Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 57761

200
70325
Hydrogen Purity: Developing Low-Level Sulphur Speciation Measurement Capability
Abstract:
Fuel cell electric vehicles provide the potential to decarbonise road transport, create new economic opportunities, diversify national energy supply, and significantly reduce the environmental impacts of road transport. A potential issue, however, is that the catalyst used at the fuel cell cathode is susceptible to degradation by impurities, especially sulphur-containing compounds. A recent European Directive (2014/94/EU) stipulates that, from November 2017, all hydrogen provided to fuel cell vehicles in Europe must comply with the hydrogen purity specifications listed in ISO 14687-2; this includes reactive and toxic chemicals such as ammonia and total sulphur-containing compounds. This requirement poses great analytical challenges due to the instability of some of these compounds in calibration gas standards at relatively low amount fractions and the difficulty associated with undertaking measurements of groups of compounds rather than individual compounds. Without the available reference materials and analytical infrastructure, hydrogen refuelling stations will not be able to demonstrate compliance to the ISO 14687 specifications. The hydrogen purity laboratory at NPL provides world leading, accredited purity measurements to allow hydrogen refuelling stations to evidence compliance to ISO 14687. Utilising state-of-the-art methods that have been developed by NPL’s hydrogen purity laboratory, including a novel method for measuring total sulphur compounds at 4 nmol/mol and a hydrogen impurity enrichment device, we provide the capabilities necessary to achieve these goals. An overview of these capabilities will be given in this paper. As part of the EMPIR Hydrogen co-normative project ‘Metrology for sustainable hydrogen energy applications’, NPL are developing a validated analytical methodology for the measurement of speciated sulphur-containing compounds in hydrogen at low amount fractions pmol/mol to nmol/mol) to allow identification and measurement of individual sulphur-containing impurities in real samples of hydrogen (opposed to a ‘total sulphur’ measurement). This is achieved by producing a suite of stable gravimetrically-prepared primary reference gas standards containing low amount fractions of sulphur-containing compounds (hydrogen sulphide, carbonyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, 2-methyl-2-propanethiol and tetrahydrothiophene have been selected for use in this study) to be used in conjunction with novel dynamic dilution facilities to enable generation of pmol/mol to nmol/mol level gas mixtures (a dynamic method is required as compounds at these levels would be unstable in gas cylinder mixtures). Method development and optimisation are performed using gas chromatographic techniques assisted by cryo-trapping technologies and coupled with sulphur chemiluminescence detection to allow improved qualitative and quantitative analyses of sulphur-containing impurities in hydrogen. The paper will review the state-of-the art gas standard preparation techniques, including the use and testing of dynamic dilution technologies for reactive chemical components in hydrogen. Method development will also be presented highlighting the advances in the measurement of speciated sulphur compounds in hydrogen at low amount fractions.
199
61605
Application of Laser Spectroscopy for Detection of Actinides and Lanthanides in Solutions
Authors:
Abstract:
This work is devoted to applications of the Time-resolved laser-induced luminescence (TRLIF) spectroscopy and time-resolved laser-induced chemiluminescence spectroscopy for detection of lanthanides and actinides. Results of the experiments on Eu, Sm, U, and Pu detection in solutions are presented. The limit of uranyl detection (LOD) in urine in our TRLIF experiments was up to 5 pg/ml. In blood plasma LOD was 0.1 ng/ml and after mineralization was up to 8pg/ml – 10pg/ml. In pure solution, the limit of detection of europium was 0.005ng/ml and samarium, 0.07ng/ml. After addition urine, the limit of detection of europium was 0.015 ng/ml and samarium, 0.2 ng/ml. Pu, Np, and some U compounds do not produce direct luminescence in solutions, but when excited by laser radiation, they can induce chemiluminescence of some chemiluminogen (luminol in our experiments). It is shown that multi-photon scheme of chemiluminescence excitation makes chemiluminescence not only a highly sensitive but also a highly selective tool for the detection of lanthanides/actinides in solutions.
198
44063
Detection of Heroin and Its Metabolites in Urine Samples: A Chemiluminescence Approach
Abstract:
A sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) for heroin and its major metabolites is reported. The method is based on the competitive reaction of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-MAM antibody and free drug in spiked urine samples. A hapten-protein conjugate was synthesized by using acidic derivative of monoacetyl morphine (MAM) coupled to carrier protein BSA and was used as an immunogen for the generation of anti-MAM (monoacetyl morphine) antibody. A high titer of antibody (1:64,0000) was obtained and the relative affinity constant (Kaff) of antibody was 3.1×107 l/mol. Under the optimal conditions, linear range and reactivity for heroin, mono acetyl morphine (MAM), morphine and codeine were 0.08, 0.09, 0.095 and 0.092 ng/mL respectively. The developed chemiluminescence inhibition assay could detect heroin and its metabolites in standard and urine samples up to 0.01 ng/ml.
197
2626
An Experimental Study on the Measurement of Fuel to Air Ratio Using Flame Chemiluminescence
Abstract:
This study is aiming at establishing the relationship between the optical signal of flame and an equivalent ratio of flame. In this experiment, flame optical signal in a furnace is measured using photodiode. The combustion system which is composed of metal fiber burner and vertical furnace and flame chemiluminescence is measured at various experimental conditions. In this study, the flame chemiluminescence of laminar premixed flame is measured by using commercially available photodiode. It is experimentally investigated the relationship between equivalent ratio and photodiode signal. In addition, The strategy of combustion control method is proposed by using the optical signal and fuel pressure. The results showed that certain relationship between optical data of photodiode and equivalence ratio exists and this leads to the successful application of this system for instantaneous measurement of equivalence ration of the combustion system.
196
48045
Development and Evaluation of a Portable Ammonia Gas Detector
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a portable ammonia gas detector for performing the gas safety management efficiently. The display of the detector is separated from its body. The display module is received the data measured from the detector using ZigBee. The detector has a rechargeable li-ion battery which can be use for 11~12 hours, and a Bluetooth module for sending the data to the PC or the smart devices. The data are sent to the server and can access using the web browser or mobile application. The range of the detection concentration is 0~100ppm.
195
21799
Influence of Sulphur and Boron on Growth, Quality Parameters and Productivity of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill)
Abstract:
The experimentation was carried out to study the influence of sulphur and boron on growth parameters and productivity of soybean in kharif season of 2009-2010 at Experimental Farm, Department of Agricultural Botany, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani (M.S.). The object was to evaluate the impact of sulphur and boron on growth, development, grain yield and physiological aspects of soybean variety MAUS-81. Nine treatments consisted of three levels of sulphur i.e. 20, 30 and 40 Kg/ha as well as three levels boron i.e.10, 15 and 20 kg boron/ha and the combinations of these two mineral elements i.e. Sulphur @30 kg/ha + Borax @15 kg/ha and Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha with one control treatment in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The effect of sulphur and boron on various growth parameters of soybean like relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were remained statistically on par with each other. However, the application of higher dose of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha enhanced significantly all the growth parameters. Application of the nutrients increased the dry matter accumulation of the crop plant and hence, other growth indices like RGR and NAR also increased significantly. RGR and NAR values were recorded highest at the initial crop growth stages and decline thereafter. The application of sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha recorded significantly higher content of chlorophyll ‘a’ than rest of the treatments and chlorophyll ‘b’ observed higher in boron @15 kg/ha as well as [email protected] kg/ha, whereas total chlorophyll content was maximum in sulphur @40 kg/ha. Oil content was not influenced significantly due to above fertilization. The highest seed yield and total biological yield were obtained with combination of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha, single sulphur and boron application also showed a significant effect on seed and biological yield.
