Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 57386

200
25249
Discretization of Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm for Solving Quadratic Assignment Problems
Authors:
Abstract:
Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) is one the combinatorial optimization problems about which research has been done in many companies for allocating some facilities to some locations. The issue of particular importance in this process is the costs of this allocation and the attempt in this problem is to minimize this group of costs. Since the QAP’s are from NP-hard problem, they cannot be solved by exact solution methods. Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm is a Meta-heuristicmethod which has higher capability to find the global optimal points. It is an algorithm which is basically raised to search a continuous space. The Quadratic Assignment Problem is the issue which can be solved in the discrete space, thus the standard arithmetic operators of Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm need to be redefined on the discrete space in order to apply the Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm on the discrete searching space. This paper represents the way of discretizing the Cuckoo optimization algorithm for solving the quadratic assignment problem.
199
90061
Old Community Spatial Integration: Discussion on the Mechanism of Aging Space System Replacement
Abstract:
Future the society aging of population will create the social problem has not had the good mechanism solution in the Asian country, especially in Taiwan. In the future ten year the people in Taiwan must facing the condition which is localization aging social problem. In this situation, how to use the spatial in eco way to development space use to solve the old age spatial demand is the way which might develop in the future Taiwan society. Over the next 10 years, taking care of the aging people will become part of the social problem of aging phenomenon. The research concentrate in the feasibility of spatial substitution, secondary use of spatial might solve out of spatial problem for aging people. In order to prove the space usable, the research required to review the project with the support system and infill system for space experiment, by using network grid way. That defined community level of space elements location relationship, make new definitions of space and return to cooperation. Research to innovation in the the appraisal space causes the possibility, by spatial replacement way solution on spatial insufficient suitable condition. To evaluation community spatial by using the support system and infill system in order to see possibilities of use in replacement inner space and modular architecture into housing. The study is discovering the solution on the Eco way to develop space use to figure out the old age spatial demand.
198
14070
Explicit Iterative Scheme for Approximating a Common Solution of Generalized Mixed Equilibrium Problem and Fixed Point Problem for a Nonexpansive Semigroup in Hilbert Space
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce and study an explicit iterative method based on hybrid extragradient method to approximate a common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup in Hilbert space. Further, we prove that the sequence generated by the proposed iterative scheme converge strongly to the common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup. This common solution is the unique solution of a variational inequality problem and is the optimality condition for a minimization problem. The results presented in this paper are the supplement, extension and generalization of the previously known results in this area.
197
20478
Active Space Debris Removal by Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation
Abstract:
In recent year the problem of space debris have become very serious. The mass of the artificial objects in orbit increased quite steadily at the rate of about 145 metric tons annually, leading to a total tally of approximately 7000 metric tons. Now most of space debris object orbiting in LEO region about 97%. The catastrophic collision can be mostly occurred in LEO region, where this collision generate the new debris. Thus, we propose a concept for cleaning the space debris in the region of thermosphere by passing the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation to in front of space debris object from the re-orbiter. So in our concept the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation will create the thermosphere expansion by reacting with atmospheric gas particles. So the drag is produced in front of the space debris object by thermosphere expansion. This drag force is high enough to slow down the space debris object’s relative velocity. Therefore the space debris object gradually reducing the altitude and finally enter into the earth’s atmosphere. After the first target is removed, the re-orbiter can be goes into next target. This method remove the space debris object without catching debris object. Thus it can be applied to a wide range of debris object without regard to their shapes or rotation. This paper discusses the operation of re-orbiter for removing the space debris in thermosphere region.
196
29124
Programmable Shields in Space
Abstract:
At the moment earth is in grave danger due to threats of global warming. The temperature of the earth has risen by almost 20C. Glaciers in the Arctic have started to melt. It would be foolhardy to think that this is a small effect and in time it would go away. Global warming is caused by a number of factors. However, one sure and simple way to totally eliminate this problem is to put programmable shields in space. Just as an umbrella blocks sunlight, a programmable shield in space will block sun rays from reaching the earth as in a solar eclipse and cause cooling in the penumbral region just as it happens during an eclipse.
195
47282
An Algorithm of Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization with Status Memory for Traveling Salesman Problem
Abstract:
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an optimization approach that achieves the social model of bird flocking and fish schooling. PSO works in continuous space and can solve continuous optimization problem with high quality. Set-based particle swarm optimization (SPSO) functions in discrete space by using a set. SPSO can solve combinatorial optimization problem with high quality and is successful to apply to the large-scale problem. In this paper, we present an algorithm of SPSO with status memory to decide the position based on the previous position for solving traveling salesman problem (TSP). In order to show the effectiveness of our approach. We examine SPSOSM for TSP compared to the existing algorithms.
194
14247
A Contribution to the Polynomial Eigen Problem
Abstract:
The relationship between eigenstructure (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) and latent structure (latent roots and latent vectors) is established. In control theory eigenstructure is associated with the state space description of a dynamic multi-variable system and a latent structure is associated with its matrix fraction description. Beginning with block controller and block observer state space forms and moving on to any general state space form, we develop the identities that relate eigenvectors and latent vectors in either direction. Numerical examples illustrate this result. A brief discussion of the potential of these identities in linear control system design follows. Additionally, we present a consequent result: a quick and easy method to solve the polynomial eigenvalue problem for regular matrix polynomials.
193
22818
Art, Nature, and City in the Construction of Contemporary Public Space
Abstract:
We believe that in the majority of the “recent production of public space", the overvaluation of the "image", of the "ephemeral" and of the "objectual", has come to determine the configuration of banal and (more or less) arbitrary "public spaces", mostly linked to a problem of “outdoor decoration”, reflecting a clear sign of uncertainty and arbitrariness about the meaning, the role and shape of public space and public art.This "inconsistency" which is essentially linked to the loss of urban, but also social, cultural and political, vocation of the disciplines that “shape” the urban space (but is also linked to the lack of urban and technical culture of techinicians and policy makers) converted a significant set of the recently built "public space" and “urban art” into diffuse and multi-referenced pieces, which generally shares the inability of confering to the urban space, civic, aesthetic, social and symbolic meanings. In this sense we consider it is essential to undertake a theoretical reflection on the values, the meaning(s) and the shape(s) that open space, and urban art may (or must) take in the current urban and cultural context, in order to redeem for public space its status of significant physical reference, able to embody a spatial and urban identity, and simultaneously enable the collective accession and appropriation of public space. Taking as reference public space interventions built in the last decade on the European context, we will seek to explore and defend the need of considering public space as a true place of exception, an exceptional support where the emphasis is placed on the quality of the experience, especially by the relations public space/urban art can established with the city, with nature and geography in a broad sense, referring us back to a close and inseparable and timeless relationship between nature and culture.
192
55198
Game Space Program: Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract:
Game Space Program is the program design and development game for therapy the autistic child who had problems with sensory processing and integration. This program is the basic for game space to expand treatment therapy in many areas to help autistic's ability to think through visual perception. This problem can be treated with sensory experience and integration with visual experience to learn how to think and how to learn with visual perception. This perception can be accommodated through an understanding of visual thinking received from sensory exist in game space as virtual healthcare facilities are adjusted based on the sensory needs of children with autism. This paper aims to analyze the potential of virtual visual thinking for treatment autism with the game space program.
191
22983
“Context” Thinking of Contemporary Urban History Space under the Basis of Enlightenment of Chinese Traditional Cultural Philology: Taking West Expansion Plan of Tianyi Pavilion as An Example
Authors:
Abstract:
Facing the understanding problem of update and preservation of urban history space under background of rapid Chinese urbanization, so at first there is a need to dig the philosophic principles of “antithesis” and “unification” which are contained in the traditional Chinese literature known as “antithesis” and do the job of planning translation by personal understanding in order to form understanding and value systems of dialectical urban history space under the foundation of “antithesis”. Then we could put forward a “context” concept for urban history space under the foregoing basis. After that, we will take the update and preservation of Ningbo Tianyi Pavilion’s historical district as an example to discuss problems related to understanding of urban history area under the basis of Chinese tradition culture, improvement of value system, construction of urban trait space and Chinese “localization” of planning theory.
190
39912
Information Society-Education Space
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. Second step was to identify how information space intersects the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school). Interrelationship between the above-mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support for the family space, education and institutional space. In addition, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. However, this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or be support systems if we know the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work for accomplish the educational objectives.
189
10392
Block Based Imperial Competitive Algorithm with Greedy Search for Traveling Salesman Problem
Abstract:
Imperial competitive algorithm (ICA) simulates a multi-agent algorithm. Each agent is like a kingdom has its country, and the strongest country in each agent is called imperialist, others are colony. Countries are competitive with imperialist which in the same kingdom by evolving. So this country will move in the search space to find better solutions with higher fitness to be a new imperialist. The main idea in this paper is using the peculiarity of ICA to explore the search space to solve the kinds of combinational problems. Otherwise, we also study to use the greed search to increase the local search ability. To verify the proposed algorithm in this paper, the experimental results of traveling salesman problem (TSP) is according to the traveling salesman problem library (TSPLIB). The results show that the proposed algorithm has higher performance than the other known methods.
188
45896
Theoretical BER Analyzing of MPSK Signals Based on the Signal Space
Abstract:
Based on the optimum detection, signal projection and Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) rule, Proakis has deduced the theoretical BER equation of Gray coded MPSK signals. Proakis analyzed the BER theoretical equations mainly based on the projection of signals, which is difficult to be understood. This article solve the same problem based on the signal space, which explains the vectors relations among the sending signals, received signals and noises. The more explicit and easy-deduced process is illustrated in this article based on the signal space, which can illustrated the relations among the signals and noises clearly. This kind of deduction has a univocal geometry meaning. It can explain the correlation between the production and calculation of BER in vector level.
187
22133
Optimal Utilization of Space in a Warehouse: A Case Study
Abstract:
With increasing expectations and demands for warehousing and distribution, Warehouse Solution Incorporated in Victoria has been looking at ways to improve on its business processes to maintain the competitive edge. To maintain the provision of high quality service standards at competitive and affordable prices, improvements in the logistics management are necessary. One such avenue is to make efficient use of space available in the warehouse. This paper is based on a study of the collaboration of Warehouse Solution Inc with Dandenong Distribution Centre (DDC) to solve congestion problem and enhance efficiency of the whole warehouse activities.
186
73072
Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations
Abstract:
The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.
185
83838
The Effects of Ethnicity, Personality and Religiosity on Desire for Personal Space
Authors:
Abstract:
Past research shows that personal space has been investigated since the 1950s. Also, personality traits have been found to have a significant relationship with personal space. However, some of these studies have been criticized for being ethically inappropriate. In an attempt to avoid ethical issues, a new scale measuring desire for personal space has been created. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of ethnicity on desire for personal space. Additionally, extraversion and neuroticism are expected to predict significantly desire for personal space. Furthermore, the study is looking for any impact of religiosity on desire for personal space. In order to test the previous hypotheses, 115 participants from three cultural groups (English, Greeks in Greece and Greeks in the UK) are recruited online. Results indicate that only extraversion and religiosity are significant predictors of desire for personal space. Implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.
184
19699
A Simulation Modeling Approach for Optimization of Storage Space Allocation in Container Terminal
Abstract:
Container handling problems at container terminals are NP-hard problems. This paper presents an approach using discrete-event simulation modeling to optimize solution for storage space allocation problem, taking into account all various interrelated container terminal handling activities. The proposed approach is applied on a real case study data of container terminal at Alexandria port. The computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed model for optimization of storage space allocation in container terminal where 54% reduction in containers handling time in port is achieved.
183
71485
The Qualification and Quality of Space Sciences and Space Engineering Education in Turkey
Abstract:
The fields of engineering and technological sciences are increasing in quality and quantity day by day all over the world. Countries have to follow, implement and adapt these developments in order to economical empowerments. In our era, it's possible to follow the rapidly developing technology and to produce new technologies by inquisitive, curious, numerical thinking individuals who can show several approaches to problem solving. In this case, countries should develop te result oriented and need-focused curriculums in university education. As in the whole world, there are more space studies in our country as well. Universities should undertake the task of supply the need for staff of this technological race. In this context, questions about the purpose, content and learning outcomes of the space sciences and space engineering departments in our country will be researched answers to reveal the characteristic of this section. In this study, it was determined in which universities the space engineering and the departments of basic sciences educate with formal education and the contents of this education, and the universities were compared with each other as of 2017. In our country three universities provide Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Space Sciences and Technologies, two universities provide Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering education. In all universities, specialized courses are taught after basic engineering education. But the question that needs to be answered is, do the lessons benefit in practice? The answer of this question will reveal the quality of the education. This paper suggests that surveys be conducted to search for the answer to this question. It's thought to be the base for the next works.
182
84606
Research on Spatial Morphology and Protection of Traditional Rural Settlements Based on Space Syntax: Taking Xiazhuang Village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as Example
Authors:
Abstract:
Space syntax, a paradigm of the urban research, which manifests people’s intuitive and abstract perception of a material space with a solid mathematical way, explores how space represents its social characteristics. Taking Xiazhuang village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as an example and focusing on inward structure and street space, this article recognizes the connotative significance of the settlement with the aid of space syntax theory and quantitative analysis method from the perspective of spatial configuration to present relevant suggestions for its future planning and provides references for traditional rural settlement protection.
181
62462
Topological Quantum Diffeomorphisms in Field Theory and the Spectrum of the Space-Time
Abstract:
Through the Fukaya conjecture and the wrapped Floer cohomology, the correspondences between paths in a loop space and states of a wrapping space of states in a Hamiltonian space (the ramification of field in this case is the connection to the operator that goes from TM to T*M) are demonstrated where these last states are corresponding to bosonic extensions of a spectrum of the space-time or direct image of the functor Spec, on space-time. This establishes a distinguished diffeomorphism defined by the mapping from the corresponding loops space to wrapping category of the Floer cohomology complex which furthermore relates in certain proportion D-branes (certain D-modules) with strings. This also gives to place to certain conjecture that establishes equivalences between moduli spaces that can be consigned in a moduli identity taking as space-time the Hitchin moduli space on G, whose dual can be expressed by a factor of a bosonic moduli spaces.
180
74305
A Study of Algebraic Structure Involving Banach Space through Q-Analogue
Abstract:
The aim of the present paper is to study the Banach Space and Combinatorial Algebraic Structure of R. It is further aimed to study algebraic structure of set of all q-extension of classical formula and function for 0 < q < 1.
179
89721
The Identity of the Cairene Public Space: Manifestations of Social and Architectural Heritage in the City Square of Medieval Cairo
Abstract:
Cairo has been famous for the unique identity of its medieval architecture, which was formed by multiple dynasties that ruled Egypt. However, only a few researches were done on the identity of its public space. This paper links both the architectural and the socio-political aspects of the Cairene public space and studies how they affected each other. The subject of the study is Maydan Salah al-Din, the main city square of medieval Cairo, which reveals a quite useful information, not only about the architectural identity of the Cairene public space but also about the socio-political patterns that operated within. The analytical framework is based on Lefebvre’s theory, the ‘production of space’, in which he applied 'the Hegelian dialectic' in order to understand how the social practice forms the space, and how, in turn, the space forms the social practice. This framework offers a comprehensive understanding of the identity of the Cairene public space, which does not separate architecture from the social practice.
178
94011
Q-Efficient Solutions of Vector Optimization via Algebraic Concepts
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, we first introduce the concept of Q-efficient solutions in a real linear space not necessarily endowed with a topology, where Q is some nonempty (not necessarily convex) set. We also used the scalarization technique including the Gerstewitz function generated by a nonconvex set to characterize these Q-efficient solutions. The algebraic concepts of interior and closure are useful to study optimization problems without topology. Studying nonconvex vector optimization is valuable since topological interior is equal to algebraic interior for a convex cone. So, we use the algebraic concepts of interior and closure to define Q-weak efficient solutions and Q-Henig proper efficient solutions of set-valued optimization problems, where Q is not a convex cone. Optimization problems with set-valued maps have a wide range of applications, so it is expected that there will be a useful analytical tool in optimization theory for set-valued maps. These kind of optimization problems are closely related to stochastic programming, control theory, and economic theory. The paper focus on nonconvex problems, the results are obtained by assuming generalized non-convexity assumptions on the data of the problem. In convex problems, main mathematical tools are convex separation theorems, alternative theorems, and algebraic counterparts of some usual topological concepts, while in nonconvex problems, we need a nonconvex separation function. Thus, we consider the Gerstewitz function generated by a general set in a real linear space and re-examine its properties in the more general setting. A useful approach for solving a vector problem is to reduce it to a scalar problem. In general, scalarization means the replacement of a vector optimization problem by a suitable scalar problem which tends to be an optimization problem with a real valued objective function. The Gerstewitz function is well known and widely used in optimization as the basis of the scalarization. The essential properties of the Gerstewitz function, which are well known in the topological framework, are studied by using algebraic counterparts rather than the topological concepts of interior and closure. Therefore, properties of the Gerstewitz function, when it takes values just in a real linear space are studied, and we use it to characterize Q-efficient solutions of vector problems whose image space is not endowed with any particular topology. Therefore, we deal with a constrained vector optimization problem in a real linear space without assuming any topology, and also Q-weak efficient and Q-proper efficient solutions in the senses of Henig are defined. Moreover, by means of the Gerstewitz function, we provide some necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for set-valued vector optimization problems.
177
2428
The Control System Architecture of Space Environment Simulator
Abstract:
This article mainly introduces the control system architecture of space environment simulator, simultaneously also briefly introduce the automation control technology of industrial process and the measurement technology of vacuum and cold black environment. According to the volume of chamber, the space environment simulator is divided into three types of small, medium and large. According to the classification and application of space environment simulator, the control system is divided into the control system of small, medium, large space environment simulator and the centralized control system of multiple space environment simulators.
176
60903
A Proposal for U-City (Smart City) Service Method Using Real-Time Digital Map
Abstract:
Recently, technologies based on three-dimensional (3D) space information are being developed and quality of life is improving as a result. Research on real-time digital map (RDM) is being conducted now to provide 3D space information. RDM is a service that creates and supplies 3D space information in real time based on location/shape detection. Research subjects on RDM include the construction of 3D space information with matching image data, complementing the weaknesses of image acquisition using multi-source data, and data collection methods using big data. Using RDM will be effective for space analysis using 3D space information in a U-City and for other space information utilization technologies.
175
12901
SC-LSH: An Efficient Indexing Method for Approximate Similarity Search in High Dimensional Space
Abstract:
Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is one of the most promising techniques for solving nearest neighbour search problem in high dimensional space. Euclidean LSH is the most popular variation of LSH that has been successfully applied in many multimedia applications. However, the Euclidean LSH presents limitations that affect structure and query performances. The main limitation of the Euclidean LSH is the large memory consumption. In order to achieve a good accuracy, a large number of hash tables is required. In this paper, we propose a new hashing algorithm to overcome the storage space problem and improve query time, while keeping a good accuracy as similar to that achieved by the original Euclidean LSH. The Experimental results on a real large-scale dataset show that the proposed approach achieves good performances and consumes less memory than the Euclidean LSH.
174
88075
The Acquisition of Case in Biological Domain Based on Text Mining
Abstract:
In order to settle the problem of acquiring case in biological related to design problems, a biometrics instance acquisition method based on text mining is presented. Through the construction of corpus text vector space and knowledge mining, the feature selection, similarity measure and case retrieval method of text in the field of biology are studied. First, we establish a vector space model of the corpus in the biological field and complete the preprocessing steps. Then, the corpus is retrieved by using the vector space model combined with the functional keywords to obtain the biological domain examples related to the design problems. Finally, we verify the validity of this method by taking the example of text.
173
33117
Friendly Public Spaces in Iran
Abstract:
According to the results of contemporary urbanism, social living moved into buildings and the quality of urban space has been declining. But still, there are life in open public space and it is one of reason attendance and activities of people in open public spaces.The purpose of this research is finding reason creation friendly public space in urban spaces and also use these in new urban spaces.The research methodology consisted of a qualitative model based on observation and graphical analysis. In this paper case study is public space historical, moderns in urban scales and local scales in Iran.This paper shows that Existence of friendly public space in cities cause is attendance and activities of people in open public spaces that it is reason the revitalization of public open spaces in cities.
172
81927
India and Space Insurance Policy: An Analytical Insight
Abstract:
In the recent past, the United States of America and Russia were the only two dominant players in the field of space exploration and had a virtual monopoly in the field of space and technology. However, this has changed over the past few years. Many other nation states such as India, China, and the UK have made significant progress in this field. Amongst these nations, the growth and development of the Indian space program have been nothing short of a miracle. Starting recently, India has successfully launched a series of satellites including its much acclaimed Mangalyaan mission, which placed a satellite in Mars’ orbit. The fact that India was able to attain this feat in its attempt demonstrates the enormous growth potential and promise that the Indian space program holds for the coming years. However, unlike other space-faring nations, India does not have a comprehensive and consolidated space insurance policy. In this regard, it is pertinent to note that, the costs and risks involved in a administering a space program are enormous. Therefore, in the absence of a comprehensive space insurance policy, any losses from an unsuccessful will have to be borne by the state exchequer. Thus, in order to ensure that Indian space program continues on its upward trajectory, the Indian establishment should seriously consider formulating a comprehensive insurance policy. This paper intends to analyze the international best practices followed by other space-faring nations in relation to space insurance policy. Thereafter, the authors seek to examine the current regime in India relating to space insurance policy. Finally, the authors will conclude by providing a series of recommendations regarding the essential elements that should be part of any Indian space insurance policy regime.
171
98259
The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array
Abstract:
In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.
170
42491
A Second Order Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem
Abstract:
The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the best-known problems in optimization problem. There are many research regarding the TSP. One of the most usage tool for this problem is the genetic algorithm (GA). The chromosome of the GA for TSP is normally encoded by the order of the visited city. However, the traditional chromosome encoding scheme has some limitations which are twofold: the large solution space and the inability to encapsulate some information. The number of solution for a certain problem is exponentially grow by the number of city. Moreover, the traditional chromosome encoding scheme fails to recognize the misplaced correct relation. It implies that the tradition method focuses only on exact solution. In this work, we relax some of the concept in the GA for TSP which is the exactness of the solution. The proposed work exploits the relation between cities in order to reduce the solution space in the chromosome encoding. In this paper, a second order GA is proposed to solve the TSP. The term second order refers to how the solution is encoded into chromosome. The chromosome is divided into 2 types: the high order chromosome and the low order chromosome. The high order chromosome is the chromosome that focus on the relation between cities such as the city A should be visited before city B. On the other hand, the low order chromosome is a type of chromosome that is derived from a high order chromosome. In other word, low order chromosome is encoded by the traditional chromosome encoding scheme. The genetic operation, mutation and crossover, will be performed on the high order chromosome. Then, the high order chromosome will be mapped to a group of low order chromosomes whose characteristics are satisfied with the high order chromosome. From the mapped set of chromosomes, the champion chromosome will be selected based on the fitness value which will be later used as a representative for the high order chromosome. The experiment is performed on the city data from TSPLIB.
169
89044
Kirchoff Type Equation Involving the p-Laplacian on the Sierpinski Gasket Using Nehari Manifold Technique
Abstract:
In this paper, we will discuss the existence of weak solutions of the Kirchhoff type boundary value problem on the Sierpinski gasket. Where S denotes the Sierpinski gasket in R² and S₀ is the intrinsic boundary of the Sierpinski gasket. M: R → R is a positive function and h: S × R → R is a suitable function which is a part of our main equation. ∆p denotes the p-Laplacian, where p > 1. First of all, we will define a weak solution for our problem and then we will show the existence of at least two solutions for the above problem under suitable conditions. There is no well-known concept of a generalized derivative of a function on a fractal domain. Recently, the notion of differential operators such as the Laplacian and the p-Laplacian on fractal domains has been defined. We recall the result first then we will address the above problem. In view of literature, Laplacian and p-Laplacian equations are studied extensively on regular domains (open connected domains) in contrast to fractal domains. In fractal domains, people have studied Laplacian equations more than p-Laplacian probably because in that case, the corresponding function space is reflexive and many minimax theorems which work for regular domains is applicable there which is not the case for the p-Laplacian. This motivates us to study equations involving p-Laplacian on the Sierpinski gasket. Problems on fractal domains lead to nonlinear models such as reaction-diffusion equations on fractals, problems on elastic fractal media and fluid flow through fractal regions etc. We have studied the above p-Laplacian equations on the Sierpinski gasket using fibering map technique on the Nehari manifold. Many authors have studied the Laplacian and p-Laplacian equations on regular domains using this Nehari manifold technique. In general Euler functional associated with such a problem is Frechet or Gateaux differentiable. So, a critical point becomes a solution to the problem. Also, the function space they consider is reflexive and hence we can extract a weakly convergent subsequence from a bounded sequence. But in our case neither the Euler functional is differentiable nor the function space is known to be reflexive. Overcoming these issues we are still able to prove the existence of at least two solutions of the given equation.
168
18781
The Position of Space weather in Africa-Education and Outreach
Abstract:
Although the field of Space weather science is a young field among the space sciences, but yet history has it that activities related to this science began since the year 1859 when the great solar storm happened which resulted in the disruptions of telegraphs operations around the World at that particular time subsequently making it possible for the scientist Richard Carrington to be able to connect the Solar flare observed a day earlier before the great storm and the great deflection of the Earth’s Magnetic field (geometric storm) simultaneous with the telegraph disruption. However years later as at today with the advent of and the coming into existence of the Explorer 1, the Luna 1 and the establishments of the United States International Space Weather Program, International Geophysical Year (IGY) as well as the International Center for Space Weather Sciences and Education (ICSWSE) have made us understand the Space weather better and enable us well define the field of Space weather science. Despite the successes recorded in the development of Space sciences as a whole over the last century and the coming onboard of specialized bodies/programs on space weather like the International Space Weather Program and the ICSWSE, the majority of Africans including institutions, research organizations and even some governments are still ignorant about the existence of theSpace weather science,because apart from some very few countries like South Africa, Nigeria and Egypt among some few others the majority of the African nations and their academic institutions have no knowledge or idea about the existence of this field of Space science (Space weather).
167
57017
Classification of Traffic Complex Acoustic Space
Abstract:
After years of development, the study of soundscape has been refined to the types of urban space and building. Traffic complex takes traffic function as the core, with obvious design features of architectural space combination and traffic streamline. The acoustic environment is strongly characterized by function, space, material, user and other factors. Traffic complex integrates various functions of business, accommodation, entertainment and so on. It has various forms, complex and varied experiences, and its acoustic environment is turned rich and interesting with distribution and coordination of various functions, division and unification of the mass, separation and organization of different space and the cross and the integration of multiple traffic flow. In this study, it made field recordings of each space of various traffic complex, and extracted and analyzed different acoustic elements, including changes in sound pressure, frequency distribution, steady sound source, sound source information and other aspects, to make cluster analysis of each independent traffic complex buildings. It divided complicated traffic complex building space into several typical sound space from acoustic environment perspective, mainly including stable sound space, high-pressure sound space, rhythm sound space and upheaval sound space. This classification can further deepen the study of subjective evaluation and control of the acoustic environment of traffic complex.
166
77368
[Keynote Talk]: Analysis of One Dimensional Advection Diffusion Model Using Finite Difference Method
Abstract:
In this paper, one-dimensional advection diffusion model is analyzed using finite difference method based on Crank-Nicolson scheme. A practical problem of filter cake washing of chemical engineering is analyzed. The model is converted into dimensionless form. For the grid Ω × ω = [0,1] × [0,T], the Crank-Nicolson spatial derivative scheme is used in space domain and forward difference scheme is used in the time domain. The scheme is found to be unconditionally convergent, stable, first order accurate in time and second order accurate in the space domain. For a test problem, numerical results are compared with the analytical ones for different values of the parameter.
165
22318
Kemmer Oscillator in Cosmic String Background
Abstract:
In this work, we aim to solve the two dimensional Kemmer equation including Dirac oscillator interaction term, in the background space-time generated by a cosmic string which is submitted to an uniform magnetic field. Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of our problem have been found and the influence of the cosmic string space-time on the energy spectrum has been analyzed.
164
72040
Analysis of Autonomous Orbit Determination for Lagrangian Navigation Constellation with Different Dynamical Models
Abstract:
Global navigation satellite system(GNSS) can deliver navigation information for spacecraft orbiting on low-Earth orbits and medium Earth orbits. However, the GNSS cannot navigate the spacecraft on high-Earth orbit or deep space probes effectively. With the deep space exploration becoming a hot spot of aerospace, the demand for a deep space satellite navigation system is becoming increasingly prominent. Many researchers discussed the feasibility and performance of a satellite navigation system on periodic orbits around the Earth-Moon libration points which can be called Lagrangian point satellite navigation system. Autonomous orbit determination (AOD) is an important performance for the Lagrangian point satellite navigation system. With this ability, the Lagrangian point satellite navigation system can reduce the dependency on ground stations. AOD also can greatly reduce total system cost and assure mission continuity. As the elliptical restricted three-body problem can describe the Earth-Moon system more accurately than the circular restricted three-body problem, we study the autonomous orbit determination of Lagrangian navigation constellation using only crosslink range based on elliptical restricted three body problem. Extended Kalman filter is used in the autonomous orbit determination. In order to compare the autonomous orbit determination results based on elliptical restricted three-body problem to the results of autonomous orbit determination based on circular restricted three-body problem, we give the autonomous orbit determination position errors of a navigation constellation include four satellites based on the circular restricted three-body problem. The simulation result shows that the Lagrangian navigation constellation can achieve long-term precise autonomous orbit determination using only crosslink range. In addition, the type of the libration point orbit will influence the autonomous orbit determination accuracy.
163
67240
Research on the Transformation of Bottom Space in the Teaching Area of Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University
Authors:
Abstract:
There is a lot of bottom space in the teaching area of Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University, which benefits to the ventilation, heat dissipation, circulation, partition of quiet and noisy areas and diversification of spaces. Hangzhou is hot in summer but cold in winter, so teachers and students spend much less time in the bottom space of buildings in winter than in summer. Recently, depending on the teachers and students&rsquo; proposals, the school transformed the bottom space in the teaching area to provide space for relaxing, chatting and staying in winter. Surveying and analyzing the existing ways to transform, the paper researches deeply on the transformation projects of bottom space in the teaching buildings. It is believed that this paper can be a salutary lesson to make the bottom space in the teaching areas of universities richer and bring more diverse activities for teachers and students.
162
67238
Research on Renovation of Existing Interior Space Based on Post Occupancy Evaluation: A Case Study of the Atrium Space of Zhejiang University Library in Hangzhou
Authors:
Abstract:
The renovation of existing interior space is big issue for architects in today’s China. However the traditional way of space renovation in China mostly focuses on the object itself, and the method also focuses on subjective level without the support of specific data. This research focuses the application of renovation of existing interior space based on post occupancy evaluation by a case study of a typical interior space. The research hopes to give a more scientific method of interior space renovation for architects and help promoting and guiding renovation practice. This research studies the post occupancy evaluation of the atrium space of Zhejiang University Library including subjective satisfaction and physical environmental satisfaction. The result provides necessary data support to conclude the design principles and strategies of renovation. Then the research uses simulation software to verify the availability of the strategy given based on the study. In conclusion, the research summarizes the application process of design methods of renovation of existing interior space based on the post-occupancy evaluation, and testifies to the practical significance of the renovation of existing interior space.
161
42378
On Transferring of Transient Signals along Hollow Waveguide
Abstract:
In Electromagnetics, there are three canonical boundary value problem with given initial conditions for the electromagnetic field sought, namely: Cavity Problem, Waveguide Problem, and External Problem. The Cavity Problem and Waveguide Problem were rigorously studied and new results were arised at original works in the past decades. In based on studies of an analytical time domain method Evolutionary Approach to Electromagnetics (EAE), electromagnetic field strength vectors produced by a time dependent source function are sought. The fields are took place in L2 Hilbert space. The source function that performs signal transferring, energy and surplus of energy has been demonstrated with all clarity. Depth of the method and ease of applications are emerged needs of gathering obtained results. Main discussion is about perfect electric conductor and hollow waveguide. Even if well studied time-domain modes problems are mentioned, specifically, the modes which have a hollow (i.e., medium-free) cross-section domain are considered.
160
67955
Design of Data Management Software System Supporting Rendezvous and Docking with Various Spaceships
Abstract:
The function of the two spacecraft docking network, the communication and control of a docking target with various spacecrafts is realized in the space lab data management system. In order to solve the problem of the complex data communication mode between the space lab and various spaceships, and the problem of software reuse caused by non-standard protocol, a data management software system supporting rendezvous and docking with various spaceships has been designed. The software system is based on CCSDS Spcecraft Onboard Interface Service(SOIS). It consists of Software Driver Layer, Middleware Layer and Appliaction Layer. The Software Driver Layer hides the various device interfaces using the uniform device driver framework. The Middleware Layer is divided into three lays, including transfer layer, application support layer and system business layer. The communication of space lab plaform bus and the docking bus is realized in transfer layer. Application support layer provides the inter tasks communitaion and the function of unified time management for the software system. The data management software functions are realized in system business layer, which contains telemetry management service, telecontrol management service, flight status management service, rendezvous and docking management service and so on. The Appliaction Layer accomplishes the space lab data management system defined tasks using the standard interface supplied by the Middleware Layer. On the basis of layered architecture, rendezvous and docking tasks and the rendezvous and docking management service are independent in the software system. The rendezvous and docking tasks will be activated and executed according to the different spaceships. In this way, the communication management functions in the independent flight mode, the combination mode of the manned spaceship and the combination mode of the cargo spaceship are achieved separately. The software architecture designed standard appliction interface for the services in each layer. Different requirements of the space lab can be supported by the use of standard services per layer, and the scalability and flexibility of the data management software can be effectively improved. It can also dynamically expand the number and adapt to the protocol of visiting spaceships. The software system has been applied in the data management subsystem of the space lab, and has been verified in the flight of the space lab. The research results of this paper can provide the basis for the design of the data manage system in the future space station.
159
95617
Liturgical Elements and Symbolism of Light in Christian Sacred Space
Abstract:
The light is one of the major themes of theology of sacred space. Christian theology, but also architecture in its complexity, is permeated by the symbolism of light from its beginning. The aim of this paper is to deeply analyse the symbolism of light in every single element of contemporary Christian sacred space such as altar, ambo, baptistery, tabernacle, confessionals, stations of the cross, etc. The research will be carried out using the methodology of research of literature and comparatively observation of contemporary examples of sacred architecture. The research will use the insights of analyzed literature and examples of sacred architecture in order to describe the background of the problem as well as to complement the received results with the reliable scientific findings. The paper will highlight the importance of symbolic and theological points of view in contemporary church design using the light as a building part of every single part of sacred architecture as there is an insight that, in contemporary sacred architecture, there is a lack of understanding of symbolic and theological aspect of light while designing new sacred spaces.
158
93749
The Whale Optimization Algorithm and Its Implementation in MATLAB
Abstract:
Optimization is an important tool in making decisions and in analysing physical systems. In mathematical terms, an optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from among the set of all feasible solutions. The paper discusses the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA), and its applications in different fields. The algorithm is tested using MATLAB because of its unique and powerful features. The benchmark functions used in WOA algorithm are grouped as: unimodal (F1-F7), multimodal (F8-F13), and fixed-dimension multimodal (F14-F23). Out of these benchmark functions, we show the experimental results for F7, F11, and F19 for different number of iterations. The search space and objective space for the selected function are drawn, and finally, the best solution as well as the best optimal value of the objective function found by WOA is presented. The algorithmic results demonstrate that the WOA performs better than the state-of-the-art meta-heuristic and conventional algorithms.
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18932
The Access to the City in the Medellín Urban Experience
Abstract:
According to many studies, public space in the cities of Global South is constantly morcellated and captured by a multiplicity of actors in a permanent struggle for power. This imposed public space restricts the access to services and political actions to many inhabitants. The author has conducted several focus group sessions using video in a reflective mode with low-income communities in Medellín, Colombia in order to study how people in this city are shift from a physical public space to a hybrid public space shaped by internet. Beyond the fragmented city and the violent urban context manifested by participants, these activities have highlighted how the access to the city is currently going through a dialectic movement between the physical and the digital space. The purpose of this article is to make explicit the link between this hybrid public space and the boundaries of exclusion in the city. Urban marginality is closely related with the idea of access and space. Low-income communities in Medellín assume the digital realm like a “not controlled space” of resistance, where alternative ways of expression like hip hop movement, graffiti, dance, video and virtual communities produce effective changes in the physical realm.
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16723
A Problem on Homogeneous Isotropic Microstretch Thermoelastic Half Space with Mass Diffusion Medium under Different Theories
Abstract:
The present investigation deals with generalized model of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermoelastic half space with mass diffusion medium. Theories of generalized thermoelasticity Lord-Shulman (LS) Green-Lindsay (GL) and Coupled Theory (CT) theories are applied to investigate the problem. The stresses in the considered medium have been studied due to normal force and tangential force. The normal mode analysis technique is used to calculate the normal stress, shear stress, couple stresses and microstress. A numerical computation has been performed on the resulting quantity. The computed numerical results are shown graphically.
155
23258
Real-Time Detection of Space Manipulator Self-Collision
Abstract:
In order to avoid self-collision of space manipulators during operation process, a real-time detection method is proposed in this paper. The manipulator is fitted into a cylinder enveloping surface, and then the detection algorithm of collision between cylinders is analyzed. The collision model of space manipulator self-links can be detected by using this algorithm in real-time detection during the operation process. To ensure security of the operation, a safety threshold is designed. The simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for a 7-DOF space manipulator.
154
54713
Collocation Method for Coupled System of Boundary Value Problems with Cubic B-Splines
Abstract:
Coupled system of second order linear and nonlinear boundary value problems occur in various fields of Science and Engineering. In the formulation of the problem, any one of 81 possible types of boundary conditions may occur. These 81 possible boundary conditions are written as a combination of four boundary conditions. To solve a coupled system of boundary value problem with these converted boundary conditions, a collocation method with cubic B-splines as basis functions has been developed. In the collocation method, the mesh points of the space variable domain have been selected as the collocation points. The basis functions have been redefined into a new set of basis functions which in number match with the number of mesh points in the space variable domain. The solution of a non-linear boundary value problem has been obtained as the limit of a sequence of solutions of linear boundary value problems generated by quasilinearization technique. Several linear and nonlinear boundary value problems are presented to test the efficiency of the proposed method and found that numerical results obtained by the present method are in good agreement with the exact solutions available in the literature.
153
92033
Study on the Characteristics of Chinese Urban Network Space from the Perspective of Innovative Collaboration
Authors:
Abstract:
With the development of knowledge economy era, deepening the mechanism of cooperation and adhering to sharing and win-win cooperation has become new direction of urban development nowadays. In recent years, innovative collaborations between cities are becoming more and more frequent, whose influence on urban network space has aroused many scholars' attention. Taking 46 cities in China as the research object, the paper builds the connectivity of innovative network between cities and the linkages of urban external innovation using patent cooperation data among cities, and explores urban network space in China by the application of GIS, which is a beneficial exploration to the study of social network space in China in the era of information network. The result shows that the urban innovative network space and geographical entity space exist differences, and the linkages of external innovation are not entirely related to the city innovative capacity and the level of economy development. However, urban innovative network space and geographical entity space are similar in hierarchical clustering. They have both formed Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta three metropolitan areas and Beijing-Shenzhen-Shanghai-Hangzhou four core cities, which lead the development of innovative network space in China.
152
102097
Strategies of Spatial Optimization for Open Space in the Old-Age Friendly City: An Investigation of the Behavior of the Elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou
Authors:
Abstract:
With the aging trend continuing to accelerate, open space is important for the daily life of the elderly, and its old-age friendliness is worthy of attention. Based on behavioral observation and literature research, this paper studies the behavior of the elderly in urban open space. Through the investigation, classification and quantitative analysis of the activity types, time characteristics and spatial behavior order of the elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou, it summarizes the square space suitable for the psychological needs, physiology and activity needs of the elderly, combined with the basis of literature research. Finally, the suggestions for the improvement of the old-age friendship of Xicheng Square are put forward, from the aspects of microclimate, safety and accessibility, space richness and service facility quality.
151
107868
Research on Modular Design of Residential Space in Hangzhou Rental-Type Public Housing
Authors:
Abstract:
In recent years, in order to solve the housing problem of urban medium and low-income stratum, China has made great efforts to develop the rental-type public housing. The modular design of rental-type public housing can effectively improve housing quality and production efficiency, save construction costs and reduce waste of resources. This paper takes the residential space of Hangzhou rental-type public housing as the research object and summarizes the characteristics of the urban medium and low-income people's living needs through questionnaire survey and field research. On this basis, the residential space of rental-type public housing is divided into a behavior module, room module, and apartment module. Based on the principles of economy, adaptability and comfort, this paper studies the rule of behavior modules forming room modules, the way that room modules combine with functional zoning, streamline organization and function combination to compose apartment modules, and the various possibilities of apartment modules forming unit combinations according to the traffic arrangement and the proportion of the units. The research concludes that the modular design of residential space in rental-type public housing should adopt standardized size which is convenient for module combination, and light partition walls should be used in the house to separate space flexibly to meet the needs of households in different periods, and modular organizations should be able to adapt to different planning layouts. It is hoped that this study will provide references for the optimization and development of residential space in Hangzhou rental-type public housing.
150
82227
Optimal Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling Mission Planning with Complex Constraints
Abstract:
On-Orbit Refueling is of great significance in extending space crafts&#39; lifetime. The problem of minimum-fuel, time-fixed, Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning is addressed here with the particular aim of assigning fuel-insufficient satellites to the fuel-sufficient satellites and optimizing each rendezvous trajectory. Constraints including perturbation, communication link, sun illumination, hold points for different rendezvous phases, and sensor switching are considered. A planning model has established as well as a two-level solution method. The upper level deals with target assignment based on fuel equilibrium criterion, while the lower level solves constrained trajectory optimization using special maneuver strategies. Simulations show that the developed method could effectively resolve the Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning problem and deal with complex constraints.
149
103500
Designing Space through Narratives: The Role of the Tour Description in the Architectural Design Process
Abstract:
When people are asked to provide an oral description of a space they usually provide a Tour description, which is a dynamic type of spatial narrative centered on the narrator’s body, rather than a Map description, which is a static type of spatial narrative focused on the organization of the space as seen from above. Also, subjects with training in the architecture discipline tend to adopt a Tour perspective of space when the narrative refers to a space they have actually experienced but tend to adopt a Map perspective when the narrative refers to a space they have merely imagined. This pilot study aims to investigate whether the Tour description, which is the most common mode in the oral descriptions of experienced space, is a cognitive perspective taken in the process of designing a space. The study investigates whether a spatial description provided by a subject with architecture training in the type of a Tour description would be accurately translated into a spatial layout by other subjects with architecture training. The subjects were given the Tour description in written form and were asked to make a plan drawing of the described space. The results demonstrate that when we conceive and design space we do not adopt the same rules and cognitive patterns that we adopt when we reconstruct space from our memory. As shown by the results of this pilot study, the rules that underlie the Tour description were not detected in the translation from narratives to drawings. In a different phase, the study also investigates how would subjects with architecture training describe space when forced to take a Tour perspective in their oral description of a space. The results of this second phase demonstrate that if intentionally taken, the Tour perspective leads to descriptions of space that are more detailed and focused on experiential aspects.
148
21989
Clustering Color Space, Time Interest Points for Moving Objects
Abstract:
Detecting moving objects in sequences is an essential step for video analysis. This paper mainly contributes to the Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP) extraction and detection. We propose a new method for detection of moving objects. Two main steps compose the proposed method. First, we suggest to apply the algorithm of the detection of Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP) on both components of the Color Structure-Texture Image Decomposition which is based on a Partial Differential Equation (PDE): a color geometric structure component and a color texture component. A descriptor is associated to each of these points. In a second stage, we address the problem of grouping the points (CSTIP) into clusters. Experiments and comparison to other motion detection methods on challenging sequences show the performance of the proposed method and its utility for video analysis. Experimental results are obtained from very different types of videos, namely sport videos and animation movies.
147
29858
Rollet vs Rocket: A New in-Space Propulsion Concept
Authors:
Abstract:
Nearly all rocket and spacecraft propulsion concepts in existence today can be linked one way or the other to one of the two ancient warfare devices: the gun and the sling. Chemical, thermoelectric, ion, nuclear thermal and electromagnetic rocket engines – all fall into the first group which, for obvious reasons, can be categorized as “hot” space propulsion concepts. Space elevator, orbital tower, rolling satellite, orbital skyhook, tether propulsion and gravitational assist – are examples of the second category which lends itself for the title “cold” space propulsion concepts. The “hot” space propulsion concepts skyrocketed – literally and figuratively – from the naïve ideas of Jules Verne to the manned missions to the Moon. On the other hand, with the notable exception of gravitational assist, hardly any of the “cold” space propulsion concepts made any progress in terms of practical application. Why is that? This article aims to show that the right answer to this question has the potential comparable by its implications and practical consequences to that of transition from Jules Verne’s stillborn and impractical conceptions of space flight to cogent and highly fertile ideas of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Yuri Kondratyuk.
146
102930
Text Similarity in Vector Space Models: A Comparative Study
Abstract:
Automatic measurement of semantic text similarity is an important task in natural language processing. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different vector space models to perform this task. We address the real-world problem of modeling patent-to-patent similarity and compare TFIDF (and related extensions), topic models (e.g., latent semantic indexing), and neural models (e.g., paragraph vectors). Contrary to expectations, the added computational cost of text embedding methods is justified only when: 1) the target text is condensed; and 2) the similarity comparison is trivial. Otherwise, TFIDF performs surprisingly well in other cases: in particular for longer and more technical texts or for making finer-grained distinctions between nearest neighbors. Unexpectedly, extensions to the TFIDF method, such as adding noun phrases or calculating term weights incrementally, were not helpful in our context.
145
30409
The Analysis on the Renewal Strategy of Public Space in Old Communities with an Example of GeDa Community in Xi'An
Authors:
Abstract:
With the rapid development of the city, old communities in the city are facing a series of problems. On one hand, aging facilities, obsolete spatial patterns, aging populations arouse in the aging of the community. On the other hand, public space is reduced and is taking up by cars parking or facilities setting, which lead to the collapse of traditional life in the old communities. That is to say, modern amenities haven’t helped to reform the old community, but have leading to tedious and inefficient, when it is not accommodated in the traditional space. Exploring a way is imminent to the east the contradiction between modern living facilities and spatial patterns of traditional. We select a typical site-GeDa Community in Xi’an, built in 70-80s,and carry out a concept calling 'Raising Landscape', which enables a convenient and efficient space for parking, as well as a high-quality yard for activities. In addition, the design implements low cost, simple construction, resident participation, so that it can be spread in the same texture of urban space.
144
15736
Roullete Wheel Selection Mechanism for Solving Travelling Salesman Problem in Ant Colony Optimization
Abstract:
In this paper, we have use an algorithm that able to obtain an optimal solution to travelling salesman problem from a huge search space, quickly. This algorithm is based upon the ant colony optimization technique and employees roulette wheel selection mechanism. To illustrate it more clearly, a program has been implemented which is based upon this algorithm, that presents the changing process of route iteration in a more intuitive way. In the event, we had find the optimal path between hundred cities and also calculate the distance between two cities.
143
33828
Comparative Spatial Analysis of a Re-Arranged Hospital Building
Abstract:
Analyzing the relation networks between the hospital buildings which have complex structure and distinctive spatial relationships is quite difficult. The hospital buildings which require specialty in spatial relationship solutions during design and self-innovation through the developing technology should survive and keep giving service even after the disasters such as earthquakes. In this study, a hospital building where the load-bearing system was strengthened because of the insufficient earthquake performance and the construction of an additional building was required to meet the increasing need for space was discussed and a comparative spatial evaluation of the hospital building was made with regard to its status before the change and after the change. For this reason, spatial organizations of the building before change and after the change were analyzed by means of Space Syntax method and the effects of the change on space organization parameters were searched by applying an analytical procedure. Using Depthmap UCL software, connectivity, visual mean depth, beta and visual integration analyses were conducted. Based on the data obtained after the analyses, it was seen that the relationships between spaces of the building increased after the change and the building has become more explicit and understandable for the occupants. Furthermore, it was determined according to findings of the analysis that the increase in depth causes difficulty in perceiving the spaces and the changes considering this problem generally ease spatial use.
142
25612
Optimum Design of Steel Space Frames by Hybrid Teaching-Learning Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms
Abstract:
This study presents a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to obtain optimum designs for steel space buildings. The optimum design problem of three-dimensional steel frames is mathematically formulated according to provisions of LRFD-AISC (Load and Resistance factor design of American Institute of Steel Construction). Design constraints such as the strength requirements of structural members, the displacement limitations, the inter-story drift and the other structural constraints are derived from LRFD-AISC specification. In this study, a hybrid algorithm by using teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO) and harmony search (HS) algorithms is employed to solve the stated optimum design problem. These algorithms are two of the recent additions to metaheuristic techniques of numerical optimization and have been an efficient tool for solving discrete programming problems. Using these two algorithms in collaboration creates a more powerful tool and mitigates each other’s weaknesses. To demonstrate the powerful performance of presented hybrid algorithm, the optimum design of a large scale steel building is presented and the results are compared to the previously obtained results available in the literature.
141
89666
A Comparative Analysis of the Role, Representations and Architectural Identity of Public Space in Medieval and Contemporary Cairo
Abstract:
The socio-political Middle East scene has radically changed over the last decade, and one major contributor to this change was the Egyptian revolution of 2011. The massive impact of this revolution that originally started as a small protest in the Tahrir square has attracted more scholars to study the public space in Egypt, where it has become a necessity in order to understand and improve the socio-political conditions. The status of public space in Egypt has been deteriorating due to many reasons, including privatization and neglect. This paper studies one of the major problems of the contemporary public space in Cairo, which is the lack of identity. This takes place through a comparative analysis between selected case studies from both medieval and contemporary Cairo. The theoretical framework upon which the analysis is based views public space as a ‘container of social action’ and a ‘product of spatial practice’. Through the ‘deciphering of space’, differences in the socio-political role, symbolism, and identity of public spaces between both eras are shown. The paper aims to extract some lessons from public space in medieval Cairo, which was truly the ‘centerpiece of the public realm’ and a ‘fundamental expressions’ of the unique trans-dynastic architectural identity of Cairo. In addition, it suggests some strategies to revive the Cairene identity of public space instead of constructing new ones to be only ‘utilitarian spaces used for circulation’ and lack any identity.
140
108675
Hardware-In-The-Loop Relative Motion Control: Theory, Simulation & Experimentation
Abstract:
This paper presents a Guidance and Control (G&C) strategy to address spacecraft maneuvering problem for future Rendezvous and Docking (RVD) missions. The proposed strategy allows safe and propellant efficient trajectories for space servicing missions including tasks such as approaching, inspecting and capturing. This work provides the validation test results of the G&C laws using a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) setup with two robotic mockups representing the chaser and the target spacecraft. Through this paper, the challenges of the relative motion control in space are first summarized, and in particular, the constraints imposed by the mission, spacecraft and, onboard processing capabilities. Second, the proposed algorithm is introduced by presenting the formulation of constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) to optimize the fuel consumption and explicitly handle the physical and geometric constraints in the system, e.g. thruster or Line-Of-Sight (LOS) constraints. Additionally, the coupling between translational motion and rotational motion is addressed via dual quaternion based kinematic description and accordingly explained. The resulting convex optimization problem allows real-time implementation capability based on a detailed discussion on the computational time requirements and the obtained results with respect to the onboard computer and future trends of space processors capabilities. Finally, the performance of the algorithm is presented in the scope of a potential future mission and of the available equipment. The results also cover a comparison between the proposed algorithms with Linear–quadratic regulator (LQR) based control law to highlight the clear advantages of the MPC formulation.
139
30899
Can Bone Resorption Reduce with Nanocalcium Particles in Astronauts?
Abstract:
Poor absorption of calcium, elevated levels in serum and loss of bone are major problems of astronauts during space travel. Supplementation of calcium could not reveal this problem. In normal condition only 33% of calcium is absorbed from dietary sources. In this paper effect of space environment on calcium metabolism was discussed. Many surprising study findings were found during literature survey. Clinical trials on ovariectomized mice showed that reduction of calcium particles to nano level make them more absorbable and bioavailable. Control of bone loss in astronauts in critical important In Fortification of milk with nana calcium particles showed reduces urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline levels. Dietary calcium and supplementation do not show much retention of calcium in zero gravity environment where absorption is limited. So, the fortification of foods with nano calcium particles seemed beneficial for astronauts during and after space travel in their speedy recovery.
138
44771
Fabrication of Nanoengineered Radiation Shielding Multifunctional Polymeric Sandwich Composites
Abstract:
Space Radiation has become one of the major factors in successful long duration space exploration. Exposure to space radiation not only can affect the health of astronauts but also can disrupt or damage materials and electronics. Hazards to materials include degradation of properties, such as, modulus, strength, or glass transition temperature. Electronics may experience single event effects, gate rupture, burnout of field effect transistors and noise. Presently aluminum is the major component in most of the space structures due to its lightweight and good structural properties. However, aluminum is ineffective at blocking space radiation. Therefore, most of the past research involved studying at polymers which contain large amounts of hydrogen. Again, these materials are not structural materials and would require large amounts of material to achieve the structural properties needed. One of the materials to alleviate this problem is polymeric composite materials, which has good structural properties and use polymers that contained large amounts of hydrogen. This paper presents steps involved in fabrication of multi-functional hybrid sandwich panels that can provide beneficial radiation shielding as well as structural strength. Multifunctional hybrid sandwich panels were manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process and were subjected to radiation treatment. Study indicates that various nanoparticles including Boron Nano powder, Boron Carbide and Gadolinium nanoparticles can be successfully used to block the space radiation without sacrificing the structural integrity.
137
107072
Evaluation of Japanese Kyoto Park in Terms of User Satisfaction
Abstract:
The need for open space, which is an important problem especially since the 19th century, has become more important in today's conditions. The most important factor in increasing the livability of cities is the open and green areas. Parks are the most important of the urban open and green space elements that provide the most benefit to users. In this context, the user satisfaction of the Japanese Kyoto Park, which is the subject of the research, was evaluated in the light of the questionnaires. With this analysis, the satisfaction level of the user using the park was determined. Suggestions have been developed for the park to be handled and regulated according to the user requests and requirements changing over time.
136
55110
The Role of State Practices and Custom in Outer Space Law
Abstract:
Space law is the new entry in the basket of international law in the latter half of the 20th Century. In the last hundred and fifty years, courts and scholars developed a consensus that, the custom is an important source of international law. Article 38(1) (b) of the statute of the International Court of Justice recognized international custom as a source of international law. State practices and usages have a greater role to play in formulating customary international law. This paper examines those state practices which can be qualified to become international customary law. Since, 1979 (after Moon Treaty) no hard law have been developed in the area of space exploration. It tries to link between state practices and custom in space exploration and development of customary international law in space activities. The paper uses doctrinal method of legal research for examining the current questions of international law. The paper explores different international legal documents such as General Assembly Resolutions, Treaty principles, working papers of UN, cases relating to customary international law and writing of jurists relating to space law and customary international law. It is argued that, principles such as common heritage of mankind, non-military zone, sovereign equality, nuclear weapon free zone and protection of outer space environment, etc. developed state practices among the international community which can be qualified to become international customary law.
135
104297
Research on Optimization Strategies for the Negative Space of Urban Rail Transit Based on Urban Public Art Planning
Authors:
Abstract:
As an important method of transportation to solve the demand and supply contradiction generated in the rapid urbanization process, urban rail traffic system has been rapidly developed over the past ten years in China. During the rapid development, the space of urban rail Transit has encountered many problems, such as space simplification, sensory experience dullness, and poor regional identification, etc. This paper, focus on the study of the negative space of subway station and spatial softening, by comparing and learning from foreign cases. The article sorts out cases at home and abroad, make a comparative study of the cases, analysis more diversified setting of public art, and sets forth propositions on the domestic type of public art in the space of urban rail transit for reference, then shows the relationship of the spatial attribute in the space of urban rail transit and public art form. In this foundation, it aims to characterize more diverse setting ways for public art; then suggests the three public art forms corresponding properties, such as static presenting mode, dynamic image mode, and spatial softening mode; finds out the method of urban public art to optimize negative space.
134
54197
[Keynote Talk]: Discovering Liouville-Type Problems for p-Energy Minimizing Maps in Closed Half-Ellipsoids by Calculus Variation Method
Authors:
Abstract:
The goal of this project is to investigate constant properties (called the Liouville-type Problem) for a p-stable map as a local or global minimum of a p-energy functional where the domain is a Euclidean space and the target space is a closed half-ellipsoid. The First and Second Variation Formulas for a p-energy functional has been applied in the Calculus Variation Method as computation techniques. Stokes’ Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, Hardy-Sobolev type Inequalities, and the Bochner Formula as estimation techniques have been used to estimate the lower bound and the upper bound of the derived p-Harmonic Stability Inequality. One challenging point in this project is to construct a family of variation maps such that the images of variation maps must be guaranteed in a closed half-ellipsoid. The other challenging point is to find a contradiction between the lower bound and the upper bound in an analysis of p-Harmonic Stability Inequality when a p-energy minimizing map is not constant. Therefore, the possibility of a non-constant p-energy minimizing map has been ruled out and the constant property for a p-energy minimizing map has been obtained. Our research finding is to explore the constant property for a p-stable map from a Euclidean space into a closed half-ellipsoid in a certain range of p. The certain range of p is determined by the dimension values of a Euclidean space (the domain) and an ellipsoid (the target space). The certain range of p is also bounded by the curvature values on an ellipsoid (that is, the ratio of the longest axis to the shortest axis). Regarding Liouville-type results for a p-stable map, our research finding on an ellipsoid is a generalization of mathematicians’ results on a sphere. Our result is also an extension of mathematicians’ Liouville-type results from a special ellipsoid with only one parameter to any ellipsoid with (n+1) parameters in the general setting.
133
102099
Multi-Scale Urban Spatial Evolution Analysis Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study in Modern Yangzhou, China
Abstract:
The exploration of urban spatial evolution is an important part of urban development research. Therefore, the evolutionary modern Yangzhou urban spatial texture was taken as the research object, and Spatial Syntax was used as the main research tool, this paper explored Yangzhou spatial evolution law and its driving factors from the urban street network scale, district scale and street scale. The study has concluded that at the urban scale, Yangzhou urban spatial evolution is the result of a variety of causes, including physical and geographical condition, policy and planning factors, and traffic conditions, and the evolution of space also has an impact on social, economic, environmental and cultural factors. At the district and street scales, changes in space will have a profound influence on the history of the city and the activities of people. At the end of the article, the matters needing attention during the evolution of urban space were summarized.
132
63031
Survival Strategies of Street Children Using the Urban Space: A Case Study at Sealdah Railway Station Area, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Abstract:
Developing countries are facing many Social problems. In India, too there are several such problems. The problem of street children is one of them. No country or city anywhere in the world today is without the presence of street children, but the problem is most acute in developing countries. Thousands of street children can be seen in our populous cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, and Chennai. Most of them are in the age group of 5-15 years. The number of street children is increasing gradually. Poverty, unemployment, rapid urbanization, rural-urban migrations are the root causes of street children. Being deprive from many of their, they have escaped to the street as a safe place for living. Street children always related with the urban spaces in the developing world and it represents a sad outcome of the rapid urbanization process. After coming to the streets, these children have to cope with the new situation every day. They also adopt or develop many complex survival strategies and a variety of different informal or even illegal activities in public space and form supportive social networks in order to survive in street life. Street children use the different suitable urban spaces as their earning, living, entertaining spot. Therefore, the livelihoods of young people on the street should analyze in relation to the spaces they use, as well as their age and length of stay on the streets. This paper tries to explore the livelihood strategies and copping situation of street children in Sealdah station area. One hundred seventy-five street living children are included in the study living in and around the railway station.
131
109105
A Preliminary Study of the Reconstruction of Urban Residential Public Space in the Context of the ‘Top-Down’ Construction Model in China: Based on Research of Tianzifang District in Shanghai and Residential Space in Hangzhou
Abstract:
With the economic growth and rapid urbanization after the reform and openness, some of China's fast-growing cities have demolished former dwellings and built modern residential quarters. The blind, incomplete reference to western modern cities and the one-off construction lacking feedback mechanism have intensified such phenomenon, causing the citizen gradually expanded their living scale with the popularization of car traffic, and the peer-to-peer lifestyle gradually settled. The construction of large-scale commercial centers has caused obstacles to small business around the residential areas, leading to space for residents' interaction has been compressed. At the same time, the advocated CBD model even lead to the unsatisfactory reconstruction of many historical blocks such as the Hangzhou Southern Song Dynasty Imperial Street. However, the popularity of historical spaces such as Wuzhen and Hongcun also indicates the collective memory and needs of the street space for Chinese residents. The evolution of Shanghai TianZiFang also proves the importance of the motivation of space participants in space construction in the context of the 'top-down' construction model in China. In fact, there are frequent occurrences of 'reconstruction', which may redefine the space, in various residential areas. If these activities can be selectively controlled and encouraged, it will be beneficial to activate the public space as well as the residents’ intercourse, so that the traditional Chinese street space can be reconstructed in the context of modern cities.
130
41876
Using Gaussian Process in Wind Power Forecasting
Abstract:
The wind is a random variable difficult to master, for this, we developed a mathematical and statistical methods enable to modeling and forecast wind power. Gaussian Processes (GP) is one of the most widely used families of stochastic processes for modeling dependent data observed over time, or space or time and space. GP is an underlying process formed by unrecognized operator&rsquo;s uses to solve a problem. The purpose of this paper is to present how to forecast wind power by using the GP. The Gaussian process method for forecasting are presented. To validate the presented approach, a simulation under the MATLAB environment has been given.
129
68757
The Development of Space-Time and Space-Number Associations: The Role of Non-Symbolic vs. Symbolic Representations
Abstract:
The idea that people use space representations to think about time and number received support from several lines of research. However, how these representations develop in children and then shape space-time and space-number mappings is still a debated issue. In the present study, 40 children (20 pre-schoolers and 20 elementary-school children) performed 4 main tasks, which required the use of more concrete (non-symbolic) or more abstract (symbolic) space-time and space-number associations. In the non-symbolic conditions, children were required to order pictures of everyday-life events occurring in a specific temporal order (Temporal sequences) and of quantities varying in numerosity (Numerical sequences). In the symbolic conditions, they were asked to perform the typical time-to-position and number-to-position tasks by mapping time-related words and numbers onto lines. Results showed that children performed reliably better in the non-symbolic Time conditions than the symbolic Time conditions, independently of age, whereas only pre-schoolers performed worse in the Number-to-position task (symbolic) as compared to the Numerical sequence (non-symbolic) task. In addition, only older children mapped time-related words onto space following the typical left-right orientation, pre-schoolers’ performance being somewhat mixed. In contrast, mapping numbers onto space showed a clear left-right orientation, independently of age. Overall, these results indicate a cross-domain difference in the way younger and older children process time and number, with time-related tasks being more difficult than number-related tasks only when space-time tasks require symbolic representations.
128
75708
Research on the Evolution of Public Space in Tourism-Oriented Traditional Rural Settlements
Abstract:
The hundreds of years of slow succession of living environment in rural area is a crucial carrier of China’s long history of culture and national wisdom. In recent years, the space evolution of traditional rural settlements has been promoted by the intervention of tourism development, among which the public architecture and outdoor activity areas together served as the major places for villagers, and tourists’ social activities are an important characterization for settlement spatial evolution. Traditional public space upgrade and layout study of new public space can effectively promote the tourism industry development of traditional rural settlements. This article takes Qi County, one China Traditional Culture Village as the exemplification and uses the technology of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Space Syntax, studies the evolution features of public space of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements in four steps. First, acquire the 2003 and 2016 image data of Qi County, using the remote sensing application EDRAS8.6. Second, vectorize the basic maps of Qi County including its land use map with the application of ArcGIS 9.3 meanwhile, associating with architectural and site information concluded from field research. Third, analyze the accessibility and connectivity of the inner space of settlements using space syntax; run cross-correlation with the public space data of 2003 and 2016. Finally, summarize the evolution law of the public space of settlements; study the upgrade pattern of traditional public space and location plan for new public space. Major findings of this paper including: first, location layout of traditional public space has a larger association with the calculation results of space syntax and further confirmed the objective value of space syntax in expressing the space and social relations. Second, the intervention of tourism development generates remarkable impact on public space location of tradition rural settlements. Third, traditional public space produces the symbols of both strengthening and decline and forms a diversified upgrade pattern for the purpose of meeting the different tourism functional needs. Finally, space syntax provides an objective basis for location plan of new public space that meets the needs of tourism service. Tourism development has a significant impact on the evolution of public space of traditional rural settlements. Two types of public space, architecture, and site are both with changes seen from the perspective of quantity, location, dimension and function after the intervention of tourism development. Function upgrade of traditional public space and scientific layout of new public space are two important ways in achieving the goal of sustainable development of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements.
127
48379
Kerr Electric-Optic Measurement of Electric Field and Space Charge Distribution in High Voltage Pulsed Transformer Oil
Abstract:
Transformer oil is widely used in power systems because of its excellent insulation properties. The accurate measurement of electric field and space charge distribution in transformer oil under high voltage impulse has important theoretical and practical significance, but still remains challenging to date because of its low Kerr constant. In this study, the continuous electric field and space charge distribution over time between parallel-plate electrodes in high-voltage pulsed transformer oil based on the Kerr effect is directly measured using a linear array photoelectrical detector. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of this method. This study provides a feasible approach to further study the space charge effects and breakdown mechanisms in transformer oil.
126
86007
Transient Voltage Distribution on the Single Phase Transmission Line under Short Circuit Fault Effect
Abstract:
Single phase transmission lines are used to transfer data or energy between two users. Transient conditions such as switching operations and short circuit faults cause the generation of the fluctuation on the waveform to be transmitted. Spatial voltage distribution on the single phase transmission line may change owing to the position and duration of the short circuit fault in the system. In this paper, the state space representation of the single phase transmission line for short circuit fault and for various types of terminations is given. Since the transmission line is modeled in time domain using distributed parametric elements, the mathematical representation of the event is given in state space (time domain) differential equation form. It also makes easy to solve the problem because of the time and space dependent characteristics of the voltage variations on the distributed parametrically modeled transmission line.
125
46877
Counting People Utilizing Space-Time Imagery
Abstract:
An automated method for counting passerby has been proposed using virtual-vertical measurement lines. Space-time image is representing the human regions which are treated using the segmentation process. Different color space has been used to perform the template matching. A proper template matching has been achieved to determine direction and speed of passing people. Distinguish one or two passersby has been investigated using a correlation between passerby speed and the human-pixel area. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented method has been experimentally verified.
124
59940
Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Absorption in DKI Jakarta Green Space
Abstract:
The issue of climate change become world attention where one of them increase in air temperature due to greenhouse gas emissions. This climate change is caused by gases in the atmosphere, one of which is CO2. DKI Jakarta as the capital has a dense population with a variety of existing land use. Land use that is dominated by settlements resulting in fewer green space, which functions to absorb atmospheric CO2. Image interpretation SPOT-7 is used to determine the greenness level of vegetation on a green space using the vegetation index NDVI, EVI, GNDVI and OSAVI. Measuring the diameter and height of trees were also performed to obtain the value of biomass that will be used as the CO2 absorption value. The CO2 absorption value that spread in Jakarta are classified into three classes: high, medium, and low. The distribution pattern of CO2 absorption value at green space in Jakarta dominance in the medium class with the distribution pattern is located in South Jakarta, East Jakarta, North Jakarta and West Jakarta. The distribution pattern of green space in Jakarta scattered randomly and more dominate in East Jakarta and South Jakarta
123
89656
Decision Trees Constructing Based on K-Means Clustering Algorithm
Abstract:
A domain space for the data should reflect the actual similarity between objects. Since objects belonging to the same cluster usually share some common traits even though their geometric distance might be relatively large. In general, the Euclidean distance of data points that represented by large number of features is not capturing the actual relation between those points. In this study, we propose a new method to construct a different space that is based on clustering to form a new distance metric. The new distance space is based on ensemble clustering (EC). The EC distance space is defined by tracking the membership of the points over multiple runs of clustering algorithm metric. Over this distance, we train the decision trees classifier (DT-EC). The results obtained by applying DT-EC on 10 datasets confirm our hypotheses that embedding the EC space as a distance metric would improve the performance.
122
30385
The Analysis of Space Syntax Used in the Development Explore of Hangzhou city’s Centratity
Authors:
Abstract:
In contemporary China,city is expanding with an amazing speed. And because of the unexpected events’ interference, spatial structure could change itself in a short time, That will lead to the new urban district livingness and unfortunately, this phenomenon is very common.On the one hand,it fail to achieve the goal of city planning, On the other hand,it is unfavourable to the sustainable development of city. Bill Hillier’stheory Space Syntax shows organzation pattern of each space,it explains the characteristics of urban spatial patterns and its transformation regulation from the point of self-organization in system and also, it gives confirmatory and predictive ways to the building and city. This paper used axial model to summarize Hangzhou City’s special structure and enhanced comprehensive understanding of macroscopic space and environment, space structure,developing trend, ect, by computer analysis of Space Syntax. From that, it helps us to know the operation law in the urban system and to understand Hangzhou City’s spatial pattern and indirect social effect it has mad more clearly, Thus, it could comply with the tendency of cities development in process and planning of policy and plan our cities’ future sustainably.
121
9226
A Study on the Strategy for Domestic Space Industry Activation
Abstract:
In this study, a business ecosystem of a domestic space industry is comprehensively analyzed to derive the influence factors. The priority level of each element as well as the disparity between the ideal and reality are investigated through a literature review and an expert survey. The three major influence factors determined are: (a) investment scale and approach, (b) propulsion system, and (c) industrialization with overseas expansion. Related issues based on the current status are evaluated, followed by a proposed activation strategy. This research's findings offer a direction for R&D budget allocation and law system maintenance for the activation of the domestic space industry.
120
100802
Multidisciplinary Training of Social Work and Applied Drama: From the Perspective of the Third Space
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper aims to explore the application of strategies in applied drama to the social work education arena in order to enhance students' creativity, curiosity, and aesthetic sensitivity. Also, applied drama is used as a means to facilitate students' reflection-in-action and improve their understanding of issues on creative aging, gender equality, human rights, bullying, and prejudice. This paper mainly uses the perspective of Homi K. Bhabha's third space to explore the impact of applied drama and social work training on students. First, it focuses on how students create new understandings and insights in the third space of multidisciplinary training studies. Second, it analyzes how the hybridity and negotiation of ideas between applied drama and social work were created. Finally, it discusses the follow-up effects of the training and the factors that promote or hinder the hybridity and generation of the third space. This paper uses students' reflection papers for analysis. It is not focused on a discussion of the effectiveness of the teaching but attempts to bring new insights into the applications of applied drama to the social work education arena. The hybridity and generation of the third space require handling power strategically and looking after the emotional space of the students. Taking part in the training allows students in the third space of multidisciplinary training to reexamine the traditional framework of social work knowledge to create new ideas and possibilities.
119
52549
A 3-Dimensional Memory-Based Model for Planning Working Postures Reaching Specific Area with Postural Constraints
Abstract:
The current 3-dimensional (3D) posture prediction models commonly provide only a few optimal postures to achieve a specific objective. The problem with such models is that they are incapable of rapidly providing several optimal posture candidates according to various situations. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a 3D memory-based posture planning (3D MBPP) model, which is a new digital human model that can analyze the feasible postures in 3D space for reaching tasks that have postural constraints and specific reaching space. The 3D MBPP model can be applied to the types of works that are done with constrained working postures and have specific reaching space. The examples of such works include driving an excavator, driving automobiles, painting buildings, working at an office, pitching/batting, and boxing. For these types of works, a limited amount of space is required to store all of the feasible postures, as the hand reaches boundary can be determined prior to perform the task. This prevents computation time from increasing exponentially, which has been one of the major drawbacks of memory-based posture planning model in 3D space. This paper validates the utility of 3D MBPP model using a practical example of analyzing baseball batting posture. In baseball, batters swing with both feet fixed to the ground. This motion is appropriate for use with the 3D MBPP model since the player must try to hit the ball when the ball is located inside the strike zone (a limited area) in a constrained posture. The results from the analysis showed that the stored and the optimal postures vary depending on the ball’s flying path, the hitting location, the batter’s body size, and the batting objective. These results can be used to establish the optimal postural strategies for achieving the batting objective and performing effective hitting. The 3D MBPP model can also be applied to various domains to determine the optimal postural strategies and improve worker comfort.
118
83948
Study on Sharp V-Notch Problem under Dynamic Loading Condition Using Symplectic Analytical Singular Element
Abstract:
V-notch problem under dynamic loading condition is considered in this paper. In the time domain, the precise time domain expanding algorithm is employed, in which a self-adaptive technique is carried out to improve computing accuracy. By expanding variables in each time interval, the recursive finite element formulas are derived. In the space domain, a Symplectic Analytical Singular Element (SASE) for V-notch problem is constructed addressing the stress singularity of the notch tip. Combining with the conventional finite elements, the proposed SASE can be used to solve the dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) in a simple way. Numerical results show that the proposed SASE for V-notch problem subjected to dynamic loading condition is effective and efficient.
117
17693
A Semi-Analytical Method for Analysis of the Axially Symmetric Problem on Indentation of a Hot Circular Punch into an Arbitrarily Nonhomogeneous Halfspace
Abstract:
An approximate analytical-numerical solution to the axisymmetric problem on thermo-mechanical indentation of a flat cylindrical punch into an arbitrarily non-homogeneous elastic half-space is constructed by making use of the bilateral asymptotic method. The key point of this method lies in evaluation of the ker¬nels in the obtained integral equations by making use of a numerical technique. Once the structure of the kernel is defined, it then is approximated by an analytical expression of special kind so that the solution of the integral equation can be achieved analytically. This fact allows for construction of the solution in an analytical form, which is convenient for analysis of the mechanical effects concerned with arbitrarily presumed non-homogeneity of the material.
116
76873
Wavelet Method for Numerical Solution of Fourth Order Wave Equation
Abstract:
In this paper, a highly accurate numerical method for the solution of one-dimensional fourth-order wave equation is derived. This hyperbolic problem is solved by using semidiscrete approximations. The space direction is discretized by wavelet-Galerkin method, and the time variable is discretized by using Newmark schemes.
115
30198
Coupled Space and Time Homogenization of Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Composites
Abstract:
In this work, a multiscale computational strategy is proposed for the analysis of structures, which are described at a refined level both in space and in time. The proposal is applied to two-phase viscoelastic-viscoplastic (VE-VP) reinforced thermoplastics subjected to large numbers of cycles. The main aim is to predict the effective long time response while reducing the computational cost considerably. The proposed computational framework is a combination of the mean-field space homogenization based on the generalized incrementally affine formulation for VE-VP composites, and the asymptotic time homogenization approach for coupled isotropic VE-VP homogeneous solids under large numbers of cycles. The time homogenization method is based on the definition of micro and macro-chronological time scales, and on asymptotic expansions of the unknown variables. First, the original anisotropic VE-VP initial-boundary value problem of the composite material is decomposed into coupled micro-chronological (fast time scale) and macro-chronological (slow time-scale) problems. The former is purely VE, and solved once for each macro time step, whereas the latter problem is nonlinear and solved iteratively using fully implicit time integration. Second, mean-field space homogenization is used for both micro and macro-chronological problems to determine the micro and macro-chronological effective behavior of the composite material. The response of the matrix material is VE-VP with J2 flow theory assuming small strains. The formulation exploits the return-mapping algorithm for the J2 model, with its two steps: viscoelastic predictor and plastic corrections. The proposal is implemented for an extended Mori-Tanaka scheme, and verified against finite element simulations of representative volume elements, for a number of polymer composite materials subjected to large numbers of cycles.
114
20804
The Effect of Configuration Space and Visual Perception in Public Space Usage at Villa Bukit Tidar Housing in Malang City
Abstract:
Generally, an urban city has a rapid growth, it has frequent a variety of problems, especially of convenience in public space usage. The density of population in urban areas and the high activity is also indicated as a cause of urban resident lifestyle for the worse in social relationships and allow for the stress. Streets and green space (parks) are the only public space in a residential area which is used as a place to build social activity, to meet and interact with the other housing dweller. The high level of activity and social interaction that occurs will affect the spatial arrangement. It can be effected the space structures in housing more complex. Ease in access to public space is the reason many dweller prefer doing social activities there. Hillier in Carmona et al (2003) explains that the pattern and intensity of movement of individuals is influenced by the configuration of space, even the space structure can be regarded as the single most influential determinant of movements in the space. Whyte in Zhang and Lawson (2009) also suggest some factors such as seats, trees, water and legibility of space encourage people to stay in public outdoor space. Furthermore this activities can attract more activities. Villa Bukit Tidar is a housing in Lowokwaru District which highest number of people in Malang City, so social activity is also high there. It has natural and recreational concept and provided with view of Malang City from heights. This potential is able to attract the people who live there to stay in public outdoor space and doing activities there. From this study we can find whether the ease of access to public space and visual satisfaction of Villa Bukit Tidar housing affect the usage of public space. This study was carried out by observing the streets pattern and plot pattern to know the configuration space of Villa Bukit Tidar housing through values of connectivity and integrity by resulting from space sintax analysis. Distributing questionnaires also carried out to determine the level of satisfaction and importance perception of visual condition in the public space in Villa Bukit Tidar housing through Important Performance Analysis (IPA). Results of this research indicated that the public spaces in Villa Bukit Tidar housing who has high connectivity and integrity is considered to be visually satisfied and it has a higher public space usage than has low connectivity and integrity are considered to be visually dissatisfied.
113
74849
Digital Metroliteracies: Space, Diversity and Identity
Abstract:
This paper looks at the relationship between online space, urban space and digital literacies. The everyday digital literacy practices of Facebook users (with a particular focus on young urban Mongolians) can be understood as ‘metrolingual’ because of the varied ways in which linguistic and cultural resources, spatial repertoires, and online activities are bound together to make meaning. Whereas the initial development of the term metrolingualism was dependent on a notion of physical urban space, we here argue that the digital practices of these Facebook users perform a range of social and cultural identities (sexual, ethnic, and class-based identities) that are both parts of but also adjacent to the metrolingual fabric.
112
40331
An Integrated Mixed-Integer Programming Model to Address Concurrent Project Scheduling and Material Ordering
Abstract:
Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering can provide more flexibility to the project scheduling problem, as the project execution costs can be enhanced. Hence, the issue has been taken into account in this paper. To do so, a mixed-integer mathematical model is developed which considers the aforementioned flexibility, in addition to the materials quantity discount and space availability restrictions. Moreover, the activities duration has been treated as decision variables. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different instances. Additionally, the influence of the aforementioned parameters is investigated on the model performance.
111
42096
Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries
Abstract:
This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.
110
33220
Extension of Positive Linear Operator
Abstract:
This research consideres the extension of special functions called Positive Linear Operators. the bounded linear operator which defined from normed space to Banach space will extend to the closure of the its domain, And extend identified linear functional on a vector subspace by Hana-Banach theorem which could be generalized to the positive linear operators.
109
34407
A New Nonlinear State-Space Model and Its Application
Abstract:
In this work, a new nonlinear model will be introduced. The model is in the state-space form. The nonlinearity of this model is in the state equation where the state vector is multiplied by its self. This technique makes our model generalizes many famous models as Lotka-Volterra model and Lorenz model which have many applications in the real life. We will apply our new model to estimate the wind speed by using a new nonlinear estimator which suitable to work with our model.
108
32131
Low-Cost Space-Based Geoengineering: An Assessment Based on Self-Replicating Manufacturing of in-Situ Resources on the Moon
Authors:
Abstract:
Geoengineering approaches to climate change mitigation are unpopular and regarded with suspicion. Of these, space-based approaches are regarded as unworkable and enormously costly. Here, a space-based approach is presented that is modest in cost, fully controllable and reversible, and acts as a natural spur to the development of solar power satellites over the longer term as a clean source of energy. The low-cost approach exploits self-replication technology which it is proposed may be enabled by 3D printing technology. Self-replication of 3D printing platforms will enable mass production of simple spacecraft units. Key elements being developed are 3D-printable electric motors and 3D-printable vacuum tube-based electronics. The power of such technologies will open up enormous possibilities at low cost including space-based geoengineering.
107
40427
Evaluation of a Hybrid Configuration for Active Space Radiation Bio-Shielding
Abstract:
One of the biggest obstacles to human space exploration of the solar system is the risk posed by prolonged exposure to space radiation. It is generally agreed that particles with energies around 1-2 GeV per nucleon are the most damaging to humans. Passive shielding techniques entail using solid material to create a shield that prevents particles from penetrating a given region by absorbing the energy of incident particles. Previous techniques resulted in adding ‘dead mass’ to spacecraft, which is not an economically viable solution. Additionally, collisions of the incoming ionized particles with traditional passive protective material lead to secondary radiation. This study develops an enhanced hybrid active space radiation bio-shielding concept, a combination of the electrostatic and magnetostatic shielding, by varying the size of the magnetic ring, and by having multiple current-carrying rings, to mitigate the biohazards of severe space radiation for the success of deep-space explorations. The simulation results show an unprecedented reduction of 1GeV GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) proton transmission to about 15%.
106
37382
Social Space or the Art of Belonging: The Socio-Spatial Approach in the Field of Residential Facilities for Persons with Disabilities
Authors:
Abstract:
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) provides the basis of this study. For all countries which have ratified the convention since its entry into force in 2007, the effective implementation of the requirements often leads to considerable challenges. Furthermore, missing indicators make it difficult to measure progress. Therefore, the aim of the research project is to contribute to analyze the consequences of the implementation process on the inclusion and exclusion conditions for people with disabilities in Germany. Disabled People’s Organisations and other associations consider the social space to be relevant for the successful implementation of the CRPD. Against this background, the research project wants to focus on the relationship between a barrier-free access to the social space and the “full and effective participation and inclusion” (Art. 3) of persons with disabilities. The theoretical basis of the study is the sociological theory of social space (“Sozialraumtheorie”).
105
94737
Optimality Conditions for Weak Efficient Solutions Generated by a Set Q in Vector Spaces
Abstract:
In this paper, we first introduce a new distance function in a linear space not necessarily endowed with a topology. The algebraic concepts of interior and closure are useful to study optimization problems without topology. So, we define Q-weak efficient solutions generated by the algebraic interior of a set Q, where Q is not necessarily convex. Studying nonconvex vector optimization is valuable since, for a convex cone K in topological spaces, we have int(K)=cor(K), which means that topological interior of a convex cone K is equal to the algebraic interior of K. Moreover, we used the scalarization technique including the distance function generated by the vectorial closure of a set to characterize these Q-weak efficient solutions. Scalarization is a useful approach for solving vector optimization problems. This technique reduces the optimization problem to a scalar problem which tends to be an optimization problem with a real-valued objective function. For instance, Q-weak efficient solutions of vector optimization problems can be characterized and computed as solutions of appropriate scalar optimization problems. In the convex case, linear functionals can be used as objective functionals of the scalar problems. But in the nonconvex case, we should present a suitable objective function. It is the aim of this paper to present a new distance function that be useful to obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for Q-weak efficient solutions of general optimization problems via scalarization.
104
59302
Semigroups of Linear Transformations with Fixed Subspaces: Green’s Relations and Ideals
Abstract:
Let V be a vector space over a field and W a subspace of V. Let Fix(V,W) denote the set of all linear transformations on V with fix all elements in W. In this paper, we show that Fix(V,W) is a semigroup under the composition of maps and describe Green’s relations on this semigroup in terms of images, kernels and the dimensions of subspaces of the quotient space V/W where V/W = {v+W : v is an element in V} with v+W = {v+w : w is an element in W}. Let dim(U) denote the dimension of a vector space U and Vα = {vα : v is an element in V} where vα is an image of v under a linear transformation α. For any cardinal number a let a'= min{b : b > a}. We also show that the ideals of Fix(V,W) are precisely the sets. Fix(r) ={α ∊ Fix(V,W) : dim(Vα/W) < r} where 1 ≤ r ≤ a' and a = dim(V/W). Moreover, we prove that if V is a finite-dimensional vector space, then every ideal of Fix(V,W) is principle.
103
9326
Translating Ex-landfill Development Needs and Adequacy of Open Space Provision in Malaysian Urban Development
Abstract:
This paper aims to examine the relationship between the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of open space provision in the context of sustainable urban development planning in Malaysia as seen from the perspective of the National Urban Policy. With a specific focus on the Action Plan DPN6 and DPN9, ex-landfill redevelopment needs and provision of open space are detailed to identify their potential and constraints in the development of sustainable cities. As a result, this paper found a link between the needs of urban ex-landfill redevelopment and approach to provide adequate urban open space. Through the proposal of the development of public park at urban ex-landfill sites, the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of urban open space provision is being 'united' and translated as an approach to create a sustainable urban development in Malaysia.
102
63875
Design and Study of a Hybrid Micro-CSP/Biomass Boiler System for Water and Space Heating in Traditional Hammam
Abstract:
Traditional Hammams are big consumers of water and wood-energy. Any approach to reduce this consumption will contribute to the preservation of these two resources that are more and more stressed in Morocco. In the InnoTherm/InnoBiomass 2014 project HYBRIDBATH, funded by the Research Institute for Solar Energy and New Energy (IRESEN), we will use a hybrid system consisting of a micro-CSP system and a biomass boiler for water and space heating of a Hammam. This will overcome the problem of intermittency of solar energy, and will ensure continuous supply of hot water and heat. We propose to use local agricultural residues (olive pomace, shells of walnuts, almonds, Argan ...). Underfloor heating using either copper or PEX tubing will perform the space heating. This work focuses on the description of the system and the activities carried out so far: The installation of the system, the principle operation of the system and some preliminary test results.
101
34196
Modelling Residential Space Heating Energy for Romania
Abstract:
This paper proposes a linear model for optimizing domestic energy consumption, in Romania. Both techno-economic and consumer behavior approaches have been considered, in order to develop the model. The proposed model aims to reduce the energy consumption, in households, by assembling in a unitary model, aspects concerning: residential lighting, space heating, hot water, and combined space heating – hot water, space cooling, and passenger transport. This paper focuses on space heating domestic energy consumption model, and quantify not only technical-economic issues, but also consumer behavior impact, related to people decision to envelope and insulate buildings, in order to minimize energy consumption.
100
63285
Impact of Different Modulation Techniques on the Performance of Free-Space Optics
Abstract:
As the demand for providing high bit rate and high bandwidth is increasing at a rapid rate so there is a need to see in this problem and finds a technology that provides high bit rate and also high bandwidth. One possible solution is by use of optical fiber. Optical fiber technology provides high bandwidth in THz. But the disadvantage of optical fiber is of high cost and not used everywhere because it is not possible to reach all the locations on the earth. Also high maintenance required for usage of optical fiber. It puts a lot of cost. Another technology which is almost similar to optical fiber is Free Space Optics (FSO) technology. FSO is the line of sight technology where modulated optical beam whether infrared or visible is used to transfer information from one point to another through the atmosphere which works as a channel. This paper concentrates on analyzing the performance of FSO in terms of bit error rate (BER) and quality factor (Q) using different modulation techniques like non return to zero on off keying (NRZ-OOK), differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) using OptiSystem software. The findings of this paper show that FSO system based on DQPSK modulation technique performs better.
99
72775
Health Benefit and Mechanism from Green Open Space: A Pathway to Connect Health to Design and Planning
Authors:
Abstract:
In the highly urbanized district, green open space is playing an important role in human’s health and wellbeing as a physical, aesthetic and natural environment resources. The aim of this paper is to close this gap through providing a comprehensive, qualitative meta-analysis of existing studies related to this issue. A systematic scoping of current quantitative research is conducted which mostly focused on cross-sectional survey and experimental studies. Health benefits from contact with green open space could be categorized into physical health, psychological health and social wellbeing. Mechanism for the health related to green open space could be clearly identified with the regard to natural restoration, physical activities and social capital. These results indicate a multiple pathways framework between the health benefits and mechanism. In order to support design and planning, the most evident relationship was picked up that people could psychologically benefit from green open space through outdoors physical activities. Additionally, three design and planning strategies are put forward. Various and multi-level contacts with green open space would be considered as an explanation of the pathway results and tie to bridge the health to design and planning. There is a need to carry out long-term research emphasizing on causal relationship between health and green open space through excluding cofounding factors such as self-selection.
98
16235
The Effect of Physical and Functional Structure on Citizens` Social Behavior: Case Study of Valiasr Crossroads, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:
Space does not play role just in mentioning the place or locations. It also takes part in people attendance and social structures. Urban space is of substantial aspects of city which is a public sphere for free and unlimited appearance of citizens. Along with such appearances and regarding physical, environmental and functional conditions, different personal and social behaviors can be seen and analyzed toward people. The main principle of an urban space is including social relations and communications. In this survey, urban space has been referred to one in which physical, environmental and functional attractions cause pause and staying of people. Surveys have shown that urban designers have discussed about place more than architects or planners. With attention to mutual relations between urban space, society and civilization, proper policy making and planning are essential due to achieving an ideal urban space. The survey has been decided to analyze the effect of functional and physical structure of urban spaces on citizens' social behaviors. Hence, Valiasr crossroads, Tehran identified public space, has been selected in which analytic-descriptive method utilized. To test the accuracy of assumptions, statistical test has been accomplished by SPSS. Findings have shown that functional structure affects social behaviors, relations, integration and participation more than physical structure does.
97
41898
The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission
Abstract:
The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.
96
81994
Understanding the Impact of Ambience, Acoustics, and Chroma on User Experience through Different Mediums and Study Scenarios
Abstract:
Humans that inhabit a designed space consciously or unconsciously accept the spaces which have an impact on how they perceive, feel and act accordingly. Spaces that are more interactive and communicative with the human senses become more interesting. Interaction in architecture is the art of building relationships between the user and the spaces. Often spaces are form-based, function-based or aesthetically pleasing spaces but they are not interactive with the user which actually has a greater impact on how the user perceives the designed space and appreciate it. It is very necessary for a designer to understand and appreciate the human character and design accordingly, wherein the user gets the flexibility to explore and experience it for themselves rather than the designed space dictating the user how to perceive or feel in that space. In this interaction between designed spaces and the user, a designer needs to understand the spatial potential and user’s needs because the design language varies with varied situations in accordance with these factors. Designers often have the tendency to construct spaces with their perspectives, observations, and sense the space in their range of different angles rather than the users. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the potential of the space by understanding different factors and improve the quality of space with the help of creating better interactive spaces. For an interaction to occur between the user and space, there is a need for some medium. In this paper, light, color, and sound will be used as the mediums to understand and create interactions between the user and space, considering these to be the primary sources which would not require any physical touch in the space and would help in triggering the human senses. This paper involves in studying and understanding the impact of light, color and sound on different typologies of spaces on the user through different findings, articles, case studies and surveys and try to get links between these three mediums to create an interaction. This paper also deals with understanding in which medium takes an upper hand in a varied typology of spaces and identify different techniques which would create interactions between the user and space with the help of light, color, and sound.
95
19160
Solving the Transportation Problem for Warehouses and Dealers in Bangalore City
Abstract:
Being a subclass of linear programing problem, the Transportation Problem is a classic Operations Research problem where the objective is to determine the schedule for transporting goods from source to destination in a way that minimizes the shipping cost while satisfying supply and demand constraints. In this paper, we are representing the transportation problem for various warehouses along with various dealers situated in Bangalore city to reduce the transportation cost incurred by them as of now. The problem is solved by obtaining the Initial Basic feasible Solution through various methods and further proceeding to obtain optimal cost.
94
91629
Accuracy of Autonomy Navigation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems through Imagery
Abstract:
The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) usually navigate through the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) associated with an Inertial Navigation System (INS). However, GNSS can have its accuracy degraded at any time or even turn off the signal of GNSS. In addition, there is the possibility of malicious interferences, known as jamming. Therefore, the image navigation system can solve the autonomy problem, because if the GNSS is disabled or degraded, the image navigation system would continue to provide coordinate information for the INS, allowing the autonomy of the system. This work aims to evaluate the accuracy of the positioning though photogrammetry concepts. The methodology uses orthophotos and Digital Surface Models (DSM) as a reference to represent the object space and photograph obtained during the flight to represent the image space. For the calculation of the coordinates of the perspective center and camera attitudes, it is necessary to know the coordinates of homologous points in the object space (orthophoto coordinates and DSM altitude) and image space (column and line of the photograph). So if it is possible to automatically identify in real time the homologous points the coordinates and attitudes can be calculated whit their respective accuracies. With the methodology applied in this work, it is possible to verify maximum errors in the order of 0.5 m in the positioning and 0.6&ordm; in the attitude of the camera, so the navigation through the image can reach values equal to or higher than the GNSS receivers without differential correction. Therefore, navigating through the image is a good alternative to enable autonomous navigation.
93
58393
Existence and Concentration of Solutions for a Class of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations Involving p-Biharmonic Operator
Abstract:
The perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation involving the p-biharmonic and the p-Laplacian operators involving a real valued parameter and a continuous real valued potential function defined over the N- dimensional Euclidean space has been considered. By the variational technique, an existence result pertaining to a nontrivial solution to this non-linear partial differential equation has been proposed. Further, by the Concentration lemma, the concentration of solutions to the same problem defined on the set consisting of those elements where the potential function vanishes as the real parameter approaches to infinity has been addressed.
92
84079
Implementation of State-Space and Super-Element Techniques for the Modeling and Control of Smart Structures with Damping Characteristics
Abstract:
Minimizing the weight in flexible structures means reducing material and costs as well. However, these structures could become prone to vibrations. Attenuating these vibrations has become a pivotal engineering problem that shifted the focus of many research endeavors. One technique to do that is to design and implement an active control system. This system is mainly composed of a vibrating structure, a sensor to perceive the vibrations, an actuator to counteract the influence of disturbances, and finally a controller to generate the appropriate control signals. In this work, two different techniques are explored to create two different mathematical models of an active control system. The first model is a finite element model with a reduced number of nodes and it is called a super-element. The second model is in the form of state-space representation, i.e. a set of partial differential equations. The damping coefficients are calculated and incorporated into both models. The effectiveness of these models is demonstrated when the system is excited by its first natural frequency and an active control strategy is developed and implemented to attenuate the resulting vibrations. Results from both modeling techniques are presented and compared.
91
100009
An Autonomous Space Debris-Removal System for Effective Space Missions
Abstract:
Space exploration has noted an exponential rise in the past two decades. The world has started probing the alternatives for efficient and resourceful sustenance along with utilization of advanced technology viz., satellites on earth. Space propulsion forms the core of space exploration. Of all the issues encountered, space debris has increasingly threatened the space exploration and propulsion. The efforts have resulted in the presence of disastrous space debris fragments orbiting the earth at speeds up to several kilometres per hour. Debris are well known as a potential damage to the future missions with immense loss of resources, mankind, and huge amount of money is invested in active research on them. Appreciable work had been done in the past relating to active space debris-removal technologies such as harpoon, net, drag sail. The primary emphasis is laid on confined removal. In recently, remove debris spacecraft was used for servicing and capturing cargo ships. Airbus designed and planned the debris-catching net experiment, aboard the spacecraft. The spacecraft represents largest payload deployed from the space station. However, the magnitude of the issue suggests that active space debris-removal technologies, such as harpoons and nets, still would not be enough. Thus, necessitating the need for better and operative space debris removal system. Techniques based on diverting the path of debris or the spacecraft to avert damage have turned out minimal usage owing to limited predictions. Present work focuses on an active hybrid space debris removal system. The work is motivated by the need to have safer and efficient space missions. The specific objectives of the work are 1) to thoroughly analyse the existing and conventional debris removal techniques, their working, effectiveness and limitations under varying conditions, 2) to understand the role of key controlling parameters in coupled operation of debris capturing and removal. The system represents the utilization of the latest autonomous technology available with an adaptable structural design for operations under varying conditions. The design covers advantages of most of the existing technologies while removing the disadvantages. The system is likely to enhance the probability of effective space debris removal. At present, systematic theoretical study is being carried out to thoroughly observe the effects of pseudo-random debris occurrences and to originate an optimal design with much better features and control.
90
69885
Aliens in Space: Reflections on an Applied Theatre Project in a Medium Secure Hospital
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper will consider the ways in which varied notions of Space played a central role in a 12-week drama project with patients in a Medium Secure Hospital in the UK. In the project, the patients devised and performed a series of sketches, inspired by Science Fiction films, which echoed their own experience of alienation. During the project, the familiar and rigorously regulated Activity Room became a site of imagination, adventure and laughter; transforming the atmosphere of the hospital and allowing the patients to be transported to another space entirely. A space that was as much in their heads as in the physical domain. It will be argued that, although work created in an institution such as a Medium Secure Hospital is infused with hegemonic associations and meanings, the starting point for such work should be to seek an empty space in which the participants can allow their imaginations to be released. This work sits within a range of contexts and will be consciously interdisciplinary. It will draw from Human Geography and Criminology, as well as Performance and Applied Theatre Literature. It is hoped that this paper will build upon the literature that relates to the very particular environment of Secure Hospitals and to provide a starting point for further practical exploration.
89
30178
Contested Space for Regulation in Higher Education
Authors:
Abstract:
Institutions of any kind are regulated by laws which could be formal or informal, visible or invisible that influences the very structure of the institutions itself. Here in this paper the attempt will be to see how institutions of higher education are regulated by the regulatory institutions by taking the case of India, the third largest education system in the world. The attempt is to try to see how regulation of higher education creates a space for contestation among regulatory institutions based on secondary resources and how this affects the governance of university to achieve the goals and visions.
88
59384
Ecopsychological Approach to Enhance Space Consciousness Toward Environment
Authors:
Abstract:
After years of effort trying to integrate environmental education, studies keep revealing that Malaysian still not reached the certain level of desired commitment toward the environment. Some researchers mentioned that our planet healthy is depending on our mentally health especially our psychological and spiritual is split from the natural. Therefore, this study discussed on ecopcyhological approach in order to enhance space consciousness toward the environment. Space consciousness represents not only freedom from ego but also from dependency on the things of this world, from materialism and materiality. It is the spiritual dimension which alone can give transcendent and true meaning to this world. If pupils can balance this internal awareness will put an individual to respect the environment as part of yourself and your family against only as contributors to the continuance of human’s life. Qualitative findings showed that the informants considered their consciousness toward environment has been changed.
87
92122
Comics as Third Space: An Analysis of the Continuous Negotiation of Identities in Postcolonial Philippines
Abstract:
Comics in the Philippines has taken on many uses for the Filipino people. They have been sources of entertainment, education, and political and social commentaries. History has been witnessed to the rise and fall of Philippine comics but the 21st century is seeing a revival of the medium and the industry. It is within this context that an inquiry about Filipino identity is situated. Employing the analytical framework of postcolonialism, particularly Homi K. Bhabha&rsquo;s concepts of Hybridity and the Third Space, this study analyzes three contemporary Philippine comics, Trese, Filipino Heroes League, and Dead Balagtas. The study was able to draw three themes that represent how Filipinos inhabit hybrid worlds and hybridized identities. First, the third space emerged through the use of hybrid worlds in the comics. Second, (re)imagined communities are established through the use of intertextual signifiers. Third, (re)negotiated identities are expressed through visual and narrative devices such as the use of Philippine mythology, historical and contemporary contexts, and language. In conclusion, comics can be considered as Third Space where these identities have the agency and opportunity to be expressed and represented.
86
58993
Finite Eigenstrains in Nonlinear Elastic Solid Wedges
Abstract:
Eigenstrains in nonlinear solids are created due to anelastic effects such as non-uniform temperature distributions, growth, remodeling, and defects. Eigenstrains understanding is indispensable, as they can generate residual stresses and strongly affect the overall response of solids. Here, we study the residual stress and deformation fields of an incompressible isotropic infinite wedge with a circumferentially-symmetric distribution of finite eigenstrains. We construct a material manifold, whose Riemannian metric explicitly depends on the eigenstrain distribution, thereby we turn the problem into a classical nonlinear elasticity problem, where we find an embedding of the Riemannian material manifold into the ambient Euclidean space. In particular, we find exact solutions for the residual stress and deformation fields of a neo-Hookean wedge having a symmetric inclusion with finite radial and circumferential eigenstrains. Moreover, we numerically solve a similar problem when a symmetric Mooney-Rivlin inhomogeneity with finite eigenstrains is placed in a neo-Hookean wedge. Generalization of the eigenstrain problem to other geometries are also discussed.
85
41373
Sensor Network Routing Optimization by Simulating Eurygaster Life in Wheat Farms
Abstract:
A sensor network is set of sensor nodes that cooperate together to perform a predefined tasks. The important problem in this network is power consumption. So, in this paper one algorithm based on the eurygaster life is introduced to minimize power consumption by the nodes of these networks. In this method the search space of problem is divided into several partitions and each partition is investigated separately. The evaluation results show that our approach is more efficient in comparison to other evolutionary algorithm like genetic algorithm.
84
15766
A New Method for Estimating the Mass Recession Rate for Ablator Systems
Abstract:
As the human race will continue to explore the space by creating new space transportation means and sending them to other planets, the enhance of atmospheric reentry study is crucial. In this context, an analysis of mass recession rate of ablative materials for thermal shields of reentry spacecrafts is important to be carried out. The paper describes a new estimation method for calculating the mass recession of an ablator system, this method combining an old method with a new one, which was recently elaborated by Okuyama et al. The space mission of USERS spacecraft is taken as a case study and the possibility of implementing lighter ablative materials in future space missions is taking into consideration.
83
19796
Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Based on the 2-D Histogram and Statistical Moments
Abstract:
In this paper, we are interested in the problem of finding similar images in a large database. For this purpose we propose a new algorithm based on a combination of the 2-D histogram intersection in the HSV space and statistical moments. The proposed histogram is based on a 3x3 window and not only on the intensity of the pixel. This approach can overcome the drawback of the conventional 1-D histogram which is ignoring the spatial distribution of pixels in the image, while the statistical moments are used to escape the effects of the discretisation of the color space which is intrinsic to the use of histograms. We compare the performance of our new algorithm to various methods of the state of the art and we show that it has several advantages. It is fast, consumes little memory and requires no learning. To validate our results, we apply this algorithm to search for similar images in different image databases.
82
45895
Performance Comparison of Space-Time Block and Trellis Codes under Rayleigh Channels
Abstract:
Due to the crowded orbits and shortage of frequency resources, utilizing of MIMO technology to improve spectrum efficiency and increase the capacity has become a necessary trend of broadband satellite communication. We analyze the main influenced factors and compare the BER performance of space-time block code (STBC) scheme and space-time trellis code (STTC) scheme. This paper emphatically studies the bit error rate (BER) performance of STTC and STBC under Rayleigh channel. The main emphasis is placed on the effects of the factors, such as terminal environment and elevation angles, on the BER performance of STBC and STTC schemes. Simulation results indicate that performance of STTC under Rayleigh channel is obviously improved with the increasing of transmitting and receiving antennas numbers, but the encoder state has little impact on the performance. Under Rayleigh channel, performance of Alamouti code is better than that of STTC.
81
27137
Space Telemetry Anomaly Detection Based On Statistical PCA Algorithm
Abstract:
The crucial concern of satellite operations is to ensure the health and safety of satellites. The worst case in this perspective is probably the loss of a mission but the more common interruption of satellite functionality can result in compromised mission objectives. All the data acquiring from the spacecraft are known as Telemetry (TM), which contains the wealth information related to the health of all its subsystems. Each single item of information is contained in a telemetry parameter, which represents a time-variant property (i.e. a status or a measurement) to be checked. As a consequence, there is a continuous improvement of TM monitoring systems in order to reduce the time required to respond to changes in a satellite's state of health. A fast conception of the current state of the satellite is thus very important in order to respond to occurring failures. Statistical multivariate latent techniques are one of the vital learning tools that are used to tackle the aforementioned problem coherently. Information extraction from such rich data sources using advanced statistical methodologies is a challenging task due to the massive volume of data. To solve this problem, in this paper, we present a proposed unsupervised learning algorithm based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The algorithm is particularly applied on an actual remote sensing spacecraft. Data from the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) was acquired under two operation conditions: normal and faulty states. The models were built and tested under these conditions and the results shows that the algorithm could successfully differentiate between these operations conditions. Furthermore, the algorithm provides competent information in prediction as well as adding more insight and physical interpretation to the ADCS operation.
80
72320
A Hybrid Distributed Algorithm for Solving Job Shop Scheduling Problem
Abstract:
In this paper, a distributed hybrid algorithm is proposed for solving the job shop scheduling problem. The suggested method executes different artificial neural networks, heuristics and meta-heuristics simultaneously on more than one machine. The neural networks are used to control the constraints of the problem while the meta-heuristics search the global space and the heuristics are used to prevent the premature convergence. To attain an efficient distributed intelligent method for solving big and distributed job shop scheduling problems, Apache Spark and Hadoop frameworks are used. In the algorithm implementation and design steps, new approaches are applied. Comparison between the proposed algorithm and other efficient algorithms from the literature shows its efficiency, which is able to solve large size problems in short time.
79
58076
Diffable’s Aspiration Dreams in Spatial Planning
Abstract:
Space was a container that includes land space, sea space and air space, including space in the earth as a whole region, where humans and other living creatures, operate and maintain its survival. Whereas spatial planning was a form of the structure of space and spatial pattern. At this time, the arrangement of space became a matter of considerable concern because through spatial planning was what will determine how the future city hall, how the welfare of the population that is in it, and how space can be a comfortable space to live. This spatial arrangement became a subject that must be considered not only by the Government as policy makers but also of concern to the entire community in it. As a place to stay, this space should be able to ensure the safety and comfort of the whole community, even people with disabilities, though. For development and spatial planning in Indonesia. It was still very low which was still concerned about the disabled. The spatial arrangement made generalizations. This caused the right for disabled people was less fulfilled. In accordance with the Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities who explains that people with disabilities had the right to be able to facilitate their efforts to become self-sufficient or not depends on the other party. It was also strengthened by According to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4 of 1997 on Persons with Disabilities; disabilities were part of the Indonesian people who had the status, rights, obligations and the same role with other Indonesian community in all aspects of life and livelihood. As observed, during the disabled were still used as objects that hadn’t been involved in the formulation of development planning of space in Indonesia, so the infrastructure space was still very far from the concept of friendly to the disabled. As an example of a sidewalk in Indonesia were still in bad condition, potholes, and uneven and don’t meet the eligibility standards. In addition, there were sidewalks that abused become a trade causing run down and chaotic atmosphere. In addition, pedestrians are also disturbed because the sidewalks were often still used as a parking lot or flowers to decorate the layout of the city, so the legroom was becoming increasingly limited. The development of infrastructure for pedestrians was also still concerned with aspects of aesthetic than functional. Therefore, the participation of disabled people must be involved in spatial planning exist. It aims to achieve spatial and environmentally friendly to the disabled. These dream space activities carried out by giving questionnaires and the dream images to the disabled about how the layout of the space they want what they want and what development was also in line with the principle of their convenience. This then will be taken into consideration for government in planning layout that was friendly to the whole community.
78
106185
Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation
Abstract:
Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.
77
27149
Blind Channel Estimation for Frequency Hopping System Using Subspace Based Method
Abstract:
Subspace channel estimation methods have been studied widely. It depends on subspace decomposition of the covariance matrix to separate signal subspace from noise subspace. The decomposition normally is done by either Eigenvalue Decomposition (EVD) or Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the Auto-Correlation matrix (ACM). However, the subspace decomposition process is computationally expensive. In this paper, the multipath channel estimation problem for a Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH) system using noise space based method is considered. An efficient method to estimate multipath the time delays basically is proposed, by applying MUltiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which used the null space extracted by the Rank Revealing LU factorization (RRLU). The RRLU provides accurate information about the rank and the numerical null space which make it a valuable tool in numerical linear algebra. The proposed novel method decreases the computational complexity approximately to the half compared with RRQR methods keeping the same performance. Computer simulations are also included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
76
58092
Transforming Space to Place: Best-Practice Approaches and Initiatives
Abstract:
Urban citizens have come to expect more from their cities, demanding optimal conditions for business creativity and professional development, along with efficient, sustainable transportation and energy systems that feed robust economic development and healthy job markets. Urban public spaces are an important part of the urban environment, creating the framework for public life and quality thereof. The transformation of space into successful public places are crucial in this regard as planning must safeguard flexibility towards future changes, whilst simultaneously be capable of acting on short-term demands in order to address the complexity of public spaces within urban areas. This research evaluated two case studies of different cities in Belgium which successfully transformed spaces into lively public places. The transformation was illustrated and evaluated by means of visual analyses and space usage analyses of the original and redesigned space, along with the experience and value that the redesign brought to the area. Selected design elements were identified and evaluated based on the role in the transformation process, in an attempt to draw conclusions with regards to theory-practice relevance and to guide the transformation of space to place of (similar) public spaces.
75
65358
Testing Depression in Awareness Space: A Proposal to Evaluate Whether a Psychotherapeutic Method Based on Spatial Cognition and Imagination Therapy Cures Moderate Depression
Abstract:
Background: The method Depression in Awareness Space (DAS) is a psychotherapeutic intervention technique based on the principles of spatial cognition and imagination therapy with spatial components. The basic assumptions are: mental space is the primary organizing principle in the mind, and all psychological issues can be treated by first locating and by next relocating the conceptualizations involved. The most clinical experience was gathered over the last 20 years in the area of social issues (with the social panorama model). The latter work led to the conclusion that a mental object (image) gains emotional impact when it is placed more central, closer and higher in the visual field – and vice versa. Changing the locations of mental objects in space thus alters the (socio-) emotional meaning of the relationships. The experience of depression seems always associated with darkness. Psychologists tend to see the link between depression and darkness as a metaphor. However, clinical practice hints to the existence of more literal forms of darkness. Aims: The aim of the method Depression in Awareness Space is to reduce the distress of clients with depression in the clinical counseling practice, as a reliable alternative method of psychological therapy for the treatment of depression. The method Depression in Awareness Space aims at making dark areas smaller, lighter and more transparent in order to identify the problem or the cause of the depression which lies behind the darkness. It was hypothesized that the darkness is a subjective side-effect of the neurological process of repression. After reducing the dark clouds the real problem behind the depression becomes more visible, allowing the client to work on it and in that way reduce their feelings of depression. This makes repression of the issue obsolete. Results: Clients could easily get into their 'sadness' when asked to do so and finding the location of the dark zones proved pretty easy as well. In a recent pilot study with five participants with mild depressive symptoms (measured on two different scales and tested against an untreated control group with similar symptoms), the first results were also very promising. If the mental spatial approach to depression can be proven to be really effective, this would be very good news. The Society of Mental Space Psychology is now looking for sponsoring of an up scaled experiment. Conclusions: For spatial cognition and the research into spatial psychological phenomena, the discovery of dark areas can be a step forward. Beside out of pure scientific interest, it is great to know that this discovery has a clinical implication: when darkness can be connected to depression. Also, darkness seems to be more than metaphorical expression. Progress can be monitored over measurement tools that quantify the level of depressive symptoms and by reviewing the areas of darkness.
74
75687
Hawaii, Colorado, and Netherlands: A Comparative Analysis of the Respective Space Sectors
Authors:
Abstract:
For more than 50 years, the state of Hawaii has had the beginnings of a burgeoning commercial aerospace presence statewide. While Hawaii provides the aerospace industry with unique assets concerning geographic location, lack of range safety issues and other factors critical to aerospace development, Hawaii’s strategy and commitment for aerospace have been unclear. For this reason, this paper presents a comparative analysis of Hawaii’s space sector with two of the world’s leading space sectors, Colorado and the Netherlands, in order to provide a strategic plan that establishes a firm position going forward to support Hawaii’s aerospace development statewide. This plan will include financial and other economic incentives legislatively supported by the State to help grow and diversify Hawaii’s aerospace sector. The first part of this paper will examine the business model adopted by the Colorado Space Coalition (CSC), a group of industry stakeholders working to make Colorado a center of excellence for aerospace, as blueprint for growth in Hawaii’s space sector. The second section of this paper will examine the business model adopted by the Netherlands Space Business Incubation Centre (NSBIC), a European Space Agency (ESA) affiliated program that offers business support for entrepreneurs to turn space-connected business ideas into commercial companies. This will serve as blueprint to incentivize space businesses to launch and develop in Hawaii. The third section of this paper will analyze the current policies both CSC, and NSBIC implores to promote industry expansion and legislative advocacy. The final section takes the findings from both space sectors and applies their most adaptable features to a Hawaii specific space business model that takes into consideration the unique advantage and disadvantages found in developing Hawaii’s space sector. The findings of this analysis will show that the development of a strategic plan based on a comparative analysis that creates high technology jobs and new pathways for a trained workforce in the space sector, as well as elicit state support and direction, will achieve the goal of establishing Hawaii as a center of space excellence. This analysis will also serve as a signal to the federal, private sector and international community that Hawaii is indeed serious about developing its’ aerospace industry. Ultimately this analysis and subsequent aerospace development plan will serve as a blueprint for the benefit of all space-faring nations seeking to develop their space sectors.
73
69565
Research on Level Adjusting Mechanism System of Large Space Environment Simulator
Abstract:
Space environment simulator is a device for spacecraft test. KM8 large space environment simulator built in Tianjing Space City is the largest as well as the most advanced space environment simulator in China. Large deviation of spacecraft level will lead to abnormally work of the thermal control device in spacecraft during the thermal vacuum test. In order to avoid thermal vacuum test failure, level adjusting mechanism system is developed in the KM8 large space environment simulator as one of the most important subsystems. According to the level adjusting requirements of spacecraft’s thermal vacuum tests, the four fulcrums adjusting model is established. By means of collecting level instruments and displacement sensors data, stepping motors controlled by PLC drive four supporting legs simultaneous movement. In addition, a PID algorithm is used to control the temperature of supporting legs and level instruments which long time work under the vacuum cold and black environment in KM8 large space environment simulator during thermal vacuum tests. Based on the above methods, the data acquisition and processing, the analysis and calculation, real time adjustment and fault alarming of the level adjusting mechanism system are implemented. The level adjusting accuracy reaches 1mm/m, and carrying capacity is 20 tons. Debugging showed that the level adjusting mechanism system of KM8 large space environment simulator can meet the thermal vacuum test requirement of the new generation spacecraft. The performance and technical indicators of the level adjusting mechanism system which provides important support for the development of spacecraft in China have been ahead of similar equipment in the world.
72
29023
The Quality of Public Space in Mexico City: Current State and Trends
Abstract:
Public space is essential to strengthen the social and urban fabric and the social cohesion; there lies the importance of its study. Hence, the aim of this paper is to analyze the quality of public space in the XXI century in both quantitative and qualitative terms. In this article, the concept of public space includes open spaces such as parks, public squares and walking areas. To make this analysis we take Mexico City as the case study. It has a population of nearly 9 million inhabitants and it is composed of sixteen boroughs. For this analysis, we consider both, existing public spaces and the government intervention for building and improvement of new and existent public spaces. Results show that on the one hand, quantitatively there is not an equitable distribution of public spaces because of both, the growth of the city itself, as well as for the absence of political will to create public spaces. Another factor is the evolution of this city, which has been growing merely in a 'patched pattern', where public space has played no role at all with a total absence of urban design. On the other hand, qualitatively, even the boroughs with the most public spaces have not shown interest in making these spaces qualitatively inclusive and open to the general population aiming for integration. Therefore, urban projects that privatize public space seem to be the rule, rather than a rehabilitation effort of the existent public spaces. Hence, state intervention should reinforce its role as an agent of social change acting in the benefit of the majority of the inhabitants with the promotion of more inclusive public spaces.
71
28870
Urban Green Space Analysis Incorporated at Bodakdev, Ahmedabad City Based on the RS and GIS Techniques
Abstract:
City is a multiplex ecological system made up of social, economic and natural sub systems. Green space system is the foundation of the natural system. It is also suitable part of natural productivity in the urban structure. It is dispensable for constructing a high quality human settlements and a high standard ecocity. Ahmedabad is the fastest growing city of India. Today urban green space is under strong pressure in Ahmedabad city. Due to increasing urbanization, combined with a spatial planning policy of densification, more people face the prospect of living in less green residential environments. In this research analyzes the importance of available Green Space at Bodakdev Park, Ahmedabad, using remote sensing and GIS technologies. High resolution IKONOS image and LISS IV data has been used in this project. This research answers the questions like: • Temporal changes in urban green space area. • Proximity to heavy traffic or roads or any recreational facilities. • Importance in terms of health. • Availability of quality infrastructure. • Available green space per area, per sq. km and per total population. This projects incorporates softwares like ArcGIS, Ecognition and ERDAS Imagine, GPS technologies etc. Methodology includes the field work and collection of other relevant data while preparation of land use maps using the IKONOS imagery which is corrected using GPS.
70
43513
SVM-DTC Using for PMSM Speed Tracking Control
Abstract:
In recent years, direct torque control (DTC) has become an alternative to the well-known vector control especially for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). However, it presents a problem of field linkage and torque ripple. In order to solve this problem, the conventional DTC is combined with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). This control theory has achieved great success in the control of PMSM. That has become a hotspot for resolving. The main objective of this paper gives us an introduction of the DTC and SVPWM-DTC control theory of PMSM which has been simulating on each part of the system via Matlab/Simulink based on the mathematical modeling. Moreover, the outcome of the simulation proved that the improved SVPWM- DTC of PMSM has a good dynamic and static performance.
69
108674
A Tutorial on Model Predictive Control for Spacecraft Maneuvering Problem with Theory, Experimentation and Applications
Abstract:
This paper discusses the recent advances and future prospects of spacecraft position and attitude control using Model Predictive Control (MPC). First, the challenges of the space missions are summarized, in particular, taking into account the errors, uncertainties, and constraints imposed by the mission, spacecraft and, onboard processing capabilities. The summary of space mission errors and uncertainties provided in categories; initial condition errors, unmodeled disturbances, sensor, and actuator errors. These previous constraints are classified into two categories: physical and geometric constraints. Last, real-time implementation capability is discussed regarding the required computation time and the impact of sensor and actuator errors based on the Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL) experiments. The rationales behind the scenarios’ are also presented in the scope of space applications as formation flying, attitude control, rendezvous and docking, rover steering, and precision landing. The objectives of these missions are explained, and the generic constrained MPC problem formulations are summarized. Three key design elements used in MPC design: the prediction model, the constraints formulation and the objective cost function are discussed. The prediction models can be linear time invariant or time varying depending on the geometry of the orbit, whether it is circular or elliptic. The constraints can be given as linear inequalities for input or output constraints, which can be written in the same form. Moreover, the recent convexification techniques for the non-convex geometrical constraints (i.e., plume impingement, Field-of-View (FOV)) are presented in detail. Next, different objectives are provided in a mathematical framework and explained accordingly. Thirdly, because MPC implementation relies on finding in real-time the solution to constrained optimization problems, computational aspects are also examined. In particular, high-speed implementation capabilities and HIL challenges are presented towards representative space avionics. This covers an analysis of future space processors as well as the requirements of sensors and actuators on the HIL experiments outputs. The HIL tests are investigated for kinematic and dynamic tests where robotic arms and floating robots are used respectively. Eventually, the proposed algorithms and experimental setups are introduced and compared with the authors' previous work and future plans. The paper concludes with a conjecture that MPC paradigm is a promising framework at the crossroads of space applications while could be further advanced based on the challenges mentioned throughout the paper and the unaddressed gap.
68
97105
Research on Natural Lighting Design of Atriums Based on Energy-Saving Aim
Authors:
Abstract:
An atrium is a place for natural climate exchanging of indoor and outdoor space of buildings, which plays an active role in the overall energy conservation, climate control and environmental purification of buildings. Its greatest contribution is serving as a natural light collector and distributor to solve the problem of natural lighting in large and deep spaces. However, in real situations, the atrium space often results in energy consumption due to improper design in considering its big size and large amount use of glass. Based on the purpose of energy conservation of buildings, this paper emphasizes the significance of natural lighting of atriums. Through literature research, case analysis and other methods, four factors, namely: the light transmittance through the top of the atrium, the geometric proportion of the atrium space, the size and position of windows and the material of the surface of walls in the atrium, were studied, and the influence of different architectural compositions on the natural light distribution of the atrium is discussed. Relying on the analysis of relevant cases, it is proposed that when designing the natural lighting of the atrium, the height and width of the atrium should be paid attention to, the atrium walls are required being rough surfaces and the atrium top-level windows need to be minimized in order to introduce more natural light into the buildings and achieve the purpose of energy conservation.
67
24543
Adaptive Reuse of Lost Urban Space
Authors:
Abstract:
The city is the greatest symbol of human civilization and has been built for safety and comfort. However, uncontrolled urban growth caused some anonymous and unsightly images of the cities such as unused or abandoned spaces. When social interaction is missed in a public space it means the public space is lost since public spaces reflect the social life and interaction of people. Accordingly; this space became one of the most meaningless parts of the cities and has broken the continuity of the urban fabric. Lost urban spaces are the leftover unstructured landscape within the urban fabric. They are generally the unrecognized urban areas that are in need of redesign, since they have a great value that can add to their surrounding urban context. The research significance lies within the importance of urban open spaces, their value and their impact on the urban fabric. The research also addresses the reuse and reclamation of lost urban spaces in order to increase the percentage of green areas along the urban fabric, provide urban open spaces, develop a sustainable approach towards urban landscape and enhance the quality of the public open space and user experience. In addition, the reuse of lost space will give it the identity and function it lacks while also providing places for presence, spending time and observing. Creating continuity in a broken urban fabric represents an exploratory process in the relationship between infrastructure and the urban fabric and seeks to establish an architectural solution to leftover space within the city. In doing so, the research establishes a framework (criteria) for adaptive reuse of lost urban space throughout inductive and deductive methodology, analytical methodology; by analyzing some relevant examples and similar cases of lost spaces and finally through field methodology; by applying the achieved criteria on a case study in Alexandria and carrying on SWOT analysis and evaluation of the potentials of this case study.
66
19363
From Data Processing to Experimental Design and Back Again: A Parameter Identification Problem Based on FRAP Images
Abstract:
FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) is a widely used measurement technique to determine the mobility of fluorescent molecules within living cells. While the experimental setup and protocol for FRAP experiments are usually fixed, data processing part is still under development. In this paper, we formulate and solve the problem of data selection which enhances the processing of FRAP images. We introduce the concept of the irrelevant data set, i.e., the data which are almost not reducing the confidence interval of the estimated parameters and thus could be neglected. Based on sensitivity analysis, we both solve the problem of the optimal data space selection and we find specific conditions for optimizing an important experimental design factor, e.g., the radius of bleach spot. Finally, a theorem announcing less precision of the integrated data approach compared to the full data case is proven; i.e., we claim that the data set represented by the FRAP recovery curve lead to a larger confidence interval compared to the spatio-temporal (full) data.
65
49495
Media in Architecture-Intervention and Visual Experience in Religious Space
Abstract:
The appearance of the new media technologies has opened new fields of intervention in architecture creating a new dynamic communication in the relationship between public and space, where are present technological devices that enable a new sensory experience, aesthetic and even spiritual. This connection makes relevant the idea of rehabilitate architectonic spaces with new media technologies such as sacred spaces. This research aims to create a media project integrated in sacred spaces that combine Architecture, Art and New Technologies, exploring new perspectives and different dynamics in space.
64
73418
Numerical Experiments for the Purpose of Studying Space-Time Evolution of Various Forms of Pulse Signals in the Collisional Cold Plasma
Abstract:
The influence of inhomogeneities of plasma and statistical characteristics on the propagation of signal is very actual in wireless communication systems. While propagating in the media, the deformation and evaluation of the signal in time and space take place and on the receiver we get a deformed signal. The present article is dedicated to studying the space-time evolution of rectangular, sinusoidal, exponential and bi-exponential impulses via numerical experiment in the collisional, cold plasma. The presented method is not based on the Fourier-presentation of the signal. Analytically, we have received the general image depicting the space-time evolution of the radio impulse amplitude that gives an opportunity to analyze the concrete results in the case of primary impulse.
63
32869
Time-Evolving Wave Packet in Phase Space
Abstract:
In chaotic billiard systems, scar-like localization has been found on time-evolving wave packet. We may call it the “dynamical scar” to separate it to the original scar in stationary states. It also comes out along the vicinity of classical unstable periodic orbits, when the wave packets are launched along the orbits, against the hypothesis that the waves become homogenous all around the billiard. Then time-evolving wave packets are investigated numerically in phase space. The Wigner function is adopted to detect the wave packets in phase space. The 2-dimensional Poincaré sections of the 4-dimensional phase space are introduced to clarify the dynamical behavior of the wave packets. The Poincaré sections of the coordinate (x or y) and the momentum (Px or Py) can visualize the dynamical behavior of the wave packets, including the behavior in the momentum degree also. For example, in “dynamical scar” states, a bit larger momentum component comes first, and then the a bit smaller and smaller components follow next. The sections made in the momentum space (Px or Py) elucidates specific trajectories that have larger contribution to the “dynamical scar” states. It is the fixed point observation of the momentum degrees at a specific fixed point(x0, y0) in the phase space. The accumulation are also calculated to search the “dynamical scar” in the Poincare sections. It is found the scars as bright spots in momentum degrees of the phase space.
62
51681
The Research of Industrial Space Characteristics, Layout, and Strategy in Metropolitan Area in China: In Case of Wuhan
Abstract:
In this paper, the industrial space of metropolitan area in Wuhan is taken as a sample. First of all, it puts forward that the structure of service economy, circle gradient relocation and high degree of regional collaboration are the rules of industrial spatial development in the modern world cities. Secondly, using the economic statistics and land use vector data (1993, 2004, 2010, and 2013) of Wuhan, it analyzes the present situation of industry development and the characteristics of industrial space layout from three aspects of the industrial economic structure, industrial layout, and industrial regional synergy. Then, based on the industrial development regularity of world cities, it puts forward to construct the industrial spatial level of ‘complex industrial concentration area + modular industry unit’ and the industrial spatial structure of ‘13525’. Finally, it comes up with the optimization tactics of the industrial space’s transformation in the future under the background of new economic era.
61
82754
Analysis of Space Requirements of Chinese Square-Dancing Space through Newspaper Reports
Abstract:
The square-dancing is one of the most popular new physical activities in China in recent years, which has become a hotspot of Chinese landscape research. This paper collects 749 news reports from four authoritative newspapers in Harbin for 3 years, and probes into the space use needs of participants and non-participants of square-dancing. In this paper, the research results are compared with the contents of three related planning and design codes in China, and some modification or supplementary suggestions are proposed from three aspects, such as decision-making process, total-quantity control, and site design. Different from the traditional research, this research does not use the data from interviews and the questionnaires, but uses the traditional media report content for analyzing. To some extent, it avoids the research result being excessively subjective, enhances objectivity and the authority.
60
95292
A Sustainable Society and Its Order Principles: Implications of Common Grace and the Man as the Image of God
Abstract:
The discussion on the social sustainability in existing literature is limited to two-dimension epistemology space with only two elements: the human and nature. Using the revelation of the Bible God, the paper adds a moral component to the two-dimension space. With the new variable being introduced, the authors formulate a to three-dimension epistemology space and discuss its implications. Based on the space, the authors explore the hierarchical structure of order principles for a sustainable society. The social order principle system hierarchically consists of three principles: moral, relational, and rational. The justification of every principle is analyzed briefly. The paper concluded that all these order principles are necessary assurance of building a sustainable society.
59
29244
On the Influence of the Metric Space in the Critical Behavior of Magnetic Temperature
Abstract:
In this work, a study of generic magnetic nanoparticles varying the metric space is presented. As the metric space is changed, the nanoparticle form and the inner product are also varied, since the energetic scale is not conserved. This study is carried out using Monte Carlo simulations combined with the Wolff embedding and Metropolis algorithms. The Metropolis algorithm is used at high temperature regions to reach the equilibrium quickly. The Wolff embedding algorithm is used at low and critical temperature regions in order to reduce the critical slowing down phenomenon. The ions number is kept constant for the different forms and the critical temperatures using finite size scaling are found. We observed that critical temperatures don't exhibit significant changes when the metric space was varied. Additionally, the effective dimension according the metric space was determined. A study of static behavior for reaching the static critical exponents was developed. The objective of this work is to observe the behavior of the thermodynamic quantities as energy, magnetization, specific heat, susceptibility and Binder's cumulants at the critical region, in order to demonstrate if the magnetic nanoparticles describe their magnetic interactions in the Euclidean space or if there is any correspondence in other metric spaces.
58
5862
Spatial Analysis of the Impact of City Developments Degradation of Green Space in Urban Fringe Eastern City of Yogyakarta Year 2005-2010
Abstract:
In the development of the city often use rural areas that can not be separated from the change in land use that lead to the degradation of urban green space in the city fringe. In the long run, the degradation of green open space this can impact on the decline of ecological, psychological and public health. Therefore, this research aims to (1) determine the relationship between the parameters of the degradation rate of urban development with green space, (2) develop a spatial model of the impact of urban development on the degradation of green open space with remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems in an integrated manner. This research is a descriptive research with data collection techniques of observation and secondary data . In the data analysis, to interpret the direction of urban development and degradation of green open space is required in 2005-2010 ASTER image with NDVI. Of interpretation will generate two maps, namely maps and map development built land degradation green open space. Secondary data related to the rate of population growth, the level of accessibility, and the main activities of each city map is processed into a population growth rate, the level of accessibility maps, and map the main activities of the town. Each map is used as a parameter to map the degradation of green space and analyzed by non-parametric statistical analysis using Crosstab thus obtained value of C (coefficient contingency). C values were then compared with the Cmaximum to determine the relationship. From this research will be obtained in the form of modeling spatial map of the City Development Impact Degradation Green Space in Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010. In addition, this research also generate statistical analysis of the test results of each parameter to the degradation of green open space in the Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010.
57
77631
Using Convergent and Divergent Thinking in Creative Problem Solving in Mathematics
Abstract:
This paper aims to find out how students using convergent and divergent thinking in creative problem solving to solve mathematical problems creatively. Eight engineering undergraduates in a local university took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. They solved the mathematical problems with the use of creative problem solving skills. Their solutions were collected and analyzed to reveal all the processes of problem solving, namely: problem definition, ideas generation, ideas evaluation, ideas judgment, and solution implementation. The result showed that the students were able to solve the mathematical problem with the use of creative problem solving skills.
56
50354
Bending Tests for the Axial Load Identifications in Space Structures with Unknown Boundary Conditions
Abstract:
This paper presents the extension of a static method for the axial load identifications in prismatic beam-columns with uncertain length and unknown boundary conditions belonging to generic space structures, such as columns of space frames or struts and ties of space trusses. The non-destructive method requires the knowledge of the beam-column flexural rigidity only. Flexural displacements are measured at five cross sections along the beam-column subjected to an additional vertical load at the mid-span. Unlike analogous dynamic methods, any set of experimental data may be used in the identification procedure. The method is verified by means of many numerical and experimental tests on beam-columns having unknown boundary conditions and different slenderness belonging to three different space prototypes in small-scale. Excellent estimates of the tensile and compressive forces are obtained for the elements with higher slenderness and when the greatest possible distance between sensors is adopted. Moreover, the application of larger values of the vertical load and very accurate displacement measurements are required. The method could be an efficacious technique in-situ, considering that safety inspections will become increasingly important in the near future, especially because of the improvement of the material properties that allowed designing space structures composed of beam-columns with higher slenderness.
55
56020
A Robust Software for Advanced Analysis of Space Steel Frames
Abstract:
This paper presents a robust software package for practical advanced analysis of space steel framed structures. The pre- and post-processors of the presented software package are coded in the C++ programming language while the solver is written by using the FORTRAN programming language. A user-friendly graphical interface of the presented software is developed to facilitate the modeling process and result interpretation of the problem. The solver employs the stability functions for capturing the second-order effects to minimize modeling and computational time. Both the plastic-hinge and fiber-hinge beam-column elements are available in the presented software. The generalized displacement control method is adopted to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations.
54
9460
Fuzzy Vehicle Routing Problem for Extreme Environment
Abstract:
A fuzzy vehicle routing problem is considered in the possibilistic environment. A new criterion, maximization of expectation of reliability for movement on closed routes is constructed. The objective of the research is to implement a two-stage scheme for solution of this problem. Based on the algorithm of preferences on the first stage, the sample of so-called “promising” routes will be selected. On the second stage, for the selected promising routes new bi-criteria problem will be solved - minimization of total traveled distance and maximization of reliability of routes. The problem will be stated as a fuzzy-partitioning problem. Two possible solutions of this scheme are considered.
53
58261
Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology
Abstract:
The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.
52
78210
Reading the Interior Furnishings of the Houses through Turkish Films in the 1980's
Abstract:
Housing offers a confirmed space for individuals. In the sense of interior decoration design, housing is a kind of typology in which user’s profile and individual preferences are considered as primary determinants. In Turkish society, the transition from traditional residences to apartment buildings brings the change in interior fittings depending upon the location of houses in its wake. The social status of the users in the residence and the differences of their everyday life can be represented more evident in these interior fittings. Hence, space becomes a tool to carry the information of users and the act. From this aspect, space as a concrete tool also enables a multidirectional communication with the cinema which reflects the social, cultural and economic changes of the society. While space takes a virtual or real part of the cinema, architecture discipline has also been influenced by cinematic phenomenas in its own practice. The subject of the movie and its content commune with the space, therefore, the design of the space is formed to support the subject. The purpose of this study is to analyze the space through motion pictures that convey the information of social life with an objective perspective. In addition, this study aims to determine the space, fittings and the use of fittings with respect to the social status of users. Morever, three films in 1980s in which Kemal Sunal, protagonist of the scripts that reflect society in many ways, performed are examined in this study. Movie sets are considered in many ways. For instance, in one of these movies, different houses from an apartment are analyzed vis a vis the perspective of the study.
51
46827
Study and Analysis of Optical Intersatellite Links
Abstract:
Optical Intersatellite Links (OISLs) are wireless communications using optical signals to interconnect satellites. It is expected to be the next generation wireless communication technology according to its inherent characteristics like: an increased bandwidth, a high data rate, a data transmission security, an immunity to interference, and an unregulated spectrum etc. Optical space links are the best choice for the classical communication schemes due to its distinctive properties; high frequency, small antenna diameter and lowest transmitted power, which are critical factors to define a space communication. This paper discusses the development of free space technology and analyses the parameters and factors to establish a reliable intersatellite links using an optical signal to exchange data between satellites.
50
7843
Simulation Analysis of Wavelength/Time/Space Codes Using CSRZ and DPSK-RZ Formats for Fiber-Optic CDMA Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, comparative analysis is carried out to study the performance of wavelength/time/space optical CDMA codes using two well-known formats; those are CSRZ and DPSK-RZ using RSoft’s OptSIM. The analysis is carried out under the real-like scenario considering the presence of various non-linear effects such as XPM, SPM, SRS, SBS and FWM. Fiber dispersion and the multiple access interference are also considered. The codes used in this analysis are 3-D wavelength/time/space codes. These are converted into 2-D wavelength-time codes so that their requirement of space couplers and fiber ribbons is eliminated. Under the conditions simulated, this is found that CSRZ performs better than DPSK-RZ for fiber-optic CDMA applications.
49
76037
Numerical Experiments for the Purpose of Studying Space-Time Evolution of Various Forms of Pulse Signals in the Collisional Cold Plasma
Abstract:
The influence of inhomogeneities of plasma and statistical characteristics on the propagation of signal is very actual in wireless communication systems. While propagating in the media, the deformation and evaluation of the signal in time and space take place and on the receiver, we get a deformed signal. The present article is dedicated to studying the space-time evolution of rectangular, sinusoidal, exponential and bi-exponential impulses via numerical experiment in the collisional, cold plasma. The presented method is not based on the Fourier-presentation of the signal. Analytically, we have received the general image depicting the space-time evolution of the radio impulse amplitude that gives an opportunity to analyze the concrete results in the case of primary impulse.
48
74312
On the Path of the Ottoman Modernization Period Mesire: As a Women Place in 19th Century
Authors:
Abstract:
How women should behave in public spaces and how they should be dressed was a loaded issues in the Ottoman Empire. They pointed to what kind of state the Ottoman State was. One of such public space was Mesires, promenades. Women's visibility and invisibility, their morals were reflected and linked to the society as a whole. How the public space and private space is defined, what were the lines that separates them, how much blurred these lines were discussed in this paper. Moreover, all these points were strengthened by the primary sources from archives dating to the end of the 19th century.
47
93404
A Preliminary Study of Urban Resident Space Redundancy in the Context of Rapid Urbanization: Based on Urban Research of Hongkou District of Shanghai
Abstract:
The rapid urbanization has caused the massive physical space in Chinese cities to be in a state of duplication and dislocation through the rapid development, forming many daily spaces that cannot be standardized, typed, and identified, such as illegal construction. This phenomenon is known as urban spatial redundancy and is often excluded from mainstream architectural discussions because of its 'remaining' and 'excessive' derogatory label. In recent years, some practice architects have begun to pay attention to this phenomenon and tried to tap the value behind it. In this context, the author takes the redundancy phenomenon of resident space as the research object and explores the inspiration to the urban architectural renewal and the innovative residential area model, based on the urban survey of redundant living space in Hongkou District of Shanghai. On this basis, it shows that the changes accumulated in the long-term use of the building can be re-applied to the goals before the design, which is an important link and significance of the existence of an architecture.
46
43918
The Effectiveness of Adaptive Difficulty Adjustment in Touch Tablet App on Young Children's Spatial Problem Solving Development
Abstract:
Using tablet apps with a certain educational purpose to promote young children’s cognitive development, is quite common now. Developing an educational app on an Ipad like tablet, especially for a young child (age 3-5) requires an optimal level of challenge to continuously attract children’s attention and obtain an educational effect. Adaptive difficulty adjustment, which could dynamically set the difficulty in the challenge according to children’s performance, seems to be a good solution. Since space concept plays an important role in young children’s cognitive development, we made an experimental comparison in a French kindergarten between one group of 23 children using an educational app ‘Debout Ludo’ with adaptive difficulty settings and another group of 20 children using the previous version of ‘Debout Ludo’ with a classic incremental difficulty adjustment. The experiment results of spatial problem solving indicated that a significantly higher learning outcome was acquired by the young children who used the adaptive version of the app.
45
93630
Decentralised Edge Authentication in the Industrial Enterprise IoT Space
Abstract:
Authentication protocols based on public key infrastructure (PKI) and trusted third party (TTP) are no longer adequate for industrial scale IoT networks thanks to issues such as low compute and power availability, the use of widely distributed and COTS systems, and the increasingly sophisticated attackers and attacks we now have to counter. For example, there is increasing concern about nation-state-based interference and future quantum computing capability. We have examined this space from first principles and have developed several novel approaches to group and point-to-point authentication for IoT that do not depend on the use of a centralised client-server model. We emphasise the use of quantum resistant primitives such as strong cryptographic hashing and the use multi-factor authentication.
44
65005
Bee Colony Optimization Applied to the Bin Packing Problem
Abstract:
We treat the two-dimensional bin packing problem which involves packing a given set of rectangles into a minimum number of larger identical rectangles called bins. This combinatorial problem is NP-hard. We propose a pretreatment for the oriented version of the problem that allows the valorization of the lost areas in the bins and the reduction of the size problem. A heuristic method based on the strategy first-fit adapted to this problem is presented. We present an approach of resolution by bee colony optimization. Computational results express a comparison of the number of bins used with and without pretreatment.
43
6127
Achieving Conviviality in Terms of Collective Experience through Creative Public Spaces in Namik Kemal Square, Famagusta, North Cyprus
Abstract:
Creative public spaces were needed to foster conviviality in an urban form. The conviviality could be enhanced by facilitating variety of opportunities to participate in communal activities and promoting collective experiences. In this regard, The Namik Kemal Square as a major public space of Walled City of Famagusta in North Cyprus was found as the creative public space because it supports collective practices by leisure activities which enclosed the space. The square also utilized creative collaboration such as festivals and outdoor exhibition. Accordingly this paper focuses on the issue of conviviality in urban public space, in the perspective of square, as a major indicator of their success. The survey firstly provides a theoretical framework for understanding conviviality in creative public space to empower collective experience. Secondly it discusses the essential components of conviviality in form of square and finally investigating conviviality and also its determinants in Namik Kemal square. Hence, the main challenges of this study are going to focus on how convivial public spaces impact collective experience, what people expect from a kind of public space, or what they perceive as a good place to be in. Since it seems essential to respond positively, inclusively to the needs of people to socialize in public spaces by involving them in collective and common practices, this article aims to tease out what gives some places personality and conviviality so that we can learn to design, maintain and manage better quality built environment in future.
42
30389
Studyt on New Strategies of Sustainable Neighbourhood Design Based on the 2014 Waf
Abstract:
Neighbourhood space as a very important part of city spaces, is an organic combination of material environment and spiritual achievement in people’ daily life, and has a real impact upon the sustainable development of the whole city. Looking back on the past 2014 World Architecture Festival (WAF), 4 out of 35winning buildings were neighbourhood designs, and all of them mentioned about space-sharing and sustainable development. In this paper, three award-winning cases were studied, including the world building of the year—the chapel (Vietnam, A21 studio), The Carve (Norway, A-Lab) and House for Trees (Vietnam, Vo Trong Nghia Architects). Urban context, planning, space construction and sustainable technology were discussed. Based on those, it was discovered that passive energy-saving technologies have been paid more and more attention, sharing space has been designed ingeniously, and the architectural forms of them reflect social inclusion and equity. This paper is aimed at summarizing the excellent works on the Festival and providing reference for the future design.
41
73312
A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment
Abstract:
A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.
40
76115
Optimized Weight Selection of Control Data Based on Quotient Space of Multi-Geometric Features
Authors:
Abstract:
The geometric processing of multi-source remote sensing data using control data of different scale and different accuracy is an important research direction of multi-platform system for earth observation. In the existing block bundle adjustment methods, as the controlling information in the adjustment system, the approach using single observation scale and precision is unable to screen out the control information and to give reasonable and effective corresponding weights, which reduces the convergence and adjustment reliability of the results. Referring to the relevant theory and technology of quotient space, in this project, several subjects are researched. Multi-layer quotient space of multi-geometric features is constructed to describe and filter control data. Normalized granularity merging mechanism of multi-layer control information is studied and based on the normalized scale factor, the strategy to optimize the weight selection of control data which is less relevant to the adjustment system can be realized. At the same time, geometric positioning experiment is conducted using multi-source remote sensing data, aerial images, and multiclass control data to verify the theoretical research results. This research is expected to break through the cliché of the single scale and single accuracy control data in the adjustment process and expand the theory and technology of photogrammetry. Thus the problem to process multi-source remote sensing data will be solved both theoretically and practically.
39
97448
Task Space Synchronization Control of Multi-Robot Arms with Position Synchronous Method
Abstract:
Synchronization is of great importance to ensure the multi-arm robot to complete the task. Therefore, a synchronous controller is designed to coordinate task space motion of the multi-arm in the paper. The position error, the synchronous position error, and the coupling position error are all considered in the controller. Besides, an adaptive control method is used to adjust parameters of the controller to improve the effectiveness of coordinated control performance. Simulation in the Matlab shows the effectiveness of the method. At last, a robot experiment platform with two 7-DOF (Degree of Freedom) robot arms has been established and the synchronous controller simplified to control dual-arm robot has been validated on the experimental set-up. Experiment results show the position error decreased 10% and the corresponding frequency is also greatly improved.
38
14616
A Cooperative Space-Time Transmission Scheme Based On Symbol Combinations
Abstract:
This paper proposes a cooperative Alamouti space time transmission scheme with low relay complexity for the cooperative communication systems. In the proposed scheme, the source node combines the data symbols to construct the Alamouti-coded form at the destination node, while the conventional scheme performs the corresponding operations at the relay nodes. In simulation results, it is shown that the proposed scheme achieves the second order cooperative diversity while maintaining the same bit error rate (BER) performance as that of the conventional scheme.
37
42427
A New Fixed Point Theorem for Almost θ-Contraction
Authors:
Abstract:
In this work, we introduce a new type of contractive maps and we establish a new fixed point theorem for the class of almost θ-contractions (more general than the class of almost contractions) in a complete generalized metric space. The major novelty of our work is to prove a new fixed point result by weakening some hypotheses imposed on the function θ which will change completely the classical technique used in the literature review to prove fixed point theorems for almost θ-contractions in a complete generalized metric space.
36
86079
Strength of the Basement Wall Combined with a Temporary Retaining Wall for Excavation
Abstract:
In recent years, the need for remodeling of many apartments built 30 years ago is increasing. Therefore, researches on the structural reinforcement technology of existing apartments have been conducted. On the other hand, there is a growing need for research on the existing underground space expansion technology to expand the parking space required for remodeling. When expanding an existing underground space, for earthworks, an earth retaining wall must be installed between the existing apartment building and it. In order to maximize the possible underground space, it is necessary to minimize the thickness of the portion of earth retaining wall and underground basement wall. In this manner, the calculation procedure is studied for the evaluation of shear strength of the composite basement wall corresponding to shear span-to-depth ratio in this study. As a result, it was shown that the proposed calculation procedure can be used to evaluate the shear strength of the composite basement wall as safe. On the other hand, when shear span-to-depth ratio is small, shear strength is very underestimated.
35
41085
Volcanoscape Space Configuration Zoning Based on Disaster Mitigation by Utilizing GIS Platform in Mt. Krakatau Indonesia
Abstract:
Particularly, space configuration zoning is the very first juncture of a complete space configuration and region planning. Zoning is aimed to define discrete knowledge based on a local wisdom. Ancient predecessor scientifically study the sign of natural disaster towards ethnography approach by operating this knowledge. There are three main functions of space zoning, which are control function, guidance function, and additional function. The control function refers to an instrument for development control and as one of the essentials in controlling land use. Hence, the guidance function indicates as guidance for proposing operational planning and technical development or land usage. Any additional function is useful as a supplementary for region or province planning details. This phase likewise accredits to define boundary in an open space based on geographical appearance. Informant who is categorized as an elder lives in earthquake prone area, to be precise the area is the surrounding of Mount Krakatau. The collected data is one of method for analyzed with thematic model. Later on, it will be verified. In space zoning, long-range distance sensor is applied to determine visualization of the area, which will be zoned before the step of survey to validate the data. The data, which is obtained from long-range distance sensor and site survey, will be overlaid using GIS Platform. Comparing the knowledge based on a local wisdom that is well known by elderly in that area, some of it is relevant to the research, while the others are not. Based on the site survey, the interpretation of a long-range distance sensor, and determining space zoning by considering various aspects resulted in the pattern map of space zoning. This map can be integrated with disaster mitigation affected by volcano eruption.
34
63627
Online Prediction of Nonlinear Signal Processing Problems Based Kernel Adaptive Filtering
Abstract:
This paper presents two of the most knowing kernel adaptive filtering (KAF) approaches, the kernel least mean squares and the kernel recursive least squares, in order to predict a new output of nonlinear signal processing. Both of these methods implement a nonlinear transfer function using kernel methods in a particular space named reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the model is a linear combination of kernel functions applied to transform the observed data from the input space to a high dimensional feature space of vectors, this idea known as the kernel trick. Then KAF is the developing filters in RKHS. We use two nonlinear signal processing problems, Mackey Glass chaotic time series prediction and nonlinear channel equalization to figure the performance of the approaches presented and finally to result which of them is the adapted one.
33
29237
Cooperative Coevolution for Neuro-Evolution of Feed Forward Networks for Time Series Prediction Using Hidden Neuron Connections
Authors:
Abstract:
Cooperative coevolution uses problem decomposition methods to solve a larger problem. The problem decomposition deals with breaking down the larger problem into a number of smaller sub-problems depending on their method. Different problem decomposition methods have their own strengths and limitations depending on the neural network used and application problem. In this paper we are introducing a new problem decomposition method known as Hidden-Neuron Level Decomposition (HNL). The HNL method is competing with established problem decomposition method in time series prediction. The results show that the proposed approach has improved the results in some benchmark data sets when compared to the standalone method and has competitive results when compared to methods from literature.
32
19947
The English Classroom: Scope and Space for Motivation
Abstract:
The globalized world has been witnessing the ubiquity of the English language and has made it mandatory that students be equipped with the required Communication and soft skills. For students and especially for students studying in technical streams, gaining command over the English language is only a part of the bigger challenges they will face in the future. Linguistic capabilities if blended with the right attitude and a positive personality would deliver better results in the present environment of the digitalized world. An English classroom has that ‘space’; a space if utilized well by the teacher can pay rich dividends. The prescribed syllabus for English in the process of adapting itself to the challenges of a more and more technical world has meted out an indifferent treatment in including ‘literary’ material in their curriculum. A debate has always existed regarding the same and diversified opinions have been given. When the student is motivated to reach Literature through intrinsic motivation, it may contribute to his/her personality-development. In the present paper, the element of focus is on the scope and space to motivate students by creating a specific space for herself/himself amidst the schedules of the teaching-learning processes by taking into consideration a few literary excerpts for the purpose.
31
78296
Total Controllability of the Second Order Nonlinear Differential Equation with Delay and Non-Instantaneous Impulses
Abstract:
A stronger concept of exact controllability which is called Total Controllability is introduced in this manuscript. Sufficient conditions have been established for the total controllability of a control problem, governed by second order nonlinear differential equation with delay and non-instantaneous impulses in a Banach space X. The results are obtained using the strongly continuous cosine family and Banach fixed point theorem. Also, the total controllability of an integrodifferential problem is investigated. At the end, some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the analytical findings.
30
65484
Optimal Control of Generators and Series Compensators within Multi-Space-Time Frame
Abstract:
The operation of power grid is becoming more and more complex and difficult due to its rapid development towards high voltage, long distance, and large capacity. For instance, many large-scale wind farms have connected to power grid, where their fluctuation and randomness is very likely to affect the stability and safety of the grid. Fortunately, many new-type equipments based on power electronics have been applied to power grid, such as UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller), TCSC (Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation), STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) and so on, which can help to deal with the problem above. Compared with traditional equipment such as generator, new-type controllable devices, represented by the FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System), have more accurate control ability and respond faster. But they are too expensive to use widely. Therefore, on the basis of the comparison and analysis of the controlling characteristics between traditional control equipment and new-type controllable equipment in both time and space scale, a coordinated optimizing control method within mutil-time-space frame is proposed in this paper to bring both kinds of advantages into play, which can better both control ability and economical efficiency. Firstly, the coordination of different space sizes of grid is studied focused on the fluctuation caused by large-scale wind farms connected to power grid. With generator, FSC (Fixed Series Compensation) and TCSC, the coordination method on two-layer regional power grid vs. its sub grid is studied in detail. The coordination control model is built, the corresponding scheme is promoted, and the conclusion is verified by simulation. By analysis, interface power flow can be controlled by generator and the specific line power flow between two-layer regions can be adjusted by FSC and TCSC. The smaller the interface power flow adjusted by generator, the bigger the control margin of TCSC, instead, the total consumption of generator is much higher. Secondly, the coordination of different time sizes is studied to further the amount of the total consumption of generator and the control margin of TCSC, where the minimum control cost can be acquired. The coordination method on two-layer ultra short-term correction vs. AGC (Automatic Generation Control) is studied with generator, FSC and TCSC. The optimal control model is founded, genetic algorithm is selected to solve the problem, and the conclusion is verified by simulation. Finally, the aforementioned method within multi-time-space scale is analyzed with practical cases, and simulated on PSASP (Power System Analysis Software Package) platform. The correctness and effectiveness are verified by the simulation result. Moreover, this coordinated optimizing control method can contribute to the decrease of control cost and will provide reference to the following studies in this field.
29
35544
Understanding Space, Citizenship and Assimilation in the Context of Migration in North-Eastern Region of India
Abstract:
This paper is an attempt to understand the abstract concept of space, citizenship and migration in the north-eastern region. In the twentieth century, researchers and thinkers related citizenship and migration on national models. The national models of jus sulis and jus sangunis provide scope of space and rights to only those who are either born in the territory or either share the common descent. Space ensures rights and citizenship ensures space and for many migrants, citizenship is the ultimate goal in the host country. Migrants with the intention of settling down in the destination region, begin to adapt and assimilate in their new homes. In many cases, migrants may also retain the culture and values of the place of origin. In such cases the difference in the degree of retention and assimilation may determine the chances of conflict between the host society and migrants. Such conflicts are fueled by political aspirations of few individuals on both the sides. The North-Eastern part of India is a mixed community with many linguistic and religious groups sharing a common Geo-political space. Every community has its own unique history, culture and identity. Since the last half of the nineteenth century, this region has been experiencing both internal migration from other states and immigration from the neighboring countries which has resulted in the interactions of various cultures and ethnicities. With the span of time, migration has taken bitter form with problems concentrated around acquiring rights through space and citizenship. Political tensions resulted by host hostility and migrants resistance has ruined the social order in few areas. In order to resolve these issues in this area proper intervention has to be carried out by the involvement of the National and International community.
28
93047
The Construction of the Residential Landscape in the Mountain Environment: Taking the Eling Peak, 'Mirror of the Sky', in Chongqing, China as an Example
Abstract:
Most of the western part of China is mountainous and hilly region, with abundant resources of mountainous space. However, the resources are complex, and the ecological factors are diverse. As urbanization expands rapidly today, the landscape of the mountain residence needs to be changed. This paper, starting with the ecological environment and visual landscape of the mountain living space, analyzes the basic conditions of the Eling Peak, ‘Mirror of the Sky’, in Chongqing, China before its landscape renovation. Then, it analyzes some parts of the project, including the overall planning, ecological coordination, space expansion and local conditions in mountain environment. After that, this paper concludes the intention of designer and 4 methods, appropriate demolition, space reconstruction, landscape modeling and reasonable road system, to transform the master’s mountain residential works. Finally, through the analysis and understanding of the project, it sums up that the most beautiful landscape is not only the outdoor space, but also borrowing scene from the city and the sky, making them a part of the mountainous residential buildings. Only in this way can people, landscape, building, sky, and city become integrated and coexist harmoniously.
27
33324
Facial Pose Classification Using Hilbert Space Filling Curve and Multidimensional Scaling
Abstract:
Pose estimation is an important task in computer vision. Though the majority of the existing solutions provide good accuracy results, they are often overly complex and computationally expensive. In this perspective, we propose the use of dimensionality reduction techniques to address the problem of facial pose estimation. Firstly, a face image is converted into one-dimensional time series using Hilbert space filling curve, then the approach converts these time series data to a symbolic representation. Furthermore, a distance matrix is calculated between symbolic series of an input learning dataset of images, to generate classifiers of frontal vs. profile face pose. The proposed method is evaluated with three public datasets. Experimental results have shown that our approach is able to achieve a correct classification rate exceeding 97% with K-NN algorithm.
26
17888
Every g-Riesz Basis is a Riesz Basis
Abstract:
Sun introduced a generalization of frames and showed that this includes more other cases of generalizations of frame concept and proved that many basic properties can be derived within this more general context. Another generalization of frames is frames in Hilbert C*-module. It has been proved that every g-frame in Hilbert space H respect to Hilbert space K is a frame for B(H;K) as Hilbert C*-module. We show that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space H respect to K by add a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert B(K)-module B(H;K). Also, we investigate similar result for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases.
25
22261
Solution of Nonlinear Fractional Programming Problem with Bounded Parameters
Abstract:
In this paper a methodology is developed to solve a nonlinear fractional programming problem in which the coefficients of the objective function and constraints are interval parameters. This model is transformed into a general optimization problem and relation between the original problem and the transformed problem is established. Finally the proposed methodology is illustrated through a numerical example.
24
3515
Performance Improvement of Cooperative Scheme in Wireless OFDM Systems
Abstract:
Recently, the wireless communication systems are required to have high quality and provide high bit rate data services. Researchers have studied various multiple antenna scheme to meet the demand. In practical application, it is difficult to deploy multiple antennas for limited size and cost. Cooperative diversity techniques are proposed to overcome the limitations. Cooperative communications have been widely investigated to improve performance of wireless communication. Among diversity schemes, space-time block code has been widely studied for cooperative communication systems. In this paper, we propose a new cooperative scheme using pre-coding and space-time block code. The proposed cooperative scheme provides improved error performance than a conventional cooperative scheme using space-time block coding scheme.
23
2867
Monthly River Flow Prediction Using a Nonlinear Prediction Method
Abstract:
River flow prediction is an essential to ensure proper management of water resources can be optimally distribute water to consumers. This study presents an analysis and prediction by using nonlinear prediction method involving monthly river flow data in Tanjung Tualang from 1976 to 2006. Nonlinear prediction method involves the reconstruction of phase space and local linear approximation approach. The phase space reconstruction involves the reconstruction of one-dimensional (the observed 287 months of data) in a multidimensional phase space to reveal the dynamics of the system. Revenue of phase space reconstruction is used to predict the next 72 months. A comparison of prediction performance based on correlation coefficient (CC) and root mean square error (RMSE) have been employed to compare prediction performance for nonlinear prediction method, ARIMA and SVM. Prediction performance comparisons show the prediction results using nonlinear prediction method is better than ARIMA and SVM. Therefore, the result of this study could be used to developed an efficient water management system to optimize the allocation water resources.
22
100234
Research and Design of Functional Mixed Community: A Model Based on the Construction of New Districts in China
Authors:
Abstract:
The urban design of the new district in China is different from other existing cities at the city planning level, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, etc. And the urban problems of these super-cities are same as many big cities around the world. The goal of the new district construction plan is to enable people to live comfortably, to improve the well-being of residents, and to create a way of life different from that of other urban communities. To avoid the emergence of the super community, the idea of "decentralization" is taken as the overall planning idea, and the function and form of each community are set up with a homogeneous allocation of resources so that the community can grow naturally. Similar to the growth of vines in nature, each community groups are independent and connected through roads, with clear community boundaries that limit their unlimited expansion. With a community contained 20,000 people as a case, the community is a mixture for living, production, office, entertainment, and other functions. Based on the development of the Internet, to create more space for public use, and can use data to allocate resources in real time. And this kind of shared space is the main part of the activity space in the community. At the same time, the transformation of spatial function can be determined by the usage feedback of all kinds of existing space, and the use of space can be changed by the changing data. Take the residential unit as the basic building function mass, take the lower three to four floors of the building as the main flexible space for use, distribute functions such as entertainment, service, office, etc. For the upper living space, set up a small amount of indoor and outdoor activity space, also used as shared space. The transformable space of the bottom layer is evenly distributed, combined with the walking space connected the community, the service and entertainment network can be formed in the whole community, and can be used in most of the community space. With the basic residential unit as the replicable module, the design of the other residential units runs through the idea of decentralization and the concept of the vine community, and the various units are reasonably combined. At the same time, a small number of office buildings are added to meet the special office needs. The new functional mixed community can change many problems of the present city in the future construction, at the same time, it can keep its vitality through the adjustment function of the Internet.
21
16220
Space Vector PWM and Model Predictive Control for Voltage Source Inverter Control
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for two-level three phase (2L-3P) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). VSI with associated system is subjected to both control techniques and the results are compared. Matlab/Simulink was used to model, simulate and validate the control schemes. Findings of this study show that MPC is superior to SVPWM in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD) and implementation.
20
106455
Simulation Study on Spacecraft Surface Charging Induced by Jovian Plasma Environment with Particle in Cell Method
Abstract:
Space plasma caused spacecraft surface charging is the major space environment hazard. Particle in cell (PIC) method can be used to simulate the interaction between space plasma and spacecraft. It was proved that surface charging level of spacecraft in Jupiter’s orbits was high for its’ electron-heavy plasma environment. In this paper, Jovian plasma environment is modeled and surface charging analysis is carried out by PIC based software Spacecraft Plasma Interaction System (SPIS). The results show that the spacecraft charging potentials exceed 1000V at 2Rj, 15Rj and 25Rj polar orbits in the dark side at worst case plasma model. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the large Jovian magnetic field increases the surface charging level for secondary electron gyration.
19
86263
Methods of Livable Goal-Oriented Master Urban Design: A Case Study on Zibo City
Abstract:
The implementation of the 'Urban Design Management Measures' requires that the master urban design should aim at creating a livable urban space. However, to our best knowledge, the existing researches and practices of master urban design not only focus less on the livable space but also face a number of problems such as paying more attention to the image of the city, ignoring the people-oriented and lacking dynamic continuity. In order to make the master urban design can better guide the construction of city. Firstly, the paper proposes the livable city hierarchy system to meet the needs of different groups of people and then constructs the framework of livable goal-oriented master urban design based on the theory of livable content and the ideological origin of people-oriented. Secondly, the paper takes the master urban design practice of Zibo as a sample and puts forward the design strategy of strengthening the pattern, improve the quality of space, shape the feature, and establish a series of action plans based on the strategy of urban space development. Finally, the paper explores the method system of livable goal-oriented master urban design from the aspects of safety pattern, morphology pattern, neighborhood scale, open space, street space, public interface, style feature, public participation and action plans.
18
78571
Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking
Abstract:
On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be used for constructing the 2D vehicle environmental map and available parking type judgment. Finally, the auto-parking controller executes the on-line optimal parking trajectory planning based on this 2D environmental map, and monitors the real-time vehicle parking trajectory tracking control. This low cost auto-parking system was tested on a model car.
17
69933
Exhaustive Study of Essential Constraint Satisfaction Problem Techniques Based on N-Queens Problem
Abstract:
Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is observed in various applications, i.e., scheduling problems, timetabling problems, assignment problems, etc. Researchers adopt a CSP technique to tackle a certain problem; however, each technique follows different approaches and ways to solve a problem network. In our exhaustive study, it has been possible to visualize the processes of essential CSP algorithms from a very concrete constraint satisfaction example, NQueens Problem, in order to possess a deep understanding about how a particular constraint satisfaction problem will be dealt with by our studied and implemented techniques. Besides, benchmark results - time vs. value of N in N-Queens - have been generated from our implemented approaches, which help understand at what factor each algorithm produces solutions; especially, in N-Queens puzzle. Thus, extended decisions can be made to instantiate a real life problem within CSP’s framework.
16
66015
Application of the Finite Window Method to a Time-Dependent Convection-Diffusion Equation
Abstract:
The FWM (Finite Window Method) is a new numerical meshfree technique for solving problems defined either in terms of PDEs (Partial Differential Equation) or by a set of conservation/equilibrium laws. The principle behind the FWM is that in such problem each element of the concerned domain is interacting with its neighbors and will always try to adapt to keep in equilibrium with respect to those neighbors. This leads to a very simple and robust problem solving scheme, well suited for transfer problems. In this work, we have applied the FWM to an unsteady scalar convection-diffusion equation. Despite its simplicity, it is well known that convection-diffusion problems can be challenging to be solved numerically, especially when convection is highly dominant. This has led researchers to set the scalar convection-diffusion equation as a benchmark one used to analyze and derive the required conditions or artifacts needed to numerically solve problems where convection and diffusion occur simultaneously. We have shown here that the standard FWM can be used to solve convection-diffusion equations in a robust manner as no adjustments (Upwinding or Artificial Diffusion addition) were required to obtain good results even for high Peclet numbers and coarse space and time steps. A comparison was performed between the FWM scheme and both a first order implicit Finite Volume Scheme (Upwind scheme) and a third order implicit Finite Volume Scheme (QUICK Scheme). The results of the comparison was that for equal space and time grid spacing, the FWM yields a much better precision than the used Finite Volume schemes, all having similar computational cost and conditioning number.
15
7667
Methanation Catalyst for Low CO Concentration
Abstract:
A Ni-based catalyst supported by γ-Al2O3 was prepared by impregnation method, and the catalyst was used in a low CO and CO2 concentration methanation system. The effect of temperature, pressure and space velocity on the methanation reaction was investigated in an experimental fixed-bed reactor. The methanation reaction was operated at the conditions of 190-240°C, 3000-24000ml•g-1•h-1 and 1.5-3.5MPa. The results show that temperature and space velocity play important role on the reaction. With the increase of reaction temperature the CO and CO2 conversion increase and the selectivity of CH4 increase. And with the increase of the space velocity the conversion of CO and CO2 and the selectivity of CH4 decrease sharply.
14
108740
Design and Analysis of Shielding Magnetic Field for Active Space Radiation Protection
Abstract:
For deep space exploration and long duration interplanetary manned missions, protection of astronauts from cosmic radiation is an unavoidable problem. However, passive shielding can be little effective for protecting particles which energies are greater than 1GeV/nucleon. In this study, active magnetic protection method is adopted. Taking into account the structure and size of the end-cap, eight shielding magnetic field configurations are designed based on the Hoffman configuration. The shielding effect of shielding magnetic field structure, intensity B and thickness L on H particles with 2GeV energy is compared by test particle simulation. The result shows that the shielding effect is better with the linear type magnetic field structure in the end-cap region. Furthermore, two magnetic field configurations with better shielding effect are investigated through H and He galactic cosmic spectra. And the shielding effect of the linear type configuration adopted in the barrel and end-cap regions is best.
13
28619
Green Open Space in Sustainable Housing and Islamic Values Perspectives – Case Study Kampung Kauman Malang
Abstract:
Sustainable Housing in Islamic perspective, can be defined as a multi-dimensional process that seeks to achieve a balance between economic and socio-cultural aspects on the side, and environmental aspect on the other. There are many quotes verses in the Quran and Hadith that leads to the belief that Islam as a Rahmatan lil Alamin, where men are encouraged to act wisely in treating nature and all living things in it. One aspect of the natural environment that closed to human is plants. In the settlement, the availability of plants or also called green open space is highly recommended. The availability of green open space in the neighborhood, both the public and private green open spaces is expected to reduce the effects of global warming that has engulfed various parts of the world. Green open space that can be viewed from the angle of eco-aestetic and eco-medical in sustainable architecture, is expected to increase the temperature and provide aesthetic impression to the surrounding environment. This paper attempts to discuss the principles of Islamic values related to the natural environment as a major resource for sustainability. This paper also aims to raise awareness of the importance of the theme of sustainability in settlements, especially in big cities. Analysis of the availability of green open space in kampung Kauman Malang is one example of the effort to apply the principles of sustainable housing.
12
18593
Regret-Regression for Multi-Armed Bandit Problem
Abstract:
In the literature, the multi-armed bandit problem as a statistical decision model of an agent trying to optimize his decisions while improving his information at the same time. There are several different algorithms models and their applications on this problem. In this paper, we evaluate the Regret-regression through comparing with Q-learning method. A simulation on determination of optimal treatment regime is presented in detail.
11
97443
Detectability Analysis of Typical Aerial Targets from Space-Based Platforms
Abstract:
In order to achieve effective detection of aerial targets over long distances from space-based platforms, the mechanism of interaction between the radiation characteristics of the aerial targets and the complex scene environment including the sunlight conditions, underlying surfaces and the atmosphere are analyzed. A large simulated database of space-based radiance images is constructed considering several typical aerial targets, target working modes (flight velocity and altitude), illumination and observation angles, background types (cloud, ocean, and urban areas) and sensor spectrums ranging from visible to thermal infrared. The target detectability is characterized by the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) extracted from the images. The influence laws of the target detectability are discussed under different detection bands and instantaneous fields of view (IFOV). Furthermore, the optimal center wavelengths and widths of the detection bands are suggested, and the minimum IFOV requirements are proposed. The research can provide theoretical support and scientific guidance for the design of space-based detection systems and on-board information processing algorithms.
10
19844
Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎
Abstract:
The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.
9
16411
A Fuzzy Programming Approach for Solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linear Fractional Programming Problem
Abstract:
This paper develops an approach for solving intuitionistic fuzzy linear fractional programming (IFLFP) problem where the cost of the objective function, the resources, and the technological coefficients are triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Here, the IFLFP problem is transformed into an equivalent crisp multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) problem. By using fuzzy mathematical programming approach the transformed MOLFP problem is reduced into a single objective linear programming (LP) problem. The proposed procedure is illustrated through a numerical example.
8
54635
Pareto System of Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Radial Distribution Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:
The Pareto approach of optimal solutions in a search space that evolved in multi-objective optimization problems is adopted in this paper, which stands for a set of solutions in the search space. This paper aims at presenting an optimal placement of Distributed Generation (DG) in radial distribution networks with an optimal size for minimization of power loss and voltage deviation as well as maximizing voltage profile of the networks. And these problems are formulated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a constraint nonlinear optimization problem with both locations and sizes of DG being continuous. The objective functions adopted are the total active power loss function and voltage deviation function. The multiple nature of the problem, made it necessary to form a multi-objective function in search of the solution that consists of both the DG location and size. The proposed PSO algorithm is used to determine optimal placement and size of DG in a distribution network. The output indicates that PSO algorithm technique shows an edge over other types of search methods due to its effectiveness and computational efficiency. The proposed method is tested on the standard IEEE 34-bus and validated with 33-bus test systems distribution networks. Results indicate that the sizing and location of DG are system dependent and should be optimally selected before installing the distributed generators in the system and also an improvement in the voltage profile and power loss reduction have been achieved.
7
108127
Quantum Localization of Vibrational Mirror in Cavity Optomechanics
Abstract:
Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-P&eacute;rot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |&psi;(x)&sup2;| and momentum space |&psi;(p)&sup2;| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.
6
41284
Triangular Libration Points in the R3bp under Combined Effects of Oblateness, Radiation and Power-Law Profile
Abstract:
We study the e ffects of oblateness up to J4 of the primaries and power-law density pro file (PDP) on the linear stability of libration location of an in nitesimal mass within the framework of restricted three body problem (R3BP), by using a more realistic model in which a disc with PDP is rotating around the common center of the system mass with perturbed mean motion. The existence and stability of triangular equilibrium points have been explored. It has been shown that triangular equilibrium points are stable for 0 < μ < μc and unstable for μc ≤ μ ≤ 1/2, where c denotes the critical mass parameter. We find that, the oblateness up to J2 of the primaries and the radiation reduces the stability range while the oblateness up to J4 of the primaries increases the size of stability both in the context where PDP is considered and ignored. The PDP has an e ect of about ≈0:01 reduction on the application of c to Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Moons systems. We find that the comprehensive eff ects of the perturbations have a stabilizing proclivity. However, the oblateness up to J2 of the primaries and the radiation of the primaries have tendency for instability, while coecients up to J4 of the primaries have stability predisposition. In the limiting case c = 0, and also by setting appropriate parameter(s) to zero, our results are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained previously. Libration points play a very important role in space mission and as a consequence, our results have a practical application in space dynamics and related areas. The model may be applied to study the navigation and station-keeping operations of spacecraft (in nitesimal mass) around the Jupiter (more massive) -Callisto (less massive) system, where PDP accounts for the circumsolar ring of asteroidal dust, which has a cloud of dust permanently in its wake.
5
54515
A Study on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-Based Design Optimization Techniques Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA)
Abstract:
In engineering applications, a design has to be as fully perfect as possible in some defined case. The designer has to overcome many challenges in order to reach the optimal solution to a specific problem. This process is called optimization. Generally, there is always a function called “objective function” that is required to be maximized or minimized by choosing input parameters called “degrees of freedom” within an allowed domain called “search space” and computing the values of the objective function for these input values. It becomes more complex when we have more than one objective for our design. As an example for Multi-Objective Optimization Problem (MOP): A structural design that aims to minimize weight and maximize strength. In such case, the Pareto Optimal Frontier (POF) is used, which is a curve plotting two objective functions for the best cases. At this point, a designer should make a decision to choose the point on the curve. Engineers use algorithms or iterative methods for optimization. In this paper, we will discuss the Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) which are widely used with Multi-objective Optimization Problems due to their robustness, simplicity, suitability to be coupled and to be parallelized. Evolutionary algorithms are developed to guarantee the convergence to an optimal solution. An EA uses mechanisms inspired by Darwinian evolution principles. Technically, they belong to the family of trial and error problem solvers and can be considered global optimization methods with a stochastic optimization character. The optimization is initialized by picking random solutions from the search space and then the solution progresses towards the optimal point by using operators such as Selection, Combination, Cross-over and/or Mutation. These operators are applied to the old solutions “parents” so that new sets of design variables called “children” appear. The process is repeated until the optimal solution to the problem is reached. Reliable and robust computational fluid dynamics solvers are nowadays commonly utilized in the design and analyses of various engineering systems, such as aircraft, turbo-machinery, and auto-motives. Coupling of Computational Fluid Dynamics “CFD” and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms “MOEA” has become substantial in aerospace engineering applications, such as in aerodynamic shape optimization and advanced turbo-machinery design.
4
25827
Thinking about Drawing: The Evolution of Architectural Education in China After 1949
Authors:
Abstract:
Architectural design results from the interaction between space and drawing. Stemming from the Beaux-Arts architectural education, drawing kept its dominant position in teaching and learning process for centuries. However, this education system is being challenged in the present time due to the development of the times. Based on the architectural education of China after 1949, a brief introduction to the history of the evolution of the design concept and drawing is given in this paper. Illustrating with the reference to the students’ works in Nanjing Institute of Technology, the predecessor of Southeast University, in China, the paper analyses the relationship between concept and representation, as well as the participation of Space, the modernism discourse. This process contains the transmission of the character of architects, the renovation of drawing skills and the profound social background. With different purposes, the emphasis on representation tends to be combined with the operation on space, and the role of drawing in architectural design process also changes. Therefore, based on the continuity of the traditional architectural education system, the discussion on the “Drawing of Space” in contemporary education system is proposed.
3
89708
Indoor Air Quality Analysis for Renovating Building: A Case Study of Student Studio, Department of Landscape, Chiangmai, Thailand
Abstract:
The rapidly increasing number of population in the limited area creates an effect on the idea of the improvement of the area to suit the environment and the needs of people. Faculty of architecture Chiang Mai University is also expanding in both variety fields of study and quality of education. In 2020, the new department will be introduced in the faculty which is Department of Landscape Architecture. With the limitation of the area in the existing building, the faculty plan to renovate some parts of its school for anticipates the number of students who will join the program in the next two years. As a result, the old wooden workshop area is selected to be renovated as student studio space. With such condition, it is necessary to study the restriction and the distinctive environment of the site prior to the improvement in order to find ways to manage the existing space due to the fact that the primary functions that have been practiced in the site, an old wooden workshop space and the new function, studio space, are too different. 72.9% of the annual times in the room are considered to be out of the thermal comfort condition with high relative humidity. This causes non-comfort condition for occupants which could promote mould growth. This study aims to analyze thermal comfort condition in the Landscape Learning Studio Area for finding the solution to improve indoor air quality and respond to local conditions. The research methodology will be in two parts: 1) field gathering data on the case study 2) analysis and finding the solution of improving indoor air quality. The result of the survey indicated that the room needs to solve non-comfort condition problem. This can be divided into two ways which are raising ventilation and indoor temperature, e.g. improving building design and stack driven ventilation, using fan for enhancing more internal ventilation.
2
20692
A New Approach to Interval Matrices and Applications
Abstract:
An interval may be defined as a convex combination as follows: I=[a,b]={x_α=(1-α)a+αb: α∈[0,1]}. Consequently, we may adopt interval operations by applying the scalar operation point-wise to the corresponding interval points: I ∙J={x_α∙y_α ∶ αϵ[0,1],x_α ϵI ,y_α ϵJ}, With the usual restriction 0∉J if ∙ = ÷. These operations are associative: I+( J+K)=(I+J)+ K, I*( J*K)=( I*J )* K. These two properties, which are missing in the usual interval operations, will enable the extension of the usual linear system concepts to the interval setting in a seamless manner. The arithmetic introduced here avoids such vague terms as ”interval extension”, ”inclusion function”, determinants which we encounter in the engineering literature that deal with interval linear systems. On the other hand, these definitions were motivated by our attempt to arrive at a definition of interval random variables and investigate the corresponding statistical properties. We feel that they are the natural ones to handle interval systems. We will enable the extension of many results from usual state space models to interval state space models. The interval state space model we will consider here is one of the form X_((t+1) )=AX_t+ W_t, Y_t=HX_t+ V_t, t≥0, where A∈ 〖IR〗^(k×k), H ∈ 〖IR〗^(p×k) are interval matrices and 〖W 〗_t ∈ 〖IR〗^k,V_t ∈〖IR〗^p are zero – mean Gaussian white-noise interval processes. This feeling is reassured by the numerical results we obtained in a simulation examples.
1
8909
Recent Advances in Pulse Width Modulation Techniques and Multilevel Inverters
Abstract:
This paper presents advances in pulse width modulation techniques which refers to a method of carrying information on train of pulses and the information be encoded in the width of pulses. Pulse Width Modulation is used to control the inverter output voltage. This is done by exercising the control within the inverter itself by adjusting the ON and OFF periods of inverter. By fixing the DC input voltage we get AC output voltage. In variable speed AC motors the AC output voltage from a constant DC voltage is obtained by using inverter. Recent developments in power electronics and semiconductor technology have lead improvements in power electronic systems. Hence, different circuit configurations namely multilevel inverters have become popular and considerable interest by researcher are given on them. A fast Space-Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) method for five-level inverter is also discussed. In this method, the space vector diagram of the five-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of three-level inverters. In turn, each of these six space vector diagrams of three-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of two-level inverters. After decomposition, all the remaining necessary procedures for the three-level SVPWM are done like conventional two-level inverter. The proposed method reduces the algorithm complexity and the execution time. It can be applied to the multilevel inverters above the five-level also. The experimental setup for three-level diode-clamped inverter is developed using TMS320LF2407 DSP controller and the experimental results are analysed.