily map into different Programme Outcomes (POs). The major objective of these methodologies is to provide quality technical education to its students. Detailed clear weightage in CO-PO mapping helps in proper measurable COs and to devise the POs attainment is an important issue. This ensures in assisting the achievement of the POs with proper weightage to POs, and also improves the successive curriculum development. In this paper, we presented a methodology for mapping CO and PO considering the key elements supported by each PO. This approach is useful in evaluating the attainment of POs which is based on the attainment of COs using the existing data from students' marks taken from various test items. Such direct assessment tools are used to measure the degree to which each student has achieved each course learning outcome by the completion of the course. Hence, these results are also useful in measuring the PO attainment for improving the programme vision and mission.
Spectral Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals for Geothermal Exploration Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Short Wave Infrared Data
Exploiting geothermal resources for either power, home heating, Spa, greenhouses, industrial or tourism requires an initial identification of suitable areas. This can be done cost-effectively using remote sensing satellite imagery which has synoptic capabilities of covering large areas in real time and by identifying possible areas of hydrothermal alteration and minerals related to Geothermal systems. Earth features and minerals are known to have unique diagnostic spectral reflectance characteristics that can be used to discriminate them. The focus of this paper is to investigate the applicability of mapping hydrothermal alteration in relation to geothermal systems (thermal springs) at Yankari Park Northeastern Nigeria, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for resource exploration. The ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands are used to highlight and discriminate alteration areas by employing sophisticated digital image processing techniques including image transformations and spectral mapping methods. Field verifications are conducted at the Yankari Park using hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) monterra to identify locations of hydrothermal alteration and rock samples obtained at the vicinity and surrounding areas of the ‘Mawulgo’ and ‘Wikki’ thermal springs. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of rock samples obtained from the field validated hydrothermal alteration by the presence of indicator minerals including; Dickite, Kaolinite, Hematite and Quart. The study indicated the applicability of mapping geothermal anomalies for resource exploration in unmapped sparsely vegetated savanna environment characterized by subtle surface manifestations such as thermal springs. The results could have implication for geothermal resource exploration especially at the prefeasibility stages by narrowing targets for comprehensive surveys and in unexplored savanna regions where expensive airborne surveys are unaffordable.
Shadows and Symbols: The Tri-Level Importance of Memory in Jane Yolen's 'the Devil's Arithmetic' and Soon-To-Be-Published 'Mapping the Bones'
'Never again' and 'Lest we forget' have long been messages associated with the events of the Shoah. Yet as we attempt to learn from the past, we must find new ways to engage with its memories. The preservation of the culture and the value of tradition are critical factors in Jane Yolen's works of Holocaust fiction, The Devil's Arithmetic and Mapping the Bones, emphasized through the importance of remembering. That word, in its multitude of forms (remember, remembering, memories), occurs no less than ten times in the first four pages and over one hundred times in the one hundred and sixty-four-page narrative The Devil’s Arithmetic. While Yolen takes a different approach to showcasing the importance of memory in Mapping the Bones, it is of equal import in this work and arguably to the future of Holocaust knowing. The idea of remembering, the desire to remember, and the ability to remember, are explored in three divergent ways in The Devil’s Arithmetic. First, in the importance to remember a past which is not her own – to understand history or acquired memories. Second, in the protagonist's actual or initial memories, those of her life in modern-day New York. Third, in a reverse mode of forgetting and trying to reacquire that which has been lost -- as Hannah is processed in the camp and she forgets everything, all worlds prior to the camp are lost to her. As numbers replace names, Yolen stresses the importance of self-identity or owned memories. In addition, the importance of relaying memory, the transitions of memory from perspective, and the ideas of reflective telling are explored in Mapping the Bones -- through the telling of the story through the lens of one of the twins as the events are unfolding; and then the through the reflective telling from the lens of the other twin. Parallel to the exploration of the intersemiosis of memory is the discussion of literary shadows (foreshadowing, backshadowing, and side-shadowing) and their impact on the reader's experience with Yolen's narrative. For in this type of exploration, one cannot look at the events described in Yolen's work and not also contemplate the figurative shadows cast.
The Use of TRIZ to Map the Evolutive Pattern of Products
This paper presents a model for mapping the evolutive pattern of products in order to generate new ideas, to perceive emerging technologies and to manage product’s portfolios in new product development (NPD). According to the proposed model, the information extracted from the patent system is filtered and analyzed with TRIZ tools to produce the input information to the NPD process. The authors acknowledge that the NPD process is well integrated within the enterprises business strategic planning and that new products are vital in the competitive market nowadays. In the other hand, it has been observed the proactive use of patent information in some methodologies for selecting projects, mapping technological change and generating product concepts. And one of these methodologies is TRIZ, a theory created to favor innovation and to improve product design that provided the analytical framework for the model. Initially, it is presented an introduction to TRIZ mainly focused on the patterns of evolution of technical systems and its strategic uses, a brief and absolutely non-comprehensive description as the theory has several others tools being widely employed in technical and business applications. Then, it is introduced the model for mapping the products evolutive pattern with its three basic pillars, namely patent information, TRIZ and NPD, and the methodology for implementation. Following, a case study of a Brazilian bike manufacturing is presented to proceed the mapping of a product evolutive pattern by decomposing and analyzing one of its assemblies along ten evolution lines in order to envision opportunities for further product development. Some of these lines are illustrated in more details to evaluate the features of the product in relation to the TRIZ concepts using a comparison perspective with patents in the state of the art to validate the product’s evolutionary potential. As a result, the case study provided several opportunities for a product improvement development program in different project categories, identifying technical and business impacts as well as indicating the lines of evolution that can mostly benefit from each opportunity.
Artificial Habitat Mapping in Adriatic Sea
The hydroacoustic technology is an efficient tool to study the sea environment: the most recent advancement in artificial habitat mapping involves acoustic systems to investigate fish abundance, distribution and behavior in specific areas. Along with a detailed high-coverage bathymetric mapping of the seabed, the high-frequency Multibeam Echosounder (MBES) offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of fish aggregation, combining its ability to detect at the same time the seafloor and the water column. Surveying fish schools distribution around artificial structures, MBES allows to evaluate how their presence modifies the biological natural habitat overtime in terms of fish attraction and abundance. In the last years, artificial habitat mapping experiences have been carried out by CNR-ISMAR in the Adriatic sea: fish assemblages aggregating at offshore gas platforms and artificial reefs have been systematically monitored employing different kinds of methodologies. This work focuses on two case studies: a gas extraction platform founded at 80 meters of depth in the central Adriatic sea, 30 miles far from the coast of Ancona, and the concrete and steel artificial reef of Senigallia, deployed by CNR-ISMAR about 1.2 miles offshore at a depth of 11.2 m . Relating the MBES data (metrical dimensions of fish assemblages, shape, depth, density etc.) with the results coming from other methodologies, such as experimental fishing surveys and underwater video camera, it has been possible to investigate the biological assemblage attracted by artificial structures hypothesizing which species populate the investigated area and their spatial dislocation from these artificial structures. Processing MBES bathymetric and water column data, 3D virtual scenes of the artificial habitats have been created, receiving an intuitive-looking depiction of their state and allowing overtime to evaluate their change in terms of dimensional characteristics and depth fish schools’ disposition. These MBES surveys play a leading part in the general multi-year programs carried out by CNR-ISMAR with the aim to assess potential biological changes linked to human activities on.
A Novel Multi-Block Selective Mapping Scheme for PAPR Reduction in FBMC/OQAM Systems
Filter Bank Multicarrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (FBMC/OQAM) is presently known as a sustainable alternative to conventional Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for signal transmission over multi-path fading channels. Like all multicarrier systems, FBMC/OQAM suffers from high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Due to the symbol overlap inherent in the FBMC/OQAM system, the direct application of conventional OFDM PAPR reduction scheme is far from being effective. This paper suggests a novel scheme termed Multi-Blocks Selective Mapping (MB-SLM) whose simulation results show that its performance in terms of PAPR reduction is almost identical to that of OFDM system.
The Mapping of Pastoral Area as a Basis of Ecological for Beef Cattle in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
This study was conducted and aimed in identifying and mapping the pasture as an ecological base of beef cattle. A survey was carried out during a period of April to June 2016, in Suppa, Mattirobulu, the district of Pinrang, South Sulawesi province. The mapping process of grazing area was conducted in several stages; inputting and tracking of data points into Google Earth Pro (version 220.127.116.119), affirmation and confirmation of tracking line visualized by satellite with a variety of records at the point, a certain point and tracking input data into ArcMap Application (ArcGIS version 10.1), data processing DEM/SRTM (S04E119) with respect to the location of the grazing areas, creation of a contour map (a distance of 5 m) and mapping tilt (slope) of land and land cover map-making. Analysis of land cover, particularly the state of the vegetation was done through the identification procedure NDVI (Normalized Differences Vegetation Index). This procedure was performed by making use of the Landsat-8. The results showed that the topography of the grazing areas of hills and some sloping surfaces and flat with elevation vary from 74 to 145 above sea level (asl), while the requirements for growing superior grass and legume is an altitude of up to 143-159 asl. Slope varied between 0 - > 40% and was dominated by a slope of 0-15%, according to the slope/topography pasture maximum of 15%. The range of NDVI values for pasture image analysis results was between 0.1 and 0.27. Characteristics of vegetation cover of pasture land in the category of vegetation density were low, 70% of the land was the land for cattle grazing, while the remaining approximately 30% was a grove and forest included plant water where the place for shelter of the cattle during the heat and drinking water supply. There are seven types of graminae and 5 types of legume that was dominant in the region. Proportionally, graminae class dominated up 75.6% and legume crops up to 22.1% and the remaining 2.3% was another plant trees that grow in the region. The dominant weed species in the region were Cromolaenaodorata and Lantana camara, besides that there were 6 types of floor plant that did not include as forage fodder.
Developing an Effectual Logic through a Visual Mind Mapping
Companies are confronted with complex and competitive markets. The dynamics of these markets are becoming more and more fluid, requiring companies to provide competitive, definite and technological responses within increasingly short timeframes. To meet this demand, companies must rely on the cognitive abilities of actors of creativity to provide tangible answers to current contextual problems. It therefore seems appropriate to provide instruments to support this particular stage of innovation. Various methods and tools can meet this requirement. For a number of years we have been conducting experiments on the use of mind maps in the context of innovation projects with teams of different nationalities. After presenting the main research carried out on this theme, we discuss the possible correlation between the different uses of iconic tools and certain types of innovation. We then provide a link with different cognitive logic. Finally, we conclude by putting our research into perspective.
Mapping Tunnelling Parameters for Global Optimization in Big Data via Dye Laser Simulation
One of the biggest challenges has emerged from the ever-expanding, dynamic, and instantaneously changing space-Big Data; and to find a data point and inherit wisdom to this space is a hard task. In this paper, we reduce the space of big data in Hamiltonian formalism that is in concordance with Ising Model. For this formulation, we simulate the system using dye laser in FORTRAN and analyse the dynamics of the data point in energy well of rhodium atom. After mapping the photon intensity and pulse width with energy and potential we concluded that as we increase the energy there is also increase in probability of tunnelling up to some point and then it starts decreasing and then shows a randomizing behaviour. It is due to decoherence with the environment and hence there is a loss of ‘quantumness’. This interprets the efficiency parameter and the extent of quantum evolution. The results are strongly encouraging in favour of the use of ‘Topological Property’ as a source of information instead of the qubit.
Optimization Based Extreme Learning Machine for Watermarking of an Image in DWT Domain
In this paper, we proposed the implementation of optimization based Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) for watermarking of B-channel of color image in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. ELM, a regularization algorithm, works based on generalized single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural networks (SLFNs). However, hidden layer parameters, generally called feature mapping in context of ELM need not to be tuned every time. This paper shows the embedding and extraction processes of watermark with the help of ELM and results are compared with already used machine learning models for watermarking.Here, a cover image is divide into suitable numbers of non-overlapping blocks of required size and DWT is applied to each block to be transformed in low frequency sub-band domain. Basically, ELM gives a unified leaning platform with a feature mapping, that is, mapping between hidden layer and output layer of SLFNs, is tried for watermark embedding and extraction purpose in a cover image. Although ELM has widespread application right from binary classification, multiclass classification to regression and function estimation etc. Unlike SVM based algorithm which achieve suboptimal solution with high computational complexity, ELM can provide better generalization performance results with very small complexity. Efficacy of optimization method based ELM algorithm is measured by using quantitative and qualitative parameters on a watermarked image even though image is subjected to different types of geometrical and conventional attacks.
Knowledge Management in Public Sector Employees: A Case Study of Training Participants at National Institute of Management, Pakistan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the current level of knowledge mapping skills of the public sector employees in Pakistan. National Institute of Management is one of the premiere public sector training organization for mid-career public sector employees in Pakistan. This study is conducted on participants of fourteen weeks long training course called Mid-Career Management Course (MCMC) which is mandatory for public sector employees in order to ascertain how to enhance their knowledge mapping skills. Methodology: Researcher used both qualitative and quantitative approach to conduct this study. Primary data about current level of participants’ understanding of knowledge mapping was collected through structured questionnaire. Later on, Participant Observation method was used where researchers acted as part of the group to gathered data from the trainees during their performance in training activities and tasks. Findings: Respondents of the study were examined for skills and abilities to organizing ideas, helping groups to develop conceptual framework, identifying critical knowledge areas of an organization, study large networks and identifying the knowledge flow using nodes and vertices, visualizing information, represent organizational structure etc. Overall, the responses varied in different skills depending on the performance and presentations. However, generally all participants have demonstrated average level of using both the IT and Non-IT K-mapping tools and techniques during simulation exercises, analysis paper de-briefing, case study reports, post visit presentation, course review, current issue presentation, syndicate meetings, and daily synopsis. Research Limitations: This study is conducted on a small-scale population of 67 public sector employees nominated by federal government to undergo 14 weeks extensive training program called MCMC (Mid-Career Management Course) at National Institute of Management, Peshawar, Pakistan. Results, however, reflects only a specific class of public sector employees i.e. working in grade 18 and having more than 5 years of work. Practical Implications: Research findings are useful for trainers, training agencies, government functionaries, and organizations working for capacity building of public sector employees.
Geological Engineering Mapping Approach to Know Factor of Safety Distribution and Its Implication to Landslide Potential at Muria Mountain, Kudus, Central Java Province, Indonesia
Landslide is a geological hazard that is quite common in some areas in Indonesia and have disadvantages impact for public around. Due to the high frequency of landslides in Indonesia, and extensive damage, landslides should be specifically noted. Landslides caused by a soil or rock unit that has been in a state of unstable slopes and not in ideal state again, so the value of ground resistance or the rock been passed by the value of the forces acting on the slope. Based on this fact, authors held a geological engineering mapping at Muria Mountain, Kudus, Central Java province which is known as an agriculture and religion tourism area. This geological engineering mapping is performed to determine landslides potential at Muria Mountain. Slopes stability will be illustrated by a number called the “factor of safety” where the number can describe how much potential a slope to fall. Slopes stability can be different depending on the physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil and slope conditions. Testing of physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil conducted in the geotechnical laboratory. The characteristics of the soil must be same when sampled as well as in the test laboratory. To meet that requirement, authors used "undisturb sample" method that will be guarantee sample will not be distracted by environtment influences. From laboratory tests on soil physical and mechanical properties obtained characteristics of the soil on a slope, and then inserted into a Geological Information Software that would generate a value of factor of safety and give a visualization slope form area of research. Then, as a result of the study, obtained a map of the ground movement distribution map and i is implications for landslides potential areas.
Quantitative Comparisons of Different Approaches for Rotor Identification
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia that is a known prognostic marker for stroke, heart failure and death. Reentrant mechanisms of rotor formation, which are stable electrical sources of cardiac excitation, are believed to cause AF. No existing commercial mapping systems have been demonstrated to consistently and accurately predict rotor locations outside of the pulmonary veins in patients with persistent AF. There is a clear need for robust spatio-temporal techniques that can consistently identify rotors using unique characteristics of the electrical recordings at the pivot point that can be applied to clinical intracardiac mapping. Recently, we have developed four new signal analysis approaches – Shannon entropy (SE), Kurtosis (Kt), multi-scale frequency (MSF), and multi-scale entropy (MSE) – to identify the pivot points of rotors. These proposed techniques utilize different cardiac signal characteristics (other than local activation) to uncover the intrinsic complexity of the electrical activity in the rotors, which are not taken into account in current mapping methods.
We validated these techniques using high-resolution optical mapping experiments in which direct visualization and identification of rotors in ex-vivo Langendorff-perfused hearts were possible. Episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) were induced using burst pacing, and two examples of rotors were used showing 3-sec episodes of a single stationary rotor and figure-8 reentry with one rotor being stationary and one meandering. Movies were captured at a rate of 600 frames per second for 3 sec. with 64x64 pixel resolution. These optical mapping movies were used to evaluate the performance and robustness of SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques with respect to the following clinical limitations: different time of recordings, different spatial resolution, and the presence of meandering rotors.
To quantitatively compare the results, SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques were compared to the “true” rotor(s) identified using the phase map. Accuracy was calculated for each approach as the duration of the time series and spatial resolution were reduced. The time series duration was decreased from its original length of 3 sec, down to 2, 1, and 0.5 sec. The spatial resolution of the original VT episodes was decreased from 64x64 pixels to 32x32, 16x16, and 8x8 pixels by uniformly removing pixels from the optical mapping video..
Our results demonstrate that Kt, MSF and MSE were able to accurately identify the pivot point of the rotor under all three clinical limitations. The MSE approach demonstrated the best overall performance, but Kt was the best in identifying the pivot point of the meandering rotor. Artifacts mildly affect the performance of Kt, MSF and MSE techniques, but had a strong negative impact of the performance of SE.
The results of our study motivate further validation of SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques using intra-atrial electrograms from paroxysmal and persistent AF patients to see if these approaches can identify pivot points in a clinical setting. More accurate rotor localization could significantly increase the efficacy of catheter ablation to treat AF, resulting in a higher success rate for single procedures.
Volcanostratigraphy Reconaissance Study Using Ridge Continuity to Solve Complex Volcanic Deposit Problems, Case Study Old Sunda Volcano
In volcanic arc environment we can find multiple volcanic deposits which overlapped with another volcanic deposit so it will complicates source and distribution determination. This problem getting more difficult when we can not trace any deposit border evidences in field especially in high vegetation volcanic area, or overlapped deposit with same characteristics. Main purpose of this study is to solve complex volcanostratigraphy mapping problems trough ridge, valley, and river continuity. This method application carried out in Old Sunda Volcanic, West Java, Indonesia. Using 1:100.000 and 1:50.000 topographic map, and regional geology map, old sunda volcanic deposit was differentiated in regional level and detail level. Final product of this method is volcanostratigraphy unit determination in reconnaissance stage to simplify mapping process.
Mapping the Sonic Spectrum of Traditional Music and Instruments Used in Malaysian Kavadi Rituals
Music is as old as mankind and rituals using music such as Kavadi have been associated with social, cultural, and spiritual practices in many traditional and modern societies. Recent literature has provided scientific evidence that music affects psychological and physical changes through stimulation of brainwave. Despite such advances, the scientific study of the sonic qualities peculiar to traditional instruments and how it impacts on ritualistic activities is still lacking. This study addresses one such phenomenon. Devotees in Kavadi rituals are known to be in a state of trance state and do not experience pain nor suffer injury despite the hundreds of needles pierced through their skins. Although scientists have sought to understand how this is possible, lesser is known about the music that is used to prepare devotees to enter into the trance state. This study fills this gap of knowledge by providing scientific evidence through the identification and mapping of the sonic spectrum or sound fingerprint of the instruments and the repertoire used in these ritualistic forms in their ethnographic environment and in audio-controlled situations. The objectives are to identify and categorize the different types of traditional music used in Kavadi rituals; to record, transcribe and digitally score the musical repertoire used in the oral tradition of Kavadi rituals; to map the sonic spectrum of ritual music using spectromography and advanced music analytical software a mixed methodology will be used. This comprises ethnographic field studies using interviews, participant observation, audio-video recordings and audio-methodology using spectromography and advanced audio-technology for sonic mapping and the transcription of audio recordings into digital scores.