194
26726
Quantification of Hydrogen Sulfide and Methyl Mercaptan in Air Samples from a Waste Management Facilities
Abstract:
The presence of sulphur compounds like hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans is one of the reasons for waste-water treatment and waste management being associated with odour emissions. In this context having a quantifying method for these compounds helps in the optimization of treatment with the goal of their elimination, namely biofiltration processes. The aim of this study was the development of a method for quantification of odorous gases in waste treatment plants air samples. A method based on head space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography - flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) was used to analyse H2S and Metil Mercaptan (MM). The extraction was carried out with a 75-μm Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber coating at 22 ºC for 20 min, and analysed by a GC 2010 Plus A from Shimadzu with a sulphur filter detector: splitless mode (0.3 min), the column temperature program was from 60 ºC, increased by 15 ºC/min to 100 ºC (2 min). The injector temperature was held at 250 ºC, and the detector at 260 ºC. For calibration curve a gas diluter equipment (digital Hovagas G2 - Multi Component Gas Mixer) was used to do the standards. This unit had two input connections, one for a stream of the dilute gas and another for a stream of nitrogen and an output connected to a glass bulb. A 40 ppm H2S and a 50 ppm MM cylinders were used. The equipment was programmed to the selected concentration, and it automatically carried out the dilution to the glass bulb. The mixture was left flowing through the glass bulb for 5 min and then the extremities were closed. This method allowed the calibration between 1-20 ppm for H2S and 0.02-0.1 ppm and 1-3.5 ppm for MM. Several quantifications of air samples from inlet and outlet of a biofilter operating in a waste management facility in the north of Portugal allowed the evaluation the biofilters performance.
193
54268
Epicatechin Metabolites and Its Effect on ROS Production in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells
Abstract:
The action of (-)-epicatechin, a cocoa (Theobroma cacao) flavanol that modulates redox/oxidative stress are contributed mainly to their antioxidant properties. The present study investigates the concentration and time dependent effect of (-)-epicatechin metabolites 3MeEc, 4MeEc, and 4SulEc on the production of ROS on BAEC using L-012, Lucigenin as chemiluminescence dye and XO/HX system. Our result demonstrates that 3MeEc shows significant (P < 0.05) lowering effect of ROS production in BAEC with increasing concentration of metabolite while L-012 was used as chemiluminescence dye but not in the case of Lucigenin. In XO/HX system, using L-012 as chemiluminescence dye, 3MeEc and 4MeEc showed significant lowering effect on ROS production with increasing concentration from 100-500nM as compared to the positive control (SOD). When Lucigenin was used as chemiluminescence dye, 3MeEc exerted significant lowering effect with increasing concentration when compared to the positive control (SOD) whereas 4MeEc showed significant lowering effect in ROS production from 250 nM on as compared to positive control. For 4SulEc, a significant lowering effect of ROS production was only observed at 100 and 250 nM. Overall, although each metabolite shows considerable effect, 3MeEc exhibited more pronounced effect on decreasing the production of ROS as compared to other two metabolites.
192
24707
Liquid Sulphur Storage Tank
Abstract:
In this paper corrosion in the liquid sulphur storage tank at South pars gas complex phases 2&3 is presented. This full hot insulated field-erected storage tanks are used for the temporary storage of 1800m3 of molten sulphur. Sever corrosion inside the tank roof was observed during over haul inspections, in the direction of roof gradient. Investigation shown, in spite of other parts of tank there was no insulation around these manholes. Internal steam coils do not maintain a sufficiently high tank roof temperature in the vapor space. Sulphur and formation of liquid water at cool metal surface, this combination leads to the formation of iron sulfide. By employing a distributed external heating system, the temperatures of any point of the tank roof should be based on ambient dew point and the liquid storage solidification point. Also other construction and operation of tank is more important. This paper will review potential corrosion mechanism and operational case study which illustrate the importance of heating systems.
191
83964
Determination of Unknown Radionuclides Using High Purity Germanium Detectors
Abstract:
The decay chain of radioactive elements in the laboratory and the verification of natural radioactivity of the human body was investigated using the High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Properties of the HPGe detectors were also investigated. The efficiency and energy resolution of HPGe detector used in the laboratory was found to be excellent. The detector was calibrated three times so as to cover a wider energy range. Also the Centroid C of the detector was found to have a linear relationship with the energies of the known gamma-rays. Using the three calibrations of the detector, the energy of an unknown radionuclide was found to follow the decay chain of thorium-232 (232Th) and it was also found that an average adult has about 2.5g Potasium-40 (40K) in the body.
190
61612
Characterization and Optimization of Culture Conditions for Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria after Isolation from Rhizospheric Mustard Soil, Decomposing Sites and Pit House
Abstract:
Sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have marked their significant role in perspectives of maintaining healthy environment as researchers from all over the world tested and apply these in waste water treatment plants, bioleaching of heavy metals, deterioration of bridge structures, concrete and for bioremediation purposes, etc. Also, these SOB are well adapted in all kinds of environment ranging from normal soil, water habitats to extreme natural sources like geothermal areas, volcanic eruptions, black shale and acid rock drainage (ARD). SOB have been isolated from low pH environment of anthropogenic origin like acid mine drainage (AMD) and bioleaching heaps, hence these can work efficiently in different environmental conditions. Besides having many applications in field of environment science, they may be proven to be very beneficial in area of agriculture as sulphur is the fourth major macronutrients required for the growth of plants. More amount of sulphur is needed by pulses and oilseed crops with respect to the cereal grains. Due to continuous use of land for overproduction of more demanding sulphur utilizing crops and without application of sulphur fertilizers, its concentration is decreasing day by day, and thus, sulphur deficiency is becoming a great problem as it affects the crop productivity and quality. Sulphur is generally found in soils in many forms which are unavailable for plants (cannot be use by plants) like elemental sulphur, thiosulphate which can be taken up by bacteria and converted into simpler forms usable by plants by undergoing a series of transformations. So, keeping the importance of sulphur in view for various soil types, oilseed crops and role of microorganisms in making them available to plants, we made an effort to isolate, optimize, and characterize SOB. Three potential strains of bacteria were isolated, namely SSF7, SSA21, and SSS6, showing sulphate production of concentration, i.e. 2.268, 3.102, and 2.785 mM, respectively. Also, these were optimized for various culture conditions like carbon, nitrogen source, pH, temperature, and incubation time, and characterization was also done.
189
61155
Developing Environmental Engineering Alternatives for Deep Desulphurization of Transportation Fuels
Abstract:
Deep desulphurization of transportation fuels is a major environmental concern all over the world and recently prescribed norms for the sulphur content require below 10 ppm sulphur concentrations in fuels such as diesel and gasoline. The existing technologies largely based on catalytic processes such as hydrodesulphurization, oxidation require newer catalysts and demand high cost of deep desulphurization whereas adsorption based processes have limitations due to lower capacity of sulphur removal. The present work is an attempt to provide alternatives for the existing methodologies using a newer non-catalytic process based on hydrodynamic cavitation. The developed process requires appropriate combining of organic and aqueous phases under ambient conditions and passing through a cavitating device such as orifice, venturi or vortex diode. The implosion of vapour cavities formed in the cavitating device generates (in-situ) oxidizing species which react with the sulphur moiety resulting in the removal of sulphur from the organic phase. In this work, orifice was used as a cavitating device and deep desulphurization was demonstrated for removal of thiophene as a model sulphur compound from synthetic fuel of n-octane, toluene and n-octanol. The effect of concentration of sulphur (up to 300 ppm), nature of organic phase and effect of pressure drop (0.5 to 10 bar) was discussed. A very high removal of sulphur content of more than 90% was demonstrated. The process is easy to operate, essentially works at ambient conditions and the ratio of aqueous to organic phase can be easily adjusted to maximise sulphur removal. Experimental studies were also carried out using commercial diesel as a solvent and the results substantiate similar high sulphur removal. A comparison of the two cavitating devices- one with a linear flow and one using vortex flow for effecting pressure drop and cavitation indicates similar trends in terms of sulphur removal behaviour. The developed process is expected to provide an attractive environmental engineering alternative for deep desulphurization of transportation fuels.
188
46369
Effect of Sulphur Concentration on Microbial Population and Performance of a Methane Biofilter
Abstract:
Methane (CH4) is reputed as the second largest contributor to greenhouse effect with a global warming potential (GWP) of 34 related to carbon dioxide (CO2) over the 100-year horizon, so there is a growing interest in reducing the emissions of this gas. Methane biofiltration (MBF) is a cost effective technology for reducing low volume point source emissions of methane. In this technique, microbial oxidation of methane is carried out by methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) which use methane as carbon and energy source. MBF uses a granular medium, such as soil or compost, to support the growth of methanotrophic bacteria responsible for converting methane to carbon dioxide (CO₂) and water (H₂O). Even though the biofiltration technique has been shown to be an efficient, practical and viable technology, the design and operational parameters, as well as the relevant microbial processes have not been investigated in depth. In particular, limited research has been done on the effects of sulphur on methane bio-oxidation. Since bacteria require a variety of nutrients for growth, to improve the performance of methane biofiltration, it is important to establish the input quantities of nutrients to be provided to the biofilter to ensure that nutrients are available to sustain the process. The study described in this paper was conducted with the aim of determining the influence of sulphur on methane elimination in a biofilter. In this study, a set of experimental measurements has been carried out to explore how the conversion of elemental sulphur could affect methane oxidation in terms of methanotrophs growth and system pH. Batch experiments with different concentrations of sulphur were performed while keeping the other parameters i.e. moisture content, methane concentration, oxygen level and also compost at their optimum level. The study revealed the tolerable limit of sulphur without any interference to the methane oxidation as well as the particular sulphur concentration leading to the greatest methane elimination capacity. Due to the sulphur oxidation, pH varies in a transient way which affects the microbial growth behavior. All methanotrophs are incapable of growth at pH values below 5.0 and thus apparently are unable to oxidize methane. Herein, the certain pH for the optimal growth of methanotrophic bacteria is obtained. Finally, monitoring methane concentration over time in the presence of sulphur is also presented for laboratory scale biofilters.
187
63028
Performance Analysis of the Time-Based and Periodogram-Based Energy Detector for Spectrum Sensing
Abstract:
Classically, an energy detector is implemented in time domain (TD). However, frequency domain (FD) based energy detector has demonstrated an improved performance. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches as to analyze their pros and cons. A detailed performance analysis of the classical TD energy-detector and the periodogram based detector is performed. Exact and approximate mathematical expressions for probability of false alarm (Pf) and probability of detection (Pd) are derived for both approaches. The derived expressions naturally lead to an analytical as well as intuitive reasoning for the improved performance of (Pf) and (Pd) in different scenarios. Our analysis suggests the dependence improvement on buffer sizes. Pf is improved in FD, whereas Pd is enhanced in TD based energy detectors. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations results demonstrate the analysis reached by the derived expressions.
186
101942
Using the Timepix Detector at CERN Accelerator Facilities
Abstract:
The UA9 collaboration in the last two years has installed two different types of detectors to investigate the channeling effect in the bent silicon crystals with high-energy particles beam on the CERN accelerator facilities: Cherenkov detector CpFM and silicon pixel detector Timepix. In the current work, we describe the main performances of the Timepix detector operation at the SPS and H8 extracted beamline at CERN. We are presenting some detector calibration results and tuning. Our research topics also cover a cluster analysis algorithm for the particle hits reconstruction. We describe the optimal acquisition setup for the Timepix device and the edges of its functionality for the high energy and flux beam monitoring. The measurements of the crystal parameters are very important for the future bent crystal applications and needs a track reconstruction apparatus. Thus, it was decided to construct a short range (1.2 m long) particle telescope based on the Timepix sensors and test it at H8 SPS extraction beamline. The obtained results will be shown as well.
185
41596
Development of Alpha Spectroscopy Method with Solid State Nuclear Track Detector Using Aluminium Thin Films
Authors:
Abstract:
This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 Mev, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 Mev) can penetrate the film and reach the detector’s surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 Mev and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source.
184
104279
The Concentration of Formaldehyde in Rainwater and Typhoon Rainwater at Sakai City, Japan
Abstract:
Formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in rainwater including in tropical storms in Sakai City, Osaka, Japan have been measured continuously during rain event by developed chemiluminescence method. The level of formaldehyde was ranged from 15 µg/L to 500 µg/L. The high concentration of HCHO in rainwater is related to the wind direction from the south and west sides of Sakai City where manufactures related to chemicals, oil-refinery, and steel. The in-situ irradiated experiment on rainwater sample was conducted to prove the aqueous phase photo-production of HCHO and the degradation of HCHO. In the daytime, the aqueous phase photolysis is the source of HCHO in rainwater (4.52 ± 5.74 µg/L/h for UV light source in-situ condition, 2.84-8.96 µg/L/h under sunlight). However, in the night time, the degradation is the function of microorganism.
183
34948
Day/Night Detector for Vehicle Tracking in Traffic Monitoring Systems
Abstract:
Recently, traffic monitoring has attracted the attention of computer vision researchers. Many algorithms have been developed to detect and track moving vehicles. In fact, vehicle tracking in daytime and in nighttime cannot be approached with the same techniques, due to the extreme different illumination conditions. Consequently, traffic-monitoring systems are in need of having a component to differentiate between daytime and nighttime scenes. In this paper, a HSV-based day/night detector is proposed for traffic monitoring scenes. The detector employs the hue-histogram and the value-histogram on the top half of the image frame. Experimental results show that the extraction of the brightness features along with the color features within the top region of the image is effective for classifying traffic scenes. In addition, the detector achieves high precision and recall rates along with it is feasible for real time applications.
182
78239
Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel and Sulphur Sensitized Zinc Oxide Structures
Abstract:
The use of nanostructured semiconducting material to catalyze degradation of environmental pollutants still receives much attention to date. One of the desired characteristics for pollutant degradation under ultra-violet visible light is the materials with extended carrier charge separation that allows for electronic transfer between the catalyst and the pollutants. In this work, zinc oxide n-type semiconductor vertically aligned structures were fabricated on silicon (100) substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The as-synthesized structures were treated with nickel and sulphur. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase purity, structural dimensions and elemental composition of the obtained structures respectively. Photoluminescence emission measurements showed a decrease in both the near band edge emission as well as the defect band emission upon addition of nickel and sulphur with different concentrations. This was attributed to increased charger-carrier-separation due to the presence of Ni-S material on ZnO surface, which is linked to improved charge transfer during photocatalytic reactions.
181
34405
The Next Generation Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment nEXO
Abstract:
The nEXO Collaboration is designing a very large detector for neutrinoless double beta decay of Xe-136. The nEXO detector is rooted in the current EXO-200 program, which has reached a sensitivity for the half-life of the decay of 1.9x10^25 years with an exposure of 99.8 kg-y. The baseline nEXO design assumes 5 tonnes of liquid xenon, enriched in the mass 136 isotope, within a time projection chamber. The detector is being designed to reach a half-life sensitivity of > 5x10^27 years covering the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, with 5 years of data. We present the nEXO detector design, the current status of R&D efforts, and the physics case for the experiment.
180
16522
The Effect of Excess Sulphur on Najdi Sheep
Abstract:
This research work was done to investigate the cause of paralysis in Najdi lambs born in certain farms where the drinking water and diet contained high concentrations of sulphur. The drinking water in these farms was obtained from deep bore wells drilled in the farm. The lambs developed paralysis of the hind limbs at the age of 4-6 weeks and their condition deteriorated continuously until they finally died. The appetite and suckling ability remained good throughout the course of the disease but when the lambs were completely unable to move and reach for the udder, feed and water they died. Postmortem examination of the brain of paralyzed lambs showed that it was liquefied. When the brain was examined histologically, a liquefactive necrosis was seen in the form of cavities in the nervous tissue. Similar histologic picture was seen in the spinal cord of the affected lambs. Analysis for the mineral content of the fodder showed that the concentration of sulphur was 21.6 3.4 g/kg DM which is considered very high for the nutrition of sheep. Analysis for the concentration of copper and selenium in the feed showed that the concentrations of both were normal. This excluded diseases such as swayback which is caused by copper deficiency and white muscle disease, which caused by selenium deficiency. Both of these two last diseases are characterized by paralysis of lambs.
179
41006
A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) Diffractive Detector Control System for RUN-II at the Large Hadron Collider
Abstract:
The selection of diffractive events in the ALICE experiment during the first data taking period (RUN-I) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was limited by the range over which rapidity gaps occur. It would be possible to achieve better measurements by expanding the range in which the production of particles can be detected. For this purpose, the ALICE Diffractive (AD0) detector has been installed and commissioned for the second phase (RUN-II). Any new detector should be able to take the data synchronously with all other detectors and be operated through the ALICE central systems. One of the key elements that must be developed for the AD0 detector is the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS must be designed to operate safely and correctly this detector. Furthermore, the DCS must also provide optimum operating conditions for the acquisition and storage of physics data and ensure these are of the highest quality. The operation of AD0 implies the configuration of about 200 parameters, from electronics settings and power supply levels to the archiving of operating conditions data and the generation of safety alerts. It also includes the automation of procedures to get the AD0 detector ready for taking data in the appropriate conditions for the different run types in ALICE. The performance of AD0 detector depends on a certain number of parameters such as the nominal voltages for each photomultiplier tube (PMT), their threshold levels to accept or reject the incoming pulses, the definition of triggers, etc. All these parameters define the efficiency of AD0 and they have to be monitored and controlled through AD0 DCS. Finally, AD0 DCS provides the operator with multiple interfaces to execute these tasks. They are realized as operating panels and scripts running in the background. These features are implemented on a SCADA software platform as a distributed control system which integrates to the global control system of the ALICE experiment.
Keywords:
178
33851
Inhibition of Pipelines Corrosion Using Natural Extracts
Abstract:
The present work is aimed at examining carbon steel oil pipelines corrosion using three natural extracts (Eruca Sativa, Rosell and Mango peels) that are used as inhibitors of different concentrations ranging from 0.05-0.1wt. %. Two sulphur compounds are used as corrosion mediums. Weight loss method was used for measuring the corrosion rate of the carbon steel specimens immersed in technical white oil at 100ºC at various time intervals in absence and presence of the two sulphur compounds. The corroded specimens are examined using the chemical wear test, scratch test and hardness test. The scratch test is carried out using scratch loads from 0.5 Kg to 2.0 Kg. The scratch width is obtained at various scratch load and test conditions. The Brinell hardness test is carried out and investigated for both corroded and inhibited specimens. The results showed that three natural extracts can be used as environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors.
177
54293
Chemiluminescent Detection of Microorganisms in Food/Drug Product Using Reducing Agents and Gold Nanoplates
Abstract:
Microbial spoilage of food/drug has been a constant nuisance and an unavoidable problem throughout history that affects food/drug quality and safety in a variety of ways. A simple and rapid test of fungi and bacteria in food/drugs and environmental clinical samples is essential for proper management of contamination. A number of different techniques have been developed for detection and enumeration of foodborne microorganism including plate counting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymer chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid sensor, electrical and microscopy methods. However, the significant drawbacks of these techniques are highly demand of operation skills and the time and cost involved. In this report, we introduce a rapid method for detection of bacteria and fungi in food/drug products using a specific interaction between a reducing agent (tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine (TCEP)) and the microbial surface proteins. The chemical reaction was transferred to a transduction system using gold nanoplates-enhanced chemiluminescence. We have optimized our nanoplates synthetic conditions, characterized the chemiluminescence parameters and optimized conditions for the microbial assay. The new detection method was applied for rapid detection of bacteria (E.coli sp. and Lactobacillus sp.) and fungi (Mucor sp.), with limit of detection as low as single digit cells per mL within 10 min using a portable luminometer. We expect our simple and rapid detection method to be a powerful alternative to the conventional plate counting and immunoassay methods for rapid screening of microorganisms in food/drug products.
176
34295
Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a HPGe Detector Shield
Abstract:
A multilayer passive shield composed of low-activity lead (Pb), copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and iron (Fe) was designed and manufactured for a coaxial HPGe detector placed at a surface laboratory for reducing background radiation and radiation dose to the personnel. The performance of the shield was evaluated and efficiency curves of the detector were plotted by using of the various standard sources in different distances. Monte Carlo simulations and a set of TLD chips were used for dose estimation in two distances of 20 and 40 cm. The results show that the shield reduced background spectrum and the personnel dose more than 95%.
175
26170
Development, Testing, and Application of a Low-Cost Technology Sulphur Dioxide Monitor as a Tool for use in a Volcanic Emissions Monitoring Network
Abstract:
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) has been defined as a non-flammable, non-explosive, colourless gas, having a pungent, irritating odour, and is one of the main gases emitted from volcanoes. Sulphur dioxide has been recorded in concentrations hazardous to humans (0.25 – 0.5 ppm (~650 – 1300 μg/m3), downwind of many volcanoes and hence warrants constant air-quality monitoring around these sites. It has been linked to an increase in chronic respiratory disease attributed to long-term exposures and alteration in lung and other physiological functions attributed to short-term exposures. Sulphur Springs in Saint Lucia is a highly active geothermal area, located within the Soufrière Volcanic Centre, and is a park widely visited by tourists and locals. It is also a current source of continuous volcanic emissions via its many fumaroles and bubbling pools, warranting concern by residents and visitors to the park regarding the effects of exposure to these gases. In this study, we introduce a novel SO2 measurement system for the monitoring and quantification of ambient levels of airborne volcanic SO2 using low-cost technology. This work involves the extensive production of low-cost SO2 monitors/samplers, as well as field examination in tandem with standard commercial samplers (SO2 diffusion tubes). It also incorporates community involvement in the volcanic monitoring process as non-professional users of the instrument. We intend to present the preliminary monitoring results obtained from the low-cost samplers, to identify the areas in the Park exposed to high concentrations of ambient SO2, and to assess the feasibility of the instrument for non-professional use and application in volcanic settings
174
73722
Consideration of Failed Fuel Detector Location through Computational Flow Dynamics Analysis on Primary Cooling System Flow with Two Outlets
Abstract:
Failed fuel detector (FFD) in research reactor is a very crucial instrument to detect the anomaly from failed fuels in the early stage around primary cooling system (PCS) outlet prior to the decay tank. FFD is considered as a mandatory sensor to ensure the integrity of fuel assemblies and mitigate the consequence from a failed fuel accident. For the effective function of FFD, the location of them should be determined by contemplating the effect from coolant flow around two outlets. For this, the analysis on computational flow dynamics (CFD) should be first performed how the coolant outlet flow including radioactive materials from failed fuels are mixed and discharged through the outlet plenum within certain seconds. The analysis result shows that the outlet flow is well mixed regardless of the position of failed fuel and ultimately illustrates the effect of detector location.
173
108250
Reliability of Swine Estrous Detector Probe in Dairy Cattle Breeding
Abstract:
Accuracy of insemination timing is a key determinant of high pregnancy rates in livestock breeding stations. The estrous detector probes are a recent introduction into the Nigerian livestock farming sector. Many of these probes are species-labeled and they measure changes in the vaginal mucus resistivity (VMR) during the stages of the estrous cycle. With respect to size and shaft conformation, the Draminski® swine estrous detector probe (sEDP) is quite similar to the bovine estrous detector probe. We investigated the reliability of the sEDP at insemination time on two farms designated as FM A and FM B. Cows (Bunaji, n=20 per farm) were evaluated for VMR at 16th h post standard OvSynch protocol, with concurrent insemination on FM B only. The difference in the mean VMR between FM A (221 ± 24.36) Ohms and FM B (254 ± 35.59) Ohms was not significant (p > 0.05). Sixteen cows (80%) at FM B were later (day 70) confirmed pregnant via rectal palpation and calved at term. These findings suggest consistency in VMR evaluated with sEDP at insemination as well as a high predictability for VMR associated with good pregnancy rates in dairy cattle. We conclude that Draminski® swine estrous detector probe is reliable in determining time of insemination in cattle breeding stations.
172
47808
Research on Development and Accuracy Improvement of an Explosion Proof Combustible Gas Leak Detector Using an IR Sensor
Abstract:
In this paper, we presented not only development technology of an explosion proof type and portable combustible gas leak detector but also algorithm to improve accuracy for measuring gas concentrations. The presented techniques are to apply the flame-proof enclosure and intrinsic safe explosion proof to an infrared gas leak detector at first in Korea and to improve accuracy using linearization recursion equation and Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Together, we tested sensor characteristics and calibrated suitable input gases and output voltages. Then, we advanced the performances of combustible gaseous detectors through reflecting demands of gas safety management fields. To check performances of two company&#39;s detectors, we achieved the measurement tests with eight standard gases made by Korea Gas Safety Corporation. We demonstrated our instruments better in detecting accuracy other than detectors through experimental results.
171
56109
Comparative Study in Evaluating the Antioxidation Efficiency for Native Types Antioxidants Extracted from Crude Oil with the Synthesized Class
Abstract:
The natural native antioxidants N,N-P-methyl phenyl acetone and N,N-phenyl acetone were isolated from the Iraqi crude oil region of Kirkuk by ion exchange and their structure was characterized by spectral and chemical analysis methods. Tetraline was used as a liquid hydrocarbon to detect the efficiency of isolated molecules at elevated temperature (393 K) that it has physicochemical specifications and structure closed to hydrocarbons fractionated from crude oil. The synthesized universal antioxidant 2,6-ditertiaryisobutyl-p-methyl phenol (Unol) with known stochiometric coefficient of inhibition equal to (2) was used as a model for comparative evaluation at the same conditions. Modified chemiluminescence method was used to find the amount of absorbed oxygen and the induction periods in and without the existence of isolated antioxidants molecules. The results of induction periods and quantity of absorbed oxygen during the oxidation process were measured by manometric installation. It was seen that at specific equal concentrations of N,N-phenyl acetone and N, N-P-methyl phenyl acetone in comparison with Unol at 393 K were with (2) and (2.5) times efficient than do Unol. It means that they had the ability to inhibit the formation of new free radicals and prevent the chain reaction to pass from the propagation to the termination step rather than decomposition of formed hydroperoxides.
170
77586
Reliability Factors Based Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Spectrum Sensing
Abstract:
The accurate spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement of dynamic spectrum access for deployment of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). To acheive this requirement a Reliability factors based Fuzzy Logic (RFL) Scheme for Spectrum Sensing has been proposed in this paper. Cognitive Radio User (CRU) predicts the presence or absence of Primary User (PU) using energy detector and calculates the Reliability factors which are SNR of sensing node, threshold of energy detector and decision difference of each node with other nodes in a cooperative spectrum sensing environment. Then the decision of energy detector is combined with Reliability factors of sensing node using Fuzzy Logic. These Reliability Factors used in RFL Scheme describes the reliability of decision made by a CRU to improve the local spectrum sensing. This Fuzzy combining scheme provides the accuracy of decision made by sensornode. The simulation results have shown that the proposed technique provide better PU detection probability than existing Spectrum Sensing Techniques.
169
53352
Study on Beta-Ray Detection System in Water Using a MCNP Simulation
Abstract:
In the modern days, the use of radioactive substances is on the rise in the areas like chemical weaponry, industrial usage, and power plants. Although there are various technologies available to detect and monitor radioactive substances in the air, the technologies to detect underwater radioactive substances are scarce. In this study, computer simulation of the underwater detection system measuring beta-ray, a radioactive substance, has been done through MCNP. CaF₂, YAP(Ce) and YAG(Ce) have been used in the computer simulation to detect beta-ray as scintillator. Also, the source used in the computer simulation is Sr-90 and Y-90, both of them emitting only pure beta-ray. The distance between the source and the detector was shifted from 1mm to 10mm by 1 mm in the computer simulation. The result indicated that Sr-90 was impossible to measure below 1 mm since its emission energy is low while Y-90 was able to be measured up to 10mm underwater. In addition, the detector designed with CaF₂ had the highest efficiency among 3 scintillators used in the computer simulation. Since it was possible to verify the detectable range and the detection efficiency according to modeling through MCNP simulation, it is expected that such result will reduce the time and cost in building the actual beta-ray detector and evaluating its performances, thereby contributing the research and development.
168
28302
An Adaptive CFAR Algorithm Based on Automatic Censoring in Heterogeneous Environments
Abstract:
In this work, we aim to improve the detection performances of radar systems. To this end, we propose and analyze a novel censoring technique of undesirable samples, of priori unknown positions, that may be present in the environment under investigation. Therefore, we consider heterogeneous backgrounds characterized by the presence of some irregularities such that clutter edge transitions and/or interfering targets. The proposed detector, termed automatic censoring constant false alarm (AC-CFAR), operates exclusively in a Gaussian background. It is built to allow the segmentation of the environment to regions and switch automatically to the appropriate detector; namely, the cell averaging CFAR (CA-CFAR), the censored mean level CFAR (CMLD-CFAR) or the order statistic CFAR (OS-CFAR). Monte Carlo simulations show that the AC-CFAR detector performs like the CA-CFAR in a homogeneous background. Moreover, the proposed processor exhibits considerable robustness in a heterogeneous background.
167
24040
Epileptic Seizure Onset Detection via Energy and Neural Synchronization Decision Fusion
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel architecture for a patient-specific epileptic seizure onset detector using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). The proposed architecture is based on the decision fusion calculated from energy and neural synchronization related features. Specifically, one level of the detector calculates the condition number (CN) of an EEG matrix to evaluate the amount of neural synchronization present within the EEG channels. On a parallel level, the detector evaluates the energy contained in four EEG frequency subbands. The information is then fed into two independent (parallel) classification units based on support vector machines to determine the onset of a seizure event. The decisions from the two classifiers are then combined together according to two fusion techniques to determine a global decision. Experimental results demonstrate that the detector based on the AND fusion technique outperforms existing detectors with a sensitivity of 100%, detection latency of 3 seconds, while it achieves a 2:76 false alarm rate per hour. The OR fusion technique achieves a sensitivity of 100%, and significantly improves delay latency (0:17 seconds), yet it achieves 12 false alarms per hour.
166
66984
Developing Laser Spot Position Determination and PRF Code Detection with Quadrant Detector
Abstract:
In this paper, we are interested in modeling, simulation, and measurement of the laser spot position with a quadrant detector. We enhance detection and tracking of semi-laser weapon decoding system based on microcontroller. The system receives the reflected pulse through quadrant detector and processes the laser pulses through a processing circuit, a microcontroller decoding laser pulse reflected by the target. The seeker accuracy will be enhanced by the decoding system, the laser detection time based on the receiving pulses number is reduced, a gate is used to limit the laser pulse width. The model is implemented based on Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) technique with two microcontroller units (MCU). MCU1 generates laser pulses with different codes. MCU2 decodes the laser code and locks the system at the specific code. The codes EW selected based on the two selector switches. The system is implemented and tested in Proteus ISIS software. The implementation of the full position determination circuit with the detector is produced. General system for the spot position determination was performed with the laser PRF for incident radiation and the mechanical system for adjusting system at different angles. The system test results show that the system can detect the laser code with only three received pulses based on the narrow gate signal, and good agreement between simulation and measured system performance is obtained.
165
67695
Mechanical Study Printed Circuit Boards Bonding for Jefferson Laboratory Detector
Abstract:
One plane X and one plane Y of silicon microstrip detectors will constitute the front part of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer that is under construction and that will be installed in the experimental Hall A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory), located in Newport News, Virgina, USA. Each plane will be made up by two nearly identical, 300 μm thick, 10 cm x 10.3 cm wide silicon microstrip detectors with 50 um pitch, whose electronic signals will be transferred to the front-end electronic based on APV25 chips through C-shaped FR4 Printed Circuit Boards (PCB). A total of about 10000 strips are read-out. This paper treats the optimization of the detector support structure, the materials used through a finite element simulation. A very important aspect of the study will also cover the optimization of the bonding parameters between detector and electronics.
164
69836
A Development of Portable Intrinsically Safe Explosion-Proof Type of Dual Gas Detector
Abstract:
In this paper, we developed a dual gas leak instrument to detect Hydrocarbon (HC) and Monoxide (CO) gases. To two kinds of gases, it is necessary to design compact structure for sensors. And then it is important to draw sensing circuits such as measuring, amplifying and filtering. After that, it should be well programmed with robust, systematic and module coding methods. In center of them, improvement of accuracy and initial response time are a matter of vital importance. To manufacture distinguished gas leak detector, we applied intrinsically safe explosion-proof structure to lithium ion battery, main circuits, a pump with motor, color LCD interfaces and sensing circuits. On software, to enhance measuring accuracy we used numerical analysis such as Lagrange and Neville interpolation. Performance test result is conducted by using standard Methane with seven different concentrations with three other products. We want raise risk prevention and efficiency of gas safe management through distributing to the field of gas safety. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by Small and Medium Business Administration under the research theme of ‘Commercialized Development of a portable intrinsically safe explosion-proof type dual gas leak detector’, (task number S2456036).
163
65616
Development of a Remote Testing System for Performance of Gas Leakage Detectors
Abstract:
In this research, we designed a remote system to test parameters of gas detectors such as gas concentration and initial response time. This testing system is available to measure two gas instruments simultaneously. First of all, we assembled an experimental jig with a square structure. Those parts are included with a glass flask, two high-quality cameras, and two Ethernet modems for transmitting data. This remote gas detector testing system extracts numerals from videos with continually various gas concentrations while LCDs show photographs from cameras. Extracted numeral data are received to a laptop computer through Ethernet modem. And then, the numerical data with gas concentrations and the measured initial response speeds are recorded and graphed. Our remote testing system will be diversely applied on gas detector&rsquo;s test and will be certificated in domestic and international countries.
162
32339
Study of a Few Additional Posterior Projection Data to 180° Acquisition for Myocardial SPECT
Abstract:
A Dual-detector SPECT system is widely by use of myocardial SPECT studies. With 180-degree (180°) acquisition, reconstructed images are distorted in the posterior wall of myocardium due to the lack of sufficient data of posterior projection. We hypothesized that quality of myocardial SPECT images can be improved by the addition of data acquisition of only a few posterior projections to ordinary 180° acquisition. The proposed acquisition method (180° plus acquisition methods) uses the dual-detector SPECT system with a pair of detector arranged in 90° perpendicular. Sampling angle was 5°, and the acquisition range was 180° from 45° right anterior oblique to 45° left posterior oblique. After the acquisition of 180°, the detector moved to additional acquisition position of reverse side once for 2 projections, twice for 4 projections, or 3 times for 6 projections. Since these acquisition methods cannot be done in the present system, actual data acquisition was done by 360° with a sampling angle of 5°, and projection data corresponding to above acquisition position were extracted for reconstruction. We underwent the phantom studies and a clinical study. SPECT images were compared by profile curve analysis and also quantitatively by contrast ratio. The distortion was improved by 180° plus method. Profile curve analysis showed increased of cardiac cavity. Analysis with contrast ratio revealed that SPECT images of the phantoms and the clinical study were improved from 180° acquisition by the present methods. The difference in the contrast was not clearly recognized between 180° plus 2 projections, 180° plus 4 projections, and 180° plus 6 projections. 180° plus 2 projections method may be feasible for myocardial SPECT because distortion of the image and the contrast were improved.
161
16967
Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Common Oxidants for Ruthenium (II) Chemiluminescence in a Microfluidic Detection Device Coupled to Microbore High Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Analysis of Drugs in Formulations and Biological Fluids
Abstract:
In this work, we evaluated the appropriateness of various oxidants that can be used potentially with Ru(bipy)32+ CL system while performing CL detection in a microfluidic device using eight common active pharmaceutical ingredients- ciprofloxacin, hydrochlorothiazide, norfloxacin, buspirone, fexofenadine, cetirizine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. This is because, microfludics have very small channel volume and the residence time is also very short. Hence, a highly efficient oxidant is required for on-chip CL detection to obtain analytically acceptable CL emission. Three common oxidants were evaluated, lead dioxide, cerium ammonium sulphate and ammonium peroxydisulphate. Results obtained showed that ammonium peroxydisulphate is the most appropriate oxidant which can be used in microfluidic setup and all the tested analyte give strong CL emission while using this oxidant. We also found that Ru(bipy)33+ generated off-line by oxidizing [Ru(bipy)3]Cl2.6H2O in acetonitrile under acidic condition with lead dioxide was stable for more than 72 hrs. A highly sensitive microbore HPLC- CL method using ammonium peroxydisulphate as an oxidant in a microfluidic on-chip CL detection has been developed for the analyses of fixed-dose combinations of pseudoephedrine (PSE), fexofenadine (FEX) and cetirizine (CIT) in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations with minimum sample pre-treatment.
160
37690
A DNA-Based Nano-biosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito
Abstract:
This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as the concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/ul.
159
48877
Production of Pre-Reduction of Iron Ore Nuggets with Lesser Sulphur Intake by Devolatisation of Boiler Grade Coal
Abstract:
Boiler coals with low fixed carbon and higher ash content have always challenged the metallurgists to develop a suitable method for their utilization. In the present study, an attempt is made to establish an energy effective method for the reduction of iron ore fines in the form of nuggets by using &lsquo;Syngas&rsquo;. By devolatisation (expulsion of volatile matter by applying heat) of boiler coal, gaseous product (enriched with reducing agents like CO, CO2, H2, and CH4 gases) is generated. Iron ore nuggets are reduced by this syngas. For that reason, there is no direct contact between iron ore nuggets and coal ash. It helps to control the minimization of the sulphur intake of the reduced nuggets. A laboratory scale devolatisation furnace designed with reduction facility is evaluated after in-depth studies and exhaustive experimentations including thermo-gravimetric (TG-DTA) analysis to find out the volatile fraction present in boiler grade coal, gas chromatography (GC) to find out syngas composition in different temperature and furnace temperature gradient measurements to minimize the furnace cost by applying one heating coil. The nuggets are reduced in the devolatisation furnace at three different temperatures and three different times. The pre-reduced nuggets are subjected to analytical weight loss calculations to evaluate the extent of reduction. The phase and surface morphology analysis of pre-reduced samples are characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon sulphur analyzer and chemical analysis method. Degree of metallization of the reduced nuggets is 78.9% by using boiler grade coal. The pre-reduced nuggets with lesser sulphur content could be used in the blast furnace as raw materials or coolant which would reduce the high quality of coke rate of the furnace due to its pre-reduced character. These can be used in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) as coolant also.
158
46918
The Environmental Concerns in Coal Mining, and Utilization in Pakistan
Abstract:
Pakistan is facing acute shortage of energy and looking for indigenous resources of the energy mix to meet the short fall. After the discovery of huge coal resources in Thar Desert of Sindh province, focus has shifted to coal power generation. The government of Pakistan has planned power generation of 20000 MW on coal by the year 2025. This target will be achieved by mining and power generation in Thar coal Field and on imported coal in different parts of Pakistan. Total indigenous coal production of around 3.0 million tons is being utilized in brick kilns, cement and sugar industry. Coal-based power generation is only limited to three units of 50 MW near Hyderabad from nearby Lakhra Coal field. The purpose of this presentation is to identify and redressal of issues of coal mining and utilization with reference to environmental hazards. Thar coal resource is estimated at 175 billion tons out of a total resource estimate of 184 billion tons in Pakistan. Coal of Pakistan is of Tertiary age (Palaeocene/Eocene) and classified from lignite to sub-bituminous category. Coal characterization has established three main pollutants such as Sulphur, Carbon dioxide and Methane besides some others associated with coal and rock types. The element Sulphur occurs in organic as well as inorganic forms associated with coals as free sulphur and as pyrite, gypsum, respectively. Carbon dioxide, methane and minerals are mostly associated with fractures, joints local faults, seatearth and roof rocks. The abandoned and working coal mines give kerosene odour due to escape of methane in the atmosphere. While the frozen methane/methane ices in organic matter rich sediments have also been reported from the Makran coastal and offshore areas. The Sulphur escapes into the atmosphere during mining and utilization of coal in industry. The natural erosional processes due to rivers, streams, lakes and coastal waves erode over lying sediments allowing pollutants to escape into air and water. Power plants emissions should be controlled through application of appropriate clean coal technology and need to be regularly monitored. Therefore, the systematic and scientific studies will be required to estimate the quantity of methane, carbon dioxide and sulphur at various sites such as abandoned and working coal mines, exploratory wells for coal, oil and gas. Pressure gauges on gas pipes connecting the coal-bearing horizons will be installed on surface to know the quantity of gas. The quality and quantity of gases will be examined according to the defined intervals of times. This will help to design and recommend the methods and procedures to stop the escape of gases into atmosphere. The element of Sulphur can be removed partially by gravity and chemical methods after grinding and before industrial utilization of coal.
157
40704
Enhancement Dynamic Cars Detection Based on Optimized HOG Descriptor
Abstract:
Research and development efforts in intelligent Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) seek to save lives and reduce the number of on-road fatalities. For traffic and emergency monitoring, the essential but challenging task is vehicle detection and tracking in reasonably short time. This purpose needs first of all a powerful dynamic car detector model. In fact, this paper presents an optimized HOG process based on shape and motion parameters fusion. Our proposed approach mains to compute HOG by bloc feature from foreground blobs using configurable research window and pathway in order to overcome the shortcoming in term of computing time of HOG descriptor and improve their dynamic application performance. Indeed we prove in this paper that HOG by bloc descriptor combined with motion parameters is a very suitable car detector which reaches in record time a satisfactory recognition rate in dynamic outside area and bypasses several popular works without using sophisticated and expensive architectures such as GPU and FPGA.
156
13102
Dissolution of Zeolite as a Sorbent in Flue Gas Desulphurization Process Using a pH Stat Apparatus
Abstract:
Sulphur dioxide is a harmful gaseous product that needs to be minimized in the atmosphere. This research work investigates the use of zeolite as a possible additive that can improve the sulphur dioxide capture in wet flue gas desulphurisation dissolution process. This work determines the effect of temperature, solid to liquid ratio, acid concentration and stirring speed on the leaching of zeolite using a pH stat apparatus. The atomic absorption spectrometer was used to measure the calcium ions from the solution. It was found that the dissolution rate of zeolite decreased with increase in solid to liquid ratio and increases with increase in temperature, stirring speed and acid concentration. The activation energy for the dissolution rate of zeolite in hydrochloric acid was found to be 9.29kJ/mol. and therefore the product layer diffusion was the rate limiting step.
155
105183
'Low Electronic Noise' Detector Technology in Computed Tomography
Authors:
Abstract:
Image noise in computed tomography, is mainly caused by the statistical noise, system noise reconstruction algorithm filters. Since last few years, low dose x-ray imaging became more and more desired and looked as a technical differentiating technology among CT manufacturers. In order to achieve this goal, several technologies and techniques are being investigated, including both hardware (integrated electronics and photon counting) and software (artificial intelligence and machine learning) based solutions. From a hardware point of view, electronic noise could indeed be a potential driver for low and ultra-low dose imaging. We demonstrated that the reduction or elimination of this term could lead to a reduction of dose without affecting image quality. Also, in this study, we will show that we can achieve this goal using conventional electronics (low cost and affordable technology), designed carefully and optimized for maximum detective quantum efficiency. We have conducted the tests using large imaging objects such as 30 cm water and 43 cm polyethylene phantoms. We compared the image quality with conventional imaging protocols with radiation as low as 10 mAs (
154
12035
Performance Analysis of SAC-OCDMA System using Different Detectors
Abstract:
In this paper, we present the performance of spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access using different detectors at different transmission distances using single photodiode detection technique. Modified double weight codes are used as signature codes. Simulation results show that the system using avalanche photo detector can move distance longer than that using positive intrinsic negative photo detector.
153
8495
Analysis of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacteria Attack on Concrete Based on Waste Materials
Abstract:
Concrete durability as an important engineering property of concrete, determining the service life of concrete structures very significantly, can be threatened and even lost due to the interactions of concrete with external environment. Bio-corrosion process caused by presence and activities of microorganisms producing sulphuric acid is a special type of sulphate deterioration of concrete materials. The effects of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on various concrete samples, based on silica fume and zeolite, were investigated in laboratory during 180 days. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the performance of concrete samples in terms of the concrete deterioration influenced by the leaching of calcium and silicon compounds from the cement matrix. The changes in the elemental concentrations of calcium and silicon in both solid samples and liquid leachates were measured by using X – ray fluorescence method. Experimental studies confirmed the silica fume based concrete samples were found out to have the best performance in terms of both silicon and calcium ions leaching.
152
24099
Electrochemistry of Metal Chalcogenides Semiconductor Materials; Theory and Practical Applications
Abstract:
Metal chalcogenide materials have wide spectrum of properties, for that these materials can be used in electronics, optics, magnetics, solar energy conversion, catalysis, passivation, ion sensing, batteries, and fuel cells. This work aims to, how can obtain these materials via electrochemical methods simply for further applications. The work regards in particular the systems relevant to the sulphur sub-group elements, i.e., sulphur, selenium, and tellurium. The role of electrochemistry in synthesis, development, and characterization of the metal chalcogenide materials and related devices is vital and important. Electrochemical methods as preparation tool offer the advantages of soft chemistry to access bulk, thin, nano film and epitaxial growth of a wide range of alloys and compounds, while as a characterization tool provides exceptional assistance in specifying the physicochemical properties of materials. Moreover, quite important applications and modern devices base their operation on electrochemical principles. Thereupon, our scope in the first place was to organize existing facts on the electrochemistry of metal chalcogenides regarding their synthesis, properties, and applications.
151
1928
The Impact of Varying the Detector and Modulation Types on Inter Satellite Link (ISL) Realizing the Allowable High Data Rate
Abstract:
ISLs are the most popular choice for deep space communications because these links are attractive alternatives to present day microwave links. This paper explored the allowable high data rate in this link over different orbits, which is affected by variation in modulation scheme and detector type. Moreover, the objective of this paper is to optimize and analyze the performance of ISL in terms of Q-factor and Minimum Bit Error Rate (Min-BER) based on different detectors comprising some parameters.
150
53243
Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis
Abstract:
Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.
149
91103
A Low-Power Two-Stage Seismic Sensor Scheme for Earthquake Early Warning System
Abstract:
The north-eastern, Himalayan, and Eastern Ghats Belt of India comprise of earthquake-prone, remote, and hilly terrains. Earthquakes have caused enormous damages in these regions in the past. A wireless sensor network based earthquake early warning system (EEWS) is being developed to mitigate the damages caused by earthquakes. It consists of sensor nodes, distributed over the region, that perform majority voting of the output of the seismic sensors in the vicinity, and relay a message to a base station to alert the residents when an earthquake is detected. At the heart of the EEWS is a low-power two-stage seismic sensor that continuously tracks seismic events from incoming three-axis accelerometer signal at the first-stage, and, in the presence of a seismic event, triggers the second-stage P-wave detector that detects the onset of P-wave in an earthquake event. The parameters of the P-wave detector have been optimized for minimizing detection time and maximizing the accuracy of detection.Working of the sensor scheme has been verified with seven earthquakes data retrieved from IRIS. In all test cases, the scheme detected the onset of P-wave accurately. Also, it has been established that the P-wave onset detection time reduces linearly with the sampling rate. It has been verified with test data; the detection time for data sampled at 10Hz was around 2 seconds which reduced to 0.3 second for the data sampled at 100Hz.
148
34406
Status and Results from EXO-200
Abstract:
EXO-200 has provided one of the most sensitive searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay utilizing 175 kg of enriched liquid xenon in an ultra-low background time projection chamber. This detector has demonstrated excellent energy resolution and background rejection capabilities. Using the first two years of data, EXO-200 has set a limit of 1.1x10^25 years at 90% C.L. on the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life of Xe-136. The experiment has experienced a brief hiatus in data taking during a temporary shutdown of its host facility: the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. EXO-200 expects to resume data taking in earnest this fall with upgraded detector electronics. Results from the analysis of EXO-200 data and an update on the current status of EXO-200 will be presented.
147
102211
Standard Model-Like Higgs Decay into Displaced Heavy Neutrino Pairs in U(1)' Models
Abstract:
Heavy sterile neutrinos are almost ubiquitous in the class of Beyond Standard Model scenarios aimed at addressing the puzzle that emerged from the discovery of neutrino flavour oscillations, hence the need to explain their masses. In particular, they are necessary in a U(1)’ enlarged Standard Model (SM). We show that these heavy neutrinos can be rather long-lived producing distinctive displaced vertices and tracks. Indeed, depending on the actual decay length, they can decay inside a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) detector far from the main interaction point and can be identified in the inner tracking system or the muon chambers, emulated here through the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector parameters. Among the possible production modes of such heavy neutrino, we focus on their pair production mechanism in the SM Higgs decay, eventually yielding displaced lepton signatures following the heavy neutrino decays into weak gauge bosons. By employing well-established triggers available for the CMS detector and using the data collected by the end of the LHC Run 2, these signatures would prove to be accessible with negligibly small background. Finally, we highlight the importance that the exploitation of new triggers, specifically, displaced tri-lepton ones, could have for this displaced vertex search.
146
24879
Adaptive Target Detection of High-Range-Resolution Radar in Non-Gaussian Clutter
Authors:
Abstract:
In non-Gaussian clutter of a spherically invariant random vector, in the cases that a certain estimated covariance matrix could become singular, the adaptive target detection of high-range-resolution radar is addressed. Firstly, the restricted maximum likelihood (RML) estimates of unknown covariance matrix and scatterer amplitudes are derived for non-Gaussian clutter. And then the RML estimate of texture is obtained. Finally, a novel detector is devised. It is showed that, without secondary data, the proposed detector outperforms the existing Kelly binary integrator.
145
67658
Barnard Feature Point Detector for Low-Contractperiapical Radiography Image
Abstract:
In dental clinics, the dentists use the periapical radiography image to assess the effectiveness of endodontic treatment of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Periapical radiography images are taken at different times to assess alveolar bone variation before and after the root canal treatment, and furthermore to judge whether the treatment was successful. Current clinical assessment of apical tissue recovery relies only on dentist personal experience. It is difficult to have the same standard and objective interpretations due to the dentist or radiologist personal background and knowledge. If periapical radiography images at the different time could be registered well, the endodontic treatment could be evaluated. In the image registration area, it is necessary to assign representative control points to the transformation model for good performances of registration results. However, detection of representative control points (feature points) on periapical radiography images is generally very difficult. Regardless of which traditional detection methods are practiced, sufficient feature points may not be detected due to the low-contrast characteristics of the x-ray image. Barnard detector is an algorithm for feature point detection based on grayscale value gradients, which can obtain sufficient feature points in the case of gray-scale contrast is not obvious. However, the Barnard detector would detect too many feature points, and they would be too clustered. This study uses the local extrema of clustering feature points and the suppression radius to overcome the problem, and compared different feature point detection methods. In the preliminary result, the feature points could be detected as representative control points by the proposed method.
144
53634
Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Fault Detectors
Abstract:
A strategy of fault diagnosis and tolerance for asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. With no synchronizing clock, it is difficult to diagnose an occurrence of permanent or stuck-in faults in the operation of asynchronous machines. In this paper, we present a fault detector comprised of a timer and a set of static functions to determine the occurrence of faults. In order to realize immediate fault tolerance, corrective control theory is applied to designing a dynamic feedback controller. Existence conditions for an appropriate controller and its construction algorithm are presented in terms of reachability of the machine and the feature of fault occurrences.
143
22639
Development of a Pain Detector Using Microwave Radiometry Method
Abstract:
One of the greatest difficulties in treating patients with pain is the highly subjective nature of pain sensation. The measurement of pain intensity is primarily dependent on the patient’s report, often with little physical evidence to provide objective corroboration. This is also complicated by the fact that there are only few and expensive existing technologies (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-fMRI). The need is thus clear and urgent for a reliable, non-invasive, non-painful, objective, readily adoptable, and coefficient diagnostic platform that provides additional diagnostic information to supplement its current regime with more information to assist doctors in diagnosing these patients. Thus, our idea of developing a pain detector was conceived to take a step further the detection and diagnosis of chronic and acute pain.
142
18847
Desulfurization of Crude Oil Using Bacteria
Abstract:
Our Team is developing an innovative cost effective biological technique to desulfurize crude oil. ’Sulphur’ is found to be present in crude oil samples from .05% - 13.95% and its elimination by industrial methods is expensive currently. Materials required :- Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius, potato dextrose agar, oxygen, Pyragallol and inert gas(nitrogen). Method adapted and proposed:- 1) Growth of bacteria studied, energy needs. 2) Compatibility with crude-oil. 3) Reaction rate of bacteria studied and optimized. 4) Reaction development by computer simulation. 5) Simulated work tested by building the reactor. The method being developed requires the use of bacteria Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius - an acidothermophilic heterotrophic, soil dwelling aerobic, Sulