Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 57768

200
69292
The Effects of Some Organic Amendments on Sediment Yield, Splash Loss, and Runoff of Soils of Selected Parent Materials in Southeastern Nigeria
Abstract:
Soil erosion has been linked to stream sedimentation, ecosystem degradation, and loss of soil nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of some organic amendment on sediment yield, splash loss, and runoff of soils of selected parent materials in southeastern Nigeria. A total of 20 locations, five from each of four parent materials namely: Asu River Group (ARG), Bende Ameki Group (BAG), Coastal Plain Sand (CPS) and Falsebedded Sandstone (FBS) were used for the study. Collected soil samples were analyzed with standard methods for the initial soil properties. Rainfall simulation at an intensity of 190 mm hr-1was conducted for 30 minutes on the soil samples at both the initial stage and after amendment to obtain erosion parameters. The influence of parent material on sediment yield, splash loss and runoff based on rainfall simulation was tested for using one way analyses of variance, while the influence of organic material and their combinations were a factorially fitted in a randomized complete block design. The organic amendments include; goat dropping (GD), poultry dropping (PD), municipal solid waste (MSW) and their combinations (COA) applied at four rates of 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 respectively. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance suitable for a factorial experiment. Significant means were separated using LSD at 5 % probability levels. Result showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) lower values of sediment yield, splash loss and runoff following amendment. For instance, organic amendment reduced sediment yield under wet and dry runs by 12.91 % and 26.16% in Ishiagu, 40.76% and 45.67%, in Bende, 16.17% and 50% in Obinze and 22.80% and 42.35% in Umulolo respectively. Goat dropping and combination of amendment gave the best results in reducing sediment yield.
199
87802
Effectiveness of Parent Coaching Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the Home and Community
Abstract:
Occupational therapists can use coaching strategies to guide parents in providing therapy for their children with developmental disabilities. Evidence from various fields has shown increased parental self-efficacy and positive child outcomes as benefits of home and community-based parent coaching models. A literature review was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of parent coaching interventions delivered in home and community settings for children with developmental disabilities ages 0-12, on a variety of parent and child outcomes. CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, PubMed, OTseeker were used as databases. The inclusion criteria consisted of: children with developmental disabilities ages 0-12 and their parents, parent coaching models conducted in the home and community, and parent and child outcomes. Studies were excluded if they were in a language other than English and published before 2000. Results showed that parent coaching interventions led to more positive therapy outcomes in child behaviors and symptoms related to their diagnosis or disorder. Additionally, coaching strategies had positive effects on parental satisfaction with therapy, parental self-efficacy, and family dynamics. Findings revealed decreased parental stress and improved parent-child relationships. Further research on parent coaching could involve studying the feasibility of coaching within occupational therapy specifically, incorporating cultural elements into coaching, qualitative studies on parental satisfaction with coaching, and measuring the quality of life outcomes for the whole family.
198
97136
Mediation Effect of Mindful Parenting on Parental Self Efficacy and Parent-Child Attachment in Hong Kong
Authors:
Abstract:
In the dynamic family interaction, parental self-efficacy is connected with parent-child attachment. Parental self-efficacy and its corresponding behavior played an influential role in the lifespan development of the child. Recently, Mindful parenting is popularly addressed as it lightens parents’ awareness to their own thoughts feelings and behaviors by adapting a nonjudgmental attitude in the present moment being with the child. The effectiveness of mindful parent is considerably significant in enhancing parent-child relationship as well as family functioning. Parenting in early developmental stage is always challenging and essential for later growth, however, literature is rarely exploring the mediation of mindful parenting on the effect of parent self-efficacy on parent-child attachment in preschoolers’ families. The mediation effect of the research shed light on how mindful parenting should head, where parental self-efficacy training should be incorporated together with mindful family program in attempt to yield the best outcome in the family of young-aged children. Two hundred and eight (208) parents, of two to six years old children, were participated in the study and results supported the significance in the mediator effect of mindful parenting in both facets, i.e. Parent-focused - ‘Mindful Discipline’ and Child-focused – ‘Being in the moment with the child’ where parental self-efficacy is a significant predictor of mindful parenting. The implication of the result suggests that mindful parenting would be a therapeutic framework in promoting family functioning and child’s well-being, it would also be a ‘significant helping hand’ in maintaining continuous secure attachment relationship and growing their mindful children in a family.
197
34187
Functioning of a Temporarily Single Parent Family System Due to Migration from the Perspective of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy
Abstract:
There is a definite lack – in Poland, as well as around the world – of empirical studies of families raising handicapped child, in which one parent migrates. In diagnostics of the functioning of such families emphasis should be placed not only on the difficulties, but most of all it should be indicated what possibilities are there for the family and how it overcomes the difficulties. Migration of a parent on the one hand is a chance to improve the family’s material situation. In certain circumstances this may only be an “escape” into work from the issues associated with the upbringing and rehabilitation of a handicapped child. The aim of the study was to learn the functioning of a temporarily single parent family system as a result of migration of a parent from the perspective of adolescents with cerebral palsy. The study was conducted in the year 2013 in the area of Eastern Poland. It involved an analysis of 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in an intellectual capacity) from families in which at least one of the parents migrates. The study incorporated the diagnostic survey method. These tools were used: Family Evaluation Scales (SOR) adapted for Poland by Andrzej Margasiński. The explorations in this study indicate, that 47% of studied temporarily single parent families are balanced models. This is evidence of the resources at the disposal of the family which, despite the disability of the child and temporary separation, is able to function properly. The conducted studies show, that 37% of temporarily single parent families are imbalanced models in the perception of adolescents with cerebral palsy. These families experience functional difficulties and require psychological and pedagogical support. There is a need for building skills related to effective coping with family stress. Especially considering, that families of an imbalanced type do not use the internal and external resources of the family system. Such a situation may deepen the disarrangement of family life. In intermediate families (16%) there are also temporary difficulties in functioning. Separation anxiety experienced by mothers may disrupt relations and introduce additional stress factors. For that reason it is important to provide support for women with difficulties coping with the emotions associated with raising handicapped adolescents and migratory separation.
196
77394
Grandparent's Psychologically Control, Parent's Well-Being and the Coparenting Practice among Vietnamese Families
Abstract:
Parenting psychological control (PPC) is a parenting manner of which intrusive tactics such as guilt induction, shaming or love withdrawal is adopted to manipulate the child's behavior, emotion and beliefs. PPC has been widely reported to be associated with both psychological dysfunction and low self-esteem in adolescents. Highly demanding and restrictive parenting was also found to related to high rate of risk behaviors, depression, anxiety and anti-social behaviors in adults who co-live with their parents. In many cultures like that of Asia, adults keep on co-live with their parents even after having their own families, and this is not an uncommon practice. Due to the culture obligation of family relationship and the filial piety, children are expected to stay with their parents to taking care of them when they get older, and the parents are also expected to co-live with their children in order to support them with grandchild care. As one become a grandparent, however, it does not means one stop being the parent to their own child. The effect of PPC if exist thus might continue to interfere one’s relationship with their adult children and also their adult child’s parenting. This study was designed to examine that effect of PPC on adults’ life as parents. Data was collected from 501 Vietnamese parents whose children between the age of 2 to 12 and having their parent living with them or taking care of the grandchild on daily basic. Findings show that grandparent psychological control (GPPC) is significantly associated with parent’s harsh parenting, parent’s well-being, and parent-grandparent coparenting relationship. Significantly, GPPC is the strongest predictor for the coparenting conflict between parent and grandparent.
195
53443
Modelling Strategy Planning in Multi Business Companies
Abstract:
Corporate-level strategy, or simply ‘parent strategy’, is a topic that has received much attention since the very early days of the strategic planning field. Since the multi level enterprises have different sub enterprises which deal with different business environments, we cannot define the same strategic perspective for all of them. Therefore, the determination of a perspective to manage and deal with affiliates of such enterprises is the main challenge. The parent strategy in mother enterprises' level has been analyzed in this research. A case study has been carried to comprehensively describe the proposed model.
194
71126
Predictors of School Drop out among High School Students
Abstract:
The factors that cause adolescents to drop out school were several. One of the frameworks about school dropout focuses on the contextual factors around the adolescents whereas the other one focuses on individual factors. It can be said that both factors are important equally. In this study, both adolescent’s individual factors (anti-social behaviors, academic success) and contextual factors (parent academic involvement, parent academic support, number of siblings, living with parent) were examined in the term of school dropout. The study sample consisted of 346 high school students in the public schools in Ankara who continued their education in 2015-2016 academic year. One hundred eighty-five the students (53.5%) were girls and 161 (46.5%) were boys. In addition to this 118 of them were in ninth grade, 122 of them in tenth grade and 106 of them were in eleventh grade. Multiple regression and one-way ANOVA statistical methods were used. First, it was examined if the data meet the assumptions and conditions that are required for regression analysis. After controlling the assumptions, regression analysis was conducted. Parent academic involvement, parent academic support, number of siblings, anti-social behaviors, academic success variables were taken into the regression model and it was seen that parent academic involvement (t=-3.023, p < .01), anti-social behaviors (t=7.038, p < .001), and academic success (t=-3.718, p < .001) predicted school dropout whereas parent academic support (t=-1.403, p > .05) and number of siblings (t=-1.908, p > .05) didn’t. The model explained 30% of the variance (R=.557, R2=.300, F5,345=30.626, p < .001). In addition to this the variance, results showed there was no significant difference on high school students school dropout levels according to living with parents or not (F2;345=1.183, p > .05). Results discussed in the light of the literature and suggestion were made. As a result, academic involvement, academic success and anti-social behaviors will be considered as an important factors for preventing school drop-out.
193
105353
Strong Antiferromagnetic Super Exchange in AgF2
Abstract:
AgF2 is an important two-dimensional antiferromagnet and an analogue of [CuO2]2– sheet. However, the strength of magnetic superexchange as well as magnetic dimensionality have not been explored before . Here we report our recent Raman and neutron scattering experiments which led to better understanding of the magnetic properties of the title compound. It turns out that intra-sheet magnetic superexchange constant reaches 70 meV, thus some 2/3 of the value measured for parent compounds of oxocuprate superconductors which is over 100 meV. The ratio of intra-to-inter-sheet superexchange constants is of the order of 102 rendering AgF2 a quasi-2D material, similar to the said oxocuprates. The quantum mechanical calculations reproduce the abovementioned values quite well and they point out to substantial covalence of the Ag–F bonding. After 3 decades of intense research on layered oxocuprates, AgF2 now stands as a second-to-none analogue of these fascinating systems. It remains to be seen whether this 012 parent compound may be doped in order to achieve superconductivity.
192
86475
Effect of Concrete Waste Quality on the Compressive Strength of Recycled Concrete
Abstract:
The reuse of concrete waste as a secondary aggregate could be an efficient solution for sustainable development and long-term environmental protection. The variable nature of waste concrete, with various compressive strengths, can have a negative effect on the final compressive strength of recycled concrete. Accordingly, an experimental test programme was developed to evaluate the effect of parent concrete qualities on the performance of recycled concrete. Three grades with different compressive strengths 10MPa, 20MPa, and 30MPa were considered in the study; moreover, an unknown compressive strength was introduced as well. The trial mixes used 40% secondary aggregates (both course and fine) and 60% of natural aggregates. The compressive strength of the test concrete decrease between 15 and 25% compared to normal concrete with no secondary aggregates. This work proves that the strength properties of the parent concrete have a limited effect on the compressive strength of recycled concrete. Low compressive strength parent concrete when crushed generate a high percentage of recycled coarse aggregates with the less attached mortar and give the same compressive strength as an excellent parent concrete. However, the decrease in compressive strength can be mitigated by increasing the cement content 4% by weight of recycled aggregates used.
191
81328
A Case Study on Parent-Child Relationship, Attachment Styles, and Romantic Relationship Quality of Illegitimate Emerging Adults
Abstract:
This study examined the attachment styles, parent-child relationship, and romantic relationship quality of five illegitimate emerging adults aged 18 to 23 years old. The researcher used self-report measures, inventory of parent and peer attachment, attachment style questionnaire, and network of relationship – relationship quality version in obtaining data. A semi-structured interview was also used to acquire qualitative data about the detailed perception and experiences on the attachment styles and parent-child relationship. Common themes of each variable were identified through thematic analysis. Results showed that four out of five participants depicted positive relationship to their fathers, while all of them reported to have positive relationship to their mothers. It was also found that four participants have preoccupied attachment style, while the other one has fearful attachment style. Common themes in describing their relationship with their mother include being close, influential to participants’ life, unbounded communication, favorable reason of trusting, and sometimes being inattentive. On the other hand, having distant relationship, limited communication about romantic relationship, uninfluential to participant’s life, and favorable reason of trusting were the common themes in describing relationship with father. Lastly, less trusting, being dependent, and emphasis on valuing intimacy were the common themes in describing their style of attachment.
190
22242
Intelligent Materials and Functional Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys
Abstract:
Shape-memory alloys are a new class of functional materials with a peculiar property known as shape memory effect. These alloys return to a previously defined shape on heating after deformation in low temperature product phase region and take place in a class of functional materials due to this property. The origin of this phenomenon lies in the fact that the material changes its internal crystalline structure with changing temperature. Shape memory effect is based on martensitic transitions, which govern the remarkable changes in internal crystalline structure of materials. Martensitic transformation, which is a solid state phase transformation, occurs in thermal manner in material on cooling from high temperature parent phase region. This transformation is governed by changes in the crystalline structure of the material. Shape memory alloys cycle between original and deformed shapes in bulk level on heating and cooling, and can be used as a thermal actuator or temperature-sensitive elements due to this property. Martensitic transformations usually occur with the cooperative movement of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears. The ordered parent phase structures turn into twinned structures with this movement in crystallographic manner in thermal induced case. The twinned martensites turn into the twinned or oriented martensite by stressing the material at low temperature martensitic phase condition. The detwinned martensite turns into the parent phase structure on first heating, first cycle, and parent phase structures turn into the twinned and detwinned structures respectively in irreversible and reversible memory cases. On the other hand, shape memory materials are very important and useful in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, pharmacy, bioengineering, metallurgy and many engineering fields. The choice of material as well as actuator and sensor to combine it with the host structure is very essential to develop main materials and structures. Copper based alloys exhibit this property in metastable beta-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high temperature parent phase field, and these structures martensitically turn into layered complex structures with lattice twinning following two ordered reactions on cooling. Martensitic transition occurs as self-accommodated martensite with inhomogeneous shears, lattice invariant shears which occur in two opposite directions, -type directions on the {110}-type plane of austenite matrix which is basal plane of martensite. This kind of shear can be called as {110} -type mode and gives rise to the formation of layered structures, like 3R, 9R or 18R depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered lattice. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out on two copper based alloys which have the chemical compositions in weight; Cu-26.1%Zn 4%Al and Cu-11%Al-6%Mn. X-ray diffraction profiles and electron diffraction patterns reveal that both alloys exhibit super lattice reflections inherited from parent phase due to the displacive character of martensitic transformation. X-ray diffractograms taken in a long time interval show that locations and intensities of diffraction peaks change with the aging time at room temperature. In particular, some of the successive peak pairs providing a special relation between Miller indices come close each other.
189
84331
Resiliency in Fostering: A Qualitative Study of Highly Experienced Foster Parents
Authors:
Abstract:
There is an ongoing shortage of foster parents worldwide to take on a growing population of children in need of out-of-home care. Currently, resources are primarily aimed at recruitment rather than retention. Retention rates are extraordinarily low, especially in the first two years of fostering. Qualitative interviews with 19 foster parents averaging 20 years of service provided insight into the challenges they faced and how they overcame them. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts identified sources of stress and resiliency. Key stressors included lack of support and responsiveness from the children’s social workers, false maltreatment allegations, and secondary trauma from children’s destructive behaviors and emotional dysregulation. Resilient parents connected with other foster parents for support, engaged in creative problem-solving, recognized that positive feedback from children usually arrives years later, and through training, understood the neurobiological impact of trauma on child behavior. Recommendations include coordinating communication between the foster parent licensing agency social workers and the children’s social workers, creating foster parent support networks and mentoring, and continuous training on trauma including effective parenting strategies. Research is needed to determine whether these resilience indicators in fact lead to long-term retention. Policies should include a mechanism to develop a cohesive line of communication and connection between foster parents and the children’s social workers as well as their respective agencies.
188
41372
Relational Effect of Parent Interest, Basic School Attended, Gender, and Scare of Basic School Mathematics Teacher on Student Interest in Mathematics
Abstract:
Interest in subject specific is very essential in the quest to ensure effective teaching and learning. In building interest in subject specific areas requires certain factors and strategies well-spelled out.The factors such as the gender of the student, the type of basic school attended, the parent interest as well as the scare of the basic school mathematics teacher is very important to consider. The relational effect and the contribution these above mentioned variables on student have not been fully investigated and this paper address the effect of these factors on the student interest. In the attainment of this goal, the current paper addresses the effect of parent interest, the type of basic school attended, the scare by basic school mathematics teacher and its effect on student’s interest in mathematics. A cross sectional data collected from two hundred and sixty post-secondary school student were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods by aid of SPSS version 16. The study found that parent interest and value for mathematics significantly influenced students interest and joy in solving mathematical problems. Moreover, we also observed that the fear imposed by basic school mathematics teachers was found to significantly influence students’ interest. The study further found that the type of basic school attended and gender are factors that do not influence students’ interest in mathematics. In addition to concluding that a student’s interest is influenced by both parent interest and the fear of basic school mathematics teacher, the study also showed that the type of basic school attended and gender does not affect the students’ interest in mathematics.
187
7310
The Effects of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction on Health Behaviors of School-Age Children
Abstract:
The purposes of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction (PTPOR) on health behaviors of school-age children. An Ecological Systems Theory (EST) was approached the study and a randomized control trial was used in this study. Participants were school-age overweight or obese children and their parents. One hundred and one parent-child dyads were recruited and random assigned into the PTPOR (N=30), Educational Intervention or EI (N=32), and control group (N=39). The parents in the PTPOR group participated in five sessions including an educational session, a cooking session, aerobic exercise training, 2-time group discussion sessions, and 4-time telephoned counseling sessions. Repeated Measure ANCOVA was used to analyze data. The results presented that the outcomes of the PTPOR group were better than the EI and the control groups at 1st, 8th, and 32nd weeks after finishing the program such as child exercise behavior (F(2,97) = 3.98, p = .02) and child dietary behavior (F(2,97) = 9.42, p = .00). The results suggest that nurses and health care providers should utilize the PTPOR for child weight reduction and for the health promotion of a lifestyle among overweight and obese children.
186
16320
Analytic Hierarchy Process
Authors:
Abstract:
To make any decision in any work/task/project it involves many factors that needed to be looked. The analytic Hierarchy process (AHP) is based on the judgments of experts to derive the required results this technique measures the intangibles and then by the help of judgment and software analysis the comparisons are made which shows how much a certain element/unit leads another. AHP includes how an inconsistent judgment should be made consistent and how the judgment should be improved when possible. The Priority scales are obtained by multiplying them with the priority of their parent node and after that they are added.
185
70718
A Pilot Study on the Predictors of Child-Parent Relationship
Abstract:
This study aimed to determine if there is any relation between child–parent relationships and parental self-efficacy. The participants of this study are 208 parents, and 82,5% of them are mothers. The children’s age range are differed from 4 to 13 (x̄=7,8). The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between positive relationship with parents and parental self-efficacy (r=0.52, p < .01); and significant negative correlation between conflict with parents and parental self-efficacy (r=-0.28, p < .01). Also, findings reveal that there was no significant correlation between the time spent with the child and conflict with parents (r=-0.08, p>.05). It was also found that there was no significant correlation between the time spends with the child and positive relationship with parents (r=0.08, p > 0.5). In addition to this; regression analysis’ results indicated that parental self-efficacy is significant predictors of conflict (β=-.268, t=-4.002, p < .001) and positive relationship with parents (β =.519, t= 8.733, p < .001) whereas time spent with children is not (β =-.070, t=-1,045, p > .05 for conflict; β =.061, t=1.023, p > .05 for positive relationship with parents).
184
51574
Performance and Physiological Responses of Broiler Chickens to Diets Supplemented with Propolis in Breeding, to in Ovo Propolis Feeding or to Propolis Supplementation of Diets for Their Chicks
Abstract:
To examine the effects of an ethanol liquid extract obtained from raw bee propolis (PE) on fattening performance and physiology such as vaccine-antibody relationship, microbial profile, immune status and some blood parameters of broiler chickens were used a total of 600 broiler (Ross 308) chicks, obtained from eggs of 288, 38-weeks-old broiler breeding. There were 6 groups: CC (Parent-Control and Offspring-Control, CP (Parent-Control and Offspring-propolis extract, Cip (Parent-Control and Offspring-in-ovo propolis extract), Cis (Parent-Control and Chickens-in-ovo saline), PeC (Parent-propolis extract and Offspring-Control), PeP (Parent-Propolis extract and Offspring-Propolis extract). Each group was consisted of 10 replications with 10 broiler offspring, and the experiment was lasted for 6 weeks with ethanol-extracted propolis concentration is 400 ppm/kg diet. While the highest feed consumptions at 0-21 days and 0-42 days were found in PeC, the best feed conversion ratio at 0-42 days was found in CP group. The live weight gains were found not to be different among the groups. The highest alanine aminotransferase activities were found in CC and CP and aspartate aminotransferase activities in PeP and PeC groups. The highest triglyceride and total antioxidant levels were found highest in CC and the highest total oxidant level in Cip group. IgA level in hatched eggs and IgM value after slaughtering were highest in Cip group. The best immune response was obtained for 21st day Newcastle Disease vaccine in CC and Cis groups and for 28th day Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine in CP group. The highest total aerobic microorganism and the lowest total fungi count were found in PeP group. In conclusion, it was determined that in-ovo propolis ethanol extract (Cip) increased the maternal antibody levels, that had not consistent effects on blood biochemical parameters except for triglyceride, that led to decrease in E. coli counts and that it can provide strong immune response against Infectious Bursal Disease.
183
89142
Comparison of Parent’s Treatment and Education Priorities between Verbal and Non-Verbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Iranian Families
Abstract:
This current study compared the parents reported treatment and education priorities between verbal and nonverbal children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 196 parents of 2 to 21-year-old (83 non-verbal and 113 verbal) children and adolescents with an ASD who completed questionnaires measuring parent’s treatment and education priorities, child’s educational and intervention programs and current child’s level of performance according to each skill. Results of this study indicated that parents of verbal children with autism spectrum disorder considered communication skills, community living skills and academic skills correspondingly as their highest intervention and education priorities and parents of non-verbal children with ASD reported communication skills, social relationship skills and self-care skills as the most significant priorities for their children. Findings show that for Iranian parents of both verbal and non-verbal children with ASD, communication skills are the most crucial treatment priority.
182
62056
A Study of Primary School Parents’ Interaction with Teachers’ in Malaysia
Authors:
Abstract:
This study explores the interactions between primary school parents-teachers in Malaysia. Schools in the country are organized to promote participation between parents and teachers. Exchanges of dialogue are most valued between parents and teachers because teachers are in daily contact with pupils&rsquo; and the first line of communication with parents. Teachers are considered by parents as the most important connection to improve children learning and well-being. Without a good communication, interaction or involvement between parent-teacher might tarnish a pupils&rsquo; performance in school. This study tries to find out multiple emotions among primary school parents-teachers, either estranged or cordial, when they communicate in a multi-cultured society in Malaysia. Important issues related to parent-teacher interactions are discussed further. Parents&rsquo; involvement in an effort to boost better education in school is significantly more effective with parents&rsquo; involvement. Lastly, this article proposes some suggestions for parents and teachers to build a positive relationship with effective communication and establish more democratic open door policy.
181
77867
Differences in Parental Acceptance, Rejection, and Attachment and Associations with Adolescent Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction
Abstract:
Research and theory suggest that parenting and parent-child attachment influence emotional development and well-being. Studies indicate that adolescents often describe differences in relationships with each parent and may form different types of attachment to mothers and fathers. During adolescence and young adulthood, romantic partners may also become attachment figures, influencing well being, and providing a relational context for emotion skill development. Mothers, however, tend to be remain the primary attachment figure; fathers and romantic partners are more likely to be secondary attachment figures. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) participants would rate mothers as more accepting and less rejecting than fathers, 2) participants would rate secure attachment to mothers higher and insecure attachment lower compared to father and romantic partner, 3) parental rejection and insecure attachment would be negatively related to life satisfaction and emotional intelligence, and 4) secure attachment and parental acceptance would be positively related life satisfaction and emotional intelligence. After IRB and informed consent, one hundred fifty adolescents and young adults (ages 11-28, M = 19.64; 71% female) completed an online survey. Measures included parental acceptance, rejection, attachment (i.e., secure, dismissing, and preoccupied), emotional intelligence (i.e., seeking and providing comfort, use, and understanding of self emotions, expressing warmth, understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs), and well-being (i.e., self-confidence and life satisfaction). As hypothesized, compared to fathers’, mothers’ acceptance was significantly higher t (190) = 3.98, p = .000 and rejection significantly lower t (190) = - 4.40, p = .000. Group differences in secure attachment were significant, f (2, 389) = 40.24, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and fathers and between mothers and romantic partners; mothers had the highest mean score. Group differences in preoccupied attachment were significant, f (2, 388) = 13.37, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and romantic partners, and between fathers and romantic partners; mothers have the lowest mean score. However, group differences in dismissing attachment were not significant, f (2, 389) = 1.21, p = .30; scores for mothers and romantic partners were similar; father means score was highest. For hypotheses 3 and 4 significant negative correlations were found between life satisfaction and dismissing parent, and romantic attachment, preoccupied father and romantic attachment, and mother and father rejection variables; secure attachment variables and parental acceptance were positively correlated with life satisfaction. Self-confidence was correlated only with mother acceptance. For emotional intelligence, seeking and providing comfort were negatively correlated with parent dismissing and mother rejection; secure mother and romantic attachment and mother acceptance were positively correlated with these variables. Use and understanding of self-emotions were negatively correlated with parent and partner dismissing attachment, and parent rejection; romantic secure attachment and parent acceptance were positively correlated. Expressing warmth was negatively correlated with dismissing attachment variables, romantic preoccupied attachment, and parent rejection; whereas attachment secure variables were positively associated. Understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs were correlated with parent dismissing and preoccupied attachment variables and mother rejection; only secure father attachment was positively correlated.
180
29988
Standardization of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scales - Adolescent Form (K BASC-2, PRS-A) among Korean Sample
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Korean version of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children 2nd Edition, Parent Rating Scales - Adolescent Form (K BASC-2, PRS-A). The 150-item K BASC-2, PRS-A questionnaire was administered to a total of 690 Korean parents or caregivers (N=690) of adolescent children in middle school and high school. Results from the confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses indicate that the K BASC-2, PRS-A yielded a 3-factor solution similar to the factor structure found in the original version of the BASC-2. The internal consistencies using the Cronbach’s alpha of the composite scale scores were in the .92~ .98 range. The overall reliability and validity of the K BASC-2, PRS-A seem adequate. Structural equation modeling was used to verify the theoretical relationship among the scales of Adaptability, Withdrawal, Somatization, Depression, and Anxiety, to render additional support for internal validity. Other relevant findings, practical implications regarding the use of the KBASC-2, PRS-A and suggestions for future research are discussed.
179
81425
Graphene-Graphene Oxide Dopping Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Polyamide Composites
Abstract:
Graphene and graphene oxide have been intensively studied due to the very good properties, which are intrinsic to the material or come from the easy doping of those with other functional groups. Graphene and graphene oxide have known a broad band of useful applications, in electronic devices, drug delivery systems, medical devices, sensors and opto-electronics, coating materials, sorbents of different agents for environmental applications, etc. The board range of applications does not come only from the use of graphene or graphene oxide alone, or by its prior functionalization with different moieties, but also it is a building block and an important component in many composite devices, its addition coming with new functionalities on the final composite or strengthening the ones that are already existent on the parent product. An attempt to improve the mechanical properties of polyamide elastomers by compounding with graphene oxide in the parent polymer composition was attempted. The addition of the graphene oxide contributes to the properties of the final product, improving the hardness and aging resistance. Graphene oxide has a lower hardness and textile strength, and if the amount of graphene oxide in the final product is not correctly estimated, it can lead to mechanical properties which are comparable to the starting material or even worse, the graphene oxide agglomerates becoming a tearing point in the final material if the amount added is too high (in a value greater than 3% towards the parent material measured in mass percentages). Two different types of tests were done on the obtained materials, the hardness standard test and the tensile strength standard test, and they were made on the obtained materials before and after the aging process. For the aging process, an accelerated aging was used in order to simulate the effect of natural aging over a long period of time. The accelerated aging was made in extreme heat. For all materials, FT-IR spectra were recorded using FT-IR spectroscopy. From the FT-IR spectra only the bands corresponding to the polyamide were intense, while the characteristic bands for graphene oxide were very small in comparison due to the very small amounts introduced in the final composite along with the low absorptivity of the graphene backbone and limited number of functional groups. In conclusion, some compositions showed very promising results, both in tensile strength test and in hardness tests. The best ratio of graphene to elastomer was between 0.6 and 0.8%, this addition extending the life of the product. Acknowledgements: The present work was possible due to the EU-funding grant POSCCE-A2O2.2.1-2013-1, Project No. 638/12.03.2014, code SMIS-CSNR 48652. The financial contribution received from the national project ‘New nanostructured polymeric composites for centre pivot liners, centre plate and other components for the railway industry (RONERANANOSTRUCT)’, No: 18 PTE (PN-III-P2-2.1-PTE-2016-0146) is also acknowledged.
178
82145
Divorce Advice and Parents' Council Support Groups: Help for Divorced Parents to Create Co-Parenting after Divorce
Abstract:
At family with children, divorce is a risk for a child to lose the relationship to the parent with whom the child doesn't live. A child has the right to the get care from both parents after the divorce. Even though your ex-spouse isn’t longer your companion, to the child he or she is still unique as a parent and parents must cooperate and support their child in the new family situation. To divorcee, it's necessary to understand the difference between the intimate relationship that ends and parenthood that continues. Cooperative parenting takes a lot of effort and flexibility for the parents to make joint custody work well. It is vital that parents get help to understand the situation from child points of view. When parent is facing divorce, and all the emotions that it brings along, can the child easily be forgotten. To help children, we must help parents to understand, that a relationship can end, parenthood cannot. As professionals, we should help the parents to see the significance and value of both parents to the child and try to support and protect parenthood-relationship between parents. The Federation of Mother and Child Homes and Shelters have developed group models to work with parents during or after divorce. These support groups are led by professionals, but peer support is also used. These support groups have been held over 10 years and there are found from 20 different cities in Finland. Eroneuvo event (divorce advice) service is intended for parents who are considering or have already divorced. The Vanhemman neuvo (parents' council) is a peer support group that helps parents with post-divorce parenting issues. From these groups, parents receive information and peer support for matters related to divorcing and how to support the child and do co-parenting. At the groups and in given information for divorced parents, is used a method called the 'Irreversible triangle'. It's a way to picture the intimate relationship and parenthood after the divorce and what is the difference between these two things. 'Irreversible triangle' is used to help parents and professionals to understand, what happens if a child loses the relationship to the other parent or if parents co-parenting doesn't work well. From the largely collected feedback, group members tell that they feel themselves relieved after taking part of the group. Parents also experience that talking with other parents helps to survive. Group members learn to co-operate with the other parent, and they'll also learn to see the best interest of the child after the divorce. Parents would highly recommend these groups to other parents.
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109490
Trend and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil and Sediment: North of Thailand Region
Abstract:
Heavy metals in the environment can be occurred by both natural weathering process and human activity, which may present significant risks to human health and the wider environment. A number of heavy metals, i.e. Arsenic (As) and Manganese (Mn), are found with a relatively high concentration in the northern part of Thailand that was assumptively from natural parent rocks and materials. However, scarce literature is challenging to identify the accurate root cause and best available explanation. This study is, therefore, aim to gather heavy metals data in 5 provinces of the North of Thailand where PTT Exploration and Production (PTTEP) public company limited has operated for more than 20 years. A thousand heavy metal analysis is collected and interpreted in term of Enrichment Factor (EF). The trend and distribution of heavy metals in soil and sediment are analyzed by considering altogether the geochemistry of the regional soil and rock. . In addition, the relationship between land use and heavy metals distribution is investigated. In the first conclusion, heavy metal concentrations of (As) and (Mn) in the studied areas are equal to 7.0 and 588.6 ppm, respectively, which are comparable to those in regional parent materials (1 – 12 and 850 – 1,000 ppm for As and Mn respectively). Moreover, there is an insignificant escalation of the heavy metals in these studied areas over two decades.
176
53541
Stimulating Young Children Social Interaction Behaviour through Computer Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support
Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to explore how computer technology is integrated into pre-school activities and its relationship with children’s social interaction behaviour in pre-school classroom. The major question of interest in the present study is to investigate the social interaction behaviour of children when using computers in the Malaysian pre-school classroom. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s social interaction during computer play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s social interaction. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify social interaction behaviour among pre-school children through computer play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired social interaction behaviour among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on social interaction behaviour elements among the pre-school children. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the social interaction behaviour during their computer play. This research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s social interaction behaviour through computer play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of computer play activities as to stimulate social interaction behavior among the pre-school children.
175
105923
The Impact of Socio-Economic and Type of Religion on the Behavior of Obedience among Arab-Israeli Teenagers
Abstract:
This article examines the relationship between several socio-economic and background variables of Arab-Israeli families and their effect on the conflict management style of forcing, where teenage children are expected to obey their parents without questioning. The article explores the inter-generational gap and the desire of Arab-Israeli parents to force their teenage children to obey without questioning. The independent variables include: the sex of the parent, religion (Christian or Muslim), income of the parent, years of education of the parent, and the sex of the teenage child. We use the dependent variable of "Obedience Without Questioning" that is reported twice: by each of the parents as well as by the children. We circulated a questionnaire and collected data from a sample of 180 parents and their adolescent child living in the Galilee area during 2018. In this questionnaire we asked each of the parent and his/her teenage child about whether the latter is expected to follow the instructions of the former without questioning. The outcome of this article indicates, first, that Christian-Arab families are less authoritarian than Muslims families in demanding sheer obedience from their children. Second, female parents indicate more than male parents that their teenage child indeed obeys without questioning. Third, there is a negative correlation between the variable "Income" and "Obedience without Questioning." Yet, the regression coefficient of this variable is close zero. Fourth, there is a positive correlation between years of education and obedience reported by the children. In other words, more educated parents are more likely to demand obedience from their children.&nbsp; Finally, after running the regression, the study also found that the impact of the variables of religion as well as the sex of the child on the dependent variable of obedience is also significant at above 95 and 90%, respectively.
174
65838
Adult Child Labour Migration and Elderly Parent Health: Recent Evidence from Indonesian Panel Data
Abstract:
This paper explores the impacts of adult child migration on the health of elderly parents left behind. The maternal and children health are a priority of health-related policy in most low and middle-income country, and so there is lack of evidence on the health of older population particularly in Indonesia. With increasing life expectancy and limited access to social security and social services for the elderly in this country, the consequences of increasing number of out-migration of adult children to parent health are important to investigate. This study use Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), the only large-scale continuing longitudinal socioeconomic and health survey that based on a sample of households representing about 83 percent of the Indonesian population in its first wave. Using four waves of IFLS including the recent wave of 2014, several indicators of the self-rated health status, interviewer-rated health status and days of illness are used to estimate the impact of labour out-migration of adult children on parent health status. Incorporate both individual fixed effects to control for unobservable factors in migrant and non-migrant households and the ordered response of self-rated health, this study apply the ordered logit of “Blow-up and Cluster” (BUC ) estimator. The result shows that labour out-migration of adult children significantly improves the self-rated health status of the elderly parent left behind. Findings of this study are consistent with the view that migration increases family resources and contribute to better health care and nutrition of the family left behind.
173
58769
The Stable Isotopic Composition of Pedogenic Carbonate in the Minusinsk Basin, South Siberia
Abstract:
Carbonate minerals’ isotopic composition is widely used as a proxy for environmental parameters of the past. Pedogenic carbonate coatings on lower surfaces of coarse rock fragments are studied in order to indicate the climatic conditions and predominant vegetation under which they were formed. The purpose of the research is to characterize the isotopic composition of carbonate pedofeatures in soils of Minusink Hollow and estimate its correlation with isotopic composition of soil pore water, precipitation, vegetation and parent material. The samples of pedogenic carbonates, vegetation, carbonate parent material, soil water and precipitation water were analyzed using the Delta-V mass spectrometer with options of a gas bench and element analyser. The soils we studied are mainly Kastanozems that are poorly moisturized, therefore soil pore water was extracted by ethanol. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates was analyzed in 3 key sites. Kazanovka Khakass state national reserve, Hankul salt lake, region of Sayanogorsk aluminum smelter. Vegetation photosynthetic pathway in the region is mainly C3. δ18O values of carbonate coatings in soils of Kazanovka vary in a range from −7.49 to −10.5‰ (vs V-PDB), and the smallest value −13.9‰ corresponds the coatings found between two buried soil horizons which 14C dates are 4.6 and 5.2 kyr BP. That may indicate cooler conditions of late Holocene than nowadays. In Sayanogorsk carbonates’ δ18O range is from −8.3 to −11.1‰ and near the Hankul Lake is from −9.0 to −10.2‰ all ranges are quite similar and may indicate coatings’ uniform formation conditions. δ13C values of carbonate coatings in Kazanovka vary from −2.5 to −6.7‰, the highest values correspond to the soils of Askiz and Syglygkug rivers former floodplains. For Sayanogorsk the range is from −4.9 to −6.8‰ and for Hankul from −2.3 to −5.7‰, where the highest value is for the modern salt crust. δ13C values of coatings strongly decrease from inner (older) to outer (younger) layers of coatings, that can indicate differences connected with the diffusion of organic material. Carbonate parent material δ18O value in the region vary from −11.1 to −12.0‰ and δ13C values vary from −4.9 to −5.7‰. Soil pore water δ18O values that determine the oxygen isotope composition of carbonates vary due to the processes of transpiration and mixing in the studied sites in a wide range of −2.0 to −13.5‰ (vs V-SMOW). Precipitation waters show δ18O values from -6.6‰ in May and -19.0‰ in January (snow) due to the temperature difference. The main conclusions are as follows: pedogenic carbonates δ13C values (−7…−2,5‰) show no correlation with modern C3 vegetation δ13C values (−30…−26‰), expected values under such vegetation are (−19…−15‰) but are closer to C4 vegetation. Late Holocene climate for the Minusinsk Hollow according to obtained data on isotope composition of carbonates and soil pore water chemical composition was dryer and cooler than present, that does not contradict with paleocarpology data obtained for the region. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (grant №14-27-00083).
172
105951
The Effects of Parent Psycho-Education Program on Problem-Solving Skills of Parents
Abstract:
The aim of this research is to examine the effects of the psycho-education program on problem-solving skills of parents of high school students in the risk group for Internet addiction. A quasi-experimental design based on the pre-test, post-test and follow up test including experimental and control groups was used in the research. The independent variable of the study was the parent psycho-education program on problem-solving skills; the dependent variable was the problem-solving skills of parents. The research was conducted with the parents of 52 tenth-grade students in the risk group for Internet addiction from two high schools and volunteer to participate research on evaluation of the effectiveness of internet addiction prevention psycho-education program within the scope of another study. In this study, as 26 students were in the experimental groups in the first-high school, the parents of these 26 students were asked if they would like to participate in the parent psycho-education program on parental problem-solving skills. The parents were volunteer to participate in parent psycho-education program assigned experimental group (n=13), the other parents assigned control group 1 (n=13) in the first high school. The parents of the 26 students were randomly assigned to the control group 2 (n=13) and control group 3 (n=13) in the second high school. The data of the research was obtained via the problem behavior scale - coping - parents form and demographic questionnaire. Four-session parent psycho-education program to cope with Internet addiction and other problem behaviors in their children was applied to the experimental group. No program was applied to the control group 1, control group 2 and control group 3. In addition, an internet addiction prevention psycho-education program was applied to the children of the parents in experimental group and control group 1 within the scope of another study. In the analysis of the obtained data, two-factor variance analysis for repeated measures on one factor was used. Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to find the source of intergroup difference. According to the findings, the psycho-education program significantly increases parents’ problem-solving abilities, and the increase has continued throughout the follow-up test.
171
61538
Improving Home and School Collaboration: Analysis of Parent and Teacher Involvement Practices in Public Elementary Schools in Benguet, Philippines
Abstract:
Extensive research continues to prove the positive effects of home and school collaborations in education. Although parent involvement programs in Benguet, Philippines are in place, the impact has yet to affect the current aggregate performance of elementary pupils. This study describes the involvement of public elementary teachers and parents along Epstein’s types of involvement using the sequential explanatory design. Survey and interview results show that teachers place greater value on activities that cater to communicating, volunteering, learning at home and decision making. On the other hand, parents are actively involved in all six types and value the importance of their involvement in school to their child’s schooling. Parents of grades 1-4 pupils significantly give importance to communicating activities to offset difficulties encountered by young pupils while parents of grades 5-6 pupils, have declining interest in volunteering and learning at home activities citing older children as being more independent to do teacher-assigned tasks. Teachers, compared to the other respondent groups, significantly place higher value on the importance of parent leaders as their partners in implementing school activities. In general, involvement of parents and teachers in home-school activities is intensive in the lower grade levels and decreases as their child progresses through school. A recommended program for future collaborations of the Philippine’s Department of Education has been formulated to diversify existing activities and elicit greater participation among the school’s stakeholders to achieve holistic development of the pupils and ultimately improve pupils’ school aggregate performance.
170
45259
Synthesis and Solubilization of Flurbiprofen Derivatives and Investigation of Their Biological Activities
Abstract:
Flurbiprofen is one of the most potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is widely used for relief of pain in patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, migraine, sore throat and primary dysmenorrhea. However, its aqueous solubility is very low and hinders the skin permeation. Thus, it is imperative to develop such a drug delivery systems which can improve its aqueous solubility and hence improve the skin permeation and therapeutic compliance. Microemulsions have been also proven to increase the cutaneous absorption of lipophilic drugs as compared to conventional vehicles. Micro-emulsion is thermodynamically stable emulsion that has the capacity to ‘hide/solubilize’ water-insoluble molecules within a continuous oil phase. Therefore, flurbiprofen was converted to Easters through chemical reactions with alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol. The product was further treated with hydrazine to get hydrazide. The solubility of the parent drug Flurbiprofen and the products were solubilized in microemulsions formed using various surfactants like ionic, non-ionic and zwitterions. It has been concluded that the product was more soluble than the parent compound. The biological activities of these were also investigated. The outcome was very promising and the product was more active than the parent compound. It, therefore, concluded that in this way, we can not only enhance the solubility of the drug and increase its bioactivity, but also reduce the risk of stomach cancer.
169
31150
Stimulating the Social Emotional Development of Children through Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to identify the teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion through play activities. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s socio emotion during play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify socio emotional development element among pre-school children through play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired socio emotional development among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on five main socio emotional elements among the pre-school children: 1) Cooperation, 2) Confidence and Courage, 3) Ability to communicate, 4) patience, and 5) Tolerance. The findings of this study were presented in the form of case to case manner from the researches sample. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the socio emotional development during their play. Both teachers and parents showed positive perceptions towards the acquired socio emotional development during their play activities. In conclusion, this research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s socio emotional development through play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of play activities as to stimulate socio emotional development among the pre-school children.
168
33194
Lattice Twinning and Detwinning Processes in Phase Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys
Abstract:
Shape memory effect is a peculiar property exhibited by certain alloy systems and based on martensitic transformation, and shape memory properties are closely related to the microstructures of the material. Shape memory effect is linked with martensitic transformation, which is a solid state phase transformation and occurs with the cooperative movement of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears on cooling from high-temperature parent phase. Lattice twinning and detwinning can be considered as elementary processes activated during the transformation. Thermally induced martensite occurs as martensite variants, in self-accommodating manner and consists of lattice twins. Also, this martensite is called the twinned martensite or multivariant martensite. Deformation of shape memory alloys in martensitic state proceeds through a martensite variant reorientation. The martensite variants turn into the reoriented single variants with deformation, and the reorientation process has great importance for the shape memory behavior. Copper based alloys exhibit this property in metastable β- phase region, which has DO3 –type ordered lattice in ternary case at high temperature, and these structures martensiticaly turn into the layered complex structures with lattice twinning mechanism, on cooling from high temperature parent phase region. The twinning occurs as martensite variants with lattice invariant shears in two opposite directions, -type directions on the {110}- type plane of austenite matrix. Lattice invariant shear is not uniform in copper based ternary alloys and gives rise to the formation of unusual layered structures, like 3R, 9R, or 18R depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered lattice. The unit cell and periodicity are completed through 18 atomic layers in case of 18R-structure. On the other hand, the deformed material recovers the original shape on heating above the austenite finish temperature. Meanwhile, the material returns to the twinned martensite structures (thermally induced martensite structure) in one way (irreversible) shape memory effect on cooling below the martensite finish temperature, whereas the material returns to the detwinned martensite structure (deformed martensite) in two-way (reversible) shape memory effect. Shortly one can say that the microstructural mechanisms, responsible for the shape memory effect are the twinning and detwinning processes as well as martensitic transformation. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were carried out on two copper-based ternary alloys, CuZnAl, and CuAlMn.
167
89748
Study on Hybridization between Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1809)
Abstract:
Hybridization has been of importance in both research and commercial aquaculture due to its benefits such as increased growth rate, sex ratio manipulation, production of sterile species and many other desirable economic traits. In this study, we successfully produced hybrids between crosses of Clariid catfish species of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis for stock improvement. Milt and eggs from parent broodstock of C. gariepinus and H. bidorsalis were collected for both intrageneric and interspecific hybridization, viz: same parent species crosses (♀C. gariepinus ×♂C. gariepinus; ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis) and inter-specific crosses (♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus; ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis). These crosses were made in triplicates whereby the data on latency period, fertility, hatchability, deformity, and survival were recorded. A phenotypic form of distinction was registered in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis that was smooth-greyed while its reciprocal cross was marpatic. The parent species C. gariepinus had greyed-marpatic color while the H. bidorsalis was yellowish-brown. Fertility data revealed the significant difference (p < 0.05) between the hybrid cross ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (88.00 ± 1.00%) compared to its reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (71.67 ± 10.41%) which further had carried over effects to hatchability. The reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus recorded the highest deformity (11.67 ± 3.06%) that was significantly different (p < 0.05) from the rest of the crosses. Also, an outcome of equal sex ratio in the hybrids compared with the two parent species was shown. Specific growth rate (SGR) data revealed highest significant difference (p < 0.05) in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.64 ± 0.09%), followed by the cross of ♀C. gariepinus × ♂ C. gariepinus (1.91 ± 0.02%) while there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (2.20 ± 0.57%) and ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.19 ± 0.19%). The SGR analysis proved that the crosses ♀C. gariepinus × ♂C. gariepinus had slow growth performance compared to its hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. Critical evaluation based on survival and specific growth performance showed the superiority of the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. The least survival in reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (27.33%) can be explained by significant deformity (11.67%) recorded due to maternal effects. Hence, the survival of hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis was better.
166
83586
Geochemical Composition of Deep and Highly Weathered Soils Leyte and Samar Islands Philippines
Abstract:
Geochemical composition of soils provides vital information about their origin and development. Highly weathered soils are widespread in the islands of Leyte and Samar but limited data have been published in terms of their nature, characteristics and nutrient status. This study evaluated the total elemental composition, properties and nutrient status of eight (8) deep and highly weathered soils in various parts of Leyte and Samar. Sampling was done down to 3 to 4 meters deep. Total amounts of Al₂O₃, As₂O₃, CaO, CdO, Cr₂O₃, CuO, Fe₂O₃, K₂O, MgO, MnO, Na₂O, NiO, P₂O₅, PbO, SO₃, SiO₂, TiO₂, ZnO and ZrO₂ were analyzed using an X-ray analytical microscope for eight soil profiles. Most of the deep and highly weathered soils have probably developed from homogenous parent materials based on the regular distribution with depth of TiO₂ and ZrO₂. Two of the soils indicated high variability with depth of TiO₂ and ZrO₂ suggesting that these soils developed from heterogeneous parent material. Most soils have K₂O and CaO values below those of MgO and Na₂O. This suggests more losses of K₂O and CaO have occurred since they are more mobile in the weathering environment. Most of the soils contain low amounts of other elements such as CuO, ZnO, PbO, NiO, CrO and SO₂. Basic elements such as K₂O and CaO are more mobile in the weathering environment than MgO and Na₂O resulting in higher losses of the former than the latter. Other elements also show small amounts in all soil profile. Thus, this study is very useful for sustainable crop production and environmental conservation in the study area specifically for highly weathered soils which are widespread in the Philippines.
165
94203
Combining Ability for Maize Grain Yield and Yield Component for Resistant to Striga hermmonthica (Del) Benth in Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria
Abstract:
In 2014 and 2015, eight maize inbred lines resistant to Striga hermonthica (Del) Benth were crossed in 8 x 8 half diallel (Griffing method 11, model 1). The eight parent inbred lines were planted out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications at two different Striga infested environments (Lafia and Makurdi) during the late cropping season. The objectives were to determine the combining ability of Striga resistant maize inbred lines and identify suitable inbreds for hybrids development. The lines were used to estimate general combining ability (GCA), and specific combining ability (SCA) effects for Striga related parameters such as Striga shoot counts, Striga damage rating (SDR), plant height and grain yield and other agronomic traits. The result of combined ANOVA revealed that mean squares were highly significant for all traits except Striga damage rating (SDR1) at 8WAS and Striga emergence count (STECOI) at 8WAS. Mean squares for SCA were significantly low for all traits. TZSTR190 was the highest yielding parent, and TZSTR166xTZST190 was the highest yielding hybrid (cross). Parent TZSTR166, TZEI188, TZSTR190 and TZSTR193 shows significant (p < 0.05) positive GCA effects for grain yield while the rest had negative GCA effects for grain yield. Parent TZSTR166, TZEI188, TZSTR190, and TZSTR193 could be used for initiating hybrid development. Also, TZSTR166xTZSTR190 cross was the best specific combiner followed by TZEI188xTZSTR193, TZEI80xTZSTR193, and TZSTR190xTZSTR193. TZSTR166xTZSTR190 and TZSTR190xTZSTR193 had the highest SCA effects. However, TZEI80 and TZSTR190 manifested a high positive SCA effect with TZSTR166 indicating that these two inbreds combined better with TZSTR166.
164
70137
Riding the Crest of the Wave: Inclusive Education in New Zealand
Abstract:
In 1996, the New Zealand government and the Ministry of Education announced that they were setting up a &quot;world class system of inclusive education&quot;. As a parent of a son with high and complex needs, a teacher, school Principal and Disability studies Lecturer, this author will track the changes in the journey towards inclusive education over the last 20 years. Strategies for partnering with families to ensure educational success along with insights from one of those on the crest of the wave will be presented. Using a narrative methodology the author will illuminate how far New Zealand has come towards this world class system of inclusion promised and share from personal experience some of the highlights and risks in the system. This author has challenged the old structures and been part of the setting up of new structures particularly for providing parent voice and insight; this paper provides a unique view from an insider&rsquo;s voice as well as a professional in the system.
163
41536
Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Bond Strength of Concrete Layers
Abstract:
The connections between various elements of concrete structures play a vital role in determining the durability of structures. These connections produce discontinuities and to ensure the monolithic behavior of structures, these connections should be carefully designed. The connections between concrete layers may occur in various situations such as structure repairing and rehabilitation or construction of huge structures with cast-in-situ or pre-cast elements, etc. Bond strength at the interface of these concrete layers should be able to prevent the progressive slip from taking place and it should also ensure satisfactory performance of the structure. Different approaches to enhance the bond strength at interface have been a major area of research. Nowadays, micro-concrete is getting popular as a repair material. Under this ambit, this paper aims to present the experimental results of connections between concrete layers of different age with artificial indentation at interface with two types of repair material: Concrete with same parent concrete composition and ready-mix mortar (micro-concrete), artificial indentations (grooves and holes) were made on the old layer of concrete to increase the bond strength. Curing plays an important role in determining the bond strength. Optimum duration for curing have also been discussed for each type of repair material. Different types of failure patterns have also been mentioned.
162
53140
Effect of Weld Build-up on the Mechanical Performance of Railway Wheels
Abstract:
Repairing railway wheels by weld build-up is one of the technological solutions that have been applied in the past. However, the effects of this process on the material properties are not well established. The effects of the weld build-up on the mechanical properties of the wheel material in comparison to the required mechanical properties for proper service performance were investigated in this study. A turning process was used to remove the worn surface from the railway wheel. During this process 5mm thickness was removed to ensure that, if there was any weld build-up done in the previous years, it was removed. This was followed by welding a round bar on the sides of the wheel to provide build-up guide. There were two welding processes performed, namely submerged arc welding (SAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Submerged arc welding (SAW) was used to build up weld on one rim while the other rim was just left with metal arc welding of the round bar at the edges. Both processes produced hardness values that were lower than that of the parent material of 195 HV as the GMAW welds had an average of 184 HV and SAW had an average of 194 HV. Whilst a number of defects were noted on the GMAW welds at both macro and micro levels, SAW welds had less defects and they were all micro defects. All the microstructures were ferritic but with differences in grain sizes. Furthermore, in the SAW weld build up, the grains of the weld build-up appeared to be elongated which was a result of the cooling rate. Using GMAW instead of SAW would result in improved wear and fatigue performance.
161
64938
The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material
Abstract:
Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.
160
92160
In the Eyes of Basilyo at Crispin: A Phenomenological Lived Experience of the Filipino Children of Parents with Mental Illness
Abstract:
Mental illness initiative is very relevant in promoting the Mental Health Bill act of 2017. In the Philippines alone, the public is more open and receptive to people at risks with a mental condition. Although it is uncommon that parents can become more psychologically unfit compared to their children, research shows that parents who are suffering from mental illness have a more significant negative effect than another family member. The impact of parent’s mental health can put their children more susceptible to acquire the same disorder. The aim of the study is to explore the lived experiences of children whose parents suffered from mental illness. It discusses how their parent's mental condition in, anyway, affects their psychological development. Using Phenomenological Qualitative Research, an in-depth, interview was conducted to five (5) consenting adults who lived with their parents diagnosed with a mental disorder. Results are clustered into four themes. The first theme is the negative emotion towards parents, the second theme is the psychosocial dynamics in caring for the patient, third is accepting the disease, and fourth is a general perspective on the family. Each themes is validated by experts and the participants. This theme generates subcomponent like isolation, shallow relationship and debt of gratitude. Along with these themes comes the fear of having a family emerged. There is a growing need to strengthen the family ties even more because of parent’s mental illness. Therefore, parental mental illness has an effect on the children’s psychological and social development.
159
22371
Parental Investment in Education: A Pathway for the Children's Access to Quality Education
Abstract:
The parent resources play a vital role in the life of the offspring. It help give children basic necessities of life like food, clothing, and housing. In a like manner financial assets allow parents to move into neighborhood with more affluent school systems, to pay school bills, purchase expensive technologies like personal computer, save money for tutoring books, magazines, journals, Newspapers etc. Making of proper provision in the home environment conducive for learning after school hours and creation of other outdoor activities for them are what necessitate in enhancing and accelerating children’s learning opportunities. Indeed, this paper intends to discuss parental investment in education, parent income resources, parental education, occupation, and income as relatively influencing children’s access to quality education. With the hope that families would provide equal opportunities for children irrespective of their sex, intelligence, subject choice,etc.
158
35157
Employee Assessment Systems in the Structures of Corporate Groups
Abstract:
The process of human resources management in the structures of corporate groups demonstrates certain specificity, resulting from the division of decision-making and executive competencies, which occurs within these structures between a parent company and its subsidiaries. The subprocess of employee assessment is considered crucial, since it provides information for the implementation of personnel function. The empirical studies conducted in corporate groups, within which at least one company is located in Poland, confirmed the critical significance of employee assessment systems in the process of human resources management in corporate groups. Parent companies, most often, retain their decision-making authority within the framework of the discussed process and introduce uniform employee assessment and personnel controlling systems to subsidiary companies. However, the instruments for employee assessment applied in corporate groups do not present such specificity.
157
5781
Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels
Abstract:
This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.
156
60900
Somatic Hybridization of between Citrus and Murraya paniculata Cells Applied by Electro-Fusion
Abstract:
Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Citrus sinensis were electrically used with mesophyll protoplasts isolated from seedless Citrus relatives. Hybrid of somatic embryos plantlets was obtained after 7 months of culture. Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated into normal seedlings and successfully transferred to soil after strictly acclimatization in the glass pot. The somatic hybrid plants were obtained by screening on the basis of chromosomes count. The number of chromosome of root tip counting revealed plantlets tetraploids (2n = 4x = 36) and the other were diploids (2n = 2x = 18) morphologically resembling the mesophyll parent. This somatic hybrid will be utilized as a possible pollen parent for improving the Citrus sinensis. A complete protoplast-to-plant system of somatic hybrid was developed for Citrus sinensis and Citrus relatives which could facilitate the transfer of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes from this species into cultivated Citrus through protoplast fusion.
155
13815
Prediction Study of the Structural, Elastic and Electronic Properties of the Parent and Martensitic Phases of Nonferrous Ti, Zr, and Hf Pure Metals
Abstract:
We present calculations of the structural, elastic and electronic properties of nonferrous Ti, Zr, and Hf pure metals in both parent and martensite phases in bcc and hcp structures respectively. They are based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within the density functional theory (DFT). The shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for Ti, Zr, and Hf metals have were calculated and compared with the corresponding experimental values. Using elastic constants obtained from calculations GGA, the bulk modulus along the crystallographic axes of single crystals was calculated. This is in good agreement with experiment for Ti and Zr, whereas the hcp structure for Hf is a prediction. At zero temperature and zero pressure, the bcc crystal structure is found to be mechanically unstable for Ti, Zr, and Hf. In our calculations the hcp structures is correctly found to be stable at the equilibrium volume. In the electronic density of states (DOS), the smaller n(EF) is, the more stable the compound is. Therefore, in agreement with the results obtained from the total energy minimum.
154
64051
Parental Discourse on Childhood Vaccination Programme: A Case Study
Abstract:
Childhood vaccination programme is mandatory in Malaysia. However, the decision to vaccinate or not vaccinate children is still left to the parents. Presently, there are parents who are opting out of vaccination claiming that it causes autism and other chronic disorders despite inconclusive evidence. There appears to be a dangerous trend among some Malaysian parents to not vaccinate their children and to not participate in the childhood vaccination programme. This study presents preliminary findings of parental discourse on childhood vaccination programme through the perspective of the Integrated Threat Theory. An in-depth interview was carried out to investigate a parent’s concern of the effects of childhood vaccination on children. A thematic discourse analysis was used to analyse the transcribed data. The emerging themes based on the analysis and their relevance to our understanding of a parent’s concerns of the effects of childhood vaccination on children are discussed.
153
37865
Dynamics of Parent to Adolescent Communication on Sexual and Reproductive Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Barriers and Policy Implications
Abstract:
Communication of sexual matters between the parents and adolescents has been seen as one of the strategies that could play a cardinal role in encouraging adolescents to be responsible and delay sexual debut or avoid unprotected sexual intercourse. The increasing rate of teenage pregnancies and new HIV/AIDS infections among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa makes the phenomenon worth analysis. The purpose of this paper is to interrogate the dynamics of parent-adolescent communication on sexual and reproductive health in Sub-Sahara. Specifically the paper focuses on barriers to communication between parents and adolescents on sexual and reproductive health and its policy implications. It emanates from the paper that communication on sexual and reproductive health at household level is triggered by death of a relative from a sexual related illness, suspicion on sexual activity, radio programmes and in some instances fliers. Literature engagement reveals that communication between parents and adolescents on sexual and reproductive health is made difficult by economic factors (poverty, lack of privacy and low self-esteem), household demographics (age, sex, class, death), socio-cultural factors (beliefs and religious values) as well as social media. We argue that there is need to use broadcast mediato come up with radio and television programmes that create family environments in which sexual and reproductive health issues are discussed. We also recommend that government departments and Non-Governmental Organisations concerned with sexuality issues need to undertake studies that can help dismantle taboos, prejudices and stereotypes that impede sexual and reproductive health communication between parents and adolescents.
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24632
Microstructure Evolution and Pre-transformation Microstructure Reconstruction in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Abstract:
In the present investigation, the variation in the microstructure with the changes in the heat treatment conditions i.e. temperature and time was observed. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was subject to solution annealing treatments in β (1066C) and α+β phase (930C and 850C) followed by quenching, air cooling and furnace cooling to room temperature respectively. The effect of solution annealing and cooling on the microstructure was studied by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical composition of the β phase for different conditions was determined with the help of energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) attached to SEM. Furnace cooling resulted in the development of coarser structure (α+β), while air cooling resulted in much finer structure with widmanstatten morphology of α at the grain boundaries. Quenching from solution annealing temperature formed α’ martensite, their proportion being dependent on the temperature in β phase field. It is well known that the transformation of β to α follows Burger orientation relationship (OR). In order to reconstruct the microstructure of parent β phase, a MATLAB code was written using neighbor-to-neighbor, triplet method and Tari’s method. The code was tested on the annealed samples (1066C solution annealing temperature followed by furnace cooling to room temperature). The parent phase data thus generated was then plotted using the TSL-OIM software. The reconstruction results of the above methods were compared and analyzed. The Tari’s approach (clustering approach) gave better results compared to neighbor-to-neighbor and triplet method but the time taken by the triplet method was least compared to the other two methods.
151
17004
Influence of Parent’s Food Habits on Nutrition Behaviours of Children under 7 Years in Tehran, Iran
Abstract:
Several studies about food habits in diverse population show, early living years play significant role in building of current food habits. Suitable nutrition in children is also influenced by parent’s food habits. The aim of study is to survey the role of parent’s food habits to form of nutrition behaviours in children under 7 years in Tehran - Iran. The study is a Descriptive study. The participants were 19 children under 7 years with their mothers from a kindergarten in the central Tehran. The sampling method was random sampling. The data was collected by food habits questionnaires and implementation of consultation meetings with the mothers. The data analysis was qualitative analysis. The findings show that 79% children and their parents have eaten enough and variety breakfast, but food choices of children were depended on food choices of parents. In the other meals, the majority of children enjoyed to eat dinner (58%), because the more families could eat dinner together. According to mother opinions, the children enjoy eating macaroni, chicken, fried potatoes, chips and fruit juices. The researchers argue that mother’s role is unavoidable in the food preferences among children. Fortunately, the results believe that children tend to drink simple milk (79%). Moreover, their parents lead them to chocolate milk consumption (42%) instead of other flavored milk. Finally, despite popular belief claim that mothers influence on nutrition behavior of children, but the study argues that the fathers have more effects on children’s nutrition behaviours. In conclusion, it seems that the general trainings about promoting healthy nutrition behavior for parents by mass media can improve nutrition habits and behaviours of pre school children.
150
87756
Silver Nanoparticles Impregnated Zeolitic Composites: Effect of the Silver Loading on Adsorption of Mercury (II)
Abstract:
Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous phase is of utmost importance, as it is highly toxic and hazardous to the environment and human health. One way of removal of mercury (II) ions from aqueous solutions is by using adsorbents derived from coal fly ash (CFA), such as synthetic zeolites. In this work, we present the hydrothermal production of synthetic zeolites from CFA with conversion rate of 75%. In order to produce silver containing nanocomposites, synthetic zeolites are subsequently impregnated with various amounts of silver nanoparticles, from 0.2 to 2wt.%. All produced zeolites and parent materials are characterized by XRD, XRF, BET, SEM, and TEM to obtain morphological and microstructural data. Moreover, mercury (II) ions removal from aqueous solutions with initial concentration of 10 ppm is studied. According to results, zeolites and Ag-nanocomposites demonstrate much higher removal than parent CFA (up to 98%). In addition to this, we could observe a distinct adsorption behavior depending on the loading of Ag NPs in nanocomposites. A possible reaction mechanism for both zeolites and Ag-nanocomposites is discussed.
149
106178
Identification of the Best Blend Composition of Natural Rubber-High Density Polyethylene Blends for Roofing Applications
Abstract:
Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is a multifunctional polymeric material which possesses a combination of excellent properties of parent materials. Basically, TPE has a rubber phase and a thermoplastic phase which gives processability as thermoplastics. When the rubber phase is partially or fully crosslinked in the thermoplastic matrix, TPE is called as thermoplastic elastomer vulcanizate (TPV). If the rubber phase is non-crosslinked, it is called as thermoplastic elastomer olefin (TPO). Nowadays TPEs are introduced into the commercial market with different products. However, the application of TPE as a roofing material is limited. Out of the commercially available roofing products from different materials, only single ply roofing membranes and plastic roofing sheets are produced from rubbers and plastics. Natural rubber (NR) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) are used in various industrial applications individually with some drawbacks. Therefore, this study was focused to develop both TPO and TPV blends from NR and HDPE at different compositions and then to identify the best blend composition to use as a roofing material. A series of blends by varying NR loading from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, at 10 wt% intervals, were prepared using a twin screw extruder. Dicumyl peroxide was used as a crosslinker for TPV. The standard properties for a roofing material like tensile properties tear strength, hardness, impact strength, water absorption, swell/gel analysis and thermal characteristics of the blends were investigated. Change of tensile strength after exposing to UV radiation was also studied. Tensile strength, hardness, tear strength, melting temperature and gel content of TPVs show higher values compared to TPOs at every loading studied, while water absorption and swelling index show lower values, suggesting TPVs are more suitable than TPOs for roofing applications. Most of the optimum properties were shown at 10/90 (NR/HDPE) composition. However, high impact strength and gel content were shown at 20/80 (NR/HDPE) composition. Impact strength, as being an energy absorbing property, is the most important for a roofing material in order to resist impact loads. Therefore, 20/80 (NR/HDPE) is identified as the best blend composition. UV resistance and other properties required for a roofing material could be achieved by incorporating suitable additives to TPVs.
148
19280
Harsh Discipline and Later Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Two Contexts
Abstract:
Objective: To address whether harsh discipline is associated with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in Puerto Rican children over time. Background: Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies report that rates of DBD vary by gender, age and other demographics, being more frequent among boys, later in life and among those who live in urban areas. Also, the literature supports the direct, positive association between harsh discipline and externalizing behaviors. Nevertheless, scholars have underscored the important role of race and ethnicity in understanding discipline effects on children. The impact of harsh discipline in a Puerto Rican population remains to be studied. Methods: Sample: This is a secondary analysis of the Boricua Youth Study which assessed yearly (3 times) Puerto Rican children aged 5-15 in two different sites: San Juan (Puerto Rico) and the South Bronx (NY), N=2951. Participants that did not have scores of harsh discipline in the 3 waves were excluded for this analysis (N=2091). Main Measures: a) Harsh Discipline (Parent report) was measured using 6 items from the “Parental Discipline Scale” that measures various forms of punishment, including physical and verbal abuse, and withholding affection; b) Disruptive Behavior Disorder (Parent report): Parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV) was used to asses children’s conduct disorders; c) Demographic factors: Child gender, child age, family income, marital status; d) Parental factors: parental psychopathology, parental monitoring, familism, parent support; e) Children characteristics: Controlling for any diagnostic at wave 1 (internalizing or externalizing). Data Analysis: Logistic regression was carried out relating the likelihood of DBD to harsh discipline along waves controlling for potential confounders as demographics, child and parent characteristics. Results: There were no significant differences in harsh discipline by site in wave 1 and wave 2 but there was a significant difference in wave 3. Also, there were no significant differences in DBD by site in wave 1 and wave 2 but there was a significant difference in wave 3. There was a significant difference of discipline by gender and age in all the waves. We calculated unadjusted (OR) and adjusted (AOD) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) showing the relation between harsh discipline at wave 1 and the presence of child disruptive behavior disorder at wave 3 for both South Bronx and Puerto Rico. There was an association between harsh discipline and the likelihood of having DBD in The Bronx (AOR=1.76; 95%CI=1.13-2.74, p.013) and in Puerto Rico (AOR=2.17; 95%CI=1.28-3.67, p.004) having controlled for demographic, parental and individual factors. Conclusions: Context may be an important differential factor shaping the potential risk of harsh discipline toward DBD for Puerto Rican children.
147
88229
Biodegradable Cellulose-Based Materials for the Use in Food Packaging
Abstract:
Cellulose acetate (CA) is a natural biodegradable polymer. It forms transparent films by the casting technique. CA suffers from high degree of water permeability as well as the low thermal stability at high temperatures. To adjust the CA polymeric films to the manufacture of food packaging, its thermal and mechanical properties should be improved. The modification of CA by grafting it with N-Amino phenyl maleimide (N-APhM) led to the construction of hydrophobic branches throughout the polymeric matrix which reduced its wettability as compared to the parent CA. The branches built onto the polymeric chains had been characterized by UV/Vis, 13C-NMR and ESEM. The improvement of the thermal properties was investigated and compared to the parent CA using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), contact angle and mechanical testing measurements. The results revealed that the water-uptake was reduced by increasing the graft percentage. The thermal and mechanical properties were also improved.
146
81811
Emotional Characteristics of Preschoolers Due to Parameters of Family Interaction
Abstract:
The emotional sphere is one of the most important aspects of the child's development and significant factor in his psychological well-being. Present research aims to identify the relationships between emotional characteristics of preschoolers and parameters of family interaction: emotional interaction, parental styles, family adaptation, and cohesion. The study involved 40 people from Saint-Petersburg: 20 children (10 boys and 10 girls) from 5 to 6 years, Mage = 5 years 4 months and 20 mothers. Methods used were: Test 'Emotional identification' by E.Izotova, Empathy test by T. Gavrilova, Children's fears test by A. Zakharov, M. Panfilova, 'Parent-child emotional interaction questionnaire' by E. Zakharova, 'Analysis of family relationships questionnaire by E. Eidemiller and V. Yustitskis, Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales (FACES III) by D. X. Olson, J. Portner, I. Lavi. Сorrelation analysis revealed that the higher index of underdevelopment of parental feelings, the lower the child’s ability to identify emotions (p < 0,05), but at the same time, the higher ability to understand emotional states (p < 0,01), as in the case of hypoprotection (p < 0,05). Two last correlations can be explained by compensatory mechanism. This is also confirmed by negative correlations between maternal educational uncertainty and child’s ability to understand emotional states and between indulgence and child’s ability to perceive emotional states (p < 0,05). The more pronounced the phobia of a child's loss, the higher egocentric nature of child’s empathy (p < 0,05). The child’s fears have the greatest number of relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The more pronounced mother’s positive feelings in interaction, emotional support, acceptance of himself as a parent, desire for physical contact with child and the more adaptive the family system, the less the total number of child’s fears (p < 0,05). The more the mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, emotional support (p < 0,01), unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent and the desire for physical contact (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s spatial fears. Socially-mediated fears are associated with less pronounced mother's positive feelings in interaction, less emotional support and deficiency of demands, obligations (p < 0,05). Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters positively correlated with the excessive demands, obligations and excessive sanctions (p < 0,05). The more emotional support (p < 0,01), mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s fears of nightmares. This kind of fears is positively correlated with excessive demands, prohibitions (p < 0,05). The more adaptive the family system (p < 0,01), the higher family cohesion, mother's acceptance of himself as a parent and preference to childish traits (p < 0,05), the less fear of death. Thus, the children's fears have the closest relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The severity of fears, especially spatial, is connected, first of all, with the emotional side of the mother-parent interaction. Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters are associated with some characteristics of the parental styles, connected with the rigor of mothers. Correlations of the emotional identification are contradictory and require further clarification. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.
145
18093
Initiative Programme to Reform Education in Thailand
Abstract:
The Foundation of Virtuous Youth was established and supported by the Crown Property Bureau, with the intention to instill goodness in Thai youth. The Centre for Educational Psychology is one of the three units under the foundation. We aim to develop programmes that can be used to improve the quality of education in schools. Translation of the King’s message in keeping with the modern research from various sources, our team create 6 programmes: (1) Teacher-Student Relationship (2) Growth Mindset (3) Socratic Teaching (4) Peer Tutoring (5) Parental Involvement (6) Inclusion. After nine months of implementing the programmes in the schools, we found that there were more cooperation between student-student, teacher-student, teacher-parent, and student-parent and the school regained trust from the community. Our ideas were accepted well by the government as our director was promoted to be the Vice Minister of Education in order to implement our programmes into national education system. We consider that the key of our success is that we do practical things. We are still continuing, improving, and learning from our work with hope that the quality of Thai education will improve in near future.
144
16888
Lived Experiences of Parents in Disciplining Their Children
Abstract:
Parenting is preparing children for life as productive adults and discipline strategies are needed to achieve it like non-aggressive, psychologically aggressive and physical discipline. The effects of disciplinary strategies on children are well explored as evidenced by existing studies, local and international laws and active international organizations which are all brimmed towards child protection but status quo shows a profound scarcity of studies engaged in the effects of disciplining the child on the parent. To know the deeper unexplored reasons and untold stories of the parent, mainly the lived experiences of parents in disciplining their children. Design is descriptive phenomelogical. Participants were chosen using snowball purposive sampling. Data were collected through interview with the general question, “Ano ang mga karanasan ninyo sa pagdidisiplina ng inyong anak (What are your experiences when disciplining your child?)”, followed with unstructured questions. Collaizi method was used in analyzing data. Data collected was verified through focused group discussion. Results show three main themes: Reason, Disciplinary Strategy, and Aftermath. The use of disciplinary strategy is influenced by the experiences of the parent, the triggers like the child’s misbehavior and parental desires or wishes for the child. Disciplinary strategy can either be physical punishment or verbal. Parent’s generally used both when children disrespects or disobeys. Parents also experience both positive and negative effects on their physical, social, emotional aspects after disciplining their children. As a result, parents use coping mechanisms to maintain ego stability. Disciplining a child is a cyclical process. Parents, just like the child will also experience both positive and negative outcomes after using different disciplinary strategies. Future researchers can replicate study or use triangulation in multi-site qualitative and quantitative studies, professors can teach findings on parents in the concepts of pediatric nursing and apply the findings in the clinical area particularly when dealing with families.
143
81810
Emotional and Personal Characteristics of Children in Relation to the Parental Attitudes
Abstract:
The purpose of the research was to study the emotional and personal characteristics of preschool children in relation to the characteristics of child-parent interaction and deviant parental attitudes. The study involved 172 mothers and 172 children (85 boys and 87 girls) aged 4,5 to 7 years (mean age 6 years) living in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods used were, demographic questionnaire, projective drawing method 'House-Tree-Man', Test of anxiety (Temml, Dorki, Amen), technique of studying self-esteem 'Ladder', expert evaluation of sociability and aggressiveness, questionnaire for children-parent emotional interaction (E.I. Zaharova) and questionnaire 'Analysis of family relationships' (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitsky). Results. The greatest number of links with personal characteristics have received such parental deviant attitudes as overprotection and characteristics of authoritarian style (prohibitions, sanctions). If the mother has such peculiarities of the parental relationship, the child is characterized by lower self-esteem, increased anxiety, distrust of themselves and hostility. Children have more pronounced manifestations of aggression in a conniving and unstable style of parenting. The sensitivity of the mother is positively associated with children’s self-esteem. Unconditional acceptance of the child, the predominance of a positive emotional background, orientation to the state of the child during interaction promote the development of communication skills and reduce of aggressiveness. But the excessive closeness of the mother with the child can make it difficult to develop the communicative skills. Conclusions. The greatest influence on emotional and personal characteristics is provided by such features of the parental relation as overprotection, characteristics of authoritarian style, underdevelopment of the sphere of parental feelings, sensitivity of mother and behavioral manifestations of emotional interaction. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.
142
42837
Material Selection for Footwear Insole Using Analytical Hierarchal Process
Abstract:
Product performance depends on the type and quality of its building material. Successful product must be made using high quality material, and using the right methods. Many foot problems took place as a result of using poor insole material. Therefore, selecting a proper insole material is crucial to eliminate these problems. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used to provide a systematic procedure for choosing the best material adequate for this application among three material alternatives (polyurethane, poron, and plastzote). Several comparison criteria are used to build the AHP model including: density, stiffness, durability, energy absorption, and ease of fabrication. Poron was selected as the best choice. Inconsistency testing indicates that the model is reasonable, and the materials alternative ranking is effective.
141
107310
Enhancing Experiential Education in Teacher Education Classes Through Simulated Person Methodology
Abstract:
This study is a narrative inquiry into the use of simulated person methodology (SPM) in teacher education classes. This methodology -often used in medical schools- has tremendous benefits in terms of enhancing experiential education in teacher education classes. Literacy education is a major focus in elementary schools. New teachers must work with parents to ensure that children learn to read and expand their literacy horizons. The classes used in this narrative inquiry research consist of one graduate class on family literacy and two pre-service teacher education classes: literacy and culture and early and family literacy. Two scenarios were devised, both of which simulated a parent-teacher interview. In the first scenario, the parent is a reluctant father who is ashamed of his lack of reading ability and does not understand why literacy is important. His seven-year-old son, wanting to emulate his father, has suddenly transformed from an eager student to one who rejects the value of reading in loyalty to his father who cannot read. In the second scenario, a father is called in by the teacher because his son has started acting out in class. The mother in this scenario is temporarily absent from the home, and the father is now the sole caregiver. In each of the scenarios, students are the teachers who are problem-solving these dilemmas in a safe environment with the 'parent' who is a specially trained simulated person. Teacher candidates enact, with the trained simulated person, their strategies for encouraging parents to engage in the literacy development of their children. Teacher candidates attempt to offer support and encouragement to parents. This simulation strategy offers both beginning and more experienced teachers the opportunity to practice an interview with two distinct and contrasting family situations with regard to the literacy of young children. The paper discusses the details of the scenarios enacted in class and the reflective discussion through which students learn from the simulation.
140
52199
School and Family Impairment Associated with Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Examining Differences in Parent and Child Report
Abstract:
Impairment in functioning is a requirement for diagnosing psychopathology, identifying individuals in need of treatment, and documenting improvement with treatment. Further, identifying different types of functional impairment can guide educators and treatment providers. However, most assessment tools focus on symptom severity and few measures assess impairment associated with childhood anxiety disorders. The child- and parent-report versions of the Child Sheehan Disability Scale (CSDS) are measures that may provide useful information regarding impairment. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether children diagnosed with different anxiety disorders have greater impairment in school or home functioning based on self or parent report. The sample consisted of 844 children ages 5 to 19 years of age (mean 13.43, 61% female, 90.9% Caucasian), including 281 children diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), 200 with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 176 with social phobia, 83 with separation anxiety, 61 with anxiety not otherwise specified (NOS), 30 with panic disorder, and 13 with panic with agoraphobia. To assess whether children and parents reported greater impairment in school or home functioning, a multivariate analysis of variance was conducted. (The assumptions of independence and homogeneity of variance were checked and met). A significant difference was found, Pillai's trace = .143, F (4, 28) = 4.19, p < .001, partial eta squared = .04. Post hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that children report significantly greater impairment in school with panic disorder (M=5.18, SD=3.28), social phobia (M=4.95, SD=3.20), and OCD (M=4.62, SD=3.32) compared to other diagnoses; whereas parents endorse significantly greater school impairment when their child has a social phobia (M=5.70, SD=3.39) diagnosis. Interestingly, both children and parents reported greater impairment in family functioning for an OCD (child report M=5.37, SD=3.20; parent report M=5.59, SD=3.38) diagnosis compared to other anxiety diagnoses. (Additional findings for the anxiety disorders associated with less impairment will also be presented). The results of the current study have important implications for educators and treatment providers who are working with anxious children. First, understanding that differences exist in how children and parents view impairment related to childhood anxiety can help those working with these families to be more sensitive during interactions. Second, evidence suggests that difficulties in one environment do not necessarily translate to another environment, thus caregivers may benefit from careful explanation of observations obtained by educators. Third, results support the use of the CSDS measure by treatment providers to identify impairment across environments in order to more effectively target interventions.
139
27361
Single-Parent Families and Its Impact on the Psycho Child Development in Schools
Abstract:
Introduction: The mission of the family and the school is to educate and train citizens of the city. But the family’s values , parental roles, respect for life collapse in their traditional African form. Indeed laxity with regard to divorce, liberal ideas about child rearing influence the emotional life of the latter. Several causes may contribute to the decline in academic performance. In order to seek a psychological solution to the issue, a study was conducted in 6 schools at the 9th district in Cotonou, cosmopolitan city of Benin. Objective: To evaluate the impact of single parenthood on the psycho child development. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires and interviews were used to gather verbal information. The questionnaires were administered to parents and children (schoolchildren 4, 5 and six form) from 7 to 12 years in lone parenthood. The interview was done with teachers and school leaders. We identified 209 cases of children living with a "single-parent" and 68 single parents. Results: Of the 209 children surveyed the results showed that 116 children are cut relational triangle in early childhood (before 3 years). The psychological effects showed that the separation has caused sadness for 52 children, anger 22, shame 17, crying at 31 children, fear for 14, the silence at 58 children. In front of complete family’s children, these children experience feelings of aggression in 11.48%; sadness in 30.64%; 5.26% the shame, the 6.69% tears; jealousy in 2.39% and 2.87% of indifference. The option to get married in 44.15% of children is a challenge to want to give a happy childhood for their offspring; 22.01% feel rejected, there is uncertainty for 11.48% of cases and 25.36% didn’t give answer. 49, 76% of children want to see their family together; 7.65% are against to avoid disputes and in many cases to save the mother of the father's physical abuse. 27.75% of the ex-partners decline responsibility in the care of the child. Furthermore family difficulties affecting the intellectual capacities of children: 37.32% of children see school difficulties related to family problems despite all the pressure single-parent to see his child succeed. Single parenthood affects inter-family relations: pressure 33.97%; nervousness 24.88%; overprotection 29.18%; backbiting 11.96%, are the lives of these families. Conclusion: At the end of the investigation, results showed that there is a causal relationship between psychological disorders, academic difficulties of children and quality of parental relationships. Other cases may exist, but the lack of resources meant that we have only limited at 6 schools. Early psychological treatment for these children is needed.
138
15675
The Effects of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction on Child Waist Circumference and Health Behaviors of Pre-School Children at the Samut-Songkhram Kindergarten School, Samut-Songkhram Province, Thailand
Abstract:
This research aims to study the effects of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction (PTPOR) on child waist circumference and health behaviors of pre-school children at the Samut-Songkhram kindergarten school, Samut-Songkhram province, Thailand. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PTPOR on child waist circumference and health behaviors of the pre-school children. The conceptual framework of this study is developed on the basis of the Ecological Systems Theory (EST), not only do the individual factors such as child characteristics and child risk factors contribute to the child’s weight status, but also other factors such as parenting style and family characteristics, as well as community and demographic factors. This research is a quasi-experimental study. Participants were pre-school overweight and obese children and their parents. Forty-one parent-child dyads were recruited into the program. Parents participated in two sessions including an educational session and a group discussion session. Research methodology uses Paired-Samples t-test to determine the difference between groups in the mean scores of the outcome variables of the children and parents. The research results show that there was significant difference between child waist circumferences mean score at the baseline and finishing the program at the 0.01 level (p = 0.001), mean score of the child waist circumference was decrease after finishing the program. And there was no significant difference between child exercise health behaviors mean score at the baseline and finishing the program at the 0.05 level; however, mean score of the child exercise behavior was increase after finishing the program. Meanwhile, there was significant difference between child dietary health behavior mean score at the baseline and finishing the program at the 0.01 level (p = 0.001), mean score of the child dietary was increase after finishing the program.
137
49667
A Qualitative Examination of Childfreedom and Childlessness: The Life Experiences of Non-Parents in Australia
Abstract:
There is evidence that increasing numbers of adults of child-bearing age in Australia do not have children. While there has been research into the life experiences of non-parents, one of the issues is that the differences between people who choose not to have children – the childfree – and people who cannot have children – the childless – are not clearly defined. The qualitative research reported here adopted an interpretative phenomenological approach to examine the life experiences of non-parents. Potential participants from Australia were invited to complete an online survey describing their experiences of life without children. An examination of the data from 229 participants (188 female, 41 male) revealed that they defined their non-parent status as either childfree or childless. There are, however, five sub-categories of child freedom identified by the participants, whereas previous research has not recognized such distinctions. The variance in the definition of child freedom is important because it may be related to the life journey as a non-parent. The current paper will firstly discuss the different groups of childfree and childless people. Secondly, it will examine the life experiences and journeys of non-parents in light of how the participants defined themselves. From a social psychological perspective, the current research is important as it highlights the socially held stereotypes and the stigma experienced by non-parents in Australia.
136
91118
Child Mental Abuse: An Unseen Scar
Abstract:
Future of society is built on the foundations built by the parents of today and how they raise their children. Strong foundations are made by accepting environments, good morals, and sound educations. Child abuse is a harm that immediately corrupts a child and everything that could do for society. Every child is a segment of modern society and future society, every child corrupted is a segment of society corrupted. Physical abuse is a clear abuse that leaves bruises and can traumatize a child for life, it can leave scars but effect a child’s mind for life. Another form of abuse, however, still impacts a child for life but with no scars to be seen. Child mental abuse directly targets children’s minds to control, manipulate, and belittle them. It becomes close to impossible to escape as there is no clear law defining mental abuse, the parent manipulates the child to stay quiet, and finally the child must come to terms that there parent is harming them. Society does not react to mental and physical abuse in the same manner. In a society that works to protect it future and it children, mental abuse is given a strange lack of attention. In order to protect children, all forms of abuse must be treated and given attention to. Mental abuse comes in many forms and can be extremely hard to spot, unlike physical abuse, but can still lead to the trauma other abuse can cause. While no abuse is worse than others, mental abuse should not be treated like it is nonexistent.
135
65133
Production and Characterization of Biochars from Torrefaction of Biomass
Abstract:
Biomass is a CO₂-neutral fuel that is renewable and sustainable along with having very huge global potential. Efficient use of biomass in power generation and production of biomass-based biofuels can mitigate the greenhouse gasses (GHG) and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. There are also other beneficial effects of biomass energy use such as employment creation and pollutant reduction. However, most of the biomass materials are not capable of competing with fossil fuels in terms of energy content. High moisture content and high volatile matter yields of biomass make it low calorific fuel, and it is very significant concern over fossil fuels. Besides, the density of biomass is generally low, and it brings difficulty in transportation and storage. These negative aspects of biomass can be overcome by thermal pretreatments that upgrade the fuel property of biomass. That is, torrefaction is such a thermal process in which biomass is heated up to 300ºC under non-oxidizing conditions to avoid burning of the material. The treated biomass is called as biochar that has considerably lower contents of moisture, volatile matter, and oxygen compared to the parent biomass. Accordingly, carbon content and the calorific value of biochar increase to the level which is comparable with that of coal. Moreover, hydrophilic nature of untreated biomass that leads decay in the structure is mostly eliminated, and the surface properties of biochar turn into hydrophobic character upon torrefaction. In order to investigate the effectiveness of torrefaction process on biomass properties, several biomass species such as olive milling residue (OMR), Rhododendron (small shrubby tree with bell-shaped flowers), and ash tree (timber tree) were chosen. The fuel properties of these biomasses were analyzed through proximate and ultimate analyses as well as higher heating value (HHV) determination. For this, samples were first chopped and ground to a particle size lower than 250 µm. Then, samples were subjected to torrefaction in a horizontal tube furnace by heating from ambient up to temperatures of 200, 250, and 300ºC at a heating rate of 10ºC/min. The biochars obtained from this process were also tested by the methods applied to the parent biomass species. Improvement in the fuel properties was interpreted. That is, increasing torrefaction temperature led to regular increases in the HHV in OMR, and the highest HHV (6065 kcal/kg) was gained at 300ºC. Whereas, torrefaction at 250ºC was seen optimum for Rhododendron and ash tree since torrefaction at 300ºC had a detrimental effect on HHV. On the other hand, the increase in carbon contents and reduction in oxygen contents were determined. Burning characteristics of the biochars were also studied using thermal analysis technique. For this purpose, TA Instruments SDT Q600 model thermal analyzer was used and the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves were compared and interpreted. It was concluded that torrefaction is an efficient method to upgrade the fuel properties of biomass and the biochars from which have superior characteristics compared to the parent biomasses.
134
49727
Moving Forward to Stand Still: Social Experiences of Children with a Parent in Prison in Ireland
Abstract:
There is no doubt that parental imprisonment directly alters the social experiences of childhood for many children worldwide today. Indeed, the extent to which meaningful contact with a parent in prison can positively impact on the life of a child is well documented as are the benefits for the prisoner, particularly in the long term and post-release. However, despite the growing acceptance of children’s rights in Ireland over the past decade in particular, it appears that children’s rights have not yet succeeded in breaking through the walls of Irish prisons when children are visiting an incarcerated parent. In a prison system that continues to prioritise security over all other considerations, little attention has been given to the importance of recognising and protecting the rights of children affected by parental imprisonment in Ireland for children, families and society in the long term. This paper will present the findings which have emerged from a national qualitative research project (the first of its kind to be conducted in Ireland) which examines the current visiting conditions for children and families, and the related culture of visitation within the Irish Prison system. This study investigated, through semi-structured interviews and focus groups, the unique and specialist perspectives of senior prison management, prison governors, prison officers, support organisations, prison child care workers, as well as those with a family member in prison who have direct experience of prison visits in Ireland which involve children and young people. The reality of the current system of visitation that operates in Irish prisons and its impact on children’s rights is presented from a variety of perspectives. The idea of what meaningful contact means from a children’s rights based perspective is interrogated as are the benefits long term for both the child and the offender. The current system is benchmarked against well-accepted international children’s rights norms as reflected under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989. The dissonance that continues to exist between the theory of children’s rights which includes the right to maintain meaningful contact with a parent in prison and current practice and procedure in Irish Prisons will be explored. In adopting a children’s rights based perspective combined with socio-legal research, this paper will explore the added value that this approach to prison visiting might offer in responding to this particularly marginalised group of children in terms of their social experience of childhood. Finally, the question will be raised as to whether or not there is a responsibility on prisons to view children as independent rights holders when they come to visit the prison or is the prison entitled to focus solely on the prisoner with their children being viewed as a circumstance of the offender? Do the interests of the child and the prisoner have to be exclusive or is there any way of marrying the two?
133
67469
Approximate Spring Balancing for the Arm of a Humanoid Robot to Reduce Actuator Torque
Abstract:
The potential benefit of gravity compensation of linkages in mechanisms using springs to reduce actuator requirements is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs with child–parent connections and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to the developed arm of a humanoid robot is presented here. Spring balancing is particularly important in this case because the serial chain of linkages has to work against gravity.This work involves approximate spring balancing of the open-loop chain of linkages using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Reduced actuator torque facilitates the use of lower end actuators which are generally smaller in weight and volume thereby lowering the space requirements and the total weight of the arm. This is particularly important for humanoid robots where the parent actuator has to handle the weight of the subsequent actuators as well. Actuators with lower actuation requirements are more energy efficient, thereby reduce the energy consumption of the mechanism. Lower end actuators are lower in cost and facilitate the development of low-cost devices. Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free-length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached to the preceding parent link, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant arm of the humanoid robot is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this arm of the humanoid robot.
132
16208
Synthesis and Performance Study of Co3O4 as a Bi-Functional Next Generation Material
Abstract:
In this worki a method protocol has been developed for the synthesis of innovative Co3O4 material by using a method of chemical synthesis followed by calcination. The effect of calcination temperature on the morphology, structure and catalytic performance on material in question is investigated by using characterization tools like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The SEM images reveal that the morphology of the Co3O4 material undergoes a change from the rod to a beadlike shape on calcination at temperature of 700 °C. The XRD image shows that although the morphology of synthesized Co3O4 material exhibits a cubic phase but it differs in crystallinity depending upon morphology. Similarly spherical beadlike Co3O4 material has exhibited better activity than its rodlike counterpart which is reflected from electrochemical findings. Further, its performance in terms of bifunctional nature and hlods a lot much of promise as a excellent electrode material in the next generation batteries and fuel cells.
131
100561
Training Hearing Parents in SmiLE Therapy Supports the Maintenance and Generalisation of Deaf Children's Social Communication Skills
Abstract:
Background: Deaf children can experience difficulties with understanding how social interaction works, particularly when communicating with unfamiliar hearing people. Deaf children often struggle with integrating into a mainstream, hearing environments. These negative experiences can lead to social isolation, depression and other mental health difficulties later in life. smiLE Therapy (Schamroth, 2015) is a video-based social communication intervention that aims to teach deaf children skills to confidently communicate with unfamiliar hearing people. Although two previous studies have reported improvements in communication skills immediately post intervention, evidence for maintenance of gains or generalisation of skills (i.e., the transfer of newly learnt skills to untrained situations) has not to date been demonstrated. Parental involvement has been shown to support deaf children’s therapy outcomes. Therefore, this study added parent training to the therapy children received to investigate the benefits to generalisation of children’s skills. Parents were also invited to present their perspective on the training they received. Aims: (1) To assess pupils’ progress from pre- to post-intervention in trained and untrained tasks, (2) to investigate if training parents improved their (a) understanding of their child’s needs and (b) their skills in supporting their child appropriately in smiLE Therapy tasks, (3) to assess if parent training had an impact on the pupil’s ability to (a) maintain their skills in trained tasks post-therapy, and (b) generalise their skills in untrained, community tasks. Methods: This was a mixed-methods, repeated measures study. 31 deaf pupils (aged between 7 and 14) received an hour of smiLE Therapy per week, for 6 weeks. Communication skills were assessed pre-, post- and 3-months post-intervention using the Communication Skills Checklist. Parents were then invited to attend two training sessions and asked to bring a video of their child communicating in a shop or café. These videos were used to assess whether, after parent training, the child was able to generalise their skills to a new situation. Finally, parents attended a focus group to discuss the effectiveness of the therapy, particularly the wider impact, i.e., more child participation within the hearing community. Results: All children significantly improved their scores following smiLE therapy and maintained these skills to high level. Children generalised a high percentage of their newly learnt skills to an untrained situation. Parents reported improved understanding of their child’s needs, their child’s potential and in how to support them in real-life situations. Parents observed that their children were more confident and independent when carrying out communication tasks with unfamiliar hearing people. Parents realised they needed to ‘let go’ and embrace their child’s independence and provide more opportunities for them to participate in their community. Conclusions: This study adds to the evidence base on smiLE Therapy; it is an effective intervention that develops deaf children’s ability to interact competently with unfamiliar, hearing, communication partners. It also provides preliminary evidence of the benefits of parent training in helping children to generalise their skills to other situations. These findings will be of value to therapists wishing to develop deaf children’s communication skills beyond the therapy setting.
130
42286
Binary Programming for Manufacturing Material and Manufacturing Process Selection Using Genetic Algorithms
Abstract:
The material selection problem is concerned with the determination of the right material for a certain product to optimize certain performance indices in that product such as mass, energy density, and power-to-weight ratio. This paper is concerned about optimizing the selection of the manufacturing process along with the material used in the product under performance indices and availability constraints. In this paper, the material selection problem is formulated using binary programming and solved by genetic algorithm. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total manufacturing cost under performance indices and material and manufacturing process availability constraints.
129
18366
The Potential for Cyclotron and Generator-produced Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals: An Overview
Abstract:
Cyclotrons in the energy range 10-30 MeV are widely used for the production of clincally relevant radiosiotopes used in positron emission tomography (PET) nuclear imaging. Positron emmision tomography is a powerful nuclear imaging tool that produces high quality 3-dimentional images of functional processes of body. The advantage of PET among all other imaging devices is that it allows the study of an impressive array of discrete biochemical and physiologic processes, within a single imaging session. The number of PET scanner increases every year globally due to high clinical demand. However, not all PET centers can afford a cyclotron, due to the expense associated with operation of an in-house cyclotron. Therefore, current research has also focused on the development of parent/daughter generators that can reliably provide PET nuclides. These generators (68Ge/68Ga generator, 62Zn/62Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, etc) can provide even short-lived radionuclides at any time on demand, without the need of an ‘in-house cyclotron’. The parent isotope is produced at a cyclotron/reactor facility, and can be shipped to remote clinical sites (regionally/overseas), where the daughter isotope is eluted, a model similar to the 99Mo/99mTc generator system. The specific aim for this presentation is to talk about the potential for both of the cyclotron and generator-produced PET radiopharmaceuticals used in clinical imaging.
128
28984
Photocatalysis with Fe/Ti-Pillared Clays for the Oxofunctionalization of Alkylaromatics by O2
Abstract:
A pillared montmorillonite containing iron doped titania (Fe/Ti-PILC) has been prepared from a natural clay. This material has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption, and diffuse reflectance UV-VIS spectroscopy. The layer structure of Fe/Ti-PILC resulted to be ordered with an insertion of pillars, which caused a slight increase in the basal spacing of the clay. Its specific surface area was about three times larger than that of the parent Na-montmorillonite due principally to the creation of a remarkable microporous network. The doped material was a robust photocatalyst able to oxidize liquid alkyl aromatics to the corresponding carbonylic derivatives, using O2 as the oxidizing species, at mild pressure and temperature conditions. Accumulation of valuable carbonylic derivatives was possible since their over-oxidation to carbon dioxide was negligible. Fe/Ti-PILC was able to discriminate between toluene and cyclohexane in favor of the aromatic compound with an efficiency that is about three times higher than that of titanium pillared clays (Ti-PILC). It is likely that the addition of iron favored the formation of new acid sites able to interact with the aromatic substrate. Iron doping caused a significant TiO2 visible light-induced activity (wavelength > 400 nm) with only minor negative effects on its performance under UV-light irradiation (wavelength > 290 nm).
127
81319
Mealtime Talk as a Context of Learning: A Multiple Case Study of Australian Chinese Parents' Interaction with Their Preschool Aged Children at Dinner Table
Abstract:
Research identifies that mealtime talk can be a significant learning context that provides children with rich experiences to foster their language and cognitive development. Middle-classed parents create an extended learning discourse for their children through sophisticated vocabulary, narrative and explanation genres at dinner table. However, mealtime opportunities vary with some parents having little interaction with their children and some parents focusing on directive of children’s behaviors. This study investigated five Chinese families’ parent-child interaction during mealtime that was rarely reported in the literature. The five families differ in terms of their living styles. Three families are from professional background where both mothers the fathers work in Australian companies and both of them present at dinner time. The other two families own business. The mothers are housemakers and the fathers are always absent at dinner time due to their busy business life. Employing case study method, the five Chinese families’ parent-child interactions at dinner table were recorded using a video camera. More than 3000 clauses were analyzed with the framework of 'systems of clause complexing' from systemic functional linguistic theory. The finding shows that mothers played a critical role in the interaction with their children by initiating most conversations. The three mothers from professional background tended to use more language in extending and expanding pattern that is beneficial for children’s language development and high level of thinking (e.g., logical thinking). The two house making mothers’ language focused more on the directive of their children’s social manners and dietary behaviors. The fathers though seemed to be less active, contributing to the richness of the conversation through their occasional props such as asking open questions or initiating a new topic. In general, the families from professional background were more advantaged in providing learning opportunities for their children at dinner table than the families running business were. The home experiences of Chinese children is an important topic in research due to the rapidly increasing number of Chinese children in Australia and other English speaking countries. Such research assist educators in the education of Chinese children with more awareness of Chinese children experiences at home that could be very unlike the settings in English schools. This study contributes to the research in this area through the analysis of language in parent-child interaction during mealtime, which is very different from previous research that mainly investigated Chinese families through survey and interview. The finding of different manners in language use between the professional families and business families has implication for the understanding of the variation of Chinese children’s home experiences that is influenced not only by parents’ socioeconomic status but their lifestyles.
126
19708
A Cross-Cultural Validation of the Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (Smiley) among Filipino Pediatric Lupus Patients
Abstract:
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the most common autoimmune disorders predominates in women of childbearing age. Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY) is the only health specific quality of life tool for pediatric SLE, which has been translated to different languages except in Filipino. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to develop a Filipino translation of the SMILEY and to examine the validity and reliability of this translation. Methodology: The SMILEY was translated into Filipino by a bilingual individual and back-translated by another bilingual individual blinded from the original English version. The translation was evaluated for content validity by a panel of experts and subjected to pilot testing. The pilot-tested translation was used in the validity and reliability testing proper. The SMILEY, together with the previously validated PEDSQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale was administered to lupus pediatric patients and their parent at two separate occasions: a baseline and a re-test seven to fourteen days apart. Tests for convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were performed. Results: A total of fifty children and their parent were recruited. The mean age was 15.38±2.62 years (range 8-18 years), mean education at high school level. The mean duration of SLE was 28 months (range 1-81 months). Subjects found the questionnaires to be relevant, easy to understand and answer. The validity of the SMILEY was demonstrated in terms of content validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Age, socioeconomic status and educational attainment did not show a significant effect on the scores. The difference between scores of child and parent report was showed to be significant with SMILEY total (p=0.0214), effect on social life (p=0.0000), and PEDSQL physical function (p=0.0460). Child reports showed higher scores for the following domains compared to their parent. Conclusion: SMILEY is a brief, easy to understand, valid and reliable tool for assessing pediatric SLE specific HRQOL. It will be useful in providing better care, understanding and may offer critical information regarding the effect of SLE in the quality of life of our pediatric lupus patients. It will help physician understands the needs of their patient not only on treatment of the specific disease but as well as the impact of the treatment on their daily lives.
125
32019
The Implementation of Child Adoption as Legal Protection of Children
Abstract:
The principle of a marriage is to achieve a happy and eternity family based on the willing of the God. The family has a fundamental role in the society as a social individual and as a nuclear family consists of father, mother, and children. Thus, each family always would like to have children who will continue the family. However, not all family will be blessed with children and consequently, there is family without children. Therefore, the said the certain family will do any effort to fulfill the wish to have children. One of the ways is to adopt children. The implementation of child adoption is conducted by the family who does not have children but sometimes child adoption is conducted by a family who has already children. The implementation of child adoption is based on the interest of the welfare and the intellectual of the said child. Moreover, it should be based on the social liability of the individual in accordance with the developing of the traditional values as part of the nation culture. The child adoption is conducted for the welfare of the child demonstrates that a change on the basic motive (value) whereby in the past the child adoption is to fulfill the wish of foster parent (to have children in the family). Nowadays the purpose of child adoption is not merely for the interest of foster parent but in particular for the interest, welfare and the future of the child. The development of the society has caused the occurrence of changes of perspective in the society which lead to a need for new law. The court of justice has an impact of such changes. It is evidenced by the court order for child adoption in the legal framework of certainty of law. The changes of motives (value) of the child adoption in the society can be fully understood in the event that the society fully understand that the ultimate purpose of Indonesia nation is to achieve a justice and prosperity society, i.e., social welfare for all Indonesian people.
124
102937
Migration and Provision of Support to Left-Behind Parents in Rural Cambodia
Abstract:
Cambodia is a country where labor migration has been consistently high. Coupled with advancing labor opportunities in urban areas, a function partly of globalization, this is resulting in massive migration out of rural areas. This is particularly true in Cambodia where there are high migration and a very large proportion of adult children living some distant from their parents. This paper explores characteristics associated with migrant providing support to parents in rural Cambodia. With reference to perspectives of family altruism and solidarity, this analysis particularly focusses on how a series of variables representing family integration and residential location associates with intergenerational monetary and instrumental support from migrants. The study hypothesizes that migrants are more likely to provide support when parents are in need, and there are no alternative means of support. Data come from The Rural Household Survey (N=3,713), part of the 2011 Cambodian Rural Urban Migration Project (CRUMP). Multilevel multinomial models indicate international migrants are likely to give money, while internal migrants are likely to provide both money and instrumental support, especially when migrants have no sibling and their parent in poor health status. In addition, employed migrants are two times providing monetary compared to those unemployed. Findings elucidate the decision to which and why support occurs more often when no other source of support exists and also depends on the ability to provide of migrants themselves.
123
75703
Social Support and Quality of Life of Youth Suffering from Cerebral Palsy Temporarily Orphaned Due to Emigration of a Parent
Abstract:
The article is concerned in the issue of social support and quality of life of youth suffering from cerebral palsy, who are temporarily orphaned due to the emigration of a parent. Migration causes multi-aspect consequences in various spheres of life. They are particularly severe for the functioning of families. Temporal parting of parents and children, especially the disabled, is a difficult situation. In this case, the family structure is changed, as well as the quality of life of its members. Children can handle migration parting in a better or worse way; these can be divided into properly functioning and manifesting behaviour disorders. In conditions of the progressing phenomenon of labour migration of Poles and a wide spectrum of consequences for the whole social life, it is essential to undertake actions aimed at support of migrants and their families. This article focuses mainly on social support and quality of families members, of which, are the labour migrants perceived by youth suffering from cerebral palsy. The quantitative method was used in this study. In the study, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) by Diener, was used. The analysed group consisted of 50 persons (37 girls and 13 boys), aged 16 years to 18 years, whose parents are labour migrants. The results indicate that the quality of life and social support for youth suffering from cerebral palsy who are temporarily orphaned is at a low and average level.
122
101094
Sensitivity and Commitment: A View on Parenthood in a Context of Placement Trajectory
Abstract:
Introduction: Placement is, without doubt, a challenging experience for both foster children and biological parents who witness their child being removed from their care. Yet, few studies have examined parenting in such a context through critical parental skills such as parental sensitivity and commitment. Sensitivity is described as the capacity of parents to respond accurately to their child’s needs in a warm, predictable and consistent way, whereas commitment is the ability of the parent to get involved physically and emotionally in an enduring relationship with his child. The research confirms the important role of parental sensitivity and parental commitment on child development following placement in foster care. Nevertheless, these studies were mainly conducted with foster parents, and few studies have examined these components of parenthood with biological parents. Method: This study evolves in two times. At first, 17 parents participated throughout a 90-minutes interview. It allowed to collect information regarding the sociodemographic situation, contacts, placement trajectory. Parental sensitivity is observed during a supervised parent-child contact. The second time occurred one to two years later and implied an at-home 90-minutes interview where we updated the information from the first interview and were able to assess the level of parental commitment. In this ongoing part of the study, five parents have already participated in implying the rest of them remain to be interviewed in the coming months - from October through December 2018. Results: Descriptive analysis from the first part of the study suggests the examination of two groups: 11 children have been reunified whereas six are still in foster care. Qualitative analysis allows to compare themes of sensitivity and commitment regarding if the reunification project occurs or not. Preliminary analysis about thematic content shows key components of parental commitment through parent’s reveal of the way they nurture a relationship with their child. Furthermore, preliminary analysis suggests that parental sensitivity is not associated with family reunification (r = 0,11, p = 0,74). Further analysis will be assessed with the date from the second part of the study to examine the potential association between commitment and reunification. Discussion: Parental sensitivity and commitment are fundamental to the well-being of the child in a placement trajectory. They need to be understood better as two different complex concepts and as two parenting skills that might have a way of echoing to one another when engaged in a specific context. Above all, a more accurate comprehension of parenting in a placement trajectory allows to sustain adequate intervention practices for birth parents and could change the way parental adequacy is assessed when reaching for reunification.
121
48483
Evaluation of Nitrogen Fixation Capabilities of Selected Pea Lines Grown under Different Environmental Conditions in Canadian Prairie
Abstract:
Pea is a very popular pulse crop that widely grew in Western Canadian prairie. However, the N fixation capabilities of these pea lines were not well evaluated under local environmental conditions. In this study, 2 supernodulating mutants Frisson P64 Sym29, Frisson P88 Sym28 along with their wild parent Frisson, 1 hypernodulating mutant Rondo-nod3 (fix+) along with its wild parent Rondo, 1 non-nodulating mutant Frisson P56 (nod-) and 2 commercial pea cultivar CDC Meadow and CDC Dakota which are widely planted in Western Canada were selected in order to evaluate the capabilities of their BNF, biomass, and yield production in symbiosis with R. leguminosarumbv. viciae, Our results showed different environmental conditions and variation of pea lines could both significantly impact days to flowering (DTF), days to podding (DTP), biomass and yield of tested pea lines (P < 0.0001), suggesting consideration of environmental factors could be important when selecting pea cultivar for local farming under different soil zones in Western Canada. Significant interaction effects between environmental conditions and pea lines were found on pea N fixation as well (P = 0.001), suggesting changes in N fixation capability of the same pea cultivar when grown under different environmental conditions. Our results provide useful information for farming and better opportunity for selection of pea cultivars with higher N-fixing capacity during breeding programs in Western Canada.
120
51023
The Optimization Design of Sound Absorbing for Automotive Interior Material
Abstract:
Nonwoven fabric such as an automobile interior material becomes consists of several material layers required for the sound-absorbing function. Because several material layers, many experimental tuning is required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, a lot of time and money is spent in the development of the car interior materials. In this study, we present the method to predict the sound-absorbing performance of the various layers with physical properties of each material. and we will verify it with the measured value of a prototype. If the sound absorption can be estimated, it can be optimized without a number of tuning tests of the interiors. So, it can reduce the development cost and time during development
119
29036
Functional Impairment in South African Children with ADHD: Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Targeted Intervention
Abstract:
Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood neurobehavioural disorders, little empirical research has been published on its clinical presentation in Africa, and, globally, few studies evaluate ADHD intervention programs that emphasize parent training. Hence, Stage 1 of this research programme aimed to describe the functional impairment of South African children with ADHD, and also sought to investigate the influence of sociodemographic variables (e.g., sex, age, socioeconomic status, family environment) and clinical variables (e.g., ADHD subtype and comorbidity) on the degree of that impairment. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents as a diagnostic tool, and the Child Behavior Checklist, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Impairment Rating Scale as measures of functional impairment. Results from this stage of the research indicated that South African children and adolescents who meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD experience most functional impairment in the school domain, as well as in the area of social functioning. None of the measured sociodemographic variables had a significant detrimental or protective effect on how ADHD symptoms impacted on functioning. In terms of comorbidity, the presence of Major Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder were all associated with significantly impaired overall functioning. Stage 2 of the research programme aimed to design, implement, and evaluate a child-specific intervention that targeted the primary areas of impairment identified in Stage 1. Existing literature suggests that a positive parent-training programme, in the group format, is one of the best options for cost-effective and successful ADHD intervention. Hence, the intervention took that form. Parents were taught basic behaviour analysis concepts within a supportive group context. Evaluation of the intervention’s efficacy used many of the same measures as in Stage 1, but also featured semi-structured interviews with participants and naturalistic observation of parent-child interaction. We will discuss preliminary results of that evaluation. Studying functional impairment and designing intervention plans in this way will pave the way for evidence-based treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD.
118
51500
Risk Factors Associated with Increased Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Admissions Among Child and Adolescent Patients
Abstract:
Children and adolescent patients visit the Psychiatric Emergency Department (ED) for multiple reasons. Visiting the Psychiatric ED itself can be a traumatic experience that can affect an adolescents mental well-being, regardless of a history of mental illness. Despite this, limited research exists in this domain. Prospective studies have correlated adverse psychosocial determinants among adolescents to risk factors for poor well-being and unfavorable behavior outcomes. Studies have also shown that physiological stress is a contributor in the development of health problems and an increase in substance abuse in adolescents. This study aimed to retrospectively determine which psychosocial factors are associated with an increase in psychiatric ED visits. 600 charts of patients who had a psychiatric ED and inpatient admission visit from January 2014 through December 2014 were reviewed. Sociodemographics, diagnoses, ED visits and inpatient admissions were collected. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and independent t-test analyses were utilized to examine differences in the sample to determine which factors affected ED visits and admissions. The sample was 50% female, 35.2% self-identified black, and had a mean age of 13 years. The majority, 85%, went to public school and 17% were in special education. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was the most common admitting diagnosis, found in 132(23%) responders. Most patients came from single parent household 305 (53%). The mean ages of patients that were sexually active, with legal issues, and reporting marijuana substance abuse were 15, 14.35, and 15 years respectively. Patients from two biological parent households had significantly fewer ED visits (1.2 vs. 1.7, p < 0.01) and admissions (0.09 vs. 0.26, p < 0.01). Among social factors, those who reported sexual, physical or emotional abuse had a significantly greater number of ED visits (2.1 vs. 1.5, p < 0.01) and admissions (0.61 vs. 0.14, p < 0.01) than those who did not. Patients that were sexually active or had legal issues or substance abuse with marijuana had a significantly greater number of admissions (0.43 vs. 0.17, p < 0.01), (0.54 vs. .18, p < 0.01) and (0.46 vs. 0.18, p < 0.01) respectively. This data supports the theory of the stability of a two parent home. Dual parenting plays a role in creating a safe space where a child can develop; this is shown by subsequent decreases in psychiatric ED visits and admissions. This may highlight the psychological protective role of a two parent household. Abuse can exacerbate existing psychiatric illness or initiate the onset of new disease. Substance abuse and legal issues result in early induction to the criminal system. Results show that this causes an increase in frequency of visits and severity of symptoms. Only marijuana, but not other illicit substances, correlated with higher incidence of psychiatric ED visits. This may speak to the psychotropic nature of tetrahydrocannabinols and their role in mental illness. This study demonstrates the array of psychosocial factors that lead to increased ED visits and admissions in children and adolescents.
117
2633
Elastic Stress Analysis of Annular Bi-Material Discs with Variable Thickness under Mechanical and Thermomechanical Loads
Abstract:
The closed form study deal with elastic stress analysis of annular bi-material discs with variable thickness subjected to the mechanical and termomechanical loads. Those discs have many applications in the aerospace industry, such as gas turbines and gears. Those discs normally work under thermal and mechanical loads. Their life cycle can increase when stress components are minimized. Each material property is assumed to be isotropic. The results show that material combinations and thickness profiles play an important role in determining the responses of bi-material discs and an optimal design of those structures. Stress distribution is investigated and results are shown as graphs.
116
18006
Parent’s Evaluation of the Services Offered to Their Children with Autism in UAE Centres
Abstract:
The study aimed to identify the assessment of parents of children with Autism for services provided by the Center for special care in the United Arab Emirates, in terms of quality, comprehensive and the impact of some factors related to the diagnosis and place of service provision and efficient working procedures of service and the child age. In order to achieve the objective of the study, researchers used Parent’s Satisfaction Scale, and Parents Evaluation of Services Effectiveness, both the scale and the parents reports provided with accepted level of validity and reliability. Sample includes 300 families of children with Autism receiving educational and rehabilitation services, treatment and support services in both governmental and private centers in United Arab Emirates. ANOVA test was used through SPSS program to analyze the collected data. The results of the study have indicated that there are significant differences in the assessment of services provided by centers due to a place of service, the nature of the diagnosis, child's age at the time of the study, as well as statistically significance differences due to age when first diagnosed. The results also showed positive evaluation for the good level of services as international standard, and the quality of these services provided by autism centers in the United Arab Emirates, especially in governmental centers. At the same time, the results showed the presence of many needs problems faced by the parents do not have appropriate solutions. Based on the results the recommendations were stated.
115
40985
Factors Influencing Bank Profitability of Czech Banks and Their International Parent Companies
Abstract:
The goal of this paper is to specify factors influencing the profitability of selected banks. Next, a model will be created to help establish variables that have a demonstrable influence on the development of the selected banks' profitability ratios. Czech banks and their international parent companies were selected for analyzing profitability. Banks categorized as large banks (according to the Czech National Bank's system, which ranks banks according to balance sheet total) were selected to represent the Czech banks. Two ratios, the return on assets ratio (ROA) and the return on equity ratio (ROE) are used to assess bank profitability. Six endogenous and four external indicators were selected from among other factors that influence bank profitability. The data analyzed were for the years 2001 – 2013. First, correlation analysis, which was supposed to eliminate correlated values, was conducted. A large number of correlated values were established on the basis of this analysis. The strongly correlated values were omitted. Despite this, the subsequent regression analysis of profitability for the individual banks that were selected did not confirm that the selected variables influenced their profitability. The studied factors' influence on bank profitability was demonstrated only for Československá Obchodní Banka and Société Générale using regression analysis. For Československá Obchodní Banka, it was demonstrated that inflation level and the amount of the central bank's interest rate influenced the return on assets ratio and that capital adequacy and market concentration influenced the return on equity ratio for Société Générale.
114
21934
Finite Element Analysis of Layered Composite Plate with Elastic Pin Under Uniaxial Load Using ANSYS
Abstract:
Analysis of stresses plays important role in the optimization of structures. Prior stress estimation helps in better design of the products. Composites find wide usage in the industrial and home applications due to its strength to weight ratio. Especially in the air craft industry, the usage of composites is more due to its advantages over the conventional materials. Composites are mainly made of orthotropic materials having unequal strength in the different directions. Composite materials have the drawback of delamination and debonding due to the weaker bond materials compared to the parent materials. So proper analysis should be done to the composite joints before using it in the practical conditions. In the present work, a composite plate with elastic pin is considered for analysis using finite element software Ansys. Basically the geometry is built using Ansys software using top down approach with different Boolean operations. The modelled object is meshed with three dimensional layered element solid46 for composite plate and solid element (Solid45) for pin material. Various combinations are considered to find the strength of the composite joint under uniaxial loading conditions. Due to symmetry of the problem, only quarter geometry is built and results are presented for full model using Ansys expansion options. The results show effect of pin diameter on the joint strength. Here the deflection and load sharing of the pin are increasing and other parameters like overall stress, pin stress and contact pressure are reducing due to lesser load on the plate material. Further material effect shows, higher young modulus material has little deflection, but other parameters are increasing. Interference analysis shows increasing of overall stress, pin stress, contact stress along with pin bearing load. This increase should be understood properly for increasing the load carrying capacity of the joint. Generally every structure is preloaded to increase the compressive stress in the joint to increase the load carrying capacity. But the stress increase should be properly analysed for composite due to its delamination and debonding effects due to failure of the bond materials. When results for an isotropic combination is compared with composite joint, isotropic joint shows uniformity of the results with lesser values for all parameters. This is mainly due to applied layer angle combinations. All the results are represented with necessasary pictorial plots.
113
51024
Development of Standard Evaluation Technique for Car Carpet Floor
Abstract:
Statistical Energy Analysis is to be the most effective CAE Method for air-born noise analysis in the Automotive area. This study deals with a method to predict the noise level inside of the car under the steady-state condition using the SEA model of car for air-born noise analysis. We can identify weakened part due to the acoustic material properties using it. Therefore, it is useful for the material structural design.
112
106524
Differential Impact of Parenting on Mental Health Functioning of Pakistani Adolescents: A Cultural Perspective
Authors:
Abstract:
Mental health problems in adolescents are said to be increasing tremendously, and a large proportion of adolescents are suffering from serious mental health problems that result in short and long term socio-emotional negative consequences. Contemporary clinical and school psychology is now focused on prevention rather than intervene in the mental health concerns of adolescents. Therefore, a wealth of literature is devoted to identify the risk and protective factors so that adolescents may be prevented and identified earlier. This quest has led to identify many risk factors including the early parent-child relationship. Parenting has a long last impact on the growth and development of an individual. If the parent-child relationship is secure and warm, the child tends to have a positive psychological outcome. On the other hand, if parenting is rejecting and distant, it may lead to more mental health problems. Keeping in view the cross-cultural influence of parenting, the current study was aimed to explore the relationship between parental rearing practices and mental health problems on a group of Pakistani adolescents. A sample of 805 participants (49% boys and 51% girls) were selected through a stratified sample with the age range of 13-18 years. All the participants were given protocol of EMBU-C and School Children Problem Scale (SCPS). Results indicate that age, the gender of the participant and parental rejection were found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health problems in adolescents. It can be concluded that parenting may be a universal phenomenon comprising rejection and acceptance yet the differential impact on mental health varies from culture to culture.
111
81154
Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy: The Case of School Adolescents of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia
Abstract:
Background: Teenage pregnancy has long been a worldwide social, economic and educational concern for the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. Studies on adolescent sexuality and pregnancy are very limited in our country. Therefore, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of teenage pregnancy and its determinants among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. Methods: Institution- based, cross-sectional study was conducted from 20-30 March 2014. Systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 578 students from four schools of the town. Data were collected by trained data collectors using a pre-tested, self-administered structured questionnaire. The analysis was made using the software SPSS version 20.0 statistical packages. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of teenage pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town was 7.7%. Being grade11(AOR=4.6;95%CI:1.4,9.3) and grade12 student (AOR=5.8;95% CI:1.3,14.4), not knowing the correct time to take emergency contraceptives(AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.4,7.4), substance use(AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.8), living with either of biological parents (AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.1,8.7) and poor parent-daughter interaction (AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.7) were found to be significant predictors of teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: This study revealed a high level of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. A significant number of adolescent female school students were at risk of facing the challenges of teenage pregnancy in the study area. School-based reproductive health education and strong parent-daughter relationships should be strengthened.
110
7061
Study on the Changes in Material Strength According to Changes in Forming Methods in Hot-Stamping Process
Abstract:
Following the recent trend of having increased demand in producing lighter-weight car bodies for improvement of automobile safety and gas mileage, there is a forming method that makes use of hot-stamping technique, which satisfies all conditions mentioned above. Hot-stamping is a forming technique with advantages of excellent formability, good dimensional precision and others since it is a process in which steel plates are heated up to temperatures of at least approximately 900°C after which forming is conducted in die at room temperature followed by rapid cooling. In addition, it has characteristics of allowing for improvement in material strength through achievement of quenching effect by having simultaneous forming and rapid cooling of material of high temperatures. However, there is insufficient information on the changes in material strength according to changes in material temperature with regards to material heating method and forming process in hot-stamping. Accordingly, this study aims to design and press die for T-type product of the scale models of the center pillar and to understand the changes in material strength in relation to changes in forming methods of hot-stamping process. Thus in order to understand the changes in material strength due to quenching effect among the hot-stamping process, material strength and material forming precision were to be studied while varying the forming and forming method when forming. For test methods, material strength was observed by using boron steel that has boron additives, which was heated up to 950°C, after which it was transferred to a die and was cooled down to material temperature of 400°C followed by air cooling process. During the forming and cooling process here, experiment was conducted with forming parameters of 2 holding rates and 3 flange heating rates wherein changing appearance in material strength according to changes forming method were observed by verifying forming strength and forming precision for each of the conditions.
109
104851
The Diversity of Contexts within Which Adolescents Engage with Digital Media: Contributing to More Challenging Tasks for Parents and a Need for Third Party Mediation
Abstract:
Digital media has been integrated into the social and entertainment life of young children, and as such, the impact of digital media appears to affect young people of all ages and it is believed that this will continue to shape the world of young children. Since, technological advancement of digital media presents adolescents with diverse contexts, platforms and avenues to engage with digital media outside the home environment and from parents' supervision, a wide range of new challenges has further complicated the already difficult tasks for parents and altered the landscape of parenting. Despite the fact that adolescents now have access to a wide range of digital media technologies both at home and in the learning environment, parenting practices such as active, restrictive, co-use, participatory and technical mediations are important in mitigating of online risks adolescents may encounter as a result of digital media use. However, these mediation practices only focus on the home environment including digital media present in the home and may not necessarily transcend outside the home and other learning environments where adolescents use digital media for school work and other activities. This poses the question of who mediates adolescent's digital media use outside the home environment. The learning environment could be a ''loose platform'' where an adolescent can maximise digital media use considering the fact that there is no restriction in terms of content and time allotted to using digital media during school hours. That is to say that an adolescent can play the ''bad boy'' online in school because there is little or no restriction of digital media use and be exposed to online risks and play the ''good boy'' at home because of ''heavy'' parental mediation. This is the reason why parent mediation practices have been ineffective because a parent may not be able to track adolescents digital media use considering the diversity of contexts, platforms and avenues adolescents use digital media. This study argues that due to the diverse nature of digital media technology, parents may not be able to monitor the 'whereabouts' of their children in the digital space. This is because adolescent digital media usage may not only be confined to the home environment but other learning environments like schools. This calls for urgent attention on the part of teachers to understand the intricacies of how digital media continue to shape the world in which young children are developing and learning. It is, therefore, imperative for parents to liaise with the schools of their children to mediate digital media use during school hours. The implication of parents- teachers mediation practices are discussed. The article concludes by suggesting that third party mediation by teachers in schools and other learning environments should be encouraged and future research needs to consider the emergent strategy of teacher-children mediation approach and the implication for policy for both the home and learning environments.
108
39863
Material Saving Strategies, Technologies and Effects on Return on Sales
Abstract:
Manufacturing companies invest a significant amount of sales into material resources for production. In our sample, 58% of sales is used for manufacturing inputs, while only 24% of sales is used for salaries. This means that if a company is looking to reduce costs, the greater potential is in reduction of material costs than downsizing. This research shows that manufacturing companies in Croatia did realize material savings in last three years. It is also shown by which technologies they achieved materials cost savings. Through literature research, we found research gap as to which technologies reduce material consumption. As methodology of research four regression analyses are used to prove our findings.
107
2796
Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings
Authors:
Abstract:
Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.
106
87076
Constructing a Grounded Theory of Parents' Musical Engagement with Their Premature Baby Contributing to Their Emerging Parental Identity in a Neonatal Unit
Abstract:
Scholarship highlights the need to further examine and better understand and foster the process of becoming a parent to a premature baby in the neonatal context to support the critical development of the parent-infant relationship. Music therapy research documents significant benefits of music therapy on neonatal physiological and neurodevelopmental function, reduced maternal anxiety and validating parents’ relationship with their premature baby, yet limited studies examine the role of music in supporting parental identity. This was a multi-site study, exploring parents’ musical engagement with their hospitalised baby and parental identity in a NU. In-depth interviews with nine parents of a premature baby across varying time points in their NU journey took place. Data collection and analysis was influenced by Constructive Grounded Theory methodology. Findings in the form of a substantive grounded theory illuminated the contribution of parents’ musical engagement on their sense of parental identity in the NU. Specifically, the significance of their baby’s level and type of response during musical interactions in influencing parents’ capacity to engage in musical dialogue with their baby emerged. Specific conditions that acted as both barriers and fosters in parents’ musical engagement across a high- risk pregnancy and NU admission also emerged. Recommendations for future research into the role of music and music therapy in supporting parental coping and transition to parenthood during a high-risk pregnancy and birth and beyond the NU will be discussed.
105
19154
Study of Physico-Chimical Properties of a Silty Soil
Abstract:
Soil treatment is to make use soil that does not have the characteristics required in a given context. We limit ourselves in this work to the field of road earthworks where we have chosen to develop a local material in the region of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria). This material has poor characteristics not meeting the standards used in road geo technics. To remedy this, firstly, we were trying to improve the Proctor Standard characteristics of this material by mechanical treatment increasing the compaction energy. Then, by a chemical treatment, adding some cement dosages, our results show that this material classified A1h a increase maximum dry density and a reduction in the water content of compaction. A comparative study is made on the optimal properties of the material between the two modes of treatment. On the other hand, after treatment, one finds a decrease in the plasticity index and the methylene blue value. This material exhibits a change of class. Therefore, soil class CL turned into a soil class composed CL-ML (Silt of low plasticity). This observation allows this material to be used as backfill or sub grade.
104
28354
Pre-Transformation Phase Reconstruction for Deformation-Induced Transformation in AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel
Abstract:
Austenitic stainless steels are widely used and give a good combination of properties. When this steel is plastically deformed, a phase transformation of the metastable Face Centred Cubic Austenite to the stable Body Centred Cubic (α’) or to the Hexagonal close packed (ԑ) martensite may occur, leading to the enhancement in the mechanical properties like strength. The work was based on variant selection and corresponding texture analysis for the strain induced martensitic transformation during deformation of the parent austenite FCC phase to form the product HCP and the BCC martensite phases separately, obeying their respective orientation relationships. The automated method for reconstruction of the parent phase orientation using the EBSD data of the product phase orientation is done using the MATLAB and TSL-OIM software. The method of triplets was used which involves the formation of a triplet of neighboring product grains having a common variant and linking them using a misorientation-based criterion. This led to the proper reconstruction of the pre-transformation phase orientation data and thus to its microstructure and texture. The computational speed of current method is better compared to the previously used methods of reconstruction. The reconstruction of austenite from ԑ and α’ martensite was carried out for multiple samples and their IPF images, pole figures, inverse pole figures and ODFs were compared. Similar type of results was observed for all samples. The comparison gives the idea for estimating the correct sequence of the transformation i.e. γ → ε → α’ or γ → α’, during deformation of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.
103
4807
Grain Size Effect of Durability of Bio-Clogging Treatment
Abstract:
In this work, the bio-clogging of two soils with different granulometries is presented. The durability of the clogging is also studied under cycles of hydraulic head and under cycles of desaturation- restauration. The studied materials present continuous grain size distributions. The first one corresponding to the "material 1", presents grain sizes between 0.4 and 4 mm. The second material called "material 2" is composed of grains with size varying between 1 and 10 mm. The results show that clogging occurs very quickly after the injection of nutrition and an outlet flow near to 0 is observed. The critical hydraulic head is equal to 0.76 for "material 1", and 0.076 for "material 2". The durability tests show a good resistance to unclogging under cycles of hydraulic head and desaturation-restauration for the "material 1". Indeed, the flow after the cycles is very low. In contrast, "material 2", shows a very bad resistance, especially under the hydraulic head cycles. The resistance under the cycles of desaturation-resaturation is better but an important increase of the flow is observed. The difference of behavior is due to the granulometry of the materials. Indeed, the large grain size contributes to the reduction of the efficiency of the bio-clogging treatment in this material.
102
24633
Variant Selection and Pre-transformation Phase Reconstruction for Deformation-Induced Transformation in AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel
Abstract:
Austenitic stainless steels are widely used and give a good combination of properties. When this steel is plastically deformed, a phase transformation of the metastable Face Centred Cubic Austenite to the stable Body Centred Cubic (α’) or to the Hexagonal close packed (ԑ) martensite may occur, leading to the enhancement in the mechanical properties like strength. The work was based on variant selection and corresponding texture analysis for the strain induced martensitic transformation during deformation of the parent austenite FCC phase to form the product HCP and the BCC martensite phases separately, obeying their respective orientation relationships. The automated method for reconstruction of the parent phase orientation using the EBSD data of the product phase orientation is done using the MATLAB and TSL-OIM software. The method of triplets was used which involves the formation of a triplet of neighboring product grains having a common variant and linking them using a misorientation-based criterion. This led to the proper reconstruction of the pre-transformation phase orientation data and thus to its micro structure and texture. The computational speed of current method is better compared to the previously used methods of reconstruction. The reconstruction of austenite from ԑ and α’ martensite was carried out for multiple samples and their IPF images, pole figures, inverse pole figures and ODFs were compared. Similar type of results was observed for all samples. The comparison gives the idea for estimating the correct sequence of the transformation i.e. γ → ε → α’ or γ → α’, during deformation of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.
101
93229
Dissection of Genomic Loci for Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistance in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas)
Abstract:
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas L. Moench) or lady’s finger is an important vegetable crop belonging to the Malvaceae family. Unfortunately, production and productivity of Okra are majorly affected by Yellow Vein mosaic virus (YVMV). The AO: 189 (resistant parent) X AO: 191(susceptible parent) used for the development of mapping population. The mapping population has 143 individuals (F₂:F₃). Population was characterized by physiological and pathological observations. Screening of 360 DNA markers was performed to survey for parental polymorphism between the contrasting parents’, i.e., AO: 189 and AO: 191. Out of 360; 84 polymorphic markers were used for genotyping of the mapping population. Total markers were distributed into four linkage groups (LG1, LG2, LG3, and LG4). LG3 covered the longest span (106.8cM) with maximum number of markers (27) while LG1 represented the smallest linkage group in terms of length (71.2cM). QTL identification using the composite interval mapping approach detected two prominent QTLs, QTL1 and QTL2 for resistance against YVMV disease. These QTLs were placed between the marker intervals of NBS-LRR72-Path02 and NBS-LRR06- NBS-LRR65 on linkage group 02 and linkage group 04 respectively. The LOD values of QTL1 and QTL2 were 5.7 and 6.8 which accounted for 19% and 27% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The findings of this study provide two linked markers which can be used as efficient diagnostic tools to distinguish between YVMV resistant and susceptible Okra cultivars/genotypes. Lines identified as highly resistant against YVMV infection can be used as donor lines for this trait. This will be instrumental in accelerating the trait improvement program in Okra and will substantially reduce the yield losses due to this viral disease.
100
21894
Synthesis of New 2-(Methylthio) Benzo[g]-[1,2,4] Triazolo [1,5a] Quinazolines
Abstract:
Aiming to the synthesis of bioactive triazoloquinazolines, a new series of 2-(methylthio)benzo [g]-[1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-a] quinazolin-5(4H)-ones was synthesized from 2-(methylthio)benzo [g]-[1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-a] quinazolin-5(4H)-one. All synthesized derivatives based on N-alkylation and chlorination of the parent compound and its salfonyl derivative. The success of the reactions was proved by NMR, IR, and HREI-MS analyses for all products.
99
31503
Causality, Special Relativity and Non-existence of Material Particles of Zero Rest Mass
Abstract:
It is shown that causality, the principle that cause must precede effect, leads inter alia, to highly significant result that the velocity of a material particle cannot be even equal to that of light. Consequently, combined with special relativity, it leads to the conclusion that material particles of zero rest mass cannot exist in nature. Thus, causality, a principle without which nature would be incomprehensible, combined with special relativity, forbids the existence of material particles of zero rest mass. For instance, the neutrinos, as is now known, are material particles of non-zero rest mass. The situation changes when we consider the gauge particles. In fact, when the principle of causality was proposed, the concept of gauge particles had not yet been introduced. Now we know that photon, a gauge particle with zero rest mass does exist in nature. Therefore, principle of causality, as generally stated, is valid only for material particles. For gauge particles, in order to make the statement of causality consistent with experiment, it has to be modified: The cause should either precede or be simultaneous with the effect. Combined with special relativity, it allows gauge particles of zero rest mass.
98
79320
Family Income and Parental Behavior: Maternal Personality as a Moderator
Abstract:
There is abundant research showing that socio-economic status is implicated in parenting. However, additional factors such as family context, parent personality, parenting history and child behavior also help determine how parents enact the role of caregiver. Each of these factors not only helps determine how a parent will act in a given situation, but each can serve to moderate the influence of the other factors. Personality has long been studied as a factor that influences parental behavior, but it has almost never been considered as a moderator of family contextual factors. For this study, relations between three maternal personality characteristics (agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism) and four aspects of parenting (harshness, sensitivity, stimulation, learning materials) were examined when children were 6 months, 36 months, and 54 months old and again at 5th grade. Relations between these three aspects of personality and the overall home environment were also examined. A key concern was whether maternal personality characteristics moderated relations between household income and the four aspects of parenting and between household income and the overall home environment. The data for this study were taken from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD). The total sample consisted of 1364 families living in ten different sites in the United States. However, the samples analyzed included only those with complete data on all four parenting outcomes (i.e., sensitivity, harshness, stimulation, and provision of learning materials), income, maternal education and all three measures of personality (i.e., agreeableness, neuroticism, extraversion) at each age examined. Results from hierarchical regression analysis showed that mothers high in agreeableness were more likely to demonstrate sensitivity and stimulation as well as provide more learning materials to their children but were less likely to manifest harshness. Maternal agreeableness also consistently moderated the effects of low income on parental behavior. Mothers high in extraversion were more likely to provide stimulation and learning materials, with extraversion serving as a moderator of low income on both. By contrast, mothers high in neuroticism were less likely to demonstrate positive aspects of parenting and more likely to manifest negative aspects (e.g., harshness). Neuroticism also served to moderate the influence of low income on parenting, especially for stimulation and learning materials. The most consistent effects of parent personality were on the overall home environment, with significant main and interaction effects observed in 11 of the 12 models tested. These findings suggest that it may behoove professional who work with parents living in adverse circumstances to consider parental personality in helping to better target prevention or intervention efforts aimed at supporting parental efforts to act in ways that benefit children.
97
90225
Analysis of Employed and Unemployed Mother’s Perspectives Towards Story Narration in Typically Developing Children between 2 to 5 Years
Abstract:
The dyadic interaction between the parent and child during story narration facilitates the emergence of early literacy skills. Early shared reading experiences positively predict better reading and language outcomes in children who experience rich communicative and effective interactions during shared book reading. However, research is yet to systematically explore mother’s perspective towards story narration and how employment may influence their perspectives. The study analysed the perspectives of employed and unemployed mothers of typically developing children between the age ranges of 2 to 5 years through a questionnaire which covered domains on story narration exposure and parental attitudes & beliefs. The results indicate no statistical difference between employed mothers (M=8.5, SD=3.4) and unemployed mothers (M=10.1, SD=1.06). Whereas, post-hoc comparisons using the scheffe test, revealed a significant difference in scores. An increasing score was obtained as the age of the child increased. This change could be attributed due to the integration of children in preschools which could have contributed to the change of perception towards story narration. Older children’s mother perceive story narration to be an important part of their curriculum, which could facilitate rich vocabulary and language output. Younger children’s parents are however not realising the significance of story narration and its impact on the emergent literacy skills. Parent-child interaction is a significant contributor to a healthy social and cultural development. The study emphasises on the need of mothers to engage in preliteracy based activities which contribute to better academic performance in later stages.
96
37940
Risk Factors for High School Dropouts
Abstract:
The study is concerned with the Risk factors of dropping out among Grade VII students for SY 2012-2013. A total of 87 Grade VII Students-At-Risk-of-Dropping Out (SARDOs) were involved in this study. The descriptive survey method was used in this study. A 50-item questionnaire was used in data gathering. Expert validation was done to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument. The study used Chi Square, Kruskal Wallis Test and Mann Whitney Test in the statistical treatment of data. The study revealed that the respondents are within the standard age limit for Grade VII students in the Philippines which is 13 years old. Males more than females usually becomes SARDOs. SARDOs come from low economic status and complete families contrary to the common belief that they came from single-parent families. The study also showed that parent’s involvement in educating their children on family-related factors contributed to the very good perception on the family related factors. Based on age, there are no significant differences in their perception of the four major recognized risk factors for dropping out among all ages. There are no significant differences in their perception of the family, individual and community related factors for dropping out based on sex. However, females have a more favorable perception when it comes to school related factors. No significant differences in their perception of dropping out were also noted when they are classified according to distance of school from home. The respondents do not differ in their perception on family, individual and community related factors when they are classified according to type of family. When surveyed regarding the respondents’ reason for being absent, it was found out that laziness and being late are the two major reasons. Respondents also perceived remedial and tutorial classes as school-initiated intervention measure to prevent school disengagement or dropping out.
95
67488
Clay Hydrogel Nanocomposite for Controlled Small Molecule Release
Abstract:
Clay-hydrogel nanocomposites have attracted great attention recently, mainly because of their enhanced mechanical properties and ease of fabrication. Moreover, the unique platelet structure of clay nanoparticles enables the incorporation of bioactive molecules, such as proteins or drugs, through ion exchange, adsorption or intercalation. This study seeks to improve the mechanical and rheological properties of a novel hydrogel system, copolymerized from a tetrapodal polyethylene glycol (PEG) thiol and a linear, triblock PEG-PPG-PEG (PPG: polypropylene glycol) α,ω-bispropynoate polymer, with the simultaneous incorporation of various amounts of Na-saturated, montmorillonite clay (MMT) platelets (av. lateral dimension = 200 nm), to form a bioactive three-dimensional network. Although the parent hydrogel has controlled swelling ability and its PEG groups have good affinity for the clay platelets, it suffers from poor mechanical stability and is currently unsuitable for potential applications. Nanocomposite hydrogels containing 4wt% MMT showed a twelve-fold enhancement in compressive strength, reaching 0.75MPa, and also a three-fold acceleration in gelation time, when compared with the parent hydrogel. Interestingly, clay nanoplatelet incorporation into the hydrogel slowed down the rate of its dehydration in air. Preliminary results showed that protein binding by the MMT varied with the nature of the protein, as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was more strongly bound than bovine serum albumin. The HRP was no longer active when bound, presumably as a result of extensive structural refolding. Further work is being undertaken to assess protein binding behaviour within the nanocomposite hydrogel for potential diabetic wound healing applications.
94
98462
The Relationship among Lifestyles, Accompany Forms, and Children’s Capability to Solve Problems of Modern Families
Abstract:
The percentage of dual-earner couples has become higher and higher each year. Family lifestyles in Taiwan have also been changing. This fact reflects the importance of family communication and parent-child relationship. This study aimed to explore the influences of family lifestyles and accompany forms on children’s capability to solve problems. The research process included two phases: (1) literature review, to explore the characteristics of children’s capability to solve problems and methods to measure this capability; and (2) questionnaire analyses, to explore the influences of lifestyles and accompany time and forms of modern families on their children’s capability to solve problems. The questionnaires were issued in October and November, 2016. A total of 300 questionnaires were retrieved, among which 250 were valid. The findings are summarized below: -The linguistic performances of the children from families of the busy and haggling lifestyle or the intermittent childcare lifestyle were rather good. Besides being interested in learning, these children could solve problems or difficulties independently. -The capability to ‘analyze problems’ of children from families with accompanying time during 19:00-19:30 (family dinner time) or 22:00-23:30 (before bedtime) was good. When facing a complex problem, these children could identify the most important factor in the problem. When seeing a problem, they would first look for the cause. If they encountered a bottleneck while solving a problem, they would review the context of the problem and related conditions to come up with another solution. -According to the literature, learning toys with numbers and symbols to learn to read can help develop children’s logic thinking, which is helpful to solve problems. Interestingly, some study suggested that children playing with fluid constructive toys are less likely to give up what they are doing and more likely to identify problems in their daily life. Some of them can even come up with creative and effective solutions.
93
41494
Detection of Nanotoxic Material Using DNA Based QCM
Abstract:
Sensing of nanotoxic materials is strongly important, as their engineering applications are growing recently and results in that nanotoxic material can harmfully influence human health and environment. In current study we report the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based, in situ and real-time sensing of nanotoxic-material by frequency shift. We propose the in situ detection of nanotoxic material of zinc oxice by using QCM functionalized with a taget-specific DNA. Since the mass of a target material is comparable to that of an atom, the mass change caused by target binding to DNA on the quartz electrode is so small that it is practically difficult to detect the ions at low concentrations. In our study, we have demonstrated the in-situ and fast detection of zinc oxide using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The detection was derived from the DNA hybridization between the DNA on the quartz electrode. The results suggest that QCM-based detection opens a new avenue for the development of a practical water-testing sensor.
92
23706
Residual Affects of Humic Matter from Sub-Bituminous in Binding Aluminium at Oxisol to Increase Production of Upland Rice
Abstract:
The objective of this research were: a) using low-rank coal (subbituminous) as main humate material sources because this material will not be anthracite, and cannot using to be an energy sources b) to examine residual effects of humic matter from subbituminous which was combined with P fertilizers to adsorp Al and Fe metal, improving soil fertility, and increasing P fertilizing efficiency and Oxisol productivity. Therefore, optimalization crop productivity of upland rice can be achieved. The experiment was designed using a 3 x 4 factorial with 3 replications in randomly groups design. The 1st factor was 3 ways incubating humate material with P-fertilizer, which are: I1 = Incubation of humate material 1 week, then incubation P-fertilizers 1 week; I2 = Incubation of humate materials and P fertilizers directly into the soil for 2 weeks; and I3 = humate material and P fertilizer mixed for 1 week, then incubation to the soil for 1 week. The 2nd factor was residual effects of humate material and P-fertilizer combination which are 4 doses H1 = 400 ppm (0.8 Mg/ha) + 100% R; H2 = 400 ppm + 75% R; H3 = 800 ppm (1.6 Mg/ha) + 100% R,; and H4 = 800 ppm + 75% R. The 2nd year research results showed that the best treatment was founded residue effect of 800 ppm humate material and 100% R P-fertilizer doses in I3 way incubation that is equal to 6.19 t ha-1 upland rice yield. However, this result is almost the same as residual effects of 800 ppm humate material + 75% R P-fertilizer doses and upland rice yield the 1st year. It was concluded that addition of humate material can given the efficiency of P-fertilizer using up to 25% until the 2nd season planted.
91
86134
Material Fracture Dynamic of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade
Abstract:
In this paper we studied fracture and dynamic behavior of vertical axis wind turbine blade, the VAWT is a historical machine, it has many properties, structure, advantage, component to be able to produce the electricity. We modeled the blade design then imported to Abaqus software for analysis the modes shapes, frequencies, stress, strain, displacement and stress intensity factor SIF, after comparison we chose the idol material. Finally, the CTS test of glass epoxy reinforced polymer plates to obtain the material fracture toughness Kc.
90
79357
Characterization of Carbon/Polyamide 6,6 (C/PA66) Composite Material for Dry and Wet Conditions
Abstract:
Absorption of moisture may cause many problems in a composite material, such as delamination, degradation of the strength and increase in the weight. For small coupons, the increase in weight may be negligible, however, for large structures increase in weight due to moisture absorption may be quite significant. Polyamides (PA6, PA66) absorb more moisture as compared to other thermoplastics. There are many parameters which affect the moisture absorption of the composite material for example temperature, pressure, type of matrix and fibers, thickness of the material and relative humidity (RH) etc. So, it is utmost important to investigate the impact of moisture on PA66 based composites which can be done by characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials both for dry and wet conditions. In this study, laminates of C/PA66 composite are manufactured by first heating the commingled material in conventional oven at a temperature of 220 °C followed by pressing in a manual hot press for 20 minutes with preheated platen at 220 °C. To observe the moisture absorption of the composite, coupons of the material were placed in a climate chamber at five different conditions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RH for 24 hours. Five specimens were used for each condition. These coupons were weighed before placing in the climate chamber and just after removing from the chamber to observe the moisture absorption of the material. The mechanical characterization such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and DMTA of C/PA66 material are performed at 0, 50 and 100 % RH. The work is going on for the testing of the material and results will be presented in full paper.
89
102627
Identity Formation of Mixed-Race Children in Japan
Abstract:
This study investigates the identity formation of mixed-race children in Japan. From the latter half of the 1980s to the mid-2000s, Japan experienced an 'intermarriage boom,' which was soon followed by a fairly significant number of children born to these unions. These children are now coming of age. Among mixed-race children, some embraced both cultural traditions, while others chose a monocultural path despite exposure to two cultural traditions as they grew up. What factors are involved in shaping the identity of mixed-race children? How does identity formation actually occur in these children? This study addresses these questions through an interview survey of 139 cross-cultural families since 1999, including 23 Pakistani-Japanese families, 20 Turkish-Japanese families, 26 families comprising other international Muslim husbands and Japanese wives, 33 Filipino-Japanese families, and 37 Brazilian-Japanese families. The results of this two-decade-long study reveal that in cases where one cannot tell at first glance that children are mixed race, there is a tendency for them to hide their mixed background due to fear of bullying at school, as well as for their parents to encourage them to do this. To pass as a Japanese is one strategy for avoiding discrimination and prejudice, and it can provide a measure of ethnic security or a way of coping with social intolerance. Certainly, among my informants, there are some children who were bullied or teased at school, and as a result, they stopped attending or transferred to other schools. But the mixed-race experience is not always a negative thing in Japan. There is clearly a double standard involved in that mixed-race children of a Caucasian parent are more readily accepted by society than those of a non-Caucasian parent. The perceived social status of mixed-race individuals is usually understood in relation to the hierarchical positionings of monoracial groups. Mixed-race children could be guaranteed the right to enjoy the benefit of maintaining and developing an identity as a Japanese, in addition to one more identity. We need to encourage a new awareness of the children as agents for a transition from a monocultural system to a multicultural system in Japanese society.
88
100013
Effect of Chemical Mutagen on Seeds Germination of Lima Bean
Abstract:
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of free-living bacteria that colonize the rhizosphere, enhance plant growth of many cereals and other important agricultural crops and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth. In the present study, strain improvement of PGPR isolates were carried out by chemical mutagenesis for the improvement of growth and yield of lima bean. Induced mutagenesis is widely used for the selection of microorganisms producing biologically active substances and further improving their activities. Strain improvement is usually done by classical mutagenesis which involves exposing the microbes to chemical or physical mutagens. The strains of Pseudomonas putida 4/1, Azotobacter chroococcum Р-29 and Bacillus subtilis were subjected to mutation process for strain improvement by treatment with a chemical agent (sodium nitrite) to cause mutation and were observed for its consequent action on the seeds germination and plant growth of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Bacterial mutant strains of Pseudomonas putida M-1, Azotobacter chroococcum M-1 and Bacillus subtilis M-1, treated with sodium nitrite in the concentration of 5 mg/ml for 120 min, were found effective to enhance the germination of lima bean seeds compared to parent strains. Moreover, treatment of the lima bean seeds with a mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis M-1 had a significant stimulation effect on plant growth. The length of the stems and roots of lima bean treated with Bacillus subtilis M-1 increased significantly in comparison with parent strain in 1.6 and 1.3 times, respectively.
87
108614
Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Functionally Graded Material Usage in Lead Acid Storage Batteries and the Benefits
Authors:
Abstract:
Terminal post is one of the most important features of a Battery. The design and manufacturing of post are very much critical especially when threaded inserts (Bolt-on type) are used since all the collected energy is delivered from the lead part to the threaded insert (Cu or Cu alloy). Any imperfection at the interface may cause Voltage drop, high resistance, high heat generation, etc. This may be because of sudden change of material properties from lead to Cu alloys. To avoid this problem, a scheme of material gradation is proposed for achieving continuous variation of material properties for the Post used in commercially available lead acid battery. The Functionally graded (FG) material for the post is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous material. The volume fraction of the materials used corresponding to each layer is calculated by considering its variation along the direction of current flow (z) according to a power law. Accordingly, the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated and the Post composed of this FG material is modeled using the commercially available ANSYS software. The solid 186 layered structural solid element has been used for discretization of the model of the FG Post. A thermal electric analysis is performed on the layered FG model. The model developed has been validated by comparing the results of the existing Post model& experimental analysis
86
63241
Simulation and Experimentation Investigation of Infrared Non-Destructive Testing on Thermal Insulation Material
Abstract:
The heat-resistant material has important application in the aerospace field. The reliability of the connection between the heat-resisting material and the body determines the success or failure of the project. In this paper, lock-in infrared thermography non-destructive testing technology is used to detect the stability of the thermal-resistant structure. The phase relationship between the temperature and the heat flow is calculated by the numerical method, and the influence of the heating frequency and power is obtained. The correctness of the analysis is verified by the experimental method. Through the research, it can provide the basis for the parameter setting of heat flux including frequency and power, improve the efficiency of detection and the reliability of connection between the heat-resisting material and the body.
85
43315
A Conceptual Framework and a Mathematical Equation for Managing Construction-Material Waste and Cost Overruns
Abstract:
The problem of construction material waste remains unresolved, as a significant percentage of the materials delivered to some project sites end up as waste which might result in additional project cost. Cost overrun is a problem which affects 90% of the completed projects in the world. The argument on how to eliminate it has been on-going for the past 70 years, but there is neither substantial improvement nor significant solution for mitigating its detrimental effects. Research evidence has proposed various construction cost overruns and material-waste management approaches; nonetheless, these studies failed to give a clear indication on the framework and the equation for managing construction material waste and cost overruns. Hence, this research aims to develop a conceptual framework and a mathematical equation for managing material waste and cost overrun in the construction industry. The paper adopts the desktop methodological approach. This involves comparing the causes of material waste and those of cost overruns from the literature to determine the possible relationship. The review revealed a relationship between material waste and cost overrun that; increase in material waste would result to a corresponding increase in the amount of cost overrun at both the pre-contract and the post contract stages of a project. It was found from the equation that achieving an effective construction material waste management must ensure a “Good Quality-of-Planning, Estimating, and Design Management” and a “Good Quality- of-Construction, Procurement and Site Management”; a decrease in “Design Complexity” which would reduce “Material Waste” and subsequently reduce the amount of cost overrun by 86.74%. The conceptual framework and the mathematical equation developed in this study are recommended to the professionals of the construction industry.
84
96075
The Subjective Experiences of First-Time Chinese Parents' Transition to Parenthood and the Impact on Their Marital Satisfaction
Abstract:
The arrival of a new baby to first-time parents is an exciting and joyous occasion, yet, the daunting task of raising the baby and the uncertainty of how it will affect the lives of the couple present a great challenge to them. This study examines the causes of conflicts and needs of the new parents through a qualitative research of five pairs of new parents in Hong Kong. Semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted to explore the changes babies brought to their marriages, sources of support they received and found important and assistance they felt would help with their transition to parenthood. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the commonalities and differences between the five couples’ subjective experiences. Narrative analysis was used to compare the experiences of two parents who are the under-functioning parent of the couple, to study the different strategies they employed in response to the over-functioning parent and to analyze how the marital relationships were affected. Four main themes emerged from the study: 1) Change and adjustment in marital relationship, 2) parents’ level of involvement, 3) support in childcaring, and 4) challenges faced by the parents. Results from the study indicated that father involvement in childcaring is an important element in mother’s marital satisfaction Father’s marital satisfaction is dependent upon the mother – her satisfaction with father involvement, which affects the mother’s marital satisfaction. Marital convergence and co-parenting alliance acted as moderators for marital satisfaction. Implications from the study include: i) offering programmes that improve couple relationship and enhance parenting efficacy in tandem to improve overall marital satisfaction, and ii) offering prenatal counselling services or provide education to new parents from prenatal to postnatal period that can help couples reduce discrepancies between expectations and realities of their marital relationship and parenting responsibilities after their baby is born.
83
74539
Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method
Abstract:
The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.
82
82871
The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure
Abstract:
Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.
81
57229
Utilization of Fly Ash as Backfilling Material in Indian Coal Mines
Abstract:
Fly ash is a solid waste product of coal based electric power generating plants. Fly ash is the finest of coal ash particles and it is transported from the combustion chamber by exhaust gases. Fly ash is removed by particulate emission control devices such as electrostatic precipitators or filter fabric bag-houses. It is a fine material with spherical particles. Large quantities of fly ash discharged from coal-fired power stations are a major problem not only in terms of scarcity of land available for its disposal, but also in environmental aspects. Fly ash can be one of the alternatives and can be a viable option to use as a filling material. This paper contains the problems associated with fly ash generation, need for its management and the efficacy of fly ash composite as a backfilling material. By conducting suitable geotechnical investigations and numerical modelling techniques, the fly ash composite material was tested. It also contains case studies of typical Indian opencast and underground coal mines.
80
103099
Parent’s Expectations and School Achievement: Longitudinal Perspective among Chilean Pupils
Abstract:
The aim of our study is to examine if the family socio-economic status (SES) has an influence on students’ academic achievement. We first make the hypothesis that the more their families have financial and social resources, the more students succeed at school. We second make the hypothesis that this family SES has also an impact on parents’ expectations about their children educational outcomes. Moreover, we want to study if that parents’ expectations play the role of mediator between parents’ socio-economic status and the student’ self-concept and academic outcome. We test this model with a longitudinal design thanks to the census-based assessment from the System of Measurement of the Quality of Education (SIMCE). The SIMCE tests aim to assess all the students attending to regular education in a defined level. The sample used in this study came from the SIMCE assessments done three times: in 4th, 8th and 11th grade during the years 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. It includes 156.619 students (75.084 boys and 81.535 girls) that had valid responses for the three years. The family socio-economic status was measured at the first assessment (in 4th grade). The parents’ educational expectations and the students’ self-concept were measured at the second assessment (in 8th grade). The achievement score was measured twice; once when children were in 4th grade and a second time when they were in 11th grade. To test our hypothesis, we have defined a structural equation model. We found that our model fit well the data (CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.05). Both family SES and prior achievements predict parents’ educational expectations and effect of SES is important in comparison to the other coefficients. These expectations predict students’ achievement three years later (with prior achievement controlled) but not their self-concept. Our model explains 51.9% of the achievement in the 11th grade. Our results confirm the importance of the parents’ expectations and the significant role of socio-economic status in students’ academic achievement in Chile.
79
41222
Integrated Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Procurement Considering Different Discount Options
Abstract:
On-time availability of materials in the construction sites plays an outstanding role in successful achievement of project’s deliverables. Thus, this paper has investigated formulation of project scheduling and material procurement at the same time, by a mixed-integer programming model, aiming to minimize/maximize penalty/reward to deliver the project and minimize material holding, ordering, and procurement costs, respectively. We have taken both all-units and incremental discount possibilities into consideration to address more flexibility from the procurement side with regard to real world conditions. Finally, the applicability and efficiency of the mathematical model is tested by different numerical examples.
78
17382
Stress Analysis of the Ceramics Heads with Different Sizes under the Destruction Tests
Abstract:
The global solved problem is the calculation of the parameters of ceramic material from a set of destruction tests of ceramic heads of total hip joint endoprosthesis. The standard way of calculation of the material parameters consists in carrying out a set of 3 or 4 point bending tests of specimens cut out from parts of the ceramic material to be analysed. In case of ceramic heads, it is not possible to cut out specimens of required dimensions because the heads are too small (if the cut out specimens were smaller than the normalized ones, the material parameters derived from them would exhibit higher strength values than those which the given ceramic material really has). A special destruction device for heads destruction was designed and the solved local problem is the modification of this destructive device based on the analysis of tensile stress in the head for two different values of the depth of the conical hole in the head. The goal of device modification is a shift of the location with extreme value of 1 max from the region of head’s hole bottom to its opening. This modification will increase the credibility of the obtained material properties of bio ceramics, which will be determined from a set of head destructions using the Weibull weakest link theory.
77
60737
Trial Version of a Systematic Material Selection Tool in Building Element Design
Abstract:
Selection of the materials satisfying the expected performances is significantly important for any design. Today, with the constantly evolving and developing technologies, the material options are so wide that the necessity of the use of some support tools in the selection process is arising. Therefore, as a sub process of building element design, a systematic material selection tool is developed, that defines four main steps of the material selection; definition, research, comparison and decision. The main purpose of the tool is being an educational instrument that would show a methodic way of material selection in architectural detailing for the use of architecture students. The tool predefines the possible uses of various material databases and other sources of information on material properties. Hence, it is to be used as a guidance for designers, especially with a limited material knowledge and experience. The material selection tool not only embraces technical properties of materials related with building elements’ functional requirements, but also its sensual properties related with the identity of design and its environmental impacts with respect to the sustainability of the design. The method followed in the development of the tool has two main sections; first the examination and application of the existing methods and second the development of trial versions and their applications. Within the scope of the existing methods; design support tools, methodic approaches for the building element design and material selection process, material properties, material databases, methodic approaches for the decision making process are examined. The existing methods are applied by architecture students and newly graduate architects through different design problems. With respect to the results of these applications, strong and weak sides of the existing material selection tools are presented. A main flow chart of the material selection tool has been developed with the objective to apply the strong aspects of the existing methods and develop their weak sides. Through different stages, a different aspect of the material selection process is investigated and the tool took its final form. Systematic material selection tool, within the building element design process, guides the users with a minimum background information, to practically and accurately determine the ideal material that is to be chosen, satisfying the needs of their design. The tool has a flexible structure that answers different needs of different designs and designers. The trial version issued in this paper shows one of the paths that could be followed and illustrates its application over a design problem.
76
109004
Utilization of Bauxite Residue in Construction Materials: An Experimental Study
Abstract:
Aluminum has been credited for the massive advancement of many industrial products, from aerospace and automotive to electronics and even household appliances. These developments have come with a cost, which is a toxic by-product. The rise of aluminum production has been accompanied by the rise of a waste material called Bauxite Residue or Red Mud. This toxic material has been proved to be harmful to the environment, yet, there is no proper way to dispose or recycle it. Herewith, a new experimental method to utilize this waste in the building material is proposed. A method to mix red mud, fly ash, and some other ingredients is explored to create a new construction material that can satisfy the minimum required strength for bricks. It concludes that it is possible to produce bricks with enough strength that is suitable for constriction in environments with low to moderate weather conditions.
75
43403
Ultrasonic Atomizer for Turbojet Engines
Abstract:
This paper suggests a new and more efficient method of atomization of fuel in a combustor nozzle of a high bypass turbofan engine, using ultrasonic vibrations. Since atomization of fuel just before the fuel spray is injected into the combustion chamber is an important and crucial aspect related to functioning of a propulsion system, the technology suggested by this paper and the experimental analysis on the system components eventually proves to assist in complete and rapid combustion of the fuel in the combustor module of the engine. Current propulsion systems use carburetors, atomization nozzles and apertures in air intake pipes for atomization. The idea of this paper is to deploy new age hybrid technology, namely the Ultrasound Field Effect (UFE) to effectively atomize fuel before it enters the combustion chamber, as a viable and effective method to increase efficiency and improve upon existing designs. The Ultrasound Field Effect is applied axially, on diametrically opposite ends of an atomizer tube that gloves onto the combustor nozzle, where the fuel enters and exits under a pre-defined pressure. The Ultrasound energy vibrates the fuel particles to a breakup frequency. At reaching this frequency, the fuel particles start disintegrating into smaller diameter particles perpendicular to the axis of application of the field from the parent boundary layer of fuel flow over the baseplate. These broken up fuel droplets then undergo swirling effect as per the original nozzle design, with a higher breakup ratio than before. A significant reduction of the size of fuel particles eventually results in an increment in the propulsive efficiency of the engine. Moreover, the Ultrasound atomizer operates within a control frequency such that effects of overheating and induced vibrations are least felt on the overall performance of the engine. The design of an electrical manifold for the multiple-nozzle system over a typical can-annular combustor is developed along with this study, such that the product can be installed and removed easily for maintenance and repairing, can allow for easy access for inspections and transmits least amount of vibrational energy to the surface of the combustor. Since near-field ultrasound is used, the vibrations are easily controlled, thereby successfully reducing vibrations on the outer shell of the combustor. Experimental analysis is carried out on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on flowing jet turbine fuel using an ultrasound generator probe and results of an effective decrease in droplet size across a constant diameter, away from the boundary layer of flow is noted using visual aid by observing under ultraviolet light. The choice of material for the Ultrasound inducer tube and crystal along with the operating range of temperatures, pressures, and frequencies of the Ultrasound field effect are also studied in this paper, while taking into account the losses incurred due to constant vibrations and thermal loads on the tube surface.
74
23768
Synthesis of 4', 6'-Bis-(2, 4-Dinitro-Aniline)-(2'-Aryl-Amine)-S-Triazine and Biological Activity Studies
Abstract:
The aromatic, six membered ring containing three nitrogen atoms are known as triazines. Three triazines are theoretically possible, 1,3,5-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine and 1,2,3-triazine[1]. The 1,3,5-triazines are amongst the oldest known organic compounds. Originally they were called the symmetric triazines. Usuelly abbreviated to s- or sys triazines. The numbering follows the usual convention of beginning at the hetero atom as shown for the parent compound 1,3,5-triazine (I). The triazine rings, each contain 6 pi electrons which fill three bonding molecular orbital there are also three pairs of non bonding electrons in each molecule which are responsible for basic properties of the compounds.
73
66392
Single-Element Simulations of Wood Material in LS-DYNA
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, in order to investigate the behavior of the wood structure, the non-linearity of wood material model in LS-DYNA is adopted. It is difficult and less efficient to conduct the experiment of the ancient wood structure, hence LS-DYNA software can be used to simulate nonlinear responses of ancient wood structure. In LS-DYNA software, there is material model called *MAT_WOOD or *MAT_143. This model is to simulate a single-element response of the wood subjected to tension and compression under the parallel and the perpendicular material directions. Comparing with the exact solution and numerical simulations results using LS-DYNA, it demonstrates the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed simulation method.
72
17200
From “Learning to Read” to “Reading to Learn”
Abstract:
Reading has been seen as a passive skill by many people for a long time. However, when one comes to study it deeply and in a such a way that the act of reading equals acquiring knowledge through living an experience that belongs to him/her, passive definitely becomes active. Material development with a focus on reading has to consider much more than reading strategies. The following questions are asked: Is the material appropriate to the students’ reality? Does it make students think and state their points of view? With that in mind a lesson has been developed to illustrate theory becoming practice. Knowledge, criticality, intercultural experience and social interaction. That is what reading is for.
71
5224
Recycling of Tea: A Prepared Lithium Anode Material Research
Abstract:
Tea is not only part of the daily lives of the Chinese people, but also represents an essence of their culture. A manufactured tea is prepared with other complicated steps for self-cultivation. Tea drinking promotes friendship and is etiquette in Chinese ceremony. Tea was discovered in China and introduced worldwide. Tea is generally used as herbal medicine. Paowan of tea can be used as plant composts and deodorant as well as for moisture proof-package. Tea prepared via carbon material technology resulted in the increase of its value. Carbon material technology uses graphite. With the battery anode material, tea can also become a new carbon material element. It has a fiber carbon structure that can retain the advantage of tea ontology. Therefore, this study provides a new preparation method through special sintering technology equipment with a gas counter-current system of 300°C to 400°C and 400°C to 900°C. The recovery of carbonization was up to 80% or more. This study addresses tea recycling technology and shows charred sintering method and loss from solving grinder to obtain a good fiber carbon structure.
70
92621
Development and Preliminary Testing of the Dutch Version of the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills
Abstract:
Background: The PEERS (Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills) intervention can be considered a well-established, evidence-based intervention in the USA. However, testing the efficacy of cultural adaptations of PEERS is still ongoing. More and more, the involvement of all stakeholders in the development and evaluation of interventions is acknowledged as crucial for the longer term implementation of interventions across settings. Therefore, in the current project, teens with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), their neurotypical peers, parents, teachers, as well as clinicians were involved in the development and evaluation of the Dutch version of PEERS. Objectives: The current presentation covers (1) the formative phase and (2) the preliminary adaptation test phase of the cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions. In the formative phase, we aim to describe the process of adaptation of the PEERS program to the Dutch culture and care system. In the preliminary adaptation phase, we will present results from the preliminary adaptation test among 32 adolescents with ASD. Methods: In phase 1, a group discussion on common vocabulary was conducted among 70 teenagers (and their teachers) from special and regular education aged 12-18 years old. This inventory concerned 14 key constructs from PEERS, e.g., areas of interests, locations for making friends, common peer groups and crowds inside and outside of school, activities with friends, commonly used ways for electronic communication, ways for handling disagreements, and common teasing comebacks. Also, 15 clinicians were involved in the translation and cultural adaptation process. The translation and cultural adaptation process were guided by the research team, and who included input and feedback from all stakeholders through an iterative feedback incorporation procedure. In phase 2, The parent-reported Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Test of Adolescent Social Skills Knowledge (TASSK), and the Quality of Socialization Questionnaire (QSQ) were assessed pre- and post-intervention to evaluate potential treatment outcome. Results: The most striking cultural adaptation - reflecting the standpoints of all stakeholders - concerned the strategies for handling rumors and gossip, which were suggested to be taught using a similar approach as the teasing comebacks, more in line with ‘down-to-earth’ Dutch standards. The preliminary testing of this adapted version indicated that the adolescents with ASD significantly improved their social knowledge (TASSK; t₃₁ = -10.9, p < .01), social experience (QSQ-Parent; t₃₁ = -4.2, p < .01 and QSQ-Adolescent; t₃₂ = -3.8, p < .01), and in parent-reported social responsiveness (SRS; t₃₃ = 3.9, p < .01). In addition, subjective evaluations of teens with ASD, their parents and clinicians were positive. Conclusions: In order to further scrutinize the effectiveness of the Dutch version of the PEERS intervention, we recommended performing a larger scale randomized control trial (RCT) design, for which we provide several methodological considerations.
69
62849
A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites
Abstract:
Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.
68
103280
Planning of Construction Material Flow Using Hybrid Simulation Modeling
Abstract:
Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Agent Based Simulation (ABS) are two simulation approaches that have been proposed to support decision-making in the construction industry. Despite the wide use of these simulation approaches in the construction field, their applications for production and material planning is still limited. This is largely due to the dynamic and complex nature of construction material supply chain systems. Moreover, managing the flow of construction material is not well integrated with site logistics in traditional construction planning methods. This paper presents a hybrid of DES and ABS to simulate on-site and off-site material supply processes. DES is applied to determine the best production scenarios with information of on-site production systems, while ABS is used to optimize the supply chain network. A case study of a construction piling project in New Zealand is presented illustrating the potential benefits of using the proposed hybrid simulation model in construction material flow planning. The hybrid model presented can be used to evaluate the impact of different decisions on construction supply chain management.
67
60069
The Prediction of Sound Absorbing Coefficient for Multi-Layer Non-Woven
Abstract:
Automotive interior material consisting of several material layers has the sound-absorbing function. It is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because of several material layers. So, many experimental tunings are required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, while the car interior materials are developed, so much time and money is spent. In this study, we present a method to predict the sound absorbing performance of the material with multi-layer using physical properties of each material. The properties are predicted by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Then, we will compare and analyze the predicted sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If the method is used instead of experimental tuning in the development of car interior material, the time and money can be saved, and then, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation.
66
99458
Luxembourg Institute fo Science and Technology
Abstract:
Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.
65
3833
The Comparison of of Stress Level between Students with Parents and Those without Parents
Abstract:
This research aimed at the comparison of level of stress between students had parents and those without parents by descriptive-analytical study. To do research number of 128 questionnaires (64 students with parents and 64 students without parents) were distributed among high school in Ray city, Tehran province through classified sampling. The results showed that level of stress in stud tent without parents has been effective and the most important proposal is that necessity study should be considered in decreasing level of stress in students without parent.
64
33628
Research on the Two-Way Sound Absorption Performance of Multilayer Material
Abstract:
Multilayer materials are applied to much acoustics area. Multilayer porous materials are dominant in room absorber. Multilayer viscoelastic materials are the basic parts in underwater absorption coating. In most cases, the one-way sound absorption performance of multilayer material is concentrated according to the sound source site. But the two-way sound absorption performance is also necessary to be known in some special cases which sound is produced in both sides of the material and the both sides especially might contact with different media. In this article, this kind of case was research. The multilayer material was composed of viscoelastic layer and steel plate and the porous layer. The two sides of multilayer material contact with water and air, respectively. A theory model was given to describe the sound propagation and impedance in multilayer absorption material. The two-way sound absorption properties of several multilayer materials were calculated whose two sides all contacted with different media. The calculated results showed that the difference of two-way sound absorption coefficients is obvious. The frequency, the relation of layers thickness and parameters of multilayer materials all have an influence on the two-way sound absorption coefficients. But the degrees of influence are varied. All these simulation results were analyzed in the article. It was obtained that two-way sound absorption at different frequencies can be promoted by optimizing the configuration parameters. This work will improve the performance of underwater sound absorption coating which can absorb incident sound from the water and reduce the noise radiation from inside space.
63
26863
A Guide for Using Viscoelasticity in ANSYS
Authors:
Abstract:
Theory of viscoelasticity is used by many researchers to represent the behavior of many materials such as pavements on roads or bridges. Several researches used analytical methods and rheology to predict the material behaviors of simple models. Today, more complex engineering structures are analyzed using Finite Element Method, in which material behavior is embedded by means of three dimensional viscoelastic material laws. As a result, structures of unordinary geometry and domain can be analyzed by means of Finite Element Method and three dimensional viscoelastic equations. In the scope of this study, rheological models embedded in ANSYS, namely, generalized Maxwell model and Prony series, which are two methods used by ANSYS to represent viscoelastic material behavior, are presented explicitly. Afterwards, a guide is illustrated to ease using of viscoelasticity tool in ANSYS.
62
52174
Stress among Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy
Abstract:
Background and Significance: Cerebral Palsy (CP) influences not only the child's everyday functioning but also the functioning of whole family. Application of study findings can be used in clinical or community setting to screen the parents of children with cerebral palsy in order to identify the compromised domain of stress which in turn will help to improve the interaction between parent and child with disability and thus ultimately affect the progress that a child makes in his or her therapeutic or educational programs. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the level of stress in mothers of children with CP by adopting mixed method design. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted in the quantitative design where Parental Stress Scale (PSS) was utilized to collect data from a convenient sample of 40 mothers of children with CP who were under regular follow-up by home visitor of Self-help Group for Cerebral Palsy while embedded qualitative design was used to explore the stress of mothers of CP affected children. From the parent population of quantitative sample 4 mothers were chosen for in-depth exploration, regarding their stress by means of case study method. Descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean, median, standard deviation, correlation and inferential statistics like Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to describe and assess relationship between variables. Findings: The mean stress experienced by mothers of children with cerebral palsy was 53.62±9.53 with 15% percent of the mothers experiencing severe stress. There was significant association between age group of mother and total stress score and negative themes of stress. Similarly, signification association was found between educational status of the mother and positive themes of stress which was convergent with the qualitative finding as well, where literate mothers had more positive view of their child's disability which could be attributed to their educational level as education provides us with a broad perspective to look at a situation. Conclusions: Still one-sixth of the mothers experienced severe stress so if we want to ensure the well-being of the children affected by cerebral palsy, then parents caring for them need to be looked after as well.
61
35062
A Randomised Controlled Trial and Process Evaluation of the Lifestart Parenting Programme
Abstract:
This paper presents the findings from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and process evaluation of the Lifestart parenting programme. Lifestart is a structured child-centred programme of information and practical activity for parents of children aged from birth to five years of age. It is delivered to parents in their own homes by trained, paid family visitors and it is offered to parents regardless of their social, economic or other circumstances. The RCT evaluated the effectiveness of the programme and the process evaluation documented programme delivery and included a qualitative exploration of parent and child outcomes. 424 parents and children participated in the RCT: 216 in the intervention group and 208 in the control group across the island of Ireland. Parent outcomes included: parental knowledge of child development, parental efficacy, stress, social support, parenting skills and embeddedness in the community. Child outcomes included cognitive, language and motor development and social-emotional and behavioural development. Both groups were tested at baseline (when children were less than 1 year old), mid-point (aged 3) and at post-test (aged 5). Data were collected during a home visit, which took two hours. The process evaluation consisted of interviews with parents (n=16 at baseline and end-point), and focus groups with Lifestart Coordinators (n=9) and Family Visitors (n=24). Quantitative findings from the RCT indicated that, compared to the control group, parents who received the Lifestart programme reported reduced parenting-related stress, increased knowledge of their child’s development, and improved confidence in their parenting role. These changes were statistically significant and consistent with the hypothesised pathway of change depicted in the logic model. There was no evidence of any change in parents’ embeddedness in the community. Although four of the five child outcomes showed small positive change for children who took part in the programme, these were not statistically significant and there is no evidence that the programme improves child cognitive and non-cognitive skills by immediate post-test. The qualitative process evaluation highlighted important challenges related to conducting trials of this magnitude and design in the general population. Parents reported that a key incentive to take part in study was receiving feedback from the developmental assessment, which formed part of the data collection. This highlights the potential importance of appropriate incentives in relation to recruitment and retention of participants. The interviews with intervention parents indicated that one of the first changes they experienced as a result of the Lifestart programme was increased knowledge and confidence in their parenting ability. The outcomes and pathways perceived by parents and described in the interviews are also consistent with the findings of the RCT and the theory of change underpinning the programme. This hypothesises that improvement in parental outcomes, arising as a consequence of the programme, mediate the change in child outcomes. Parents receiving the Lifestart programme reported great satisfaction with and commitment to the programme, with the role of the Family Visitor being identified as one of the key components of the programme.
60
9251
The Effect of Porous Alkali Activated Material Composition on Buffer Capacity in Bioreactors
Abstract:
With demand for primary energy continuously growing, search for renewable and efficient energy sources has been high on agenda of our society. One of the most promising energy sources is biogas technology. Residues coming from dairy industry and milk processing could be used in biogas production; however, low efficiency and high cost impede wide application of such technology. One of the main problems is management and conversion of organic residues through the anaerobic digestion process which is characterized by acidic environment due to the low whey pH (
59
55900
The Simulation and Experimental Investigation to Study the Strain Distribution Pattern during the Closed Die Forging Process
Authors:
Abstract:
Closed die forging is a very complex process, and measurement of actual forces for real material is difficult and time consuming. Hence, the modelling technique has taken the advantage of carrying out the experimentation with the proper model material which needs lesser forces and relatively low temperature. The results of experiments on the model material then may be correlated with the actual material by using the theory of similarity. There are several methods available to resolve the complexity involved in the closed die forging process. Finite Element Method (FEM) and Finite Difference Method (FDM) are relatively difficult as compared to the slab method. The slab method is very popular and very widely used by the people working on shop floor because it is relatively easy to apply and reasonably accurate for most of the common forging load requirement computations.
58
35664
Developing Ergonomic Prototype Testing Method for Manual Material Handling
Abstract:
There is no ergonomic prototype testing method for manual material handling yet. This study has been carried out to demonstrate the comprehensive ergonomic assessment. The ergonomic assessment is important to improve safety of products and to ensure usefulness of the product. The prototype testing is conducted by involving few intended users and ordinary people. In this study, there are four operators who participated in several tests. Also, there are 30 ordinary people who joined the usability test. All the ordinary people never do material handling activity nor use material handling device. The methods used in the tests are Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Recommended Weight Limit (RWL), and Cardiovascular Load (%CVL) other than usability test and questionnaire. The proposed testing methods cover comprehensive ergonomic aspects, i.e. physical aspect, mental aspect, emotional aspects of human.
57
83482
Nanocomposite Metal Material: Study of Antimicrobial and Catalytic Properties
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to obtain antimicrobial material based on thin zirconium dioxide coatings on structured reactors doped with metal nanoparticles using the sonochemical sol-gel method. As a result, dense, uniform zirconium dioxide films were obtained on the kanthal sheets which can be used as support materials in antimicrobial converters with sophisticated shapes. The material was characterised by physicochemical methods, such as AFM, SEM, EDX, XRF, XRD, XPS and in situ Raman and DRIFT spectroscopy. In terms of antimicrobial activity, the material was tested by ATP/AMP method using model microbes isolated from the real systems. The results show that the material can be potentially used in the market as a good candidate for active package and as active bulkheads of climatic systems. The mechanical tests showed that the developed method is an efficient way to obtain durable converters with high antimicrobial activity against fungi and bacteria.
56
6452
Influence of Brazing Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Superalloy
Abstract:
A common nickel based superalloy Inconel625 was brazed with Ni-base braze filler material (AMS4777) containing melting-point-depressants such as B and Si. Different braze gaps, brazing times and forms of braze filler material were tested. It was determined that the melting point depressants B and Si tend to form hard and brittle phases in the joint during the braze cycle. Brittle phases significantly reduce mechanical properties (e. g. tensile strength) of the joint. Therefore, it is important to define optimal process parameters to achieve high strength joints, free of brittle phases. High ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values can be obtained if the joint area is free of brittle phases, which is equivalent to a complete isothermal solidification of the joint. Isothermal solidification takes place only if the concentration of the melting point depressant in the braze filler material of the joint is continuously reduced by diffusion into the base material. For a given brazing temperature, long brazing times and small braze filler material volumes (small braze gaps) are beneficial for isothermal solidification. On the base of the obtained results it can be stated that the form of the braze filler material has an additional influence on the joint quality. Better properties can be achieved by the use of braze-filler-material in form of foil instead of braze-filler-material in form of paste due to a reduced amount of voids and a more homogeneous braze-filler-material-composition in the braze-gap by using foil.
55
71364
Study on Constitutive Model of Particle Filling Material Considering Volume Expansion
Abstract:
The NEPE (nitrate ester plasticized polyether) propellant is a kind of particle filling material with relatively high filling fraction. The experimental results show that the microcracks, microvoids and dewetting can cause the stress softening of the material. In this paper, a series of mechanical testing in inclusion with CCD technique were conducted to analyze the evolution of internal defects of propellant. The volume expansion function of the particle filling material was established by measuring of longitudinal and transverse strain with optical deformation measurement system. By analyzing the defects and internal damages of the material, a visco-hyperelastic constitutive model based on free energy theory was proposed incorporating damage function. The proposed constitutive model could accurately predict the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile tests and tensile-relaxation tests.
54
49879
Enhancement of Tribological Behavior for Diesel Engine Piston of Solid Skirt by an Optimal Choice of Interface Material
Abstract:
Shear stresses generate frictional forces thus lead to the reduction of engine performance due to the power losses. This friction can also cause damage to the piston material. Thus, the choice of an optimal material for the piston is necessary to improve the elastohydrodynamical contacts of the piston. In this study, to achieve this objective, an elastohydrodynamical lubrication model that satisfies the best tribological behavior of the piston with the optimum choice of material is developed. Several aluminum alloys composed of different components are studied in this simulation. An application is made on the piston 60 x 120 mm Diesel engine type F8L413 currently mounted on Deutz trucks TB230 by using different aluminum alloys where alloys based on aluminum-silicon have better tribological performance.
53
76451
Review of Dielectric Permittivity Measurement Techniques
Abstract:
The prime objective of this manuscript is to provide intensive review of the techniques used for permittivity measurements. The measurement techniques, relevant for any desired application, rely on the nature of the measured dielectric material, both electrically and physically, the degree of accuracy required, and the frequency of interest. Regardless of the way that distinctive sorts of instruments can be utilized, measuring devices that provide reliable determinations of the required electrical properties including the obscure material in the frequency range of interest can be considered. The challenge in making precise dielectric property or permittivity measurements is in designing of the material specimen holder for those measurements (RF and MW frequency ranges) and adequately modeling the circuit for reliable computation of the permittivity from the electrical measurements. If the RF circuit parameters such as the impedance or admittance are estimated appropriately at a certain frequency, the material’s permittivity at this frequency can be estimated by the equations which relate the way in which the dielectric properties of the material affect on the parameters of the circuit.
52
42939
High Electrochemical Performance of Electrode Material Based On Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposites
Abstract:
The quest for alternative sources of energy storage had led to the exploration on supercapacitors. Hybrid supercapacitors, a combination of carbon-based material and transition metals, had yielded long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an active electrode material. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further post-heat treatment. Additionally, it offers shorter reaction time at low temperature and low power requirement, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. The as-prepared electrode material demonstrated a high capacitance of 953 F•g−1 at 1 A•g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg−1 (power density of 720 W•kg−1) and a high power density of 7200 W•kg−1 (energy density of 38 Wh•kg−1). The successful synthesis was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, with very promising electrochemical performance that can be used as an active material in supercapacitors.
51
33892
Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle
Abstract:
Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uni-axial tension, equi bi-axial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.
50
88207
Exploring the Neural Mechanisms of Communication and Cooperation in Children and Adults
Abstract:
This study was designed to examine how humans are able to teach and learn semantic information as well as cooperate in order to jointly achieve sophisticated goals. Specifically, we are measuring individual differences in how these abilities develop from foundational building blocks in early childhood. The current study adopts a paradigm for novel noun learning developed by Samuelson, Smith, Perry, and Spencer (2011) to a hyperscanning paradigm [Cui, Bryant and Reiss, 2012]. This project measures coordinated brain activity between a parent and child using simultaneous functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in pairs of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5-year-old children and their parents. We are also separately testing pairs of adult friends. Children and parents, or adult friends, are seated across from one another at a table. The parent (in the developmental study) then teaches their child the names of novel toys. An experimenter then tests the child by presenting the objects in pairs and asking the child to retrieve one object by name. Children are asked to choose from both pairs of familiar objects and pairs of novel objects. In order to explore individual differences in cooperation with the same participants, each dyad plays a cooperative game of Jenga, in which their joint score is based on how many blocks they can remove from the tower as a team. A preliminary analysis of the noun-learning task showed that, when presented with 6 word-object mappings, children learned an average of 3 new words (50%) and that the number of objects learned by each child ranged from 2-4. Adults initially learned all of the new words but were variable in their later retention of the mappings, which ranged from 50-100%. We are currently examining differences in cooperative behavior during the Jenga playing game, including time spent discussing each move before it is made. Ongoing analyses are examining the social dynamics that might underlie the differences between words that were successfully learned and unlearned words for each dyad, as well as the developmental differences observed in the study. Additionally, the Jenga game is being used to better understand individual and developmental differences in social coordination during a cooperative task. At a behavioral level, the analysis maps periods of joint visual attention between participants during the word learning and the Jenga game, using head-mounted eye trackers to assess each participant’s first-person viewpoint during the session. We are also analyzing the coherence in brain activity between participants during novel word-learning and Jenga playing. The first hypothesis is that visual joint attention during the session will be positively correlated with both the number of words learned and with the number of blocks moved during Jenga before the tower falls. The next hypothesis is that successful communication of new words and success in the game will each be positively correlated with synchronized brain activity between the parent and child/the adult friends in cortical regions underlying social cognition, semantic processing, and visual processing. This study probes both the neural and behavioral mechanisms of learning and cooperation in a naturalistic, interactive and developmental context.
49
40279
E Learning/Teaching and the Impact on Student Performance at the Postgraduate Level
Abstract:
E-Learning and E-Teaching can mean many things to different people. For some, the implication is that all material must be delivered in an E way, while for others it only forms part of the learning/teaching process, and (unfortunately) for some it is considered too much work. However, just look around and you will see all generations learning using E devices. In this study we used different forms of teaching, including E, to look at how students responded to set activities and how they performed academically. The particular context was set around a postgraduate university course where students were either present at a face-to-face intensive workshop (on water treatment plant design) or where they were not. For the latter, students needed to make sole use of E media. It is relevant to note that even though some were at the face-to-face class, they were still exposed to E material as the lecturer did use PC projections. Additionally, some also accessed the associate E material (pdf slides and video recordings) to assist their required activities. Analysis of the student performance, in their set assignment, showed that the actual form of delivery did not affect the student performance. This is because, in the end, all the students had access to the recorded/presented E material. The study also showed (somewhat expectedly) that when the material they required for the assignment was clear, the student performance did drop. Therefore, it is possible to enhance future delivery of courses through careful reflection and appropriate support. In the end, we must remember innovation is not just restricted to E.
48
59318
Parenting Practices, Challenges and Prospectus of Working Mothers in Arsi University: Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Abstract:
Every married person aspires to be a parent regardless of the situation in which s/he lives. Such aspiration meets with reality when the destined parent is able to give adequate supports and services to his/her children, whether the latter are got by birth or through adoption. The adequacy of services parents provide their children is both enriched and tempted by the work on which they involve. On the one hand, parents need to work and earn a living in order to support their family. On the other hand, they must spend most of their time outside home to do the work, which shortens the time and might they spare to care for their children. Where the sufficiency of services parents owe their children could be ascertained by in terms of life skills, physical care and related provisions, the role of working fathers and mothers in providing such supports could be diverse across cultures and work traditions. Hence, this research deals with the investigation of working mothers’ parental practices, challenges they face in providing parental services and the implication for the future progress of the parents and their children. Target of the study will be Arsi University in Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. Descriptive survey design in holding the research, and data for the research will be collected in the form of experiential self-report from 150 working mothers selected from the entire working women population of Colleges of Agriculture and Environmental Studies and College of Health Sciences through stratified random-sampling. Instruments of data collection will be closed and open-ended questionnaire. Complementary data will also be collected from purposively selected samples through semi-structured interview. Data for the research will be collected through questionnaire first and then through interview. Data analysis will also follow the same procedure. The collected data will systematically be organized and statistically and thematically analyzed in order to come up with indicative findings. The overarching thesis is that, working mothers in the study area bear a lot of responsibilities both at home and at work place which leave them very little time for parenting services. Unless due attention is given to the way they can spare time for their children, they are more likely to be tense between work-life and family care services, which tempt them in different directions.
47
64851
Effect of Fill Material Density under Structures on Ground Motion Characteristics Due to Earthquake
Abstract:
Due to limited areas and excessive cost of land for projects, backfilling process has become necessary. Also, backfilling will be done to overcome the un-leveling depths or raising levels of site construction, especially near the sea region. Therefore, backfilling soil materials used under the foundation of structures should be investigated regarding its effect on ground motion characteristics, especially at regions subjected to earthquakes. In this research, 60-meter thickness of sandy fill material was used above a fixed 240-meter of natural clayey soil underlying by rock formation to predict the modified ground motion characteristics effect at the foundation level. Comparison between the effect of using three different situations of fill material compaction on the recorded earthquake is studied, i.e. peak ground acceleration, time history, and spectra acceleration values. The three different densities of the compacted fill material used in the study were very loose, medium dense and very dense sand deposits, respectively. Shake computer program was used to perform this study. Strong earthquake records, with Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of 0.35 g, were used in the analysis. It was found that, higher compaction of fill material thickness has a significant effect on eliminating the earthquake ground motion properties at surface layer of fill material, near foundation level. It is recommended to consider the fill material characteristics in the design of foundations subjected to seismic motions. Future studies should be analyzed for different fill and natural soil deposits for different seismic conditions.
46
35312
Effect of Impact Angle on Erosive Abrasive Wear of Ductile and Brittle Materials
Abstract:
Erosion and abrasion are wear mechanisms reducing the lifetime of machine elements like valves, pump and pipe systems. Both wear mechanisms are acting at the same time, causing a “Synergy” effect, which leads to a rapid damage of the surface. Different parameters are effective on erosive abrasive wear rate. In this study effect of particle impact angle on wear rate and wear mechanism of ductile and brittle materials was investigated. A new slurry pot was designed for experimental investigation. As abrasive particle, silica sand was used. Particle size was ranking between 200-500 µm. All tests were carried out in a sand-water mixture of 20% concentration for four hours. Impact velocities of the particles were 4,76 m/s. As ductile material steel St 37 with Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) of 245 and quenched St 37 with 510 BHN was used as brittle material. After wear tests, morphology of the eroded surfaces were investigated for better understanding of the wear mechanisms acting at different impact angles by using optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope. The results indicated that wear rate of ductile material was higher than brittle material. Maximum wear was observed by ductile material at a particle impact angle of 300. On the contrary wear rate increased by brittle materials by an increase in impact angle and reached maximum value at 450. High amount of craters were detected after observation on ductile material surface Also plastic deformation zones were detected, which are typical failure modes for ductile materials. Craters formed by particles were deeper according to brittle material worn surface. Amount of craters decreased on brittle material surface. Microcracks around craters were detected which are typical failure modes of brittle materials. Deformation wear was the dominant wear mechanism on brittle material. At the end it is concluded that wear rate could not be directly related to impact angle of the hard particle due to the different responses of ductile and brittle materials.
45
44082
Interaction between the Main Crack and Dislocation in the Glass Material
Abstract:
The present study evaluates the stress and stress intensity factor during the propagation of a crack at presence of a dislocation near of crack tip. The problem is formulated using a glass material having an equivalent elasticity modulus and a Poisson ratio. In this research work, the proposed material is a plate form with a main crack in one of these ends and a dislocation near this crack, subjected to tensile stresses according to the mode 1 opening. For each distance between the two cracks, we can determine these stresses. This study is treated by finite elements method by using the software (ABAQUS) rate. It is shown here in that obtained results agreed with those determined by other researchers
44
44406
Localized Analysis of Cellulosic Fibrous Insulation Materials
Abstract:
Considered as a building construction material, and regarding its environmental benefits, wood fiber insulation is the material of interest in this work. The definition of adequate elementary representative volume that guarantees reliable understanding of the hygrothermal macroscopic phenomena is very critical. At the microscopic scale, when subjected to hygric solicitations, fibers undergo local dimensionless variations. It is therefore necessary to master this behavior, which affects the global response of the material. This study consists of an experimental procedure using the non-destructive method, X-ray tomography, followed by morphological post-processing analysis using ImageJ software. A refine investigation took place in order to identify the representative elementary volume and the sufficient resolution for accurate structural analysis. The second part of this work was to evaluate the microscopic hygric behavior of the studied material. Many parameters were taken into consideration, like the evolution of the fiber diameters, distribution along the sorption cycle and the porosity, and the water content evolution. In addition, heat transfer simulations based on the energy equation resolution were achieved on the real structure. Further, the problematic of representative elementary volume was elaborated for such heterogeneous material. Moreover, the material’s porosity and its fibers’ thicknesses show very big correlation with the water content. These results provide the literature with very good understanding of wood fiber insulation’s behavior.
43
54422
Development of Forging Technology of Cam Ring Gear for Truck Using Small Bar
Abstract:
This study focused on developing forging technology of a large-diameter cam ring gear from the small bar. The analyses of temperature variation and deformation behavior of the material are important to obtain the optimal forging products. The hot compression test was carried out to know formability at high temperature. In order to define the optimum forging conditions including material temperature, strain and forging load, the finite element method was used to simulate the forging process of cam ring gear parts. Test results were in good agreement with the simulations. An existing cam ring gear is presented the chips generated by cutting the rod material and the durability issues, but this would be to develop a large-diameter cam ring gear forging parts for truck in order to solve the durability problem and the material waste.
42
3561
Kinematic Hardening Parameters Identification with Respect to Objective Function
Abstract:
Constitutive modelling of material behaviour is becoming increasingly important in prediction of possible failures in highly loaded engineering components, and consequently, optimization of their design. In order to account for large number of phenomena that occur in the material during operation, such as kinematic hardening effect in low cycle fatigue behaviour of steels, complex nonlinear material models are used ever more frequently, despite of the complexity of determination of their parameters. As a method for the determination of these parameters, genetic algorithm is good choice because of its capability to provide very good approximation of the solution in systems with large number of unknown variables. For the application of genetic algorithm to parameter identification, inverse analysis must be primarily defined. It is used as a tool to fine-tune calculated stress-strain values with experimental ones. In order to choose proper objective function for inverse analysis among already existent and newly developed functions, the research is performed to investigate its influence on material behaviour modelling.
41
68569
Identification of Lipo-Alkaloids and Fatty Acids in Aconitum carmichaelii Using Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
Authors:
Abstract:
Lipo-alkaloid is a kind of C19-norditerpenoid alkaloids existed in Aconitum species, which usually contains an aconitane skeleton and one or two fatty acid residues. The structures are very similar to that of diester-type alkaloids, which are considered as the main bioactive components in Aconitum carmichaelii. They have anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-proliferative activities. So far, more than 200 lipo-alkaloids were reported from plants, semisynthesis, and biotransformations. In our research, by the combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and an in-house database, 148 lipo-alkaloids were identified from A. carmichaelii, including 93 potential new compounds and 38 compounds with oxygenated fatty acid moieties. To our knowledge, this is the first time of the reporting of the oxygenated fatty acids as the side chains in naturally-occurring lipo-alkaloids. Considering the fatty acid residues in lipo-alkaloids should come from the free acids in the plant, the fatty acids and their relationship with lipo-alkaloids were further investigated by GC-MS and LC-MS. Among 17 fatty acids identified by GC-MS, 12 were detected as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids, which accounted for about 1/3 of total lipo-alkaloids, while these fatty acid residues were less than 1/4 of total fatty acid residues. And, total of 37 fatty acids were determined by UHPCL-Q-TOF-MS, including 18 oxidized fatty acids firstly identified from A. carmichaelii. These fatty acids were observed as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids. In addition, although over 140 lipo-alkaloids were identified, six lipo-alkaloids, 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (1), 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylaconine (2), 8-O-palmitoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (3), 8-O-oleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (4), 8-O-pal-benzoylaconine (5), and 8-O-ole-Benzoylaconine (6), were found to be the main components, which accounted for over 90% content of total lipo-alkaloids. Therefore, using these six components as standards, a UHPLC-Triple Quadrupole-MS (UHPLC-QQQ-MS) approach was established to investigate the influence of processing on the contents of lipo-alkaloids. Although it was commonly supposed that the contents of lipo-alkaloids increased after processing, our research showed that no significant change was observed before and after processing. Using the same methods, the lipo-alkaloids in the lateral roots of A. carmichaelii and the roots of A. kusnezoffii were determined and quantified. The contents of lipo-alkaloids in A. kusnezoffii were close to that of the parent roots of A. carmichaelii, while the lateral roots had less lipo-alkaloids than the parent roots. This work was supported by Macao Science and Technology Development Fund (086/2013/A3 and 003/2016/A1).
40
104270
Factors Associated with Involvement in Physical Activity among Children (Aged 6-18 Years) Training at Excel Soccer Academy in Uganda
Abstract:
Physical inactivity is a growing global epidemic, also recognised as a major public health challenge. Globally, there are alarming rates of children reported with cardiovascular disease and obesity with limited interventions. In Sub Saharan Africa, there is limited information about involvement in physical activity especially among children aged 6 to 18 years. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with involvement in physical activity among children in Uganda. Methods: We included all parents with children aged 6 to 18 years training with Excel Soccer Academy between January 2017 and June 2018. Physical activity definition was time spent participating in routine soccer training at the academy for more than 30 days. Each child's attendance was recorded, and parents provided demographic and social economic data. Data on predictors of physical activity involvement were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and frequency were used. Binary logistic regression was used at the multi variable level adjusting for education, residence, transport means and access to information technology. Results: Overall 356 parents were interviewed; Boys 318 (89.3%) engaged more in physical activity than girls. The median age for children was 13 years (IQR:6-18) and 42 years (IQR:37-49) among parents. The median time spent at the Excel soccer academy was 13.4 months (IQR: 4.6-35.7) Majority of the children attended formal education, p < 0.001). Factors associated with involvement in physical activity included: owning a permanent house compared to a rented house (odds ratio [OR] :2.84: 95% CI: 2.09-3.86, p < 0.0001), owning a car compared to using public transport (OR: 5.64 CI: 4.80-6.63, p < 0.0001), a parent having received formal education compared to non-formal education (OR: 2.93 CI: 2.47-3.46, p < 0.0001) and daily access to information technology (OR:0.40 CI:0.25-0.66, p < 0.001). Parent’s age and gender were not associated to involvement in physical activity. Conclusions: Socioeconomic factors were positively associated with involvement in physical activity with boys participating more than girls in soccer activities. More interventions are required geared towards increasing girl’s participation in physical activity and those targeting children from less privilege homes.
39
10237
The Effect of Hydrogen on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO: A Density Functional Tight Binding Study
Abstract:
The ferromagnetic properties of carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO) and hydrogenated carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO+H) are investigated using the density functional tight binding (DFTB) method. Our results reveal that CO-doped ZnO is a ferromagnetic material with a magnetic moment of 1.3 μB per carbon atom. The presence of hydrogen in the material in the form of CO-H complex decreases the total magnetism of the material without suppressing ferromagnetism. However, the system in this case becomes quickly antiferromagnetic when the C-C separation distance was increased.
38
100709
The Interventions to Parents Caring Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Hong Kong
Authors:
Abstract:
Globally, studying parents caring for children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is valuable in order to design measures in supporting those parents by health care providers and government. Such parents in Hong Kong seem to encounter detrimental stress and enormous difficulties which are exacerbated by the traditional Chinese culture, exclusion from social members and fiercely competitive educational system. However, seldom studies scrutinize this issue in Hong Kong. This article aims to review the literature regarding parents caring offsprings with ADHD in Hong Kong. Criteria were set for searching among published studies listed in various databases, including MEDLINE, CINCAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Embase, Cochrane Library and Springer Link. Articles with words 'Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder', 'parenting', 'parent', 'family', 'father', 'mother', 'care' in titles and abstracts were identified. Articles with all types of research designs and methods, regardless in English or Chinese, were included. They were limited to years between January 2008 and September 2018. Four relevant studies have resulted. Of them, two were exploratory studies, one was a qualitative study, and one was a survey. Samples were recruited from child psychiatric clinic, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, or multiple family group therapy centres. Authors proclaimed that quality of life of those parents was usually low; particularly mothers perceived a higher stress than fathers; parenting barriers existed; conflicts were commonly raised in parent-child relationship resulting in probable maltreatment to children. Previous studies generally suggested the potential negative outcomes of parents caring children with ADHD. The types and effectiveness of interventions to those parents on relieving their tortures under Hong Kong context had not been explored and systematically evaluated. The scanty studies and existing understanding could not give a promising conclusion pertaining to the appropriate family intervention to parents living with children with ADHD. A stringent research design is necessary to establish evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for those families.
37
91089
Experimental Study of Flow Effects of Solid Particles’ Size in Porous Media
Abstract:
Transpiration cooling combined to regenerative cooling is a technique that could be used to cool the porous walls of the future ramjet combustion chambers; it consists of using fuel that will flow through the pores of the porous material consisting of the chamber walls, as coolant. However, at high temperature, the fuel is pyrolysed and generates solid coke particles inside the porous materials. This phenomenon can lead to a significant decrease of the material permeability and can affect the efficiency of the cooling system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, an experimental laboratory study was undertaken to determine the transport and deposition of particles in a sintered porous material subjected to steady state flow. The test bench composed of a high-pressure autoclave is used to study the transport of different particle size (35
36
55888
Bis-Azlactone Based Biodegradable Poly(Ester Amide)s: Design, Synthesis and Study
Abstract:
Biodegradable biomaterials (BB) are of high interest for numerous applications in modern medicine as resorbable surgical materials and drug delivery systems. This kind of materials can be cleared from the body after the fulfillment of their function that excludes a surgical intervention for their removal. One of the most promising BBare amino acids based biodegradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) which are composed of naturally occurring (α-amino acids) and non-toxic building blocks such as fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids. Key bis-nucleophilic monomers for synthesizing the PEAs are diamine-diesters-di-p-toluenesulfonic acid salts of bis-(α-amino acid)-alkylenediesters (TAADs) which form the PEAs after step-growth polymerization (polycondensation) with bis-electrophilic counter-partners - activated diesters of dicarboxylic acids. The PEAs combine all advantages of the 'parent polymers' – polyesters (PEs) and polyamides (PAs): Ability of biodegradation (PEs), a high affinity with tissues and a wide range of desired mechanical properties (PAs). The scopes of applications of thePEAs can substantially be expanded by their functionalization, e.g. through the incorporation of hydrophobic fragments into the polymeric backbones. Hydrophobically modified PEAs can form non-covalent adducts with various compounds that make them attractive as drug carriers. For hydrophobic modification of the PEAs, we selected so-called 'Azlactone Method' based on the application of p-phenylene-bis-oxazolinons (bis-azlactones, BALs) as active bis-electrophilic monomers in step-growth polymerization with TAADs. Interaction of BALs with TAADs resulted in the PEAs with low MWs (Mw2,800-19,600 Da) and poor material properties. The high-molecular-weight PEAs (Mw up to 100,000) with desirable material properties were synthesized after replacement of a part of BALs with activated diester - di-p-nitrophenylsebacate, or a part of TAAD with alkylenediamine – 1,6-hexamethylenediamine. The new hydrophobically modified PEAs were characterized by FTIR, NMR, GPC, and DSC. It was shown that after the hydrophobic modification the PEAs retain the biodegradability (in vitro study catalyzed by α-chymptrypsin and lipase), and are of interest for constructing resorbable surgical and pharmaceutical devices including drug delivering containers such as microspheres. The new PEAs are insoluble in hydrophobic organic solvents such as chloroform or dichloromethane (swell only) that allowed elaborating a new technology of fabricating microspheres.
35
77780
Experimental and Numerical Processes of Open Die Forging of Multimetallic Materials with the Usage of Different Lubricants
Abstract:
This work investigates experimental and numerical analysis of open die forging of multimetallic materials. Multimetallic material production has recently become an interesting research field. The mechanical properties of the materials to be used for the formation of multimetallic materials and the mechanical properties of the multimetallic materials produced will be compared and the material flows of the use of different lubricants will be examined. Furthermore, in this work, the mechanical properties of multimetallic metallic materials produced using different materials will be examined by using different lubricants. The advantages and disadvantages of different lubricants will be approached with the bi-metallic material to be produced. Cylindrical specimens consisting of two different materials were used in the experiments. Specimens were prepared as aluminum sleeve and copper core and upset at different reduction. This metal combination present a material model of which chemical composition is different. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. Simulation and experimental results have also shown reasonable agreement.
34
25805
Material Flow Modeling in Friction Stir Welding of AA6061-T6 Alloy and Study of the Effect of Process Parameters
Abstract:
To understand the friction stir welding process, it is very important to know the nature of the material flow in and around the tool. The process is a combination of both thermal as well as mechanical work i.e it is a coupled thermo-mechanical process. Numerical simulations are very much essential in order to obtain a complete knowledge of the process as well as the physics underlying it. In the present work a model based approach is adopted in order to study material flow. A thermo-mechanical based CFD model is developed using a Finite Element package, Comsol Multiphysics. The fluid flow analysis is done. The model simultaneously predicts shear strain fields, shear strain rates and shear stress over the entire workpiece for the given conditions. The flow fields generated by the streamline plot give an idea of the material flow. The variation of dynamic viscosity, velocity field and shear strain fields with various welding parameters is studied. Finally the result obtained from the above mentioned conditions is discussed elaborately and concluded.
33
76639
Experimental and Numerical Processes of Open Die Forging of Multimetallic Materials with the Usage of Different Lubricants
Abstract:
This work investigates experimental and numerical analysis of open die forging of multimetallic materials. Multimetallic material production has recently become an interesting research field. The mechanical properties of the materials to be used for the formation of multimetallic materials and the mechanical properties of the multimetallic materials produced will be compared and the material flows of the use of different lubricants will be examined. Furthermore, in this work, the mechanical properties of multimetallic metallic materials produced using different materials will be examined by using different lubricants. The advantages and disadvantages of different lubricants will be approached with the bi-metallic material to be produced. Cylindrical specimens consisting of two different materials were used in the experiments. Specimens were prepared as aluminum sleeve and copper core and upset at different reduction. This metal combination present a material model of which chemical composition is different. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. Simulation and experimental results have also shown reasonable agreement.
32
23430
Early Intervention for Preschool Children of Parents with Mental Illness: The Evaluation of a Resource for Service Providers
Abstract:
Background: Many people with a mental illness have young children. Research has shown that early childhood is a particularly vulnerable time for children whose parents have a mental illness. Moreover, repeated research has demonstrated the effectiveness of a multiagency approach to family focused practice for improving parental functioning and preventing adverse outcomes in children whose parents have a mental illness, particularly in the early years of a child’s life. However, there is a paucity of professional development resources for professionals who work with families where a parent has a mental illness and has young children. Significance of the study: This study will make a contribution to addressing knowledge gaps around resource development and workforce needs for early childhood and mental health professionals working with young children where a parent has a mental illness. Objective: This presentation describes a newly developed resource, 'Pathways of Care', specifically designed for early childhood educators and mental health workers, alongside pilot evaluation data regarding its effectiveness. ‘Pathways of Care’ aims to promote collaborative practice and present early identification and referral processes for workers in this sector. The resource was developed by the Children of Parents with a Mental Illness (COPMI) National Initiative which is funded by the Australian Government. Method: Using a mixed method design, the effectiveness of the training resource is also presented. Fifteen workers completed the Family Focus Mental Health Practice Questionnaire pre and post using the resource, to measure confidence and practice change; semi-structured interviews were also conducted with eight of these same workers to further explore the utility of the resource. Findings: The findings indicated the resource was effective in increasing knowledge and confidence, particularly for new and/or inexperienced staff. Examples of how the resource was used in practice by various professions emerged from the interview data. Conclusions: Collaborative practice, early identification and intervention in early childhood can potentially play a key role in altering the life trajectory of children who are at risk. This information has important implications for workforce development and staff training in both the early childhood and mental health sectors. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.
31
91157
Ecotoxicological Test-Battery for Efficiency Assessment of TiO2 Assisted Photodegradation of Emerging Micropolluants
Abstract:
There has been growing concern about emerging micropollutants in recent years, because of the possible environmental and health risk posed by these substances, which are released into the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Among them pharmaceuticals are currently not considered under water quality regulations; however, their potential effect on the environment have become more frequent in recent years. Due to the fact that these compounds can be detected in natural water matrices, it can be concluded, that the currently applied water treatment processes are not efficient enough for their effective elimination. To date, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are considered as highly competitive water treatment technologies for the removal of those organic micropollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. AOPs such as (photo)chemical oxidation and heterogeneous photocatalysis have proven their potential in degrading harmful organic compounds from aqueous matrices. However, some of these technologies generate reaction by-products, which can even be more toxic to aquatic organisms than the parent compounds. Thus, target compound removal does not necessarily result in the removal of toxicity. Therefore, to evaluate process efficiency the determination of the toxicity and ecotoxicity of the reaction intermediates is crucial to estimate the environmental risk of such techniques. In this context, the present study investigates the effectiveness of TiO2 assisted photodegradation for the removal of emerging water contaminants. Two drugs named losartan (used in high blood pressure medication) and levetiracetam (used to treat epilepsy) were considered in this work. The photocatalytic reactions were carried out with a commercial catalyst usually employed in photocatalysis. Moreover, the toxicity of the by-products generated during the process was assessed with various ecotoxicological methods applying aquatic test organisms from different trophic levels. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the toxicity of untreated and treated solutions applying the Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test, the Tetrahymena pyriformis proliferation inhibition test, the Daphnia magna lethality and immobilization tests and the Lemna minor growth inhibition test. The applied ecotoxicological methodology indicated sensitively the toxic effects of the treated and untreated water samples, hence the applied test battery is suitable for the ecotoxicological characterization of TiO2 based photocatalytic water treatment technologies and the indication of the formation of toxic by-products from the parent chemical compounds. Obtained results clearly showed that the TiO2 assisted photodegradation was more efficient in the elimination of losartan than levetiracetam. It was also observed that the treated levetiracetam solutions had more severe effect on the applied test organisms. A possible explanation would be the production of levetiracetam by-products, which are more toxic than the parent compound. The increased toxicity and the risk of formation of toxic metabolites represent one possible limitation to the implementation of photocatalytic treatment using TiO2 for the removal of losartan and levetiracetam. Our results proved that, the battery of ecotoxicity tests used in this work can be a promising investigation tool for the environmental risk assessment of photocatalytic processes.
30
18626
Modification of Li-Rich Layered Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 Cathode Material
Abstract:
The high-energy-density Li-rich layered materials are promising cathode materials for the next-generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The relatively low rate capability is one of the major problems that limit their practical application. In this work, Li-rich layered Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 cathode material synthesized by coprecipitation method is further modified by F doping or surface treatment to enhance its cycling stability as well as rate capability.
29
72455
Particleboard Production from Atmospheric Plasma Treated Wheat Straw Particles
Abstract:
Particle boards have being used in the civil engineering as a decking for load bearing and non-load bearing vertical walls and horizontal panels (e. g. floors, ceiling, roofs) in a large scale. When the straw is used as non-wood material for manufacturing of lignocellulosic panels, problems with wax layer on the surface of the material can occur. Higher percentage of silica and wax cause the problems with the adhesion of the adhesive and this is the reason why it is necessary to break the surface layer for the better bonding effect. Surface treatment of the particles cause better mechanical properties, physical properties and the overall better results of the composite material are reached. Plasma application is one possibility how to modify the surface layer. The aim of this research is to modify the surface of straw particles by using cold plasma treatment. Surface properties of lignocellulosic materials were observed before and after cold plasma treatment. Cold plasma does not cause any structural changes deeply in the material. There are only changes in surface layers, which are required. Results proved that the plasma application influenced the properties of surface layers and the properties of composite material.
28
23789
The Mechanical Behavior of a Cement-Fiber Composite Material
Abstract:
The aim of the present research work is to characterize a cement palm date fiber composite in order to be used in isolation and in the manufacture of new structural materials. This technique may possibly participate seriously in the preservation of the environment and develop a growing need for plant products. On one hand, It has been shown that the presence of natural fiber in the composite materials manufacture, based on hydraulic binder, has improved the mechanical behaviour of the material. On the Other hand, It has been proven that the durability of composite materials reinforced with untreated fibers was largely affected by the presence of organic matter. In order to extract the organic material, the fibers were treated with boiling water and then coated with different types of products. A considerable improvement in the sensitivity to water of the fibers, as well as in the mechanical strength and in the ductility of the composite material was observed. The fiber being sensitive to water, the study put the emphasis on its dimensional stability.
27
10015
The Effect of Enzymatic Keratin Hydrolysate on the Susceptibility of Cellulosic-Elastomeric Material to Biodecomposition
Abstract:
Polymeric materials have become an integral part of every aspect of today's industry. They have wide applications, inter alia, in areas such as medicine, food industry and agriculture. In agriculture, for example, they are used for the production of pots, irrigation systems and for soil mulching. The aim of this study was the attempt to produce a biodecomposable agricultural mat, by coating cotton fabric with a blend of carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex (LBSK) containing the enzymatic hydrolyzate of keratin from cattle hair, which would serve as a material for mulching. The production of such material allows the beneficial management of burdensome tannery waste constituted by keratin from cattle hair and at the same time, the production of agricultural mats that much faster undergo decomposition than commonly used polyethylene mats.
26
106069
Development of Low-Cost Vibro-Acoustic, and Fire-Resistant, Insulation Material from Natural and Sustainable Sources
Abstract:
The topic of the research is to develop sustainable fire-resistant materials for vibration and acoustic damping of structure and airborne noises from sustainable recycled materials and biodegradable binders. The paper reports, methods and techniques of enhancing fire resistive, vibration and acoustic properties of building insulation materials made from natural resources like wood and recycled materials like rubber and textile waste. The structures are designed to optimize the number, size and stratification of closed (heat insulating) and open (noise insulating) pores. The samples produced are tested for their heat and noise insulating properties, including vibration damping and their structural properties (airflow resistivity, porosity, tortuosity and elastic modulus). The structural properties are then used in theoretical models to check the acoustic insulation measurements. Initial data indicate that one layer of such material can yield as much as 18 times more damping, increasing the loss factor by 18%.
25
11842
Maintenance Dredging at Port of Townsville
Abstract:
The Port of Townsville conducts regular annual maintenance dredging to maintain depths of its harbor basin and approach channels for the navigational safety of the vessels against the natural accumulation of marine sediments. In addition to the regular maintenance dredging, the port undertakes emergency dredging in cases where large quantities of sediments are mobilized and deposited in port waters by cyclone or major flood events. The maintenance dredging material derived from the port may be disposed at sea or on land in accordance with relevant state and commonwealth regulations. For the land disposal, the dredged mud slurry is hydraulically placed into containment ponds and left to undergo sedimentation and self-weight consolidation to form fill material for land reclamation. This paper provides an overview of the maintenance dredging at the Port of Townsville and emphasis on maintenance dredging requirements, sediment quality, bathymetry, dredging methods used, and dredged material disposal options.
24
22797
Study of the Phenomenon of Collapse and Buckling the Car Body Frame
Abstract:
Conditions that often occur in the framework of a particular vehicle at a car is a collision or collision with another object, an example of such damage is to the frame or chassis for the required design framework that is able to absorb impact energy. Characteristics of the material are influenced by the value of the stiffness of the material that need to be considered in choosing the material properties of the material. To obtain material properties that can be adapted to the experimental conditions tested the tensile and compression testing. In this study focused on the chassis at an angle of 150, 300, and 450. It is based on field studies that vehicle primarily for freight cars have a point of order light between 150 to 450. Research methods include design tools, design framework, procurement of materials and experimental tools, tool-making, the manufacture of the test framework, and the testing process, experiment is testing the power of the press to know the order. From this test obtained the maximum force on the corner of 150 was 569.76 kg at a distance of 16 mm, angle 300 is 370.3 kg at a distance of 15 mm, angle 450 is 391.71 kg at a distance of 28 mm. After reaching the maximum force the order will occur collapse, followed by a decrease in the next distance. It can be concluded that the greatest strain energy occurs at an angle of 150. So it is known that the frame at an angle of 150 produces the best level of security.
23
79723
Procedure for Impact Testing of Fused Recycled Glass
Abstract:
Recycled glass material is made from 100% recycled bottle glass and consumes less energy than re-melt technology. It also uses no additives in the manufacturing process allowing the recycled glass material, in principal, to go back to the recycling stream after end-of-use, contributing to the circular economy with a low ecological impact. The aim of this paper is to investigate the procedure for testing the recycled glass material for impact resistance, so it can be applied to pavements and other surfaces which are at risk of impact during service. A review of different impact test procedures for construction materials was undertaken, comparing methodologies and international standards applied to other materials such as natural stone, ceramics and glass. A drop weight impact testing machine was designed and manufactured in-house to perform these tests. As a case study, samples of the recycled glass material were manufactured with two different thicknesses and tested. The impact energy was calculated theoretically, obtaining results with 5 and 10 J. The results on the material were subsequently discussed. Improvements on the procedure can be made using high speed video technology to calculate velocity just before and immediately after the impact to know the absorbed energy. The initial results obtained in this procedure were positive although repeatability needs to be developed to obtain a correlation of results and finally be able to validate the procedure. The experiment with samples showed the practicality of this procedure and application to the recycled glass material impact testing although further research needs to be developed.
22
51823
An Improved GA to Address Integrated Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering with Discount Options
Abstract:
Concurrent planning of the resource constraint project scheduling and material ordering problems have received significant attention within the last decades. Hence, the issue has been investigated here with the aim to minimize total project costs. Furthermore, the presented model considers different discount options in order to approach the real world conditions. The incorporated alternatives consist of all-unit and incremental discount strategies. On the other hand, a modified version of the genetic algorithm is applied in order to solve the model for larger sizes, in particular. Finally, the applicability and efficiency of the given model is tested by different numerical instances.
21
17934
Convective Brinkman-Forchiemer Extended Flow through Channel Filled with Porous Material: An Approximate Analytical Approach
Abstract:
An approximate analytical solution is presented for convective flow in a horizontal channel filled with porous material. The Brinkman-Forchheimer extension of Darcy equation is utilized to model the fluid flow while the energy equation is utilized to model temperature distribution in the channel. The solutions were obtained utilizing the newly suggested technique and compared with those obtained from an implicit finite-difference solution.
20
4922
Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending
Abstract:
The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young's modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.
19
83403
Development of Taiwanese Sign Language Receptive Skills Test for Deaf Children
Abstract:
It has multiple purposes to develop a sign language receptive skills test. For example, this test can be used to be an important tool for education and to understand the sign language ability of deaf children. There is no available test for these purposes in Taiwan. Through the discussion of experts and the references of standardized Taiwanese Sign Language Receptive Test for adults and adolescents, the frame of Taiwanese Sign Language Receptive Skills Test (TSL-RST) for deaf children was developed, and the items were further designed. After multiple times of pre-trials, discussions and corrections, TSL-RST is finally developed which can be conducted and scored online. There were 33 deaf children who agreed to be tested from all three deaf schools in Taiwan. Through item analysis, the items were picked out that have good discrimination index and fair difficulty index. Moreover, psychometric indexes of reliability and validity were established. Then, derived the regression formula was derived which can predict the sign language receptive skills of deaf children. The main results of this study are as follows. (1). TSL-RST includes three sub-test of vocabulary comprehension, syntax comprehension and paragraph comprehension. There are 21, 20, and 9 items in vocabulary comprehension, syntax comprehension, and paragraph comprehension, respectively. (2). TSL-RST can be conducted individually online. The sign language ability of deaf students can be calculated fast and objectively, so that they can get the feedback and results immediately. This can also contribute to both teaching and research. The most subjects can complete the test within 25 minutes. While the test procedure, they can answer the test questions without relying on their reading ability or memory capacity. (3). The sub-test of the vocabulary comprehension is the easiest one, syntax comprehension is harder than vocabulary comprehension and the paragraph comprehension is the hardest. Each of the three sub-test and the whole test are good in item discrimination index. (4). The psychometric indices are good, including the internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α coefficient), test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and content validity. The sign language ability are significantly related to non-verbal IQ, the teachers’ rating to the students’ sign language ability and students’ self-rating to their own sign language ability. The results showed that the higher grade students have better performance than the lower grade students, and students with deaf parent perform better than those with hearing parent. These results made TLS-RST have great discriminant validity. (5). The predictors of sign language ability of primary deaf students are age and years of starting to learn sign language. The results of this study suggested that TSL-RST can effectively assess deaf student’s sign language ability. This study also proposed a model to develop a sign language tests.
18
25419
Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump
Abstract:
An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.
17
22132
Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material
Abstract:
A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.
16
81196
Family-School-Community Engagement: Building a Growth Mindset
Abstract:
Family-school-community engagement enhances family-school-community well-being, collective confidence, and school climate. While it is often referred to as a positive thing in the literature for families, schools, and communities, it does not come without its struggles. While there are numerous things families, schools, and communities do each and every day to enhance engagement, it is often difficult to find our way to true belonging and engagement. Working our way surface level barriers is easy; we can provide childcare, transportation, resources, and refreshments. We can even change the environment so that families will feel welcome, valued, and respected. But there are often mindsets and perpsectives buried deep below the surface, most often grounded in societal, familial, and political norms, expectations, pressures, and narratives. This work requires ongoing energy, commitment, and engagement of all stakeholders, including families, schools, and communities. Each and every day, we need to take a reflective and introspective stance at what is said and done and how it supports the overall goal of family-school-community engagement. And whatever we must occur within a paradigm of care in additional to one of critical thinking and social justice. Families, and those working with families, must not simply accept all that is given, but should instead ask these types of questions: a) How, and by whom, are the current philosophies and practices of family-school engagement interrogated? b) How might digging below surface level meanings support understanding of what is being said and done? c) How can we move toward meaningful and authentic engagement that balances knowledge and power between family, school, district, community (local and global), and government? This type of work requires conscious attention and intentional decision-making at all levels bringing us one step closer to authentic and meaningful partnerships. Strategies useful to building a growth mindset include: a) interrogating and exploring consistencies and inconsistencies by looking at what is done and what is not done through multiple perspectives; b) recognizing that enhancing family-engagement and changing mindsets take place at the micro-level (e.g., family and school), but also require active engagement and awareness at the macro-level (e.g., community agencies, district school boards, government); c) taking action as an advocate or activist. Negative narratives about families, schools, and communities should not be maintained, but instead critical and courageous conversations in and out of school should be initiated and sustained; and d) maintaining consistency, simplicity, and steady progress. All involved in engagement need to be aware of the struggles, but keep them in check with the many successes. Change may not be observed on a day-to-day basis or even immediately, but stepping back and looking from the outside in, might change the view. Working toward a growth mindset will produce better results than a fixed mindset, and this takes time.
15
67066
Globally Convergent Sequential Linear Programming for Multi-Material Topology Optimization Using Ordered Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization Interpolation
Abstract:
The aim of the multi-material topology optimization (MTO) is to obtain the optimal topology of structures composed by many materials, according to a given set of constraints and cost criteria. In this work, we seek the optimal distribution of materials in a domain, such that the flexibility of the structure is minimized, under certain boundary conditions and the intervention of external forces. In the case we have only one material, each point of the discretized domain is represented by two values from a function, where the value of the function is 1 if the element belongs to the structure or 0 if the element is empty. A common way to avoid the high computational cost of solving integer variable optimization problems is to adopt the Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method. This method relies on the continuous interpolation function, power function, where the base variable represents a pseudo density at each point of domain. For proper exponent values, the SIMP method reduces intermediate densities, since values other than 0 or 1 usually does not have a physical meaning for the problem. Several extension of the SIMP method were proposed for the multi-material case. The one that we explore here is the ordered SIMP method, that has the advantage of not being based on the addition of variables to represent material selection, so the computational cost is independent of the number of materials considered. Although the number of variables is not increased by this algorithm, the optimization subproblems that are generated at each iteration cannot be solved by methods that rely on second derivatives, due to the cost of calculating the second derivatives. To overcome this, we apply a globally convergent version of the sequential linear programming method, which solves a linear approximation sequence of optimization problems.
14
24180
A Novel Environmentally Benign Positive Electrode Material with Improved Energy Density for Lithium Ion Batteries
Abstract:
The increasing requirements for high power and energy lithium ion batteries have led to the development of several classes of positive electrode materials. Among those one promising material is LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 due to its high reversible capacity and remarkable cycling performance. Further structural stabilization and improved electrochemical performance of this class of cathode materials can be achieved by cationic substitution to a transition metal such as Al, Mg, Cr, etc. The current study discusses a novel NMC type material obtained by simultaneous cationic substitution of the cobalt which is a toxic element, with aluminum and iron. A compound with the composition LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.15Al0.025Fe0.025O2 (NMCAF) was synthesized by the self-combustion method using sucrose as fuel. The material has a layered α-NaFeO2 type structure with a good hexagonal ordering. Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD patterns revealed a very low cationic mixing compared to the non-substituted material LiNi0.6Mn0,2Co0.2O2 suggesting a structural stabilization. Galvanostatic cycling measurements indicate improved electrochemical performance after the metal substitution. An initial discharge capacity of about 190 mAh.g−1 at slow rate (C/20), and a good cycling stability even at moderately faster rates (C/5 and C) have been observed. The long term cycling displayed a capacity retention of about 90% after 10 cycles.
13
54903
Thermal Transformation of Zn-Bi Double Hydroxide Lamellar in ZnO Doped with Bismuth in Application for Photo Catalysis under Visible Light
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The material having a better efficacy was characterized by XRD and thereafter SEM. The result of XRD untreated Bi-Zn-LDH material thermally revealed peaks characteristic lamellar materials. Indeed, the lamellar morphology is very visible, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the lamellar character partially disappears when the material is treated at 550 °C in a muffle furnace. Thus obtained, a zinc oxide doped with bismuth confirmed by XRD. The photocatalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W at 114,6 µw/cm2 as maximum of irradiance was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of Bi-ZnO and ZnO respectively.
12
47590
Numerical Analysis of the Melting of Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material in a Rectangular Latent Heat Storage Unit
Abstract:
Melting of Paraffin Wax (P116) dispersed with Al2O3 nanoparticles in a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) is numerically investigated. The storage unit consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) separated by rectangular channels in which heat transfer fluid flows (HTF: Water). A two dimensional mathematical model is considered to investigate numerically the heat and flow characteristics of the LHSU. The melting problem was formulated using the enthalpy porosity method. The finite volume approach was used for solving equations. The effects of nanoparticles&rsquo; volumetric fraction and the Reynolds number on the thermal performance of the storage unit were investigated.
11
56677
Foreign Banks Taking More Risk: Evidence from Emerging Economies
Abstract:
This paper addresses the impact of foreign ownership on the risk-taking behavior of banks. Using bank-level panel data of more than 1,300 commercial banks in 32 emerging economies during 2000-2013, we find that foreign owned banks take on more risk than their domestic counterparts. We further examine several factors that may potentially contribute to foreign banks’ differentiated riskiness from four perspectives, namely, foreign banks’ informational disadvantages, agency problems, the contagious effect of parent banks’ financial conditions and the disparity between home and host markets. We find supportive evidence that these factors play a significant role in affecting foreign banks’ risk-taking.
10
40333
A Bi-Objective Model to Address Simultaneous Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering
Abstract:
Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering has been increasingly addressed within last decades as an approach to improve the project execution costs. Therefore, we have taken the problem into consideration in this paper, aiming to maximize schedules quality robustness, in addition to minimize the relevant costs. In this regard, a bi-objective mathematical model is developed to formulate the problem. Moreover, it is possible to utilize the all-unit discount for materials purchasing. The problem is then solved by the constraint method, and the Pareto front is obtained for a variety of robustness values. The applicability and efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different numerical instances, finally.
9
40147
Accelerated Aging of Photopolymeric Material Used in Flexography
Abstract:
In this paper, a degradation of the photopolymeric material (PhPM), used as printing plate in the flexography reproduction technique, caused by accelerated aging has been observed. Since the basis process for production of printing plates from the PhPM is a radical cross-linking process caused by exposing to UV wavelengths, the assumption was that improper storage or irregular handling of the PhPM plate can change the surface and structure characteristics of the plates. Results have shown that the aging process causes degradation in the structure and changes in the surface of the PhPM printing plate.
8
96363
Determining Which Material Properties Resist the Tool Wear When Machining Pre-Sintered Zirconia
Abstract:
In the dental restoration sector, there has been a shift to using zirconia. With the ever increasing need to decrease lead times to deliver restorations faster the zirconia is machined in its pre-sintered state instead of grinding the very hard sintered state. As with all machining, there is tool wear and while investigating the tooling used to machine pre-sintered zirconia it became apparent that the wear rate is based more on material build up and abrasion than it is on plastic deformation like conventional metal machining. It also came to light that the tool material can currently not be selected based on wear resistance, as there is no data. Different works have analysed the effect of the individual wear mechanism separately using similar if not the same material. In this work, the testing method used to analyse the wear was a modified from ISO 8688:1989 to use the pre-sintered zirconia and the cutting conditions used in dental to machine it. This understanding was developed through a series of tests based in machining operations, to give the best representation of the multiple wear factors that can occur in machining of pre-sintered zirconia such as 3 body abrasion, material build up, surface welding, plastic deformation, tool vibration and thermal cracking. From the testing, it found that carbide grades with low trans-granular rupture toughness would fail due to abrasion while those with high trans-granular rupture toughness failed due to edge chipping from build up or thermal properties. The results gained can assist the development of these tools and the restorative dental process. This work was completed with the aim of assisting in the selection of tool material for future tools along with a deeper understanding of the properties that assist in abrasive wear resistance and material build up.
7
94218
The Effect of Season, Fire and Slope Position on Seriphium plumosum L. Forage Quality in South African Grassland Communities
Abstract:
Acceptability of plant material to herbivores is influenced by, among other factors; nutrients, plant secondary metabolites and growth stage of the plants. However, the effect of these factors on Seriphium plumosum L. acceptability to livestock is still not clearly understood, despite its importance in managing its encroachment in grassland communities. The study used 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance to investigate the effect of season (wet and dry), fire, slope position (top and bottom) and their interaction on Seriphium plumosum chemistry. We tested the hypothesis that S. plumosum chemistry varies temporally, spatially and pre- and post-fire treatment. Seriphium plumosum edible material was collected during the wet and dry season from burned and unburned areas on both top and bottom slopes before being analysed for protein (CP) content, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), total phenolics (TP) and condensed tannins (CT). Season had a significant effect on S. plumosum protein content, neutral detergent fibre, total phenolics and condensed tannins. Fire had a significant effect on CP. Interaction of season x fire had a significant effect on NDF and CP (p < 0.05). Seriphium plumosum in the wet season (6.69% ± 0.20 (SE)) had significantly higher CP than in the dry season (5.22% ± 0.13). NDF was significantly higher (58.01% ± 0.41) in the dry season than in the wet season (53.17% ± 0.34), while TP were significantly higher in the dry season (14.44 mg/gDw ± 1.03) than in the wet season (11.08 mg/gDw ± 1.07). CT in the wet season were significantly higher (1.56 mg/gDw ± 0.13) than in the dry season (1 mg/gDw ± 0.03). CP was significantly higher in burned (6. 31 % ± 0.22) than in unburned S. plumosum edible material (5.60 % ± 0.15). Seriphium plumosum CP was significantly higher in wet season x burned (7.34 % ± 0.31) than wet season x unburned (6.08 % ± 0.20) material and dry season x burned (5.34 % ± 0.18) and unburned (5.09 % ± 0.18) material were similar. NDF was similar in dry season x burned (58.31% ± 0.54) and dry season x unburned (57.69 % ± 0.62) material and significantly higher than similar wet season x burned (52.43% ± 0.45) and wet season x post-unburned (53.88% ± 0.47) material. This study suggests integrating fire, browsers, and supplements as encroacher S. plumosum control agents, especially in the wet season, following fire due to high S. plumosum CP content.
6
47251
Cryogenic Machining of Sawdust Incorporated Polypropylene Composites
Authors:
Abstract:
Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) were synthesized artificially by combining polypropylene, wood and resin. It is difficult to obtain a good surface finish by conventional machining on WPC because of material degradation due to excessive heat generated during the process. In order to preserve the material property and deliver a better surface finish and accuracy, a proper solution is devised for the machining of wood composites at low temperature. This research focuses on studying the effects of parameters of cryogenic machining on sawdust incorporated polypropylene composite material, in view of evolving the most suitable composition and an appropriate combination of process parameters. The machining characteristics of the six different compositions of WPC were evaluated by analyzing the trend. An attempt is made to determine proper combinations material composition and process control parameters, through process capability studies. A WPC of 80%-wood (saw dust particles), 20%-polypropylene and 0%-resin was found to be the best alternative for obtaining the best surface finish under cryogenic machining conditions.
5
90841
Integrating Dependent Material Planning Cycle into Building Information Management: A Building Information Management-Based Material Management Automation Framework
Abstract:
The collaboration and integration between all building information management (BIM) processes and tasks are necessary to ensure that all project objectives can be delivered. The literature review has been used to explore the state of the art BIM technologies to manage construction materials as well as the challenges which have faced the construction process using traditional methods. Thus, this paper aims to articulate a framework to integrate traditional material planning methods such as ABC analysis theory (Pareto principle) to analyse and categorise the project materials, as well as using independent material planning methods such as Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) and Fixed Order Point (FOP) into the BIM 4D, and 5D capabilities in order to articulate a dependent material planning cycle into BIM, which relies on the constructability method. Moreover, we build a model to connect between the material planning outputs and the BIM 4D and 5D data to ensure that all project information will be accurately presented throughout integrated and complementary BIM reporting formats. Furthermore, this paper will present a method to integrate between the risk management output and the material management process to ensure that all critical materials are monitored and managed under the all project stages. The paper includes browsers which are proposed to be embedded in any 4D BIM platform in order to predict the EOQ as well as FOP and alarm the user during the construction stage. This enables the planner to check the status of the materials on the site as well as to get alarm when the new order will be requested. Therefore, this will lead to manage all the project information in a single context and avoid missing any information at early design stage. Subsequently, the planner will be capable of building a more reliable 4D schedule by allocating the categorised material with the required EOQ to check the optimum locations for inventory and the temporary construction facilitates.
4
40331
An Integrated Mixed-Integer Programming Model to Address Concurrent Project Scheduling and Material Ordering
Abstract:
Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering can provide more flexibility to the project scheduling problem, as the project execution costs can be enhanced. Hence, the issue has been taken into account in this paper. To do so, a mixed-integer mathematical model is developed which considers the aforementioned flexibility, in addition to the materials quantity discount and space availability restrictions. Moreover, the activities duration has been treated as decision variables. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different instances. Additionally, the influence of the aforementioned parameters is investigated on the model performance.
3
18270
Advanced Model for Calculation of the Neutral Axis Shifting and the Wall Thickness Distribution in Rotary Draw Bending Processes
Abstract:
Rotary draw bending is a method which is being used in tube forming. In the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness distribution changes for tube’s cross section. Thinning takes place in the outer arc of the tube (extrados) due to the stretching of the material, whereas thickening occurs in the inner arc of the tube (intrados) due to the comparison of the material. The calculations of the wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting, and strain distribution have not been accurate enough, so far. The previous model (the geometrical model) describes the neutral axis shifting and wall thickness distribution. The geometrical of the tube, bending radius and bending angle are considered in the geometrical model, while the influence of the material properties of the tube forming are ignored. The advanced model is a modification of the previous model using material properties that depends on the correction factor. The correction factor is a purely empirically determined factor. The advanced model was compared with the Finite element simulation (FE simulation) using a different bending factor (Bf=bending radius/ diameter of the tube), wall thickness (Wf=diameter of the tube/ wall thickness), and material properties (strain hardening exponent). Finite element model of rotary draw bending has been performed in PAM-TUBE program (version: 2012). Results from the advanced model resemble the FE simulation and the experimental test.
2
24499
Reliability Based Topology Optimization: An Efficient Method for Material Uncertainty
Abstract:
We present a computationally efficient method for reliability-based topology optimization under material properties uncertainty, which is assumed to be lognormally distributed and correlated within the domain. Computational efficiency is achieved through estimating the response statistics with stochastic perturbation of second order, using these statistics to fit an appropriate distribution that follows the empirical distribution of the response, and employing an efficient gradient-based optimizer. The proposed algorithm is utilized for design of new structures and the changes in the optimized topology is discussed for various levels of target reliability and correlation strength. Predictions were verified thorough comparison with results obtained using Monte Carlo simulation.
1
56834
Design and Analysis of Crankshaft Using Al-Al2O3 Composite Material
Abstract:
The project is about design and analysis of crankshaft using Al-Al2O3 composite material. The project is mainly concentrated across two areas one is to design and analyze the composite material, and the other is to work on the practical model. Growing competition and the growing concern for the environment has forced the automobile manufactures to meet conflicting demands such as increased power and performance, lower fuel consumption, lower pollution emission and decrease noise and vibration. Metal matrix composites offer good properties for a number of automotive components. The work reports on studies on Al-Al2O3 as the possible alternative material for a crank shaft. These material have been considered for use in various components in engines due to the high amount of strength to weight ratio. These materials are significantly taken into account for their light weight, high strength, high specific modulus, low co-efficient of thermal expansion, good air resistance properties. In addition high specific stiffness, superior high temperature, mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of Al2O3 have developed some advanced materials that are Al-Al2O3 composites. Crankshafts are used in automobile industries. Crankshaft is connected to the connecting rod for the movement of the piston which is subjected to high stresses which cause the wear of the crankshaft. Hence using composite material in crankshaft gives good fuel efficiency, low manufacturing cost, less weight.