Analysis of the Aquifer Vulnerability of a Miopliocene Arid Area Using Drastic and SI Models
Many methods in the groundwater vulnerability have been developed in the world (methods like PRAST, DRIST, APRON/ARAA, PRASTCHIM, GOD). In this study, our choice dealt with two recent complementary methods using category mapping of index with weighting criteria (Point County Systems Model MSCP) namely the standard DRASTIC method and SI (Susceptibility Index). At present, these two methods are the most used for the mapping of the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater. Two classes of groundwater vulnerability in the Biskra sandy aquifer were identified by the DRASTIC method (average and high) and the SI method (very high and high). Integrated analysis has revealed that the high class is predominant for the DRASTIC method whereas for that of SI the preponderance is for the very high class. Furthermore, we notice that the method SI estimates better the vulnerability for the pollution in nitrates, with a rate of 85 % between the concentrations in nitrates of groundwater and the various established classes of vulnerability, against 75 % for the DRASTIC method. By including the land use parameter, the SI method produced more realistic results.
Precision Assessment of the Orthometric Heights Determination in the Northern Part of Libya
The Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-based technology has been utilized extensively in the last few years in a wide range of Geomatics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications. One of the main challenges dealing with GPS-based heights consists of converting them into Mean Sea Level (MSL) heights which is used in surveys and mapping. In this research work, differences in heights of 50 points, in northern part of Libya were carried out using both ordinary levelling (in which Geoid is the reference datum) and GPS techniques (in which Ellipsoid is the reference datum). In addition, this study has utilized the EGM2008 model to obtain the undulation values between the ellipsoidal and orthometric heights. From these values with ellipsoidal heights which can be obtained from GPS observations to compute the orthomteric heights. This research presented a suitable alternative, from an economical point of view, to substitute the expensive traditional levelling technique particularly for topographic mapping.
Phosphate Use Efficiency in Plants: A GWAS Approach to Identify the Pathways Involved
Phosphate (Pi) is one of the essential macronutrients in plant growth and development, and it plays a central role in metabolic processes in plants, particularly photosynthesis and respiration. Limitation of crop productivity by Pi is widespread and is likely to increase in the future. Applications of Pi fertilizers have improved soil Pi fertility and crop production; however, they have also caused environmental damage. Therefore, in order to reduce dependence on unsustainable Pi fertilizers, a better understanding of phosphate use efficiency (PUE) is required for engineering nutrient-efficient crop plants. Enhanced Pi efficiency can be achieved by improved productivity per unit Pi taken up. We aim to identify, by using association mapping, general features of the most important loci that contribute to increased PUE to allow us to delineate the physiological pathways involved in defining this trait in the model plant Arabidopsis. As PUE is in part determined by the efficiency of uptake, we designed a hydroponic system to avoid confounding effects due to differences in root system architecture leading to differences in Pi uptake. In this system, 18 parental lines and 217 lines of the MAGIC population (a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross) grown in high and low Pi availability conditions. The results showed revealed a large variation of PUE in the parental lines, indicating that the MAGIC population was well suited to identify PUE loci and pathways. 2 of 18 parental lines had the highest PUE in low Pi while some lines responded strongly and increased PUE with increased Pi. Having examined the 217 MAGIC population, considerable variance in PUE was found. A general feature was the trend of most lines to exhibit higher PUE when grown in low Pi conditions. Association mapping is currently in progress, but initial observations indicate that a wide variety of physiological processes are involved in influencing PUE in Arabidopsis. The combination of hydroponic growth methods and genome-wide association mapping is a powerful tool to identify the physiological pathways underpinning complex quantitative traits in plants.
Optical Flow Localisation and Appearance Mapping (OFLAAM) for Long-Term Navigation
This paper presents a novel method to use optical flow navigation for long-term navigation. Unlike standard SLAM approaches for augmented reality, OFLAAM is designed for Micro Air Vehicles (MAV). It uses an optical flow camera pointing downwards, an IMU and a monocular camera pointing frontwards. That configuration avoids the expensive mapping and tracking of the 3D features. It only maps these features in a vocabulary list by a localization module to tackle the loss of the navigation estimation. That module, based on the well-established algorithm DBoW2, will be also used to close the loop and allow long-term navigation in confined areas. That combination of high-speed optical flow navigation with a low rate localization algorithm allows fully autonomous navigation for MAV, at the same time it reduces the overall computational load. This framework is implemented in ROS (Robot Operating System) and tested attached to a laptop. A representative scenarios is used to analyse the performance of the system.
Lane Detection Using Labeling Based RANSAC Algorithm
In this paper, we propose labeling based RANSAC algorithm for lane detection. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been widely researched to avoid unexpected accidents. Lane detection is a necessary system to assist keeping lane and lane departure prevention. The proposed vision based lane detection method applies Canny edge detection, inverse perspective mapping (IPM), K-means algorithm, mathematical morphology operations and 8 connected-component labeling. Next, random samples are selected from each labeling region for RANSAC. The sampling method selects the points of lane with a high probability. Finally, lane parameters of straight line or curve equations are estimated. Through the simulations tested on video recorded at daytime and nighttime, we show that the proposed method has better performance than the existing RANSAC algorithm in various environments.
Design for Flight Endurance and Mapping Area Enhancement of a Fixed Wing Unmanned Air Vehicle
The design and development of new UAV are detailed in this paper. The mission requirement is setup for enhancement of flight endurance of a fixed wing UAV. The goal is to achieve flight endurance more than 60 minutes. UAV must be able launched by hand and can be equipped with the Sony A6000 camera. The design of sizing and aerodynamic analysis is conducted. The XFLR5 program and wind tunnel test are used for determination and comparison of aerodynamic characteristics. Lift, drag and pitching moment characteristics are evaluated. Then Kreno-V UAV is designed and proved its better efficiency compared to the Heron UAV who is currently used for mapping mission of Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (Public Organization), Thailand. The endurance is improved by 19%. Finally, Kreno-V UAV with a wing span of 2meters, the aspect ratio of 7, and V-tail shape is constructed and successfully test.
Impacts and Management of Oil Spill Pollution along the Chabahar Bay by ESI Mapping, Iran
The oil spill in marine water has direct impact on coastal resources and community. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map is the first step to assess the potential impact of an oil spill and minimize the damage of coastal resources. In order to create Environmental Sensitivity Maps for the Chabahar bay (Iran), information has been collected in three different layers (Shoreline Classification, Biological and Human- uses resources) by means of field observations and measurements of beach morphology, personal interviews with professionals of different areas and the collection of bibliographic information. In this paper an attempt made to prepare an ESI map for sensitivity to oil spills of Chabahar bay coast. The Chabahar bay is subjected to high threaten to oil spill because of port, dense mangrove forest,only coral spot in Oman Sea and many industrial activities. Mapping the coastal resources, shoreline and coastal structures was carried out using Satellite images and GIS technology. The coastal features classified into three major categories as: Shoreline Classification, Biological and Human uses resources. The important resources classified into mangrove, Exposed tidal flats, sandy beach, etc. The sensitivity of shore was ranked as low to high (1 = low sensitivity,10 = high sensitivity) based on geomorphology of Chabahar bay coast using NOAA standards (sensitivity to oil, ease of clean up, etc). Eight ESI types were found in the area namely; ESI 1A, 1C, 3A, 6B, 7, 8B,9A and 10D. Therefore, in the study area, 50% were defined as High sensitivity, less than 1% as Medium, and 49% as low sensitivity areas. The ESI maps are useful to the oil spill responders, coastal managers and contingency planners. The overall ESI mapping product can provide a valuable management tool not only for oil spill response but for better integrated coastal zone management.
Digital Elevation Model Analysis of Potential Prone Flood Disaster Watershed Citarum Headwaters Bandung
Flooding is an event of ponding on the flat area around the river as a result of the overflow of river water was not able to be accommodated by the river and may cause damage to the infrastructure of a region. This study aimed to analyze the data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for information that plays a role in the mapping of zones prone to flooding, mapping the distribution of zones prone to flooding that occurred in the Citarum upstream using secondary data and software (ArcGIS, MapInfo), this assessment was made distribution map of flooding, there were 13 counties / districts dam flood-prone areas in Bandung, and the most vulnerable districts are areas Baleendah-Dayeuhkolot-Bojongsoang-Banjaran. The area has a low slope and the same limits with boundary rivers and areas that have excessive land use, so the water catchment area is reduced.
Implementation of Lean Tools (Value Stream Mapping and ECRS) in an Oil Refinery
In today’s highly competitive business environment, every organization is striving towards lean manufacturing systems to achieve lower Production Lead Times, lower costs, less inventory and overall improvement in supply chains efficiency. Based on the similar idea, this paper presents the practical application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) tool and ECRS (Eliminate, Combine, Reduce, and Simplify) technique in the receipt section of the material management center of an oil refinery. A value stream is an assortment of all actions (value added as well as non-value added) that are required to bring a product through the essential flows, starting with raw material and ending with the customer. For drawing current state value stream mapping, all relevant data of the receipt cycle has been collected and analyzed. Then analysis of current state map has been done for determining the type and quantum of waste at every stage which helped in ascertaining as to how far the warehouse is from the concept of lean manufacturing. From the results achieved by current VSM, it was observed that the two processes- Preparation of GRN (Goods Receipt Number) and Preparation of UD (Usage Decision) are both bottle neck operations and have higher cycle time. This root cause analysis of various types of waste helped in designing a strategy for step-wise implementation of lean tools. The future state thus created a lean flow of materials at the warehouse center, reducing the lead time of the receipt cycle from 11 days to 7 days and increasing overall efficiency by 27.27%.
Environmental Impact of Cysts of Some Dinoflagellates Species in the Bizerta Lagoon
The specific composition and abundance of dinoflagellate resistance cysts in relation to environmental factors were studied from the superficial sediment at 123 stations in the Bizerte lagoon. 48 morphotypes of dinoflagellate cysts were identified, mainly dominated by Brigantidinium simplex, Votadinum spinosum, Alexandrium pacificum, Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax, and Lingulodinum machaerophorum. The density of cysts ranged from 1276 to 20126 cysts g⁻¹ dry sediment. Significant differences in the distribution pattern of the cysts were recorded, which allowed us to distinguish two areas; thus the inner areas of the lagoon have an abundance of cysts greater than the areas with marine influence. Ballast water discharges and shellfish culture may be incriminated as potential sources of introduction of species, particularly potentially toxic ones such as A. pacificum and Polysphaeridium zoharyi, without neglecting the role of currents in cyst distribution. Cyst mapping can be used as an indicator of potential foci of future toxic species blooms in this ecosystem.
Block N Lvi from the Northern Side of Parthenon Frieze: A Case Study of Augmented Reality for Museum Application
This paper aims to present a new method that consists in the use of video mapping techniques – that is a particular form of augmented reality, which could produce new tools - different from the ones that are actually in use - for an interactive Museum experience. With the words 'augmented reality', we mean the addition of more information than what the visitor would normally perceive; this information is mediated by the use of computer and projector. The proposed application involves the creation of a documentary that depicts and explains the history of the artifact and illustrates its features; this must be projected on the surface of the faithful copy of the freeze (obtained in full-scale with a 3D printer). This mode of operation uses different techniques that allow passing from the creation of the model to the creation of contents through an accurate historical and artistic analysis, and finally to the warping phase, that will permit to overlap real and virtual models. The ultimate step, that is still being studied, includes the creation of interactive contents that would be activated by visitors through appropriate motion sensors.
Data Integration in a GIS Geographic Information System Mapping of Agriculture in Semi-Arid Region of Setif, Algeria
Using tools of data processing such as geographic information system (GIS) for the contribution of the space management becomes more and more frequent. It allows collecting and analyzing diverse natural information relative to the same territory. Space technologies play crucial role in agricultural phenomenon analysis. For this, satellite images treatment were used to classify vegetation density and particularly agricultural areas in Setif province by making recourse to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This step was completed by mapping agricultural activities of the province by using ArcGIS.10 software in order to display an overall view and to realize spatial analysis of various themes combined between them which are chosen according to their strategic importance in different thematic maps. The synthesis map elaborately showed that geographic information system can contribute significantly to agricultural management by describing potentialities and development opportunities of production systems and agricultural sectors.
The Sensitivity of Electrical Geophysical Methods for Mapping Salt Stores within the Soil Profile
Soil salinization is one of the most hazardous phenomenons accelerating the land degradation processes. It either occurs naturally or is human-induced. High levels of soil salinity negatively affect crop growth and productivity leading land degradation ultimately. Thus, it is important to monitor and map soil salinity at an early stage to enact effective soil reclamation program that helps lessen or prevent future increase in soil salinity. Geophysical method has outperformed the traditional method for assessing soil salinity offering more informative and professional rapid assessment techniques for monitoring and mapping soil salinity. Soil sampling, EM38 and 2D conductivity imaging have been evaluated for their ability to delineate and map the level of salinity variations at Second Ponds Creek. The three methods have shown that the subsoil in the study area is saline. Salt variations were successfully observed under either method. However, EM38 reading and 2D inversion data show a clear spatial structure comparing to EC1:5 of soil samples in spite of that all soil samples, EM38 and 2D imaging were collected from the same location. Because EM38 readings and 2D imaging data are a weighted average of electrical soil conductance, it is more representative of soil properties than the soil samples method.
The mapping of subsurface soil at the study area has been successful and the resistivity imaging has proven to be an advantage. The soil salinity analysis (EC1:5) correspond well to the true resistivity bringing together a good result of soil salinity. Soil salinity clearly indicated by previous investigation EM38 have been confirmed by the interpretation of the true resistivity at study area.
A Non-Parametric Based Mapping Algorithm for Use in Audio Fingerprinting
Over the past few years, the online multimedia collection has grown at a fast pace. Several companies showed interest to study the different ways to organize the amount of audio information without the need of human intervention to generate metadata. In the past few years, many applications have emerged on the market which are capable of identifying a piece of music in a short time. Different audio effects and degradation make it much harder to identify the unknown piece. In this paper, an audio fingerprinting system which makes use of a non-parametric based algorithm is presented. Parametric analysis is also performed using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). The feature extraction methods employed are the Mel Spectrum Coefficients and the MPEG-7 basic descriptors. Bin numbers replaced the extracted feature coefficients during the non-parametric modelling. The results show that non-parametric analysis offer potential results as the ones mentioned in the literature.
Mapping of Geological Structures Using Aerial Photography
Rapid growth in data acquisition technologies through drones, have led to advances and interests in collecting high-resolution images of geological fields. Being advantageous in capturing high volume of data in short flights, a number of challenges have to overcome for efficient analysis of this data, especially while data acquisition, image interpretation and processing. We introduce a method that allows effective mapping of geological fields using photogrammetric data of surfaces, drainage area, water bodies etc, which will be captured by airborne vehicles like UAVs, we are not taking satellite images because of problems in adequate resolution, time when it is captured may be 1 yr back, availability problem, difficult to capture exact image, then night vision etc. This method includes advanced automated image interpretation technology and human data interaction to model structures and. First Geological structures will be detected from the primary photographic dataset and the equivalent three dimensional structures would then be identified by digital elevation model. We can calculate dip and its direction by using the above information. The structural map will be generated by adopting a specified methodology starting from choosing the appropriate camera, camera’s mounting system, UAVs design ( based on the area and application), Challenge in air borne systems like Errors in image orientation, payload problem, mosaicing and geo referencing and registering of different images to applying DEM. The paper shows the potential of using our method for accurate and efficient modeling of geological structures, capture particularly from remote, of inaccessible and hazardous sites.
Utilizing Hybrid File Mapping for High-Performance I/O
As the technology of NAND flash memory rapidly grows, SSD is becoming an excellent alternative for storage solutions, because of its high random I/O throughput and low power consumption. These SSD potentials have drawn great attention from IT enterprises that seek for better I/O performance. However, high SSD cost per capacity makes it less desirable to construct a large-scale storage subsystem solely composed of SSD devices. An alternative is to build a hybrid storage subsystem where both HDD and SSD devices are incorporated in an economic manner, while employing the strengths of both devices. This paper presents a hybrid file system, called hybridFS, that attempts to utilize the advantages of HDD and SSD devices, to provide a single, virtual address space by integrating both devices. HybridFS not only proposes an efficient implementation for the file management in the hybrid storage subsystem but also suggests an experimental framework for making use of the excellent features of existing file systems. Several performance evaluations were conducted to verify the effectiveness and suitability of hybridFS.
Research on Urban Point of Interest Generalization Method Based on Mapping Presentation
Without taking account of the attribute richness of POI (point of interest) data and spatial distribution limited by roads, a POI generalization method considering both attribute information and spatial distribution has been proposed against the existing point generalization algorithm merely focusing on overall information of point groups. Hierarchical characteristic of urban POI information expression has been firstly analyzed to point out the measurement feature of the corresponding hierarchy. On this basis, an urban POI generalizing strategy has been put forward: POIs urban road network have been divided into three distribution pattern; corresponding generalization methods have been proposed according to the characteristic of POI data in different distribution patterns. Experimental results showed that the method taking into account both attribute information and spatial distribution characteristics of POI can better implement urban POI generalization in the mapping presentation.
Quantitative Analysis of Multiprocessor Architectures for Radar Signal Processing
Radar signal processing requires high number crunching capability. Most often this is achieved using multiprocessor platform. Though multiprocessor platform provides the capability of meeting the real time computational challenges, the architecture of the same along with mapping of the algorithm on the architecture plays a vital role in efficiently using the platform. Towards this, along with standard performance metrics, few additional metrics are defined which helps in evaluating the multiprocessor platform along with the algorithm mapping. A generic multiprocessor architecture can not suit all the processing requirements. Depending on the system requirement and type of algorithms used, the most suitable architecture for the given problem is decided. In the paper, we study different architectures and quantify the different performance metrics which enables comparison of different architectures for their merit. We also carried out case study of different architectures and their efficiency depending on parallelism exploited on algorithm or data or both.
Digital Geomatics Trends for Production and Updating Topographic Map by Using Digital Generalization Procedures
An accuracy digital map must satisfy the users for two main requirements, first, map must be visually readable and second, all the map elements must be in a good representation. These two requirements hold especially true for map generalization which aims at simplifying the representation of cartographic data. Different scales of maps are very important for any decision in any maps with different scales such as master plan and all the infrastructures maps in civil engineering. Cartographer cannot project the data onto a piece of paper, but he has to worry about its readability. The map layout of any geodatabase is very important, this layout is help to read, analyze or extract information from the map. There are many principles and guidelines of generalization that can be find in the cartographic literature. A manual reduction method for generalization depends on experience of map maker and therefore produces incompatible results. Digital generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both Geographic Information System (GIS) and mapping fields. This project is intended to review the state of the art of the new technology and help to understand the needs and plans for the implementation of digital generalization capability as well as increase the knowledge of production topographic maps.
Research on Load Balancing Technology for Web Service Mobile Host
In this paper, Load Balancing idea is used in the Web service mobile host. The main idea of Load Balancing is to establish a one-to-many mapping mechanism: An entrance-mapping request to plurality of processing node in order to realize the dividing and assignment processing. Because the mobile host is a resource constrained environment, there are some Web services which cannot be completed on the mobile host. When the mobile host resource is not enough to complete the request, Load Balancing scheduler will divide the request into a plurality of sub-requests and transfer them to different auxiliary mobile hosts. Auxiliary mobile host executes sub-requests, and then, the results will be returned to the mobile host. Service request integrator receives results of sub-requests from the auxiliary mobile host, and integrates the sub-requests. In the end, the complete request is returned to the client. Experimental results show that this technology adopted in this paper can complete requests and have a higher efficiency.
Behavioral Mapping and Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Meeting Point Design in the International Airport
The meeting behavior is a pervasive kind of interaction, often occurs between the passenger and the shuttle. However, the meeting point set up at the Taoyuan International Airport is too far from the entry-exit, often causing passengers to stop searching near the entry-exit. When the number of people waiting for the rush hour increases, it often results in chaos in the waiting area. This study tried to find out what is the key factor to promote the rapid finding of each other between the passengers and the pick-ups. Then we implemented several design proposals to improve the meeting behavior of passengers and pick-ups based on behavior mapping and post-occupancy evaluation to enhance their meeting efficiency in unfamiliar environments. The research base is the reception hall of the second terminal of Taoyuan International Airport. Behavioral observation and mapping are implemented on the entry of inbound passengers into the welcome space, including the crowd distribution of the people who rely on the separation wall in the waiting area, the behavior of meeting and the interaction between the inbound passengers and the pick-ups. Then we redesign the space planning and signage design based on the post-occupancy evaluation to verify the effectiveness of space plan and signage design. This study found that passengers ignore existing meeting-point designs which placed on distant pillars at both ends. The position of the screen affects the area where the receiver is stranded, causing the pick-ups to block the passenger's moving line. The pick-ups prefer to wait where it is easy to watch incoming passengers and where it is closest to the mode of transport they take when leaving. Large visitors tend to gather next to landmarks, and smaller groups have a wide waiting area in the lobby. The location of the meeting point chosen by the pick-ups is related to the view of the incoming passenger. Finally, this study proposes an improved design of the meeting point, setting the traffic information in it, so that most passengers can see the traffic information when they enter the country. At the same time, we also designed to simplify the handwork process of the pick-ups work table, improve the efficiency of passenger meeting.
Implementation of Geo-Crowdsourcing Mobile Applications in e-Government of V4 Countries: A State-of-the-Art Survey
In recent years, citizens have become an important source of geographic information and, therefore, geo-crowdsourcing, often known as volunteered geographic information, has provided an interesting alternative to traditional mapping practices which are becoming expensive, resource-intensive and unable to capture the dynamic nature of urban environments. In order to address a gap in research literature, this paper deals with a survey conducted to assess the current state of geo-crowdsourcing, a recent phenomenon popular with people who collect geographic information using their smartphones. This article points out that there is an increasing body of knowledge of geo-crowdsourcing mobile applications in the Visegrad countries marked by the ubiquitous Internet connection and the current massive proliferation of smartphones. This article shows how geo-crowdsourcing can be used as a complement, or in some cases a replacement, to traditionally generated sources of spatial data and information in public management. It discusses the new spaces of citizen participation constructed by these geo-crowdsourcing practices.
Looking beyond Lynch's Image of a City
Kevin Lynch’s Theory on Imeageability, let on explore a city in terms of five elements, Nodes, Paths, Edges, landmarks and Districts. What happens when we try to record the same data in an Indian context? What happens when we apply the same theory of Imageability to a complex shifting urban pattern of the Indian cities and how can we as Urban Designers demonstrate our role in the image building ordeal of these cities? The organizational patterns formed through mental images, of an Indian city is often diverse and intangible. It is also multi layered and temporary in terms of the spirit of the place. The pattern of images formed is loaded with associative meaning and intrinsically linked with the history and socio-cultural dominance of the place. The embedded memory of a place in one’s mind often plays an even more important role while formulating these images. Thus while deriving an image of a city one is often confused or finds the result chaotic. The images formed due to its complexity are further difficult to represent using a single medium. Under such a scenario it’s difficult to derive an output of an image constructed as well as make design interventions to enhance the legibility of a place. However, there can be a combination of tools and methods that allows one to record the key elements of a place through time, space and one’s user interface with the place. There has to be a clear understanding of the participant groups of a place and their time and period of engagement with the place as well. How we can translate the result obtained into a design intervention at the end, is the main of the research. Could a multi-faceted cognitive mapping be an answer to this or could it be a very transient mapping method which can change over time, place and person. How does the context influence the process of image building in one’s mind? These are the key questions that this research will aim to answer.
Performance Evaluation of Task Scheduling Algorithm on LCQ Network
The Scheduling and mapping of tasks on a set of processors is considered as a critical problem in parallel and distributed computing system. This paper deals with the problem of dynamic scheduling on a special type of multiprocessor architecture known as Linear Crossed Cube (LCQ) network. This proposed multiprocessor is a hybrid network which combines the features of both linear type of architectures as well as cube based architectures. Two standard dynamic scheduling schemes namely Minimum Distance Scheduling (MDS) and Two Round Scheduling (TRS) schemes are implemented on the LCQ network. Parallel tasks are mapped and the imbalance of load is evaluated on different set of processors in LCQ network. The simulations results are evaluated and effort is made by means of through analysis of the results to obtain the best solution for the given network in term of load imbalance left and execution time. The other performance matrices like speedup and efficiency are also evaluated with the given dynamic algorithms.
Spectral Anomaly Detection and Clustering in Radiological Search
Radiological search and mapping depends on the successful recognition of anomalies in large data sets which contain varied and dynamic backgrounds. We present a new algorithmic approach for real-time anomaly detection which is resistant to common detector imperfections, avoids the limitations of a source template library and provides immediate, and easily interpretable, user feedback. This algorithm is based on a continuous wavelet transform for variance reduction and evaluates the deviation between a foreground measurement and a local background expectation using methods from linear algebra. We also present a technique for recognizing and visualizing spectrally similar clusters of data. This technique uses Laplacian Eigenmap Manifold Learning to perform dimensional reduction which preserves the geometric "closeness" of the data while maintaining sensitivity to outlying data. We illustrate the utility of both techniques on real-world data sets.
Agricultural Land Suitability Analysis of Kampe-Omi Irrigation Scheme Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System
Agricultural land suitability analysis and mapping play an imperative role for sustainable utilization of scarce physical land resources. The objective of this study was to prepare spatial database of physical land resources for irrigated agriculture and to assess land suitability for irrigation and developing suitable area map of the study area. The study was conducted at Kampe-Omi irrigation scheme located at Yagba West Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Temperature and rainfall data of the study area were collected for 10 consecutive years (2005-2014). Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used to develop irrigation land suitability map of the study area. Attribute parameters such as the slope, soil properties, topography of the study area were used for the analysis. The available data were arranged, proximity analysis of Arc-GIS was made, and this resulted into five mapping units. The final agricultural land suitability map of the study area was derived after overlay analysis. Based on soil composition, slope, soil properties and topography, it was concluded that; Kampe-Omi has rich sandy loam soil, which is viable for agricultural purpose, the soil composition is made up of 60% sand and 40% loam. The land-use pattern map of Kampe-Omi has vegetal area and water-bodies covering 55.6% and 19.3% of the total assessed area respectively. The landform of Kampe-Omi is made up of 41.2% lowlands, 37.5% normal lands and 21.3% highlands. Kampe-Omi is adequately suitable for agricultural purpose while an extra of 20.2% of the area is highly suitable for agricultural purpose making 72.6% while 18.7% of the area is slightly suitable.
The Routes of Human Suffering: How Point-Source and Destination-Source Mapping Can Help Victim Services Providers and Law Enforcement Agencies Effectively Combat Human Trafficking
Human trafficking is one of the fastest growing international crimes and human rights violations in the world. The United States Department of State (State Department) approximates some 800,000 to 900,000 people are annually trafficked across sovereign borders, with approximately 14,000 to 17,500 of these people coming into the United States. Today’s slavery is conducted by unscrupulous individuals who are often connected to organized criminal enterprises and transnational gangs, extracting huge monetary sums. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), human traffickers collect approximately $32 billion worldwide annually. Surpassed only by narcotics dealing, trafficking of humans is tied with illegal arms sales as the second largest criminal industry in the world and is the fastest growing field in the 21st century. Perpetrators of this heinous crime abound. They are not limited to single or “sole practitioners” of human trafficking, but rather, often include Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCO), domestic street gangs, labor contractors, and otherwise seemingly ordinary citizens. Monetary gain is being elevated over territorial disputes and street gangs are increasingly operating in a collaborative effort with TCOs to further disguise their criminal activity; to utilizing their vast networks, in an attempt to avoid detection. Traffickers rely on a network of clandestine routes to sell their commodities with impunity. As law enforcement agencies seek to retard the expansion of transnational criminal organization’s entry into human trafficking, it is imperative that they develop reliable trafficking mapping of known exploitative routes. In a recent report given to the Mexican Congress, The Procuraduría General de la República (PGR) disclosed, from 2008 to 2010 they had identified at least 47 unique criminal networking routes used to traffic victims and that Mexico’s estimated domestic victims number between 800,000 adults and 20,000 children annually. Designing a reliable mapping system is a crucial step to effective law enforcement response and deploying a successful victim support system. Creating this mapping analytic is exceedingly difficult. Traffickers are constantly changing the way they traffic and exploit their victims. They swiftly adapt to local environmental factors and react remarkably well to market demands, exploiting limitations in the prevailing laws. This article will highlight how human trafficking has become one of the fastest growing and most high profile human rights violations in the world today; compile current efforts to map and illustrate trafficking routes; and will demonstrate how the proprietary analytical mapping analysis of point-source and destination-source mapping can help local law enforcement, governmental agencies and victim services providers effectively respond to the type and nature of trafficking to their specific geographical locale. Trafficking transcends state and international borders. It demands an effective and consistent cooperation between local, state, and federal authorities. Each region of the world has different impact factors which create distinct challenges for law enforcement and victim services. Our mapping system lays the groundwork for a targeted anti-trafficking response.
Digital Reconstruction of Museum's Statue Using 3D Scanner for Cultural Preservation in Indonesia
The lack of information about museum’s collection reduces the number of visits of museum. Museum’s revitalization is an urgent activity to increase the number of visits. The research's roadmap is building a web-based application that visualizes museum in the virtual form including museum's statue reconstruction in the form of 3D. This paper describes implementation of three-dimensional model reconstruction method based on light-strip pattern on the museum statue using 3D scanner. Noise removal, alignment, meshing and refinement model's processes is implemented to get a better 3D object reconstruction. Model’s texture derives from surface texture mapping between object's images with reconstructed 3D model. Accuracy test of dimension of the model is measured by calculating relative error of virtual model dimension compared against the original object. The result is realistic three-dimensional model textured with relative error around 4.3% to 5.8%.
Urban Noise and Air Quality: Correlation between Air and Noise Pollution; Sensors, Data Collection, Analysis and Mapping in Urban Planning
Architects and urban planners, when designing and renewing cities, have to face a complex set of problems, including the issues of noise and air pollution which are considered as hot topics (i.e., the Clean Air Act of London and the Soundscape definition). It is usually taken for granted that these problems go by together because the noise pollution present in cities is often linked to traffic and industries, and these produce air pollutants as well. Traffic congestion can create both noise pollution and air pollution, because NO₂ is mostly created from the oxidation of NO, and these two are notoriously produced by processes of combustion at high temperatures (i.e., car engines or thermal power stations). We can see the same process for industrial plants as well. What have to be investigated – and is the topic of this paper – is whether or not there really is a correlation between noise pollution and air pollution (taking into account NO₂) in urban areas. To evaluate if there is a correlation, some low-cost methodologies will be used. For noise measurements, the OpeNoise App will be installed on an Android phone. The smartphone will be positioned inside a waterproof box, to stay outdoor, with an external battery to allow it to collect data continuously. The box will have a small hole to install an external microphone, connected to the smartphone, which will be calibrated to collect the most accurate data. For air, pollution measurements will be used the AirMonitor device, an Arduino board to which the sensors, and all the other components, are plugged. After assembling the sensors, they will be coupled (one noise and one air sensor) and placed in different critical locations in the area of Mestre (Venice) to map the existing situation.
The sensors will collect data for a fixed period of time to have an input for both week and weekend days, in this way it will be possible to see the changes of the situation during the week. The novelty is that data will be compared to check if there is a correlation between the two pollutants using graphs that should show the percentage of pollution instead of the values obtained with the sensors. To do so, the data will be converted to fit on a scale that goes up to 100% and will be shown thru a mapping of the measurement using GIS methods. Another relevant aspect is that this comparison can help to choose which are the right mitigation solutions to be applied in the area of the analysis because it will make it possible to solve both the noise and the air pollution problem making only one intervention. The mitigation solutions must consider not only the health aspect but also how to create a more livable space for citizens. The paper will describe in detail the methodology and the technical solution adopted for the realization of the sensors, the data collection, noise and pollution mapping and analysis.
High Altitude Glacier Surface Mapping in Dhauliganga Basin of Himalayan Environment Using Remote Sensing Technique
Glaciers play an important role in climate change and are sensitive phenomena of global climate change scenario. Glaciers in Himalayas are unique as they are predominantly valley type and are located in tropical, high altitude regions. These glaciers are often covered with debris which greatly affects ablation rate of glaciers and work as a sensitive indicator of glacier health. The aim of this study is to map high altitude Glacier surface with a focus on glacial lake and debris estimation using different techniques in Nagling glacier of dhauliganga basin in Himalayan region. Different Image Classification techniques i.e. thresholding on different band ratios and supervised classification using maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) have been used on high resolution sentinel 2A level 1c satellite imagery of 14 October 2017.Here Near Infrared (NIR)/Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) ratio image was used to extract the glaciated classes (Snow, Ice, Ice Mixed Debris) from other non-glaciated terrain classes. SWIR/BLUE Ratio Image was used to map valley rock and Debris while Green/NIR ratio image was found most suitable for mapping Glacial Lake. Accuracy assessment was performed using high resolution (3 meters) Planetscope Imagery using 60 stratified random points. The overall accuracy of MLC was 85 % while the accuracy of Band Ratios was 96.66 %. According to Band Ratio technique total areal extent of glaciated classes (Snow, Ice ,IMD) in Nagling glacier was 10.70 km2 nearly 38.07% of study area comprising of 30.87 % Snow covered area, 3.93% Ice and 3.27 % IMD covered area. Non-glaciated classes (vegetation, glacial lake, debris and valley rock) covered 61.93 % of the total area out of which valley rock is dominant with 33.83% coverage followed by debris covering 27.7 % of the area in nagling glacier. Glacial lake and Debris were accurately mapped using Band ratio technique Hence, Band Ratio approach appears to be useful for the mapping of debris covered glacier in Himalayan Region.
Soil Degradati̇on Mapping Using Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and Laboratory Analysis in the Oum Er Rbia High Basin, Middle Atlas, Morocco
Mapping of soil degradation is derived from field observations, laboratory measurements, and remote sensing data, integrated quantitative methods to map the spatial characteristics of soil properties at different spatial and temporal scales to provide up-to-date information on the field. Since soil salinity, texture and organic matter play a vital role in assessing topsoil characteristics and soil quality, remote sensing can be considered an effective method for studying these properties. The main objective of this research is to asses soil degradation by combining remote sensing data and laboratory analysis. In order to achieve this goal, the required study of soil samples was taken at 50 locations in the upper basin of Oum Er Rbia in the Middle Atlas in Morocco. These samples were dried, sieved to 2 mm and analyzed in the laboratory. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was analyzed using physical or empirical methods to derive soil properties. In addition, remote sensing can serve as a supporting data source. Deterministic potential (Spline and Inverse Distance weighting) and probabilistic interpolation methods (ordinary kriging and universal kriging) were used to produce maps of each grain size class and soil properties using GIS software. As a result, a correlation was found between soil texture and soil organic matter content. This approach developed in ongoing research will improve the prospects for the use of remote sensing data for mapping soil degradation in arid and semi-arid environments.
Action Potential of Lateral Geniculate Neurons at Low Threshold Currents: Simulation Study
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) is the relay center in the visual pathway as it receives most of the input information from retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and sends to visual cortex. Low threshold calcium currents (IT) at the membrane are the unique indicator to characterize this firing functionality of the LGN neurons gained by the RGC input. According to the LGN functional requirements such as functional mapping of RGC to LGN, the morphologies of the LGN neurons were developed. During the neurological disorders like glaucoma, the mapping between RGC and LGN is disconnected and hence stimulating LGN electrically using deep brain electrodes can restore the functionalities of LGN. A computational model was developed for simulating the LGN neurons with three predominant morphologies, each representing different functional mapping of RGC to LGN. The firings of action potentials at LGN neuron due to IT were characterized by varying the stimulation parameters, morphological parameters and orientation. A wide range of stimulation parameters (stimulus amplitude, duration and frequency) represents the various strengths of the electrical stimulation with different morphological parameters (soma size, dendrites size and structure). The orientation (0-1800) of LGN neuron with respect to the stimulating electrode represents the angle at which the extracellular deep brain stimulation towards LGN neuron is performed. A reduced dendrite structure was used in the model using Bush–Sejnowski algorithm to decrease the computational time while conserving its input resistance and total surface area. The major finding is that an input potential of 0.4 V is required to produce the action potential in the LGN neuron which is placed at 100 µm distance from the electrode. From this study, it can be concluded that the neuroprostheses under design would need to consider the capability of inducing at least 0.4V to produce action potentials in LGN.
Mapping Contested Sites - Permanence Of The Temporary Mouttalos Case Study
This paper will discuss ideas of social sustainability in urban design and human behavior in multicultural contested sites. It will focus on the potential of the re-reading of the “site” through mapping that acts as a research methodology and will discuss the chosen site of Mouttalos, Cyprus as a place of multiple identities. Through a methodology of mapping using a bottom up approach, a process of disassembling derives that acts as a mechanism to re-examine space and place by searching for the invisible and the non-measurable, understanding the site through its detailed inhabitation patterns. The significance of this study lies in the use of mapping as an active form of thinking rather than a passive process of representation that allows for a new site to be discovered, giving multiple opportunities for adaptive urban strategies and socially engaged design approaches. We will discuss the above thematic based on the chosen contested site of Mouttalos, a small Turkish Cypriot neighbourhood, in the old centre of Paphos (Ktima), SW of Cyprus. During the political unrest, between Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities, in 1963, the area became an enclave to the Turkish Cypriots, excluding any contact with the rest of the area. Following the Turkish invasion of 1974, the residents left their homes, plots and workplaces, resettling in the North of Cyprus. Greek Cypriot refugees moved into the area. The presence of the Greek Cypriot refugees is still considered to be a temporary resettlement. The buildings and the residents themselves exist in a state of uncertainty. The site is documented through a series of parallel investigations into the physical conditions and history of the site. Research methodologies use the process of mapping to expose the complex and often invisible layers of information that coexist. By registering the site through the subjective experiences, and everyday stories of inhabitants, a series of cartographic recordings reveals the space between: happening and narrative and especially space between different cultures and religions. Research put specific emphasis on engaging the public, promoting social interaction, identifying spatial patterns of occupation by previous inhabitants through social media. Findings exposed three main areas of interest. Firstly we identified inter-dependent relationships between permanence and temporality, characterised by elements such us, signage through layers of time, past events and periodical street festivals, unfolding memory and belonging. Secondly issues of co-ownership and occupation, found through particular narratives of exchange between the two communities and through appropriation of space. Finally formal and informal inhabitation of space, revealed through the presence of informal shared back yards, alternative paths, porous street edges and formal and informal landmarks. The importance of the above findings, was achieving a shift of focus from the built infrastructure to the soft network of multiple and complex relations of dependence and autonomy. Proposed interventions for this contested site were informed and led by a new multicultural identity where invisible qualities were revealed though the process of mapping, taking on issues of layers of time, formal and informal inhabitation and the “permanence of the temporary”.
Sentiment Mapping through Social Media and Its Implications
Being a habitat of the global village, every place has established connection through the strength and power of social media piercing through the political boundaries. Social media is a digital platform, where people across the world can interact as it has advantages of being universal, anonymous, easily accessible, indirect interaction, gathering and sharing information. The power of social media lies in the intensity of sharing extreme opinions or feelings, in contrast to the personal interactions which can be easily mapped in the form of Sentiment Mapping. The easy access to social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and blogs made unprecedented opportunities for citizens to voice their opinions loaded with dynamics of emotions. These further influence human thoughts where social media plays a very active role. A recent incident of public importance was selected as a case study to map the sentiments of people through Twitter. Understanding those dynamics through the eye of an ordinary people can be challenging. With the help of R-programming language and by the aid of GIS techniques sentiment maps has been produced. The emotions flowing worldwide in the form of tweets were extracted and analyzed. The number of tweets had diminished by 91 % from 25/08/2017 to 31/08/2017. A boom of sentiments emerged near the origin of the case, i.e., Delhi, Haryana and Punjab and the capital showed maximum influence resulting in spillover effect near Delhi. The trend of sentiments was prevailing more as neutral (45.37%), negative (28.6%) and positive (21.6%) after calculating the sentiment scores of the tweets. The result can be used to know the spatial distribution of digital penetration in India, where highest concentration lies in Mumbai and lowest in North East India and Jammu and Kashmir.
Mapping the Turbulence Intensity and Excess Energy Available to Small Wind Systems over 4 Major UK Cities
Due to the highly turbulent nature of urban air flows, and by virtue of the fact that turbines are likely to be located within the roughness sublayer of the urban boundary layer, proposed urban wind installations are faced with major challenges compared to rural installations. The challenge of operating within turbulent winds can however, be counteracted by the development of suitable gust tracking solutions. In order to assess the cost effectiveness of such controls, a detailed understanding of the urban wind resource, including its turbulent characteristics, is required. Estimating the ambient turbulence and total kinetic energy available at different control response times is essential in evaluating the potential performance of wind systems within the urban environment should effective control solutions be employed. However, high resolution wind measurements within the urban roughness sub-layer are uncommon, and detailed CFD modelling approaches are too computationally expensive to apply routinely on a city wide scale. This paper therefore presents an alternative semi-empirical methodology for estimating the excess energy content (EEC) present in the complex and gusty urban wind. An analytical methodology for predicting the total wind energy available at a potential turbine site is proposed by assessing the relationship between turbulence intensities and EEC, for different control response times. The semi-empirical model is then incorporated with an analytical methodology that was initially developed to predict mean wind speeds at various heights within the built environment based on detailed mapping of its aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the current methodology, additional estimates of turbulence intensities and EEC allow a more complete assessment of the available wind resource. The methodology is applied to 4 UK cities with results showing the potential of mapping turbulence intensities and the total wind energy available at different heights within each city. Considering the effect of ambient turbulence and choice of wind system, the wind resource over neighbourhood regions (of 250 m uniform resolution) and building rooftops within the 4 cities were assessed with results highlighting the promise of mapping potential turbine sites within each city.
Combining in vitro Protein Expression with AlphaLISA Technology to Study Protein-Protein Interaction
The demand for a rapid and more efficient technique to identify protein-protein interaction particularly in the areas of therapeutics and diagnostics development is growing. The method described here is a rapid in vitro protein-protein interaction analysis approach based on AlphaLISA technology combined with Leishmania tarentolae cell-free protein production (LTE) system. Cell-free protein synthesis allows the rapid production of recombinant proteins in a multiplexed format. Among available in vitro expression systems, LTE offers several advantages over other eukaryotic cell-free systems. It is based on a fast growing fermentable organism that is inexpensive in cultivation and lysate production. High integrity of proteins produced in this system and the ability to co-express multiple proteins makes it a desirable method for screening protein interactions. Following the translation of protein pairs in LTE system, the physical interaction between proteins of interests is analysed by AlphaLISA assay. The assay is performed using unpurified in vitro translation reaction and therefore can be readily multiplexed. This approach can be used in various research applications such as epitope mapping, antigen-antibody analysis and protein interaction network mapping. The intra-viral protein interaction network of Zika virus was studied using the developed technique. The viral proteins were co-expressed pair-wise in LTE and all possible interactions among viral proteins were tested using AlphaLISA. The assay resulted to the identification of 54 intra-viral protein-protein interactions from which 19 binary interactions were found to be novel. The presented technique provides a powerful tool for rapid analysis of protein-protein interaction with high sensitivity and throughput.
Climate Change and Landslide Risk Assessment in Thailand
The incidents of sudden landslides in Thailand during the past decade have occurred frequently and more severely. It is necessary to focus on the principal parameters used for analysis such as land cover land use, rainfall values, characteristic of soil and digital elevation model (DEM). The combination of intense rainfall and severe monsoons is increasing due to global climate change. Landslide occurrences rapidly increase during intense rainfall especially in the rainy season in Thailand which usually starts around mid-May and ends in the middle of October. The rain-triggered landslide hazard analysis is the focus of this research. The combination of geotechnical and hydrological data are used to determine permeability, conductivity, bedding orientation, overburden and presence of loose blocks. The regional landslide hazard mapping is developed using the Slope Stability Index SINMAP model supported on Arc GIS software version 10.1. Geological and land use data are used to define the probability of landslide occurrences in terms of geotechnical data. The geological data can indicate the shear strength and the angle of friction values for soils above given rock types, which leads to the general applicability of the approach for landslide hazard analysis. To address the research objectives, the methods are described in this study: setup and calibration of the SINMAP model, sensitivity of the SINMAP model, geotechnical laboratory, landslide assessment at present calibration and landslide assessment under future climate simulation scenario A2 and B2. In terms of hydrological data, the millimetres/twenty-four hours of average rainfall data are used to assess the rain triggered landslide hazard analysis in slope stability mapping. During 1954-2012 period, is used for the baseline of rainfall data at the present calibration. The climate change in Thailand, the future of climate scenarios are simulated by spatial and temporal scales. The precipitation impact is need to predict for the climate future, Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) version 4.2, is used to assess the simulation scenario of future change between latitude 16o 26’ and 18o 37’ north and between longitude 98o 52’ and 103o 05’ east by SDSM software. The research allows the mapping of risk parameters for landslide dynamics, and indicates the spatial and time trends of landslide occurrences. Thus, regional landslide hazard mapping under present-day climatic conditions from 1954 to 2012 and simulations of climate change based on GCM scenarios A2 and B2 from 2013 to 2099 related to the threshold rainfall values for the selected the study area in Uttaradit province in the northern part of Thailand. Finally, the landslide hazard mapping will be compared and shown by areas (km2 ) in both the present and the future under climate simulation scenarios A2 and B2 in Uttaradit province.
The Making of a Community: Perception versus Reality of Neighborhood Resources
This paper elucidates the value of neighborhood perception as it contributes to the advancement of well-being for individuals and families within a neighborhood. Through in-depth interviews with city residents, this paper examines the degree to which key stakeholders’ (residents) evaluate their neighborhood and perception of resources and identify, access, and utilize local assets existing in the community. Additionally, the research objective included conducting a community inventory that qualified the community assets and resources of lower-income neighborhoods of a medium-sized industrial city. Analysis of the community’s assets was compared with the interview results to allow for a better understanding of the community’s condition. Community mapping revealed the key informants’ reflections of assets were somewhat validated. In each neighborhood, there were more assets mapped than reported in the interviews. Another chief supposition drawn from this study was the identification of key development partners and social networks that offer the potential to facilitate locally-driven community development. Overall, the participants provided invaluable local knowledge of the perception of neighborhood assets, the well-being of residents, the condition of the community, and suggestions for responding to the challenges of the entire community in order to mobilize the present assets and networks.
Hydrographic Mapping Based on the Concept of Fluvial-Geomorphological Auto-Classification
Rivers have traditionally been classified, assessed and managed in terms of hydrological, chemical and / or biological criteria. Geomorphological classifications had in the past a secondary role, although proposals like River Styles Framework, Catchment Baseline Survey or Stroud Rural Sustainable Drainage Project did incorporate geomorphology for management decision-making. In recent years many studies have been attracted to the geomorphological component. The geomorphological processes and their associated forms determine the structure of a river system. Understanding these processes and forms is a critical component of the sustainable rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems. The fluvial auto-classification approach suggests that a river is a self-built natural system, with processes and forms designed to effectively preserve their ecological function (hydrologic, sedimentological and biological regime). Fluvial systems are formed by a wide range of elements with multiple non-linear interactions on different spatial and temporal scales. Besides, the fluvial auto-classification concept is built using data from the river itself, so that each classification developed is peculiar to the river studied. The variables used in the classification are specific stream power and mean grain size. A discriminant analysis showed that these variables are the best characterized processes and forms. The statistical technique applied allows to get an individual discriminant equation for each geomorphological type. The geomorphological classification was developed using sites with high naturalness. Each site is a control point of high ecological and geomorphological quality. The changes in the conditions of the control points will be quickly recognizable, and easy to apply a right management measures to recover the geomorphological type. The study focused on Galicia (NW Spain) and the mapping was made analyzing 122 control points (sites) distributed over eight river basins. In sum, this study provides a method for fluvial geomorphological classification that works as an open and flexible tool underlying the fluvial auto-classification concept. The hydrographic mapping is the visual expression of the results, such that each river has a particular map according to its geomorphological characteristics. Each geomorphological type is represented by a particular type of hydraulic geometry (channel width, width-depth ratio, hydraulic radius, etc.). An alteration of this geometry is indicative of a geomorphological disturbance (whether natural or anthropogenic). Hydrographic mapping is also dynamic because its meaning changes if there is a modification in the specific stream power and/or the mean grain size, that is, in the value of their equations. The researcher has to check annually some of the control points. This procedure allows to monitor the geomorphology quality of the rivers and to see if there are any alterations. The maps are useful to researchers and managers, especially for conservation work and river restoration.
A Method for Compression of Short Unicode Strings
The use of short texts in communication has been greatly increasing in recent years. Applying different languages in short texts has led to compulsory use of Unicode strings. These strings need twice the space of common strings, hence, applying algorithms of compression for the purpose of accelerating transmission and reducing cost is worthwhile. Nevertheless, other compression methods like gzip, bzip2 or PAQ due to high overhead data size are not appropriate. The Huffman algorithm is one of the rare algorithms effective in reducing the size of short Unicode strings. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for compression of very short Unicode strings. At first, every new character to be sent to a destination is inserted in the proposed mapping table. At the beginning, every character is new. In case the character is repeated for the same destination, it is not considered as a new character. Next, the new characters together with the mapping value of repeated characters are arranged through a specific technique and specially formatted to be transmitted. The results obtained from an assessment made on a set of short Persian and Arabic strings indicate that this proposed algorithm outperforms the Huffman algorithm in size reduction.
Optimization of Lean Methodologies in the Textile Industry Using Design of Experiments
Industries in general have a lot of waste. Wool textile company, Baniwalid, Libya has many complex problems that led to enormous waste generated due to the lack of lean strategies, expertise, technical support and commitment. To successfully address waste at wool textile company, this study will attempt to develop a methodical approach that integrates lean manufacturing tools to optimize performance characteristics such as lead time and delivery. This methodology will utilize Value Stream Mapping (VSM) techniques to identify the process variables that affect production. Once these variables are identified, Design of Experiments (DOE) Methodology will be used to determine the significantly influential process variables, these variables are then controlled and set at their optimal to achieve optimal levels of productivity, quality, agility, efficiency and delivery to analyze the outputs of the simulation model for different lean configurations. The goal of this research is to investigate how the tools of lean manufacturing can be adapted from the discrete to the continuous manufacturing environment and to evaluate their benefits at a specific industrial.
Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast
It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.79 to 24.85 degree in latitude and 66.91 to 66.97 degree in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image preprocessing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end-member extraction. Well-distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF), and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (white mangroves) and Avicennia Germinans (black mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.
Linkage between Trace Element Distribution and Growth Ring Formation in Japanese Red Coral (Paracorallium japonicum)
This study investigated the distribution of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and strontium (Sr) using micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) along the annual growth rings in the skeleton of Japanese red coral Paracorallium japonicum. The Mg, P and S distribution in µ-XRF mapping images correspond to the dark and light bands along the annual growth rings observed in microscopic images of the coral skeleton. The µ-XRF mapping data showed a positive correlation (r = 0.6) between P and S distribution in the coral skeleton. A contrasting distribution pattern of S and Mg along the axial skeleton of P. japonicum indicates a weak negative correlation (r = -0.2) between these two trace elements. The distribution pattern of S, P and Mg reveals linkage between their distributions and the formation of dark/light bands along the annual growth rings in the axial skeleton of P. japonicum. Sulfur and P were distributed in the organic matrix rich dark bands, while Mg was distributed in the light bands of the annual growth rings.
Reﬂectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface
Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.
Coastal Flood Mapping of Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise and Extreme Weather Events: A Case Study of St. Ives, UK
Coastal floods have been identified as an important natural hazard that can cause significant damage to the populated built-up areas, related infrastructure and also ecosystems and habitats. This study attempts to fill the gap associated with the development of preliminary assessments of coastal flood vulnerability for compliance with the EU Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks (2007/60/EC). In this context, a methodology has been created by taking into account three major parameters; the maximum wave run-up modelled from historical weather observations, the highest tide according to historic time series, and the sea level rise projections due to climate change. A high resolution digital terrain model (DTM) derived from LIDAR data has been used to integrate the estimated flood events in a GIS environment. The flood vulnerability map created shows potential risk areas and can play a crucial role in the coastal zone planning process. The proposed method has the potential to be a powerful tool for policy and decision makers for spatial planning and strategic management.
Wireless Sensor Network to Help Low Incomes Farmers to Face Drought Impacts
This research presents the main ideas to implement an intelligent system composed by communicating wireless sensors measuring environmental data linked to drought indicators (such as air temperature, soil moisture , etc...). On the other hand, the setting up of a spatio temporal database communicating with a Web mapping application for a monitoring in real time in activity 24:00 /day, 7 days/week is proposed to allow the screening of the drought parameters time evolution and their extraction. Thus this system helps detecting surfaces touched by the phenomenon of drought. Spatio-temporal conceptual models seek to answer the users who need to manage soil water content for irrigating or fertilizing or other activities pursuing crop yield augmentation. Effectively, spatio-temporal conceptual models enable users to obtain a diagram of readable and easy data to apprehend. Based on socio-economic information, it helps identifying people impacted by the phenomena with the corresponding severity especially that this information is accessible by farmers and stakeholders themselves. The study will be applied in Siliana watershed Northern Tunisia.
Integrations of Students' Learning Achievements and Their Analytical Thinking Abilities with the Problem-Based Learning and the Concept Mapping Instructional Methods on Gene and Chromosome Issue at the 12th Grade Level
Focusing on Analytical Thinking and Learning Achievement are the critical component of visual thinking that gives one the ability to solve problems quickly and effectively that allows to complex problems into components, and the result had been achieved or acquired form of the subject students of which resulted in changes within the individual as a result of activity in learning. The aims of this study are to administer on comparisons between students’ analytical thinking abilities and their learning achievements sample size consisted of 80 students who sat at the 12th grade level in 2 classes from Chaturaphak Phiman Ratchadaphisek School, the 40-student experimental group with the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and 40-student controlling group with the Concept Mapping Instructional (CMI) methods were designed. Research instruments composed with the 5-lesson instructional plans to be assessed with the pretest and posttest techniques on each instructional method. Students’ responses of their analytical thinking abilities were assessed with the Analytical Thinking Tests and students’ learning achievements were tested of the Learning Achievement Tests. Statistically significant differences with the paired t-test and F-test (Two-way MANCOVA) between post- and pre-tests of the whole students in two chemistry classes were found. Associations between student learning outcomes in each instructional method and their analytical thinking abilities to their learning achievements also were found (ρ < .05). The use of two instructional methods for this study is revealed that the students perceive their abilities to be highly learning achievement in chemistry classes with the PBL group ought to higher than the CMI group. Suggestions that analytical thinking ability involves the process of gathering relevant information and identifying key issues related to the learning achievement information.
The Lean Manufacturing Practices in an Automotive Company Using Value Stream Mapping Technique
Lean manufacturing, which is based on the Toyota Production System, has focused on increasing the performance in various fields by eliminating the waste. By waste elimination, the lead time is reduced significantly and lean manufacturing provides companies with an important privilege under today's competitive conditions. The initial point of lean thinking is the value. This notion create of a specific product with specific properties for which the customer is ready to pay and which satisfies his needs within a specific time frame and at a specific price. Considering this, the final customer determines the value but the manufacturer creates this value of the product. The value stream is the whole set of activities required for each product. These activities may or may not be essential for the value. Through value stream mapping, all employees can see the sources of waste and develop future cases to eliminate it. This study focused on manufacturing to eliminate the waste which created a cost but did not create any value. The study was carried out at the Department of Assembly/Logistics at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Turkey from the automotive industry with a high product mix and variable demands. As a result of the value stream analysis, improvements are planned for the future cases. The process was improved by applying these suggestions.
Mapping of Arenga Pinnata Tree Using Remote Sensing
Different tree species possess different and various benefits. Arenga Pinnata tree species own several potential uses that is valuable for the economy and the country. Mapping vegetation using remote sensing technique involves various process, techniques and consideration. Using satellite imagery, this method enables the access of inaccessible area and with the availability of near infra-red band; it is useful in vegetation analysis, especially in identifying tree species. Pixel-based and object-based classification technique is used as a method in this study. Pixel-based classification technique used in this study divided into unsupervised and supervised classification. Object based classification technique becomes more popular another alternative method in classification process. Using spectral, texture, color and other information, to classify the target make object-based classification is a promising technique for classification. Classification of Arenga Pinnata trees is overlaid with elevation, slope and aspect, soil and river data and several other data to give information regarding the tree character and living environment. This paper will present the utilization of remote sensing technique in order to map Arenga Pinnata tree species
Spatial Distribution of Local Sheep Breeds in Antalya Province
Sheep breeding is important in terms of meeting both the demand of red meat consumption and the availability of industrial raw materials and the employment of the rural sector in Turkey. It is also very important to ensure the selection and continuity of the breeds that are raised in order to increase quality and productive products related to sheep breeding. The protection of local breeds and crossbreds also enables the development of the sector in the region and the reduction of imports. In this study, the data were obtained from the records of the Turkish Statistical Institute and Antalya Sheep & Goat Breeders' Association. Spatial distribution of sheep breeds in Antalya is reviewed statistically in terms of concentration at the local level for 2015 period spatially. For this reason; mapping, box plot, linear regression are used in this study. Concentration is introduced by means of studbook data on sheep breeding as locals and total sheep farm by mapping. It is observed that Pırlak breed (17.5%) and Merinos crossbreed (16.3%) have the highest concentration in the region. These breeds are respectively followed by Akkaraman breed (11%), Pirlak crossbreed (8%), Merinos breed (7.9%) Akkaraman crossbreed (7.9%) and Ivesi breed (7.2%).
Understanding Informal Settlements: The Role of Geo-Information Tools
Information regarding social, political, demographic, economic and other attributes of human settlement is important for decision makers at all levels of planning, as they have to grapple with dynamic environments often associated with settlements. At the local level, it is particularly important for both communities and urban managers to have accurate and reliable information regarding all planning attributes. Settlement mapping, in particular, informal settlements mapping in Kenya, has over the past few years been carried out using modern tools like Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing for spatial data analysis and planning. GIS tools offer a platform for integration of spatial and non-spatial data as well as visualisation of the settlements. The capabilities offered by these tools have enabled communities to participate especially in the planning and management of new infrastructure as well as settlement upgrading. Land tenure based projects within informal settlements have also relied on GIS and related tools with considerable success. Additionally, the adoption of participatory approaches and use of geo-information tools helped to provide a basis for all inclusive planning thus promoting accountability, transparency, legitimacy, and other dimensions of governance within human settlement planning. The paper examines the context and application of geo-information tools for planning within low-income settlements of Kenya. A case study of Kiambiu settlement will be used to demonstrate how the tools have been applied for planning and decision-making purposes.
Hydrocarbon New Business Opportunities in the Bida Basin of Central Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges
An integrated study combining geological prospectivity mapping and geophysical aeromagnetic interpretation was carried out to determine hydrocarbon new business opportunities that may exist in the Bida Basin of Central Nigeria. Geological mapping was used to delineate the geological boundaries between the formations which is a significant initial criterion in evaluating hydrocarbon prospectivity. Processed and interpreted geophysical aeromagnetic data over the basin juxtaposed against the geological map has led to ranking of the prospectivity as less prospective, prospective and more prospective. The prospective and more prospective areas constitute new hydrocarbon business opportunities in the basin. The more prospective areas are at Pattishabakolo near Bida and at Kandi near Gulu. Prospective areas cover Badegi, Lemu, Duba, Kutigi, Auna, Mashegu and Mokwa. Geochemical data show that hydrocarbon source rocks exist within the Enagi and Patti formations in the northern and southern sections respectively. The geophysical aeromagnetic data indicates depths of more than 2,000m (> 2 Km) within the identified prospective areas. New business opportunities as used here refer to open acreages in Nigeria’s sedimentary basins that have not been licensed out by the government (Department of Petroleum Resources) to any operator but with significant potentials for commercial hydrocarbon accumulation.
Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles
The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.
Baseline Study on Human Trafficking Crimes: A Case Study of Mapping Human Trafficking Crimes in East Java Province, Indonesia
Transnational crime is a crime with 'unique' feature because the activities benefit the lack of state monitoring on the borders so dealing with it cannot be based on conventional engagement but also need joint operation with other countries. On the other hand with the flow of globalization and the growth of information technology and transportation, states become more vulnerable to transnational crime threats especially human trafficking. This paper would examine transnational crime activities, especially human trafficking in Indonesia. With the case study on the mapping of human trafficking crime in East Java province, Indonesia, this paper would try to analyze how the difference in human trafficking crime trends at the national and sub-national levels. The findings of this research were first, there is difference in human trafficking crime trends whereas at the national level the trend is rising, while at sub-national (province) level the trend is declining. Second, regarding the decline of human trafficking number, it’s interesting to see how the method to decrease human trafficking crime in East Jawa Province in order to reduce transnational crime accounts in the region. These things are hopefully becoming a model for transnational crimes engagement in other regions to reduce human trafficking numbers as much as possible.
Creation of Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Competitiveness through Cluster Mapping
This research investigates cluster development in the area called the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), which consists of Thailand, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Yunnan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Myanmar, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Cambodia, and Vietnam. The study utilized Porter’s competitiveness theory and the cluster mapping approach to analyze the competitiveness of the region. The data collection consists of interviews, focus groups, and the analysis of secondary data. The findings identify some evidence of cluster development in the GMS; however, there is no clear indication of collaboration among the components in the clusters. GMS clusters tend to be stand-alone. The clusters in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Cambodia tend to be labor intensive, whereas the clusters in Thailand and the PRC (Yunnan) have the potential to successfully develop into innovative clusters. The collaboration and integration among the clusters in the GMS area are promising, though it could take a long time. The most likely relationship between the GMS countries could be, for example, suppliers of the low-end, labor-intensive products will be located in the low income countries such as Myanmar, Lao PDR, and Cambodia, and these countries will be providing input materials for innovative clusters in the middle income countries such as Thailand and the PRC.
Spatial Mapping and Change Detection of a Coastal Woodland Mangrove Habitat in Fiji
Mangrove patches are the foundation species located in the estuarine land areas. These patches provide a nursery, food source and protection for numerous aquatic, intertidal and well as land-based organisms. Mangroves also help in coastal protection, maintain water clarity and are one of the biggest sinks for blue carbon sequestration. In the Pacific Island countries, numerous coastal communities have a heavy socioeconomic dependence on coastal resources and mangroves play a key ecological and economical role in structuring the availability of these resources. Fiji has a large mangrove patch located in the Votua area of the Ba province. Globally, mangrove population continues to decline with the changes in climatic conditions and anthropogenic activities. Baseline information through wetland maps and time series change are essential references for development of effective mangrove management plans. These maps reveal the status of the resource and the effects arising from anthropogenic activities and climate change. In this study, we used remote sensing and GIS tools for mapping and temporal change detection over a period of >20 years in Votua, Fiji using Landsat imagery. Landsat program started in 1972 initially as Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Since then it has acquired millions of images of Earth. This archive allows mapping of temporal changes in mangrove forests. Mangrove plants consisted of the species Rhizophora stylosa, Rhizophora samoensis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Lumnitzera littorea, Heritiera littoralis, Excoecaria agallocha and Xylocarpus granatum. Change detection analysis revealed significant reduction in the mangrove patch over the years. This information serves as a baseline for the development and implementation of effective management plans for one of Fiji’s biggest mangrove patches.
Study of Geological Structure for Potential Fresh-Groundwater Aquifer Determination around Cidaun Beach, Cianjur Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia
The study of the geological structure in the surrounding area of Cidaun, Cianjur Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia was conducted around the southern coast of Java Island. This study aims to determine the potentially structural trap deposits of freshwater resources in the study area, according to that the study area is an area directly adjacent to the beach, where the water around it did not seem fresh and brackish due to the exposure of sea water intrusion.
This study uses the method of geomorphological analysis and geological mapping by taking the data directly in the field within 10x10 km of the research area. Geomorphological analysis was done by calculating the watershed drainage density value and roundness of watershed value ratio. The goal is to determine the permeability of the sub-soil conditions, rock constituent, and the flow of surface water. While the field geological mapping aims to take the geological structure data and then will do the reconstruction to determine the geological conditions of research area.
The result, from geomorphology aspects, that the considered area of potential groundwater consisted of permeable surface material, permeable sub-soil, and low of water run-off flow. It is very good for groundwater recharge area. While the results of geological reconstruction after conducted of geological mapping is joints that present were initiated for the Cipandak Fault that cuts Cipandak River. That fault across until the Cibako Syncline fold through the Cibako River. This syncline is expected to place of influent groundwater aquifer. The tip of Cibako River then united with Cipandak River, where the Cipandak River extends through Cipandak Syncline fold axis in the southern regions close to its estuary. This syncline is expected to place of influent groundwater aquifer too.
Colour Segmentation of Satellite Imagery to Estimate Total Suspended Solid at Rawa Pening Lake, Central Java, Indonesia
Water is a natural resource needed by humans and other living creatures. The territorial water of Indonesia is 81% of the country area, consisting of inland waters and the sea. The research object is inland waters in the form of lakes and reservoirs, since 90% of inland waters are in them, therefore the water quality should be monitored. One of water quality parameters is Total Suspended Solid (TSS). Most of the earlier research did direct measurement by taking the water sample to get TSS values. This method takes a long time and needs special tools, resulting in significant cost. Remote sensing technology has solved a lot of problems, such as the mapping of watershed and sedimentation, monitoring disaster area, mapping coastline change, and weather analysis. The aim of this research is to estimate TSS of Rawa Pening lake in Central Java by using the Lansat 8 image. The result shows that the proposed method successfully estimates the Rawa Pening’s TSS. In situ TSS shows normal water quality range, and so does estimation result of segmentation method.
Corporate Environmentalism: A Case Study in the Czech Republic
This study examines perception of environmental approach in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) – the process by which firms integrate environmental concern into business. Based on a review of the literature, the paper synthesizes focus on environmental issues with the reflection in a case study in the Czech Republic. Two themes of corporate environmentalism are discussed – corporate environmental orientation and corporate stances toward environmental concerns. It provides theoretical material on greening organizational culture that is helpful in understanding the response of contemporary business to environmental problems. We integrate theoretical predictions with empirical findings confronted with reality. Scales to measure these themes are tested in a survey of managers in 229 Czech firms. We used the process of in-depth questioning. The research question was derived and answered in the context of the corresponding literature and conducted research. A case study showed us that environmental approach is variety different (depending on the size of the firm) in SMEs sector. The results of the empirical mapping demonstrate Czech company’s approach to environment and define the problem areas and pinpoint the main limitation in the expansion of environmental aspects. We contribute to the debate for recognition of the particular role of environmental issues in business reality.
Public Private Partnership for Infrastructure Projects: Mapping the Key Risks
In many countries, governments have been promoting the involvement of private sector entities to enter into long-term agreements for the development and delivery of large infrastructure projects, with a focus on overcoming the limitations upon public fund of the traditional approach. The involvement of private sector through public-private partnerships (PPP) brings in new capital investments, value for money and additional risks to handle. Worldwide research studies have shown that an objective, systematic, reliable and user-oriented risk assessment process and an optimal allocation mechanism among different stakeholders is crucial to the successful completion. In this framework this paper, which is the first stage of a research study, aims to identify the main risks for the delivery of PPP projects. A review of cross-countries research projects and case studies was performed to map the key risks affecting PPP infrastructure delivery. The matrix of mapping offers a summary of the frequency of factors, clustered in eleven categories: Construction, Design, Economic, Legal, Market, Natural, Operation, Political, Project finance, Project selection and Relationship. Results will highlight the most critical risk factors, and will hopefully assist the project managers in directing the managerial attention in the further stages of risk allocation.
Robotics and Embedded Systems Applied to the Buried Pipeline Inspection
The work aims to develop a robot in the form of autonomous vehicle to detect, inspection and mapping of underground pipelines through the ATmega328 Arduino platform. Hardware prototyping very similar to C / C ++ language that facilitates its use in robotics open source, resembles PLC used in large industrial processes. The robot will traverse the surface independently of direct human action, in order to automate the process of detecting buried pipes, guided by electromagnetic induction. The induction comes from coils that sends the signal to the Arduino microcontroller contained in that will make the difference in intensity and the treatment of the information, then this determines actions to electrical components such as relays and motors, allowing the prototype to move on the surface and getting the necessary information. The robot was developed by electrical and electronic assemblies that allowed test your application. The assembly is made up of metal detector coils, circuit boards and microprocessor, which interconnected circuits previously developed can determine, process control and mechanical actions for a robot (autonomous car) that will make the detection and mapping of buried pipelines plates.
On-Chip Sensor Ellipse Distribution Method and Equivalent Mapping Technique for Real-Time Hardware Trojan Detection and Location
Hardware Trojan becomes great concern as integrated circuit (IC) technology advances and not all manufacturing steps of an IC are accomplished within one company. Real-time hardware Trojan detection is proven to be a feasible way to detect randomly activated Trojans that cannot be detected at testing stage. On-chip sensors serve as a great candidate to implement real-time hardware Trojan detection, however, the optimization of on-chip sensors has not been thoroughly investigated and the location of Trojan has not been carefully explored. On-chip sensor ellipse distribution method and equivalent mapping technique are proposed based on the characteristics of on-chip power delivery network in this paper to address the optimization and distribution of on-chip sensors for real-time hardware Trojan detection as well as to estimate the location and current consumption of hardware Trojan. Simulation results verify that hardware Trojan activation can be effectively detected and the location of a hardware Trojan can be efficiently estimated with less than 5% error for a realistic power grid using our proposed methods. The proposed techniques therefore lay a solid foundation for isolation and even deactivation of hardware Trojans through accurate location of Trojans.
MBES-CARIS Data Validation for the Bathymetric Mapping of Shallow Water in the Kingdom of Bahrain on the Arabian Gulf
The objectives of this paper are the validation and the evaluation of MBES-CARIS BASE surface data performance for bathymetric mapping of shallow water in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The latter is an archipelago with a total land area of about 765.30 km², approximately 126 km of coastline and 8,000 km² of marine area, located in the Arabian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia and west of Qatar (26° 00’ N, 50° 33’ E). To achieve our objectives, bathymetric attributed grid files (X, Y, and depth) generated from the coverage of ship-track MBSE data with 300 x 300 m cells, processed with CARIS-HIPS, were downloaded from the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO). Then, brought into ArcGIS and converted into a raster format following five steps: Exportation of GEBCO BASE surface data to the ASCII file; conversion of ASCII file to a points shape file; extraction of the area points covering the water boundary of the Kingdom of Bahrain and multiplying the depth values by -1 to get the negative values. Then, the simple Kriging method was used in ArcMap environment to generate a new raster bathymetric grid surface of 30×30 m cells, which was the basis of the subsequent analysis. Finally, for validation purposes, 2200 bathymetric points were extracted from a medium scale nautical map (1:100 000) considering different depths over the Bahrain national water boundary. The nautical map was scanned, georeferenced and overlaid on the MBES-CARIS generated raster bathymetric grid surface (step 5 above), and then homologous depth points were selected. Statistical analysis, expressed as a linear error at the 95% confidence level, showed a strong correlation coefficient (R² = 0.96) and a low RMSE (± 0.57 m) between the nautical map and derived MBSE-CARIS depths if we consider only the shallow areas with depths of less than 10 m (about 800 validation points). When we consider only deeper areas (> 10 m) the correlation coefficient is equal to 0.73 and the RMSE is equal to ± 2.43 m while if we consider the totality of 2200 validation points including all depths, the correlation coefficient is still significant (R² = 0.81) with satisfactory RMSE (± 1.57 m). Certainly, this significant variation can be caused by the MBSE that did not completely cover the bottom in several of the deeper pockmarks because of the rapid change in depth. In addition, steep slopes and the rough seafloor probably affect the acquired MBSE raw data. In addition, the interpolation of missed area values between MBSE acquisition swaths-lines (ship-tracked sounding data) may not reflect the true depths of these missed areas. However, globally the results of the MBES-CARIS data are very appropriate for bathymetric mapping of shallow water areas.
Demographic Bomb or Bonus in All Provinces in 100 Years after Indonesian Independence
According to National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN), demographic bonus will occur in 2025-2035, when the number of people within the productive age bracket is higher than the number of elderly people and children. This time will be a gold moment for Indonesia to achieve maximum productivity and prosperity. But it will be a demographic bomb if it isn’t balanced by economic and social aspect considerations. Therefore it is important to make a prediction mapping of all provinces in Indonesia whether in demographic bomb or bonus condition after 100 years Indonesian independence. The purpose of this research were to make the demographic mapping based on the economic and social aspects of the provinces in Indonesia and categorizing them into demographic bomb and bonus condition. The research data are gained from Statistics Indonesia (BPS) as the secondary data. The multiregional component method, regression and quadrant analysis were used to predict the number of people, economic growth, Human Development Index (HDI), and gender equality in education and employment. There were different characteristic of provinces in Indonesia from economic aspect and social aspect. The west Indonesia was already better developed than the east one. The prediction result, many provinces in Indonesia will get demographic bonus but the others will get demographic bomb. It is important to prepare particular strategy to particular provinces with all of their characteristic based on the prediction result so the demographic bomb can be minimalized.
Utilization of Online Risk Mapping Techniques versus Desktop Geospatial Tools in Making Multi-Hazard Risk Maps for Italy
Italy has experienced a notable quantity and impact of disasters due to natural hazards and technological accidents caused by diverse risk sources on its physical, technological, and human/sociological infrastructures during past decade. This study discusses the frequency and impacts of the most three physical devastating natural hazards in Italy for the period 2000–2013. The approach examines the reliability of a range of open source WebGIS techniques versus a proposed multi-hazard risk management methodology. Spatial and attribute data which include USGS publically available hazard data and thirteen years Munich RE recorded data for Italy with different severities have been processed, visualized in a GIS (Geographic Information System) framework. Comparison of results from the study showed that the multi-hazard risk maps generated using open source techniques do not provide a reliable system to analyze the infrastructures losses in respect to national risk sources while they can be adopted for general international risk management purposes. Additionally, this study establishes the possibility to critically examine and calibrate different integrated techniques in evaluating what better protection measures can be taken in an area.
A Diagnostic Comparative Analysis of on Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Models for Indoor and Outdoor Route Planning and Obstacle Avoidance
In robotics literature, the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is commonly associated with a priori-posteriori problem. The autonomous vehicle needs a neutral map to spontaneously track its local position, i.e., “localization” while at the same time a precise path estimation of the environment state is required for effective route planning and obstacle avoidance. On the other hand, the environmental noise factors can significantly intensify the inherent uncertainties in using odometry information and measurements obtained from the robot’s exteroceptive sensor which in return directly affect the overall performance of the corresponding SLAM. Therefore, the current work is primarily dedicated to provide a diagnostic analysis of six SLAM algorithms including FastSLAM, L-SLAM, GraphSLAM, Grid SLAM and DP-SLAM. A SLAM simulated environment consisting of two sets of landmark locations and robot waypoints was set based on modified EKF and UKF in MATLAB using two separate maps for indoor and outdoor route planning subject to natural and artificial obstacles. The simulation results are expected to provide an unbiased platform to compare the estimation performances of the five SLAM models as well as on the reliability of each SLAM model for indoor and outdoor applications.
Social Vulnerability Mapping in New York City to Discuss Current Adaptation Practice
Vulnerability assessments are increasingly used to support policy-making in complex environments, like urban areas. Usually, vulnerability studies include the construction of aggregate (sub-) indices and the subsequent mapping of indices across an area of interest. Vulnerability studies show a couple of advantages: they are great communication tools, can inform a wider general debate about environmental issues, and can help allocating and efficiently targeting scarce resources for adaptation policy and planning. However, they also have a number of challenges: Vulnerability assessments are constructed on the basis of a wide range of methodologies and there is no single framework or methodology that has proven to serve best in certain environments, indicators vary highly according to the spatial scale used, different variables and metrics produce different results, and aggregate or composite vulnerability indicators that are mapped easily distort or bias the picture of vulnerability as they hide the underlying causes of vulnerability and level out conflicting reasons of vulnerability in space. So, there is urgent need to further develop the methodology of vulnerability studies towards a common framework, which is one reason of the paper. We introduce a social vulnerability approach, which is compared with other approaches of bio-physical or sectoral vulnerability studies relatively developed in terms of a common methodology for index construction, guidelines for mapping, assessment of sensitivity, and verification of variables. Two approaches are commonly pursued in the literature. The first one is an additive approach, in which all potentially influential variables are weighted according to their importance for the vulnerability aspect, and then added to form a composite vulnerability index per unit area. The second approach includes variable reduction, mostly Principal Component Analysis (PCA) that reduces the number of variables that are interrelated into a smaller number of less correlating components, which are also added to form a composite index. We test these two approaches of constructing indices on the area of New York City as well as two different metrics of variables used as input and compare the outcome for the 5 boroughs of NY. Our analysis yields that the mapping exercise yields particularly different results in the outer regions and parts of the boroughs, such as Outer Queens and Staten Island. However, some of these parts, particularly the coastal areas receive the highest attention in the current adaptation policy. We imply from this that the current adaptation policy and practice in NY might need to be discussed, as these outer urban areas show relatively low social vulnerability as compared with the more central parts, i.e. the high dense areas of Manhattan, Central Brooklyn, Central Queens and the Southern Bronx. The inner urban parts receive lesser adaptation attention, but bear a higher risk of damage in case of hazards in those areas. This is conceivable, e.g., during large heatwaves, which would more affect more the inner and poorer parts of the city as compared with the outer urban areas. In light of the recent planning practice of NY one needs to question and discuss who in NY makes adaptation policy for whom, but the presented analyses points towards an under representation of the needs of the socially vulnerable population, such as the poor, the elderly, and ethnic minorities, in the current adaptation practice in New York City.
The Application of Mapping, Practicing, Using Strategy with Instructional Materials Based on the School Curriculum toward the English Achievement of Indonesian EFL Students
English proficiency of Indonesian secondary school students is below standard. The low proficiency may come from poor teaching materials that do not meet the students’ need. The main objective for English teachers is to improve the English proficiency of the students. The purpose of this study is to explore the application Mapping, Practicing, Using (MPU) strategy with Instructional Materials Based on the School Curriculum toward the English achievement of Indonesian EFL Students. This paper is part my dissertation entitles 'Designing instructional materials for secondary school students based on the school curriculum' consisting of need analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation; this paper discusses need analysis and creates a model of creating instructional materials through deep discussion among teachers of secondary schools. The subject consisted of six English teachers and students of three classes at three different secondary schools in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Pretest and posttest design were administered to see the effectiveness of the MPU strategy. Questionnaires were administered to see the teachers and students’ perception toward the instructional materials. The result indicates that the MPU strategy is effective in improving the English achievement; instructional materials with different strategies improve the English achievement of the students. Both teachers and students argue that the presented instructional materials are effective to be used in the teaching and learning process to increase the English proficiency of the students.
Development and Validation of Thermal Stability in Complex System ABDM has two ASIC by NISA and COMSOL Tools
To make a good thermal management in an ABDM (Adapter Board Detector Module) card, we must first control temperature and its gradient from the first step in the design of integrated circuits ASIC of our complex system. In this paper, our main goal is to develop and validate the thermal stability in order to get an idea of the flow of heat around the ASIC in transient and thus address the thermal issues for integrated circuits at the ABDM card. However, we need heat sources simulations for ABDM card to establish its thermal mapping. This led us to perform simulations at each ASIC that will allow us to understand the thermal ABDM map and find real solutions for each one of our complex system that contains 36 ABDM map, taking into account the different layers around ASIC. To do a transient simulation under NISA, we had to build a function of power modulation in time TIMEAMP. The maximum power generated in the ASIC is 0.6 W. We divided the power uniformly in the volume of the ASIC. This power was applied for 5 seconds to visualize the evolution and distribution of heat around the ASIC. The DBC (Dirichlet Boundary conditions) method was applied around the ABDM at 25°C and just after these simulations in NISA tool we will validate them by COMSOL tool, wich is a numerical calculation software for a modular finite element for modeling a wide variety of physical phenomena characterizing a real problem. It will also be a design tool with its ability to handle 3D geometries for complex systems.
Identity (Mis)Representation and Ideological Struggles in Discourses on Boko Haram in Nigeria
Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad (also called Boko Haram) in the North-East of Nigeria has facilitated ideological binarity in discourses on the crisis. Since its proliferation, media representation of the crisis has facilitated identity contamination and ideological struggle through which other critical issues, such as religious intolerance, ethnic diversity and other forms of class conflict in the Nigerian state, are brought to public notice. Though Boko Haram insurgency is ideological laden, the manifestation of the inherent ideologies requires extensive scholarly attention in order deconstruct the veiled ideologies. Therefore, the thrust of this study is to critically investigate identity (mis)representation as a basis for ideological mapping in discourses on Boko Haram in Nigeria, adopting critical discourse analytical tools supported with insights from systemic functional linguistics and critical discourse analysis. The data for this study consist of articles on Boko Haram in Nigerian newspapers published in English. The data selection is purposive and aimed at responding to challenges that are inherent in Nigeria's multifaithism and multiculturalism, and their effects on the construction of narratives on Boko Haram. The study reveals that identity manipulation is a constructive device for ideological mapping, realised through labeling, agency activation, and transitivity. Identity representation in discourses on Boko Haram depicted four dichotomous binarities using exclusion, generalisation, contrasting and attribution.
Applications of Space Technology in Flood Risk Mapping in Parts of Haryana State, India
The severity and frequencies of different disasters on the globe is increasing in recent years. India is also facing the disasters in the form of drought, cyclone, earthquake, landslides, and floods. One of the major causes of disasters in northern India is flood. There are great losses and extensive damage to the agricultural crops, property, human, and animal life. This is causing environmental imbalances at places. The annual global figures for losses due to floods run into over 2 billion dollar. India is a vast country with wide variations in climate and topography. Due to widespread and heavy rainfall during the monsoon months, floods of varying magnitude occur all over the country during June to September. The magnitude depends upon the intensity of rainfall, its duration and also the ground conditions at the time of rainfall. Haryana, one of the agriculturally dominated northern states is also suffering from a number of disasters such as floods, desertification, soil erosion, land degradation etc. Earthquakes are also frequently occurring but of small magnitude so are not causing much concern and damage. Most of the damage in Haryana is due to floods. Floods in Haryana have occurred in 1978, 1988, 1993, 1995, 1998, and 2010 to mention a few. The present paper deals with the Remote Sensing and GIS applications in preparing flood risk maps in parts of Haryana State India. The satellite data of various years have been used for mapping of flood affected areas. The Flooded areas have been interpreted both visually and digitally and two classes-flooded and receded water/ wet areas have been identified for each year. These have been analyzed in GIS environment to prepare the risk maps. This shows the areas of high, moderate and low risk depending on the frequency of flood witness. The floods leave a trail of suffering in the form of unhygienic conditions due to improper sanitation, water logging, filth littered in the area, degradation of materials and unsafe drinking water making the people prone to many type diseases in short and long run. Attempts have also been made to enumerate the causes of floods. The suggestions are given for mitigating the fury of floods and proper management issues related to evacuation and safe places nearby.
Urban Land Use Type Analysis Based on Land Subsidence Areas Using X-Band Satellite Image of Jakarta Metropolitan City, Indonesia
Jakarta Metropolitan City is located on the northwest coast of West Java province with geographical location between 106º33’ 00”-107º00’00”E longitude and 5º48’30”-6º24’00”S latitude. Jakarta urban area has been suffered from land subsidence in several land use type as trading, industry and settlement area. Land subsidence hazard is one of the consequences of urban development in Jakarta. This hazard is caused by intensive human activities in groundwater extraction and land use mismanagement. Geologically, the Jakarta urban area is mostly dominated by alluvium fan sediment. The objectives of this research are to make an analysis of Jakarta urban land use type on land subsidence zone areas. The process of producing safer land use and settlements of the land subsidence areas are very important. Spatial distributions of land subsidence detection are necessary tool for land use management planning. For this purpose, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) method is used. The DInSAR is complementary to ground-based methods such as leveling and global positioning system (GPS) measurements, yielding information in a wide coverage area even when the area is inaccessible. The data were fine tuned by using X-Band image satellite data from 2010 to 2013 and land use mapping data. Our analysis of land use type that land subsidence movement occurred on the northern part Jakarta Metropolitan City varying from 7.5 to 17.5 cm/year as industry and settlement land use type areas.
The Development of Space-Time and Space-Number Associations: The Role of Non-Symbolic vs. Symbolic Representations
The idea that people use space representations to think about time and number received support from several lines of research. However, how these representations develop in children and then shape space-time and space-number mappings is still a debated issue. In the present study, 40 children (20 pre-schoolers and 20 elementary-school children) performed 4 main tasks, which required the use of more concrete (non-symbolic) or more abstract (symbolic) space-time and space-number associations. In the non-symbolic conditions, children were required to order pictures of everyday-life events occurring in a specific temporal order (Temporal sequences) and of quantities varying in numerosity (Numerical sequences). In the symbolic conditions, they were asked to perform the typical time-to-position and number-to-position tasks by mapping time-related words and numbers onto lines. Results showed that children performed reliably better in the non-symbolic Time conditions than the symbolic Time conditions, independently of age, whereas only pre-schoolers performed worse in the Number-to-position task (symbolic) as compared to the Numerical sequence (non-symbolic) task. In addition, only older children mapped time-related words onto space following the typical left-right orientation, pre-schoolers’ performance being somewhat mixed. In contrast, mapping numbers onto space showed a clear left-right orientation, independently of age. Overall, these results indicate a cross-domain difference in the way younger and older children process time and number, with time-related tasks being more difficult than number-related tasks only when space-time tasks require symbolic representations.
Application of a Universal Distortion Correction Method in Stereo-Based Digital Image Correlation Measurement
Stereo-based digital image correlation (also referred to as three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation (DIC)) is a technique for both 3D shape and surface deformation measurement of a component, which has found increasing applications in academia and industries. The accuracy of the reconstructed coordinate depends on many factors such as configuration of the setup, stereo-matching, distortion, etc. Most of these factors have been investigated in literature. For instance, the configuration of a binocular vision system determines the systematic errors. The stereo-matching errors depend on the speckle quality and the matching algorithm, which can only be controlled in a limited range. And the distortion is non-linear particularly in a complex imaging acquisition system. Thus, the distortion correction should be carefully considered. Moreover, the distortion function is difficult to formulate in a complex imaging acquisition system using conventional models in such cases where microscopes and other complex lenses are involved. The errors of the distortion correction will propagate to the reconstructed 3D coordinates. To address the problem, an accurate mapping method based on 2D B-spline functions is proposed in this study. The mapping functions are used to convert the distorted coordinates into an ideal plane without distortions. This approach is suitable for any image acquisition distortion models. It is used as a prior process to convert the distorted coordinate to an ideal position, which enables the camera to conform to the pin-hole model. A procedure of this approach is presented for stereo-based DIC. Using 3D speckle image generation, numerical simulations were carried out to compare the accuracy of both the conventional method and the proposed approach.
Geographic Information System Using Google Fusion Table Technology for the Delivery of Disease Data Information
Data in the field of health can be useful for the purposes of data analysis, one example of health data is disease data. Disease data is usually in a geographical plot in accordance with the area. Where the data was collected, in the city of Denpasar, Bali. Disease data report is still published in tabular form, disease information has not been mapped in GIS form. In this research, disease information in Denpasar city will be digitized in the form of a geographic information system with the smallest administrative area in the form of district. Denpasar City consists of 4 districts of North Denpasar, East Denpasar, West Denpasar and South Denpasar. In this research, we use Google fusion table technology for map digitization process, where this technology can facilitate from the administrator and from the recipient information. From the administrator side of the input disease, data can be done easily and quickly. From the receiving end of the information, the resulting GIS application can be published in a website-based application so that it can be accessed anywhere and anytime. In general, the results obtained in this study, divided into two, namely: (1) Geolocation of Denpasar and all of Denpasar districts, the process of digitizing the map of Denpasar city produces a polygon geolocation of each - district of Denpasar city. These results can be utilized in subsequent GIS studies if you want to use the same administrative area. (2) Dengue fever mapping in 2014 and 2015. Disease data used in this study is dengue fever case data taken in 2014 and 2015. Data taken from the profile report Denpasar Health Department 2015 and 2016. This mapping can be useful for the analysis of the spread of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the city of Denpasar.
Development of an Autonomous Automated Guided Vehicle with Robot Manipulator under Robot Operation System Architecture
This paper presents the development of an autonomous automated guided vehicle (AGV) with a robot arm attached on top of it within the framework of robot operation system (ROS). ROS can provide libraries and tools, including hardware abstraction, device drivers, libraries, visualizers, message-passing, package management, etc. For this reason, this AGV can provide automatic navigation and parts transportation and pick-and-place task using robot arm for typical industrial production line use. More specifically, this AGV will be controlled by an on-board host computer running ROS software. Command signals for vehicle and robot arm control and measurement signals from various sensors are transferred to respective microcontrollers. Users can operate the AGV remotely through the TCP / IP protocol and perform SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping). An RGBD camera and LIDAR sensors are installed on the AGV, using these data to perceive the environment. For SLAM, Gmapping is used to construct the environment map by Rao-Blackwellized particle filter; and AMCL method (Adaptive Monte Carlo localization) is employed for mobile robot localization. In addition, current AGV position and orientation can be visualized by ROS toolkit. As for robot navigation and obstacle avoidance, A* for global path planning and dynamic window approach for local planning are implemented. The developed ROS AGV with a robot arm on it has been experimented in the university factory. A 2-D and 3-D map of the factory were successfully constructed by the SLAM method. Base on this map, robot navigation through the factory with and without dynamic obstacles are shown to perform well. Finally, pick-and-place of parts using robot arm and ensuing delivery in the factory by the mobile robot are also accomplished.
Geospatial Curve Fitting Methods for Disease Mapping of Tuberculosis in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
To interpolate scattered or regularly distributed data, there are imprecise or exact methods. However, there are some of these methods that could be used for interpolating data in a regular grid and others in an irregular grid. In spatial epidemiology, it is important to examine how a disease prevalence rates are distributed in space, and how they relate with each other within a defined distance and direction. In this study, for the geographic and graphic representation of the disease prevalence, linear and biharmonic spline methods were implemented in MATLAB, and used to identify, localize and compare for smoothing in the distribution patterns of tuberculosis (TB) in Eastern Cape Province. The aim of this study is to produce a more “smooth” graphical disease map for TB prevalence patterns by a 3-D curve fitting techniques, especially the biharmonic splines that can suppress noise easily, by seeking a least-squares fit rather than exact interpolation. The datasets are represented generally as a 3D or XYZ triplets, where X and Y are the spatial coordinates and Z is the variable of interest and in this case, TB counts in the province. This smoothing spline is a method of fitting a smooth curve to a set of noisy observations using a spline function, and it has also become the conventional method for its high precision, simplicity and flexibility. Surface and contour plots are produced for the TB prevalence at the provincial level for 2012 – 2015. From the results, the general outlook of all the fittings showed a systematic pattern in the distribution of TB cases in the province and this is consistent with some spatial statistical analyses carried out in the province. This new method is rarely used in disease mapping applications, but it has a superior advantage to be assessed at subjective locations rather than only on a rectangular grid as seen in most traditional GIS methods of geospatial analyses.
Remote Sensing and GIS Integration for Paddy Production Estimation in Bali Province, Indonesia
Estimation of paddy production is one of the areas that can be examined using the techniques of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the field of agriculture. The purpose of this research is to know the amount of the paddy production estimation and how remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are able to perform analysis of paddy production estimation in Tegalallang and Payangan Sub district, Bali Province, Indonesia. The method used is the method of land suitability. This method associates a physical parameters which are to be embodied in the smallest unit of a mapping that represents a mapping unit in a particular field and connecting with its field productivity. Analysis of estimated production using standard land suitability from FAO using matching technique. The parameters used to create the land unit is slope (FAO), climate classification (Oldeman), landform (Prapto Suharsono), and soil type. Land use map consist of paddy and non paddy field information obtained from Geo-eye 1 imagery using visual interpretation technique. Landsat image of the Data used for the interpretation of the landform, the classification of the slopes obtained from high point identification with method of interpolation spline, whereas climate data, soil, use secondary data originating from institutions-related institutions. The results of this research indicate Tegallalang and Payangan Districts in known wetland suitability consists of S1 (very suitable) covering an area of 2884,7 ha with the productivity of 5 tons/ha and S2 (suitable) covering an area of 482,9 ha with the productivity of 3 tons/ha. The sum of paddy production estimation as a results in both districts are 31.744, 3 tons in one year.
Patchwork City: An Affective Map for a Patchwork Zone
This article presents the creation and design process of the "patchwork map" made for the project “Santo Amaro em Rede” (Santo Amaro on Web). The project was carried out in 2009 by SESC – SP – Brazil (Social Service for the Commerce of São Paulo) in partnership with Instituto Pólis. It is a mapping of socio-cultural dynamics of São Paulo’s South Zone and neighboring municipalities.
The Adoption of Leagility in Healthcare Services
Healthcare systems have been subject to various research efforts aiming at process improvement under a lean approach. Another perspective, agility, has also been used, though in a lower scale, in order to analyse the ability of different hospital services to adapt to demand uncertainties. Both perspectives have a common denominator, the improvement of effectiveness and efficiency of the services in a healthcare setting context. Mixing the two approached allows, on one hand, to streamline the processes, and on the other hand the required flexibility to deal with demand uncertainty in terms of both volume and variety. The present research aims to analyse the impacts of the combination of both perspectives in the effectiveness and efficiency of an hospital service. The adopted methodology is based on a case study approach applied to the process of the ambulatory surgery service of Hospital de Lamego. Data was collected from direct observations, formal interviews and informal conversations. The analyzed process was selected according to three criteria: relevance of the process to the hospital, presence of human resources, and presence of waste. The customer of the process was identified as well as his perception of value. The process was mapped using flow chart, on a process modeling perspective, as well as through the use of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Process Activity Mapping. The Spaghetti Diagram was also used to assess flow intensity. The use of the lean tools enabled the identification of three main types of waste: movement, resource inefficiencies and process inefficiencies. From the use of the lean tools improvement suggestions were produced. The results point out that leagility cannot be applied to the process, but the application of lean and agility in specific areas of the process would bring benefits in both efficiency and effectiveness, and contribute to value creation if improvements are introduced in hospital’s human resources and facilities management.
Landcover Mapping Using Lidar Data and Aerial Image and Soil Fertility Degradation Assessment for Rice Production Area in Quezon, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
Land-cover maps were important for many scientific, ecological and land management purposes and during the last decades, rapid decrease of soil fertility was observed to be due to land use practices such as rice cultivation. High-precision land-cover maps are not yet available in the area which is important in an economy management. To assure accurate mapping of land cover to provide information, remote sensing is a very suitable tool to carry out this task and automatic land use and cover detection. The study did not only provide high precision land cover maps but it also provides estimates of rice production area that had undergone chemical degradation due to fertility decline. Land-cover were delineated and classified into pre-defined classes to achieve proper detection features. After generation of Land-cover map, of high intensity of rice cultivation, soil fertility degradation assessment in rice production area due to fertility decline was created to assess the impact of soils used in agricultural production. Using Simple spatial analysis functions and ArcGIS, the Land-cover map of Municipality of Quezon in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was overlaid to the fertility decline maps from Land Degradation Assessment Philippines- Bureau of Soils and Water Management (LADA-Philippines-BSWM) to determine the area of rice crops that were most likely where nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and sulfur deficiencies were induced by high dosage of urea and imbalance N:P fertilization. The result found out that 80.00 % of fallow and 99.81% of rice production area has high soil fertility decline.
Comparison of Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers in Characterizing Threatened Tree Species Using Eight Bands of WorldView-2 Imagery in Dukuduku Landscape, South Africa
Threatened tree species (TTS) play a significant role in ecosystem functioning and services, land use dynamics, and other socio-economic aspects. Such aspects include ecological, economic, livelihood, security-based, and well-being benefits. The development of techniques for mapping and monitoring TTS is thus critical for understanding the functioning of ecosystems. The advent of advanced imaging systems and supervised learning algorithms has provided an opportunity to classify TTS over fragmenting landscape. Recently, vegetation maps have been produced using advanced imaging systems such as WorldView-2 (WV-2) and robust classification algorithms such as support vectors machines (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN). However, delineation of TTS in a fragmenting landscape using high resolution imagery has widely remained elusive due to the complexity of the species structure and their distribution. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the utility of the advanced WV-2 data for mapping TTS in the fragmenting Dukuduku indigenous forest of South Africa using SVM and ANN classification algorithms. The results showed the robustness of the two machine learning algorithms with an overall accuracy (OA) of 77.00% (total disagreement = 23.00%) for SVM and 75.00% (total disagreement = 25.00%) for ANN using all eight bands of WV-2 (8B). This study concludes that SVM and ANN classification algorithms with WV-2 8B have the potential to classify TTS in the Dukuduku indigenous forest. This study offers relatively accurate information that is important for forest managers to make informed decisions regarding management and conservation protocols of TTS.
Ancient Cities of Deltaic Bengal: Origin and Nature on the Riverine Bed of Ganges Valley
A town or a city contributes a lot to human mankind. City evolves memory, ambition, frustration and achievement. The city is something that offers life, as the character of the city is. A city is having confined image to the human being. Time place and matter generate this vive, city celebrates with its inhabitant, belongs and to care for each other. Apart from all these; although city and settlements are the contentious and changing phenomenon; the origin of the city in the very delta land started with unique and strategic sequences. Religious belief, topography, availability of resource and connection with commercial hub make the potential of the settlement. Ancient cities of Bengal are not the exception from these phenomenologies. From time immemorial; Bengal is enriched with numerous cities and notorious settlements. These cities and settlements were connected with other inland ports and Bengal became an important trade route, trailed by the Riverine connections. The delta land formation is valued for its geographic situation, consequences of this position; a new story or a new conception could be found in origin of an ancient city.
However, the objective of this research is to understand the origin and spirit of the ancient city of Bengal, the research would also try to unfold the authentic and rational meaning of soul of the city, this research addresses the interest to elaborate the soul of the ancient sites of Riverine Delta. As rivers used to have the common character in this very landform; river supported community generated as well.
River gives people wealth, sometimes fall us in sorrow. The river provides us commerce and trading. River gives us faith and religion. All these potentials have evolved from the Riverine excel. So the research would approach thoroughly to justify the riverine value as the soul for the ancient cities of Bengal. Cartographic information and illustration would be the preferred language for this research. Preferably, the historic mapping would be the unique folio of this study.
A Method for Multimedia User Interface Design for Mobile Learning
Mobile devices are becoming ever more widely available, with growing functionality, and are increasingly used as an enabling technology to give students access to educational material anytime and anywhere. However, the design of educational material user interfaces for mobile devices is beset by many unresolved research issues such as those arising from emphasising the information concepts then mapping this information to appropriate media (modelling information then mapping media effectively). This report describes a multimedia user interface design method for mobile learning. The method covers specification of user requirements and information architecture, media selection to represent the information content, design for directing attention to important information, and interaction design to enhance user engagement based on Human-Computer Interaction design strategies (HCI). The method will be evaluated by three different case studies to prove the method is suitable for application to different areas / applications, these are; an application to teach about major computer networking concepts, an application to deliver a history-based topic; (after these case studies have been completed, the method will be revised to remove deficiencies and then used to develop a third case study), an application to teach mathematical principles. At this point, the method will again be revised into its final format. A usability evaluation will be carried out to measure the usefulness and effectiveness of the method. The investigation will combine qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews and questionnaires for data collection and three case studies for validating the MDMLM method. The researcher has successfully produced the method at this point which is now under validation and testing procedures. From this point forward in the report, the researcher will refer to the method using the MDMLM abbreviation which means Multimedia Design Mobile Learning Method.
Real-Space Mapping of Surface Trap States in Cigse Nanocrystals Using 4D Electron Microscopy
This work reports visualization of charge carrier dynamics on the surface of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGSe) nanocrystals in real space and time using four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM) and correlates it with the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals. The surface of the nanocrystals plays a key role in controlling their applicability for light emitting and light harvesting purposes. Typically for quaternary systems like CIGSe, which have many desirable attributes to be used for optoelectronic applications, relative abundance of surface trap states acting as non-radiative recombination centre for charge carriers remains as a major bottleneck preventing further advancements and commercial exploitation of these nanocrystals devices. Though ultrafast spectroscopic techniques allow determining the presence of picosecond carrier trapping channels, because of relative larger penetration depth of the laser beam, only information mainly from the bulk of the nanocrystals is obtained. Selective mapping of such ultrafast dynamical processes on the surfaces of nanocrystals remains as a key challenge, so far out of reach of purely optical probing time-resolved laser techniques. In S-UEM, the optical pulse generated from a femtosecond (fs) laser system is used to generate electron packets from the tip of the scanning electron microscope, instead of the continuous electron beam used in the conventional setup. This pulse is synchronized with another optical excitation pulse that initiates carrier dynamics in the sample. The principle of S-UEM is to detect the secondary electrons (SEs) generated in the sample, which is emitted from the first few nanometers of the top surface. Constructed at different time delays between the optical and electron pulses, these SE images give direct and precise information about the carrier dynamics on the surface of the material of interest. In this work, we report selective mapping of surface dynamics in real space and time of CIGSe nanocrystals applying 4D S-UEM. We show that the trap states can be considerably passivated by ZnS shelling of the nanocrystals, and the carrier dynamics can be significantly slowed down. We also compared and discussed the S-UEM kinetics with the carrier dynamics obtained from conventional ultrafast time-resolved techniques. Additionally, a direct effect of the state trap removal can be observed in the enhanced photoresponse of the nanocrystals after shelling. Direct observation of surface dynamics will not only provide a profound understanding of the photo-physical mechanisms on nanocrystals’ surfaces but also enable to unlock their full potential for light emitting and harvesting applications.
Identification and Classification of Stakeholders in the Transition to 3D Cadastre
The 3D cadastre is an inevitable choice to meet the needs of real cadastral management. Nowadays, more attention is given to the technical aspects of 3D cadastre, resulting in the imbalance within this field. To fulfill this research gap, the stakeholder, which has been regarded as the determining factor in cadastral change has been studied. Delphi method, Michael rating, and stakeholder mapping are used to identify and classify the stakeholders in 3D cadastre. It is concluded that the project managers should pay more attention to the interesting appeal of the key stakeholders and different coping strategies should be adopted to facilitate the transition to 3D cadastre.
A Reading Attempt of the Urban Memory of Jordan University of Science and Technology Campus by Cognitive Mapping
The University campuses are a small city containing basic city functions such as educational spaces, accommodations, services and transportation. They are spaces of functional and social life with different activities, different occupants. The campus designed and transformed like cities so both experienced and memorized in same way. Campus memory is the ability of individuals to maintain and reveal the spatial components of designed physical spaces, which form the understandings, experiences, sensations of the environment in all. ‘Cognitive mapping’ is used to decode the physical interaction and emotional relationship between individuals and the city; Cognitive maps are created graphically using geometric and verbal elements on paper by remembering the images of the Urban Environment. In this study, to determine the emotional urban identity belonging to Jordan University of science and technology Campus, architecture students Asked to identify the areas they interact with in the campus by drawing a cognitive map. ‘Campus memory items’ are identified by analyzing the cognitive maps of the campus, then the spatial identity result of such data. The analysis based on the five basic elements of Lynch: paths, districts, edges, nodes, and landmarks. As a result of this analysis, it found that Spatial Identity constructed by the shared elements of the maps. The memory of most students listed the gates structure- which is a large desirable structure, located at the main entrances within the campus defined as major landmarks, then the square spaces defined as nodes, in addition to both stairs and corridors defined as paths. Finally, the districts, edges of educational buildings and service spaces are listed correspondingly in cognitive maps. Findings suggest that the spatial identity of the campus design is related mainly to the gates structures, squares and stairs.
Clinical Advice Services: Using Lean Chassis to Optimize Nurse-Driven Telephonic Triage of After-Hour Calls from Patients
It is challenging for patients to navigate through healthcare systems after-hours. This leads to delays in care, patient/provider dissatisfaction, inappropriate resource utilization, readmissions, and higher costs. It is important to provide patients and providers with effective clinical decision-making tools to allow seamless connectivity and coordinated care. In August 2015, patient-centric Stanford Health Care established Clinical Advice Services (CAS) to provide clinical decision support after-hours. CAS is founded on key Lean principles: Value stream mapping, empathy mapping, waste walk, takt time calculations, standard work, plan-do-check-act cycles, and active daily management. At CAS, Clinical Assistants take the initial call and manage all non-clinical calls (e.g., appointments, directions, general information). If the patient has a clinical symptom, the CAS nurses take the call and utilize standardized clinical algorithms to triage the patient to home, clinic, urgent care, emergency department, or 911. Nurses may also contact the on-call physician based on the clinical algorithm for further direction and consultation. Since August 2015, CAS has managed 228,990 calls from 26 clinical specialties. Reporting is built into the electronic health record for analysis and data collection. 65.3% of the after-hours calls are clinically related. Average clinical algorithm adherence rate has been 92%. An average of 9% of calls was escalated by CAS nurses to the physician on call. An average of 5% of patients was triaged to the Emergency Department by CAS. Key learnings indicate that a seamless connectivity vision, cascading, multidisciplinary ownership of the problem, and synergistic enterprise improvements have contributed to this success while striving for continuous improvement.
Mapping and Database on Mass Movements along the Eastern Edge of the East African Rift in Burundi
The eastern edge of the East African Rift in Burundi shows many mass movement phenomena corresponding to landslides, mudflow, debris flow, spectacular erosion (mega-gully), flash floods and alluvial deposits. These phenomena usually occur during the rainy season. Their extent and consecutive damages vary widely. To manage these phenomena, it is necessary to adopt a methodological approach of their mapping with a structured database. The elements for this database are: three-dimensional extent of the phenomenon, natural causes and conditions (geological lithology, slope, weathering depth and products, rainfall patterns, natural environment) and the anthropogenic factors corresponding to the various human activities. The extent of the area provides information about the possibilities and opportunities for mitigation technique. The lithological nature allows understanding the influence of the nature of the rock and its structure on the intensity of the weathering of rocks, as well as the geotechnical properties of the weathering products. The slope influences the land stability. The intensity of annual, monthly and daily rainfall helps to understand the conditions of water saturation of the terrains. Certain natural circumstances such as the presence of streams and rivers promote foot slope erosion and thus the occurrence and activity of mass movements. The construction of some infrastructures such as new roads and agglomerations deeply modify the flow of surface and underground water followed by mass movements. Using geospatial data selected on the East African Rift in Burundi, it is presented case of mass movements illustrating the nature, importance, various factors and the extent of the damages. An analysis of these elements for each hazard can guide the options for mitigation of the phenomenon and its consequences.
Debris Flow Mapping Using Geographical Information System Based Model and Geospatial Data in Middle Himalayas
The Himalayas with high tectonic activities poses a great threat to human life and property. Climate change is another reason which triggering extreme events multiple fold effect on high mountain glacial environment, rock falls, landslides, debris flows, flash flood and snow avalanches. One such extreme event of cloud burst along with breach of moraine dammed Chorabri Lake occurred from June 14 to June 17, 2013, triggered flooding of Saraswati and Mandakini rivers in the Kedarnath Valley of Rudraprayag district of Uttrakhand state of India. As a result, huge volume of water with its high velocity created a catastrophe of the century, which resulted into loss of large number of human/animals, pilgrimage, tourism, agriculture and property. Thus a comprehensive assessment of debris flow hazards requires GIS-based modeling using numerical methods. The aim of present study is to focus on analysis and mapping of debris flow movements using geospatial data with flow-r (developed by team at IGAR, University of Lausanne). The model is based on combined probabilistic and energetic algorithms for the assessment of spreading of flow with maximum run out distances. Aster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 30m x 30m cell size (resolution) is used as main geospatial data for preparing the run out assessment, while Landsat data is used to analyze land use land cover change in the study area. The results of the study area show that model can be applied with great accuracy as the model is very useful in determining debris flow areas. The results are compared with existing available landslides/debris flow maps. ArcGIS software is used in preparing run out susceptibility maps which can be used in debris flow mitigation and future land use planning.
Validation Study of Radial Aircraft Engine Model
This paper presents the radial aircraft engine model which has been created in AVL Boost software. This model is a one-dimensional physical model of the engine, which enables us to investigate the impact of an ignition system design on engine performance (power, torque, fuel consumption). In addition, this model allows research under variable environmental conditions to reflect varied flight conditions (altitude, humidity, cruising speed). Before the simulation research the identifying parameters and validating of model were studied. In order to verify the feasibility to take off power of gasoline radial aircraft engine model, some validation study was carried out. The first stage of the identification was completed with reference to the technical documentation provided by manufacturer of engine and the experiments on the test stand of the real engine. The second stage involved a comparison of simulation results with the results of the engine stand tests performed on a WSK ’PZL-Kalisz’. The engine was loaded by a propeller in a special test bench. Identifying the model parameters referred to a comparison of the test results to the simulation in terms of: pressure behind the throttles, pressure in the inlet pipe, and time course for pressure in the first inlet pipe, power, and specific fuel consumption. Accordingly, the required coefficients and error of simulation calculation relative to the real-object experiments were determined. Obtained the time course for pressure and its value is compatible with the experimental results. Additionally the engine power and specific fuel consumption tends to be significantly compatible with the bench tests. The mapping error does not exceed 1.5%, which verifies positively the model of combustion and allows us to predict engine performance if the process of combustion will be modified. The next conducted tests verified completely model. The maximum mapping error for the pressure behind the throttles and the inlet pipe pressure is 4 %, which proves the model of the inlet duct in the engine with the charging compressor to be correct.
Heavy Sulphide Material Characterization of Grasberg Block Cave Mine, Mimika, Papua: Implication for Tunnel Development and Mill Issue
Grasberg Cu-Au ore deposit as one of the biggest porphyry deposits located in Papua Province, Indonesia produced by several intrusion that restricted by Heavy Sulphide Zone (HSZ) in peripheral. HSZ is the rock that becomes the contact between Grassberg Igneous Complex (GIC) with sedimentary and igneous rock outside, which is rich in sulphide minerals such as pyrite ± pyrrhotite. This research is to obtain the characteristic of HSZ based on geotechnical, geochemical and mineralogy aspect and those implication for daily mining operational activities. Method used in this research are geological and alteration mapping, core logging, FAA (Fire Assay Analysis), AAS (Atomic absorption spectroscopy), RQD (Rock Quality Designation) and rock water content. Data generated from methods among RQD data, mineral composition and grade, lithological and structural geology distribution in research area. The mapping data show that HSZ material characteristics divided into three type based on rocks association, there are near igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and on HSZ area. And also divided based on its location, north and south part of research area. HSZ material characteristic consist of rock which rich of pyrite ± pyrrhotite, and RQD range valued about 25%-100%. Pyrite ± pyrrhotite which outcropped will react with H₂O and O₂ resulting acid that generates corrosive effect on steel wire and rockbolt. Whereas, pyrite precipitation proses in HSZ forming combustible H₂S gas which is harmful during blasting activities. Furthermore, the impact of H₂S gas in blasting activities is forming poison gas SO₂. Although HSZ high grade Cu-Au, however those high grade Cu-Au rich in sulphide components which is affected in flotation milling process. Pyrite ± pyrrhotite in HSZ will chemically react with Cu-Au that will settle in milling process instead of floating.
Mapping the Core Processes and Identifying Actors along with Their Roles, Functions and Linkages in Trout Value Chain in Kashmir, India
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) are the two species of trout which were once introduced by British in waters of Kashmir has well adapted to favorable climatic conditions. Cold water fisheries are one of the emerging sectors in Kashmir valley and trout holds an important place Jammu and Kashmir fisheries. Realizing the immense potential of trout culture in Kashmir region, the state fisheries department started privatizing trout culture under the centrally funded scheme of RKVY in which they provide 80 percent subsidy for raceway construction and supply of feed and seed for the first year since 2009-10 and at present there are 362 private trout farms. To cater the growing demand for trout in the valley, it is important to understand the bottlenecks faced in the propagation of trout culture. Value chain analysis provides a generic framework to understand the various activities and processes, mapping and studying linkages is first step that needs to be done in any value chain analysis. In Kashmir, it is found that trout hatcheries play a crucial role in insuring the continuous supply of trout seed in valley. Feed is most limiting factor in trout culture and the farmer has to incur high cost in payment and in the transportation of feed from the feed mill to farm. Lack of aqua clinic in the Kashmir valley needs to be addressed. Brood stock maintenance, breeding and seed production, technical assistance to private farmer, extension services have to be strengthened and there is need to development healthier environment for new entrepreneurs. It was found that trout farmers do not avail credit facility as there is no well define credit scheme for fisheries in the state. The study showed weak institutional linkages. Research and development should focus more on applied science rather than basic science.
High-Resolution Facial Electromyography in Freely Behaving Humans
Human facial expressions carry important psychological and neurological information. Facial expressions involve the co-activation of diverse muscles. They depend strongly on personal affective interpretation and on social context and vary between spontaneous and voluntary activations. Smiling, as a special case, is among the most complex facial emotional expressions, involving no fewer than 7 different unilateral muscles. Despite their ubiquitous nature, smiles remain an elusive and debated topic. Smiles are associated with happiness and greeting on one hand and anger or disgust-masking on the other. Accordingly, while high-resolution recording of muscle activation patterns, in a non-interfering setting, offers exciting opportunities, it remains an unmet challenge, as contemporary surface facial electromyography (EMG) methodologies are cumbersome, restricted to the laboratory settings, and are limited in time and resolution. Here we present a wearable and non-invasive method for objective mapping of facial muscle activation and demonstrate its application in a natural setting. The technology is based on a recently developed dry and soft electrode array, specially designed for surface facial EMG technique. Eighteen healthy volunteers (31.58 ± 3.41 years, 13 females), participated in the study. Surface EMG arrays were adhered to participant left and right cheeks. Participants were instructed to imitate three facial expressions: closing the eyes, wrinkling the nose and smiling voluntary and to watch a funny video while their EMG signal is recorded. We focused on muscles associated with 'enjoyment', 'social' and 'masked' smiles; three categories with distinct social meanings. We developed a customized independent component analysis algorithm to construct the desired facial musculature mapping. First, identification of the Orbicularis oculi and the Levator labii superioris muscles was demonstrated from voluntary expressions. Second, recordings of voluntary and spontaneous smiles were used to locate the Zygomaticus major muscle activated in Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles. Finally, recording with a wireless device in an unmodified natural work setting revealed expressions of neutral, positive and negative emotions in face-to-face interaction. The algorithm outlined here identifies the activation sources in a subject-specific manner, insensitive to electrode placement and anatomical diversity. Our high-resolution and cross-talk free mapping performances, along with excellent user convenience, open new opportunities for affective processing and objective evaluation of facial expressivity, objective psychological and neurological assessment as well as gaming, virtual reality, bio-feedback and brain-machine interface applications.
Dual Duality for Unifying Spacetime and Internal Symmetry
The current efforts for Grand Unification Theory (GUT) can be classified into General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, String Theory and the related formalisms. In the geometric approaches for extending General Relativity, the efforts are establishing global and local invariance embedded into metric formalisms, thereby additional dimensions are constructed for unifying canonical formulations, such as Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formulations. The approaches of extending Quantum Mechanics adopt symmetry principle to formulate algebra-group theories, which evolved from Maxwell formulation to Yang-Mills non-abelian gauge formulation, and thereafter manifested the Standard model. This thread of efforts has been constructing super-symmetry for mapping fermion and boson as well as gluon and graviton. The efforts of String theory currently have been evolving to so-called gauge/gravity correspondence, particularly the equivalence between type IIB string theory compactified on AdS5 × S5 and N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Other efforts are also adopting cross-breeding approaches of above three formalisms as well as competing formalisms, nevertheless, the related symmetries, dualities, and correspondences are outlined as principles and techniques even these terminologies are defined diversely and often generally coined as duality. In this paper, we firstly classify these dualities from the perspective of physics. Then examine the hierarchical structure of classes from mathematical perspective referring to Coleman-Mandula theorem, Hidden Local Symmetry, Groupoid-Categorization and others. Based on Fundamental Theorems of Algebra, we argue that rather imposing effective constraints on different algebras and the related extensions, which are mainly constructed by self-breeding or self-mapping methodologies for sustaining invariance, we propose a new addition, momentum-angular momentum duality at the level of electromagnetic duality, for rationalizing the duality algebras, and then characterize this duality numerically with attempt for addressing some unsolved problems in physics and astrophysics.
ANDASA: A Web Environment for Artistic and Cultural Data Representation
ANDASA is a knowledge management platform for the capitalization of knowledge and cultural assets for the artistic and cultural sectors. It was built based on the priorities expressed by the participating artists. Through mapping artistic activities and specificities, it enables to highlight various aspects of the artistic research and production. Such instrument will contribute to create networks and partnerships, as it enables to evidentiate who does what, in what field, using which methodology. The platform is accessible to network participants and to the general public.
Increasing Productivity through Lean Manufacturing Principles and Tools: A Successful Rail Welding Plant Case
In order to satisfy the costumer’s needs, many sectors of industry and services has been spending major effort to make its processes more efficient. Facing a situation, when its production cannot cover the demand, the traditional way to achieve the production required involves, mostly, adding shifts, workforce, or even more machines. This paper narrates how lean manufacturing supported a dramatic increase of productivity at a rail welding plant in Brazil in order to meet the demand for the next years.
Use of Earth Observations and Hydrodynamic Modeling for Marine Oil Pollution Mapping in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Egypt
Marine and coastal zone environments are wealthy with several natural resources that contribute to the national economy of Egypt. The Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez area accommodates diverse contributing human activities, including oil exploration and production, touristic activities, export and import harbors, etc. It is however, experience massive pollution threats out of such human activities interactions and. This research aimed at integrating the in-situ measurements and the remotely sensed data with outputs of a hydrodynamic model to simulate the oil pollution and generate a pollution distribution map. High resolution satellite sensors including Sentinel 2 and Plantlab were functioned for oil pollution tracking. Spectral band ratio of band 4 (infrared) over band 3 (red) underpinned the mapping of the point source pollution from the oil industrial estates. This ratio is supporting the absorption windows detected in the hyper-spectral profiles. ASD in-situ hyper-spectral device was used to measure experimentally the oil pollution in marine environment. The experiment used to measure water behavior with three conditions a) clear water without oil, b) water covered with a layer of raw oil, and c) behavior of water a while after throwing raw oil. The spectral curve generated is clearly identified the absorption windows for oil pollution particularly at 600-700nm. The MIKE 21 model was applied to simulate the dispersion of the oil contamination and create different scenarios for future crises management. The model requires precise data for sea bathymetry, tides, waves, atmospheric parameters. The required data were obtained partially from the online modeled data and the historical in-situ stations. The simulation enabled to project the movement of the oil spill (i.e. speed and direction of dispersion) that would help creating a warning system as a threshold for faster mitigation measures. Detailed results of the research are described in the full paper.
Flood Hazard Assessment and Land Cover Dynamics of the Orai Khola Watershed, Bardiya, Nepal
Nepal’s Terai region is a part of the Ganges river basin which is one of the most disaster-prone areas of the world, with recurrent monsoon flooding causing millions in damage and the death and displacement of hundreds of people and households every year. The vulnerability of human settlements to natural disasters such as floods is increasing, and mapping changes in land use practices and hydro-geological parameters is essential in developing resilient communities and strong disaster management policies. The objective of this study was to develop a flood hazard zonation map of Orai Khola watershed and map the decadal land use/land cover dynamics of the watershed. The watershed area was delineated using SRTM DEM, and LANDSAT images were classified into five land use classes (forest, grassland, sediment and bare land, settlement area and cropland, and water body) using pixel-based semi-automated supervised maximum likelihood classification. Decadal changes in each class were then quantified using spatial modelling. Flood hazard mapping was performed by assigning weights to factors slope, rainfall distribution, distance from the river and land use/land cover on the basis of their estimated influence in causing flood hazard and performing weighed overlay analysis to identify areas that are highly vulnerable. The forest and grassland coverage increased by 11.53 km² (3.8%) and 1.43 km² (0.47%) from 1996 to 2016. The sediment and bare land areas decreased by 12.45 km² (4.12%) from 1996 to 2016 whereas settlement and cropland areas showed a consistent increase to 14.22 km² (4.7%). Waterbody coverage also increased to 0.3 km² (0.09%) from 1996-2016. 1.27% (3.65 km²) of total watershed area was categorized into very low hazard zone, 20.94% (60.31 km²) area into low hazard zone, 37.59% (108.3 km²) area into moderate hazard zone, 29.25% (84.27 km²) area into high hazard zone and 31 villages which comprised 10.95% (31.55 km²) were categorized into high hazard zone area.
Comparison of Data Reduction Algorithms for Image-Based Point Cloud Derived Digital Terrain Models
Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a digital numerical representation of the Earth's surface. DTM's have been applied to a diverse field of tasks, such as urban planning, military, glacier mapping, disaster management. In the expression of the Earth' surface as a mathematical model, an infinite number of point measurements are needed. Because of the impossibility of this case, the points at regular intervals are measured to characterize the Earth's surface and digital terrain model of the Earth is generated. Hitherto, the classical measurement techniques and Photogrammetry method have widespread use in the construction of digital terrain models. At present, RADAR, LiDAR, and stereo satellite images are also used for the construction of digital terrain models. In recent years, especially because of its superiorities, LiDAR has an increased use in DTM applications. A 3D point cloud is created with LiDAR technology by obtaining numerous point data. However recently, the development of image mapping methods, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetric data acquisition has increased during image-based point cloud digital terrain model production is common. The accuracy of the digital terrain models depends on various factors such as the data collection method, the distribution of elevation points, the point density, the properties of the surface and interpolation methods. In this study, uniform and random data reduction methods are compared for DTMs generated from image-based point cloud data. The original image based point cloud dataset (100%) is reduced to a series of subsets by using uniform and random algorithms, representing the 75, 50, 25 and 5 percent of the original image based point cloud data set. Over the ANS campus of Afyon Kocatepe University as the test area, DTM constructed from the original image based point cloud data set is compared with DTMs interpolated from reduced data sets by Kriging interpolation method. The results show that uniform data reduction method can be used to reduce the image based point cloud datasets to 50% density level while still maintaining the quality of DTM.
A Collaborative Application of Six Sigma and Value Engineering in Supply Chain and Logistics
This paper deals with the application of six sigma methodology in supply chain (SC) and logistics. A detailed cram about how the SC can be improved and its impact on the organization are dealt with and also how the quality plays a vital role in improving SC and logistics are identified. A simulation has been performed using the ARENA software to determine the process efficiency of a bottle manufacturing unit. Further, a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) analysis has been executed on the manufacturing process flow model and the manner by which Value Engineering (VE) holds a significant importance for quality assertion on the products is also studied.
A Method of the Semantic on Image Auto-Annotation
Recently, due to the existence of semantic gap between image visual features and human concepts, the semantic of image auto-annotation has become an important topic. Firstly, by extract low-level visual features of the image, and the corresponding Hash method, mapping the feature into the corresponding Hash coding, eventually, transformed that into a group of binary string and store it, image auto-annotation by search is a popular method, we can use it to design and implement a method of image semantic auto-annotation. Finally, Through the test based on the Corel image set, and the results show that, this method is effective.
Towards Update a Road Map Solution: Use of Information Obtained by the Extraction of Road Network and Its Nodes from a Satellite Image
In this paper, we present a new approach for extracting roads, there road network and its nodes from satellite image representing regions in Algeria. Our approach is related to our previous research work. It is founded on the information theory and the mathematical morphology. We therefore have to define objects as sets of pixels and to study the shape of these objects and the relations that exist between them. The main interest of this study is to solve the problem of the automatic mapping from satellite images. This study is thus applied for that the geographical representation of the images is as near as possible to the reality.
Mapping of Traffic Noise in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia
The present work aims at development of traffic noise maps for Riyadh City using the software Lima. Road traffic data were estimated or measured as accurate as possible in order to obtain consistent noise maps. The predicted noise levels at some selected sites are validated by actual field measurements, which are obtained by a system that consists of a sound level meter, a GPS receiver and a database to manage the measured data. The maps show that noise levels remain over 50 dBA and can exceed 70 dBA at the nearside of major roads and highways.
CMMI Key Process Areas and FDD Practices
The development of information technology during the past few years resulted in designing of more and more complex software. The outsourcing of software development makes a higher requirement for the management of software development project. Various software enterprises follow various paths in their pursuit of excellence, applying various principles, methods and techniques along the way. The new research is proving that CMMI and Agile methodologies can benefit from using both methods within organizations with the potential to dramatically improve business performance. The paper describes a mapping between CMMI key process areas (KPAs) and Feature-Driven Development (FDD) communication perspective, so as to increase the understanding of how improvements can be made in the software development process.
Dynamic Change of Floods Disaster Monitoring for River Central Bar by Remote Sensing Time-Series Images
The spatial extent and area of central river bars can always vary due to the impact of water level, sediment supply and human activities. In 2016, a catastrophic flood disaster caused by sustained and heavy rainfall happened in the middle and lower Yangtze River. The flood led to the most serious economic and social loss since 1954, and strongly affected the central river bar. It is essential to continuously monitor the dynamics change of central bars because it can avoid frequent field measurements in central bars before and after the flood disaster and is helpful for flood warning. This paper focused on the dynamic change of central bars of Phoenix bar and Changsha bar in the Yangtze River in 2016. In this study, GF-1 (GaoFen-1) WFV(wide field view) data was employed owing to its high temporal frequency and high spatial resolution. A simple NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index) method was utilized for river central bar mapping. Human-checking was then performed to ensure the mapping quality. The relationship between the area of central bars and the measured water level was estimated using four mathematical models. Furthermore, a risk assessment index was proposed to map the spatial pattern of inundation risk of central bars. The results indicate a good ability of the GF-1 WFV imagery with a 16-m spatial resolution to characterize the seasonal variation of central river bars and to capture the impact of a flood disaster on the area of central bars. This paper observed a significant negative but nonlinear relationship between the water level and the area of central bars, and found that the cubic function fits best among four models (R² = 0.9839, P < 0.000001, RMSE = 0.4395). The maximum of the inundated area of central bars appeared during the rainy season on July 8, 2016, and the minimum occurred during the dry season on December 28, 2016, which are consistent with the water level measured by the hydrological station. The results derived from GF-1 data could provide a useful reference for decision-making of real-time disaster early warning and post-disaster reconstruction.
Comparing Stability Index MAPping (SINMAP) Landslide Susceptibility Models in the Río La Carbonera, Southeast Flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico
In volcanic environments, landslides and debris flows occur continually along stream systems of large stratovolcanoes. This is the case on Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. The volcano has a great potential to impact and damage human settlements and economic activities by landslides. People living along the lower valleys of Pico de Orizaba volcano are in continuous hazard by the coalescence of upstream landslide sediments that increased the destructive power of debris flows. These debris flows not only produce floods, but also cause the loss of lives and property. Although the importance of assessing such process, there is few landslide inventory maps and landslide susceptibility assessment. As a result in México, no landslide susceptibility models assessment has been conducted to evaluate advantage and disadvantage of models. In this study, a comprehensive study of landslide susceptibility models assessment using GIS technology is carried out on the SE flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano. A detailed multi-temporal landslide inventory map in the watershed is used as framework for the quantitative comparison of two landslide susceptibility maps. The maps are created based on 1) the Stability Index MAPping (SINMAP) model by using default geotechnical parameters and 2) by using findings of volcanic soils geotechnical proprieties obtained in the field. SINMAP combines the factor of safety derived from the infinite slope stability model with the theory of a hydrologic model to produce the susceptibility map. It has been claimed that SINMAP analysis is reasonably successful in defining areas that intuitively appear to be susceptible to landsliding in regions with sparse information. The validations of the resulting susceptibility maps are performed by comparing them with the inventory map under LOGISNET system which provides tools to compare by using a histogram and a contingency table. Results of the experiment allow for establishing how the individual models predict the landslide location, advantages, and limitations. The results also show that although the model tends to improve with the use of calibrated field data, the landslide susceptibility map does not perfectly represent existing landslides.
Probabilistic Modeling Laser Transmitter
Coupled electrical and optical model for conversion of electrical energy into coherent optical energy for transmitter-receiver link by solid state device is presented. Probability distribution for travelling laser beam switching time intervals and the number of switchings in the time interval is obtained. Selector function mapping is employed to regulate optical data transmission speed. It is established that regulated laser transmission from PhotoActive Laser transmitter follows principal of invariance. This considerably simplifies design of PhotoActive Laser Transmission networks.
Insight2OSC: Using Electroencephalography (EEG) Rhythms from the Emotiv Insight for Musical Composition via Open Sound Control (OSC)
The artistic usage of Brain-computer interfaces (BCI), initially intended for medical purposes, has increased in the past few years as they become more affordable and available for the general population. One interesting question that arises from this practice is whether it is possible to compose or perform music by using only the brain as a musical instrument. In order to approach this question, we propose a BCI for musical composition, based on the representation of some mental states as the musician thinks about sounds. We developed software, called Insight2OSC, that allows the usage of the Emotiv Insight device as a musical instrument, by sending the EEG data to audio processing software such as MaxMSP through the OSC protocol. We provide two compositional applications bundled with the software, which we call Mapping your Mental State and Thinking On. The signals produced by the brain have different frequencies (or rhythms) depending on the level of activity, and they are classified as one of the following waves: delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), gamma (30-50 Hz). These rhythms have been found to be related to some recognizable mental states. For example, the delta rhythm is predominant in a deep sleep, while beta and gamma rhythms have higher amplitudes when the person is awake and very concentrated. Our first application (Mapping your Mental State) produces different sounds representing the mental state of the person: focused, active, relaxed or in a state similar to a deep sleep by the selection of the dominants rhythms provided by the EEG device. The second application relies on the physiology of the brain, which is divided into several lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital. The frontal lobe is related to abstract thinking and high-level functions, the parietal lobe conveys the stimulus of the body senses, the occipital lobe contains the primary visual cortex and processes visual stimulus, the temporal lobe processes auditory information and it is important for memory tasks. In consequence, our second application (Thinking On) processes the audio output depending on the users’ brain activity as it activates a specific area of the brain that can be measured using the Insight device.
Open Distance Learning and Curriculum Transformation: Linkages, Alignment, and Innovation
Curriculum design and development in higher education is a complex and challenging process. Amongst others, the extent to which higher education curriculum responds to a country's imperatives, industry requirements, and societal demands are some important considerations. Added to this is the whole notion of sustainable development, climate change and in the South African context the issue of ‘Africanising the curriculum’ is also significant. In this paper, the author describes and analyses the various challenges related to curriculum transformation, design and development within an ODL context and how we at Unisa engage and address curriculum transformation in mainstream curriculum design and development both at course design level and programme/ qualification level.
Mapping Man-Induced Soil Degradation in Armenia's High Mountain Pastures through Remote Sensing Methods: A Case Study
One of major concern to Armenia has been soil degradation emerged as a result of unsustainable management and use of grasslands, this in turn largely impacting environment, agriculture and finally human health. Hence, assessment of soil degradation is an essential and urgent objective set out to measure its possible consequences and develop a potential management strategy. Since recently, an essential tool for assessing pasture degradation has been remote sensing (RS) technologies. This research was done with an intention to measure preciseness of Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) and NDVI-SMA methods to estimate soil surface components related to degradation (fractional vegetation cover-FVC, bare soils fractions, surface rock cover) and determine appropriateness of these methods for mapping man-induced soil degradation in high mountain pastures. Taking into consideration a spatially complex and heterogeneous biogeophysical structure of the studied site, we used high resolution multispectral QuickBird imagery of a pasture site in one of Armenia’s rural communities - Nerkin Sasoonashen. The accuracy assessment was done by comparing between the land cover abundance data derived through RS methods and the ground truth land cover abundance data. A significant regression was established between ground truth FVC estimate and both NDVI-LSU and LSU - produced vegetation abundance data (R2=0.636, R2=0.625, respectively). For bare soil fractions linear regression produced a general coefficient of determination R2=0.708. Because of poor spectral resolution of the QuickBird imagery LSU failed with assessment of surface rock abundance (R2=0.015). It has been well documented by this particular research, that reduction in vegetation cover runs in parallel with increase in man-induced soil degradation, whereas in the absence of man-induced soil degradation a bare soil fraction does not exceed a certain level. The outcomes show that the proposed method of man-induced soil degradation assessment through FVC, bare soil fractions and field data adequately reflects the current status of soil degradation throughout the studied pasture site and may be employed as an alternate of more complicated models for soil degradation assessment.
Potential of Hyperion (EO-1) Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Detection and Mapping Mine-Iron Oxide Pollution
Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from mine wastes and contaminations of soils and water with metals are considered as a major environmental problem in mining areas. It is produced by interactions of water, air, and sulphidic mine wastes. This environment problem results from a series of chemical and biochemical oxidation reactions of sulfide minerals e.g. pyrite and pyrrhotite. These reactions lead to acidity as well as the dissolution of toxic and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, etc.) from tailings waste rock piles, and open pits. Soil and aquatic ecosystems could be contaminated and, consequently, human health and wildlife will be affected. Furthermore, secondary minerals, typically formed during weathering of mine waste storage areas when the concentration of soluble constituents exceeds the corresponding solubility product, are also important. The most common secondary mineral compositions are hydrous iron oxide (goethite, etc.) and hydrated iron sulfate (jarosite, etc.). The objectives of this study focus on the detection and mapping of MIOP in the soil using Hyperion EO-1 (Earth Observing - 1) hyperspectral data and constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (CLSMA) algorithm. The abandoned Kettara mine, located approximately 35 km northwest of Marrakech city (Morocco) was chosen as study area. During 44 years (from 1938 to 1981) this mine was exploited for iron oxide and iron sulphide minerals. Previous studies have shown that Kettara surrounding soils are contaminated by heavy metals (Fe, Cu, etc.) as well as by secondary minerals. To achieve our objectives, several soil samples representing different MIOP classes have been resampled and located using accurate GPS ( ≤ ± 30 cm). Then, endmembers spectra were acquired over each sample using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) covering the spectral domain from 350 to 2500 nm. Considering each soil sample separately, the average of forty spectra was resampled and convolved using Gaussian response profiles to match the bandwidths and the band centers of the Hyperion sensor. Moreover, the MIOP content in each sample was estimated by geochemical analyses in the laboratory, and a ground truth map was generated using simple Kriging in GIS environment for validation purposes. The acquired and used Hyperion data were corrected for a spatial shift between the VNIR and SWIR detectors, striping, dead column, noise, and gain and offset errors. Then, atmospherically corrected using the MODTRAN 4.2 radiative transfer code, and transformed to surface reflectance, corrected for sensor smile (1-3 nm shift in VNIR and SWIR), and post-processed to remove residual errors. Finally, geometric distortions and relief displacement effects were corrected using a digital elevation model. The MIOP fraction map was extracted using CLSMA considering the entire spectral range (427-2355 nm), and validated by reference to the ground truth map generated by Kriging. The obtained results show the promising potential of the proposed methodology for the detection and mapping of mine iron oxide pollution in the soil.
Risk Mapping of Road Traffic Incidents in Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area for Planning of Emergency Medical Services
Road traffic incidents (RTIs) continue to be a serious public health and development burden around the globe. Compared to high-income countries (HICs), the low and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear the heaviest brunt of RTIs. Like other LMICs, Uganda, a country located in Eastern Africa, has been experiencing a worryingly high burden of RTIs and their associated impacts. Over the years, the highest number of all the total registered RTIs in Uganda has taken place in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). This places a tremendous demand on the few existing emergency medical services (EMS) to adequately respond to those affected. In this regard, the overall objective of the study was to risk map RTIs in the GKMA so as to help in the better planning of EMS for the victims of RTIs. Other objectives included: (i) identifying the factors affecting the exposure, vulnerability and EMS capacity for the victims of RTIs; (ii) identifying the RTI prone-areas and estimating their associated risk factors; (iii) identifying the weaknesses and capacities which affect the EMS systems for RTIs; and (iv) determining the strategies and priority actions that can help to improve the EMS response for RTI victims in the GKMA. To achieve these objectives, a mixed methodological approach was used in four phrases for approximately 15 months. It employed a systematic review based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-data analysis guidelines; a Delphi panel technique; retrospective data analysis; and a cross-sectional method. With Uganda progressing forward as envisaged in its 'Vision 2040', the GKMA, which is the country’s political and socioeconomic epicenter, is experiencing significant changes in terms of population growth, urbanization, infrastructure development, rapid motorization and other factors. Unless appropriate actions are taken, these changes are likely to worsen the already alarming rate of RTIs in Uganda, and in turn also to put pressure on the few existing EMS and facilities to render care for those affected. Therefore, road safety vis-à-vis injury prevention measures, which are needed to reduce the burden of RTIs, should be multifaceted in nature so that they closely correlate with the ongoing dynamics that contribute to RTIs, particularly in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole.
Selecting the Best RBF Neural Network Using PSO Algorithm for ECG Signal Prediction
In this paper, has been presented a stable method for predicting the ECG signals through the RBF neural networks, by the PSO algorithm. In spite of quasi-periodic ECG signal from a healthy person, there are distortions in electro cardiographic data for a patient. Therefore, there is no precise mathematical model for prediction. Here, we have exploited neural networks that are capable of complicated nonlinear mapping. Although the architecture and spread of RBF networks are usually selected through trial and error, the PSO algorithm has been used for choosing the best neural network. In this way, 2 second of a recorded ECG signal is employed to predict duration of 20 second in advance. Our simulations show that PSO algorithm can find the RBF neural network with minimum MSE and the accuracy of the predicted ECG signal is 97 %.
The Impact of Demographic Profile on Strategic HRM Practices and its Challenges Faced by HR Managers in IT Firm, India: An Empirical Study
Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) plays a vital role in formulating the policies and strategies for the company, in order to fulfill the employee’s requirement and to perform the job efficiently within the organisation. Human Resource Management (HRM) functions helps in attracting and motivating the talented workforce for the organisation and by increasing the performance of an individual, will result in achieving the defined goals and objectives for the company. HRM function plays an important role in managing the workers within organisation through a formal communication channel. Since HR functions acts as a mediatory role in between the employee as well as the employers within the organisation that helps in improving the efficacy and skills of the individuals employed within the company. HR manager acts as a change agent, enabling and driving the change management program with respect to business HR functions and its future requirements of the company. Due to change in the business environment, the focus of HR manager is shifting from administrative/personal functions in to a strategic business HR function. HR managers plays a strategic role in managing various HR functions such as recruitment and selection, human resource information system, manpower planning, performance management, conflict management, employee engagement, compensation management, policy formation and retention strategies followed within the industry. Major challenges faced by HR managers at work place are managing the level of engagement for the talented resources within the organisation, reducing the conflicts at workplace, mapping the talented resources through succession planning process, building the effective appraisal process and performance management system and mapping the compensation based on the skills and experience possed by the employee within the company. The authors conducted a study for the sample size of 75 HR managers from an Indian IT company through systematic sampling method. This study identifies that the female employees are facing lesser conflict than the male employees against their managers within the organisation and also the study determines the impact of demographic profile on strategic HRM practices and its challenges faced by HR managers in IT firm, India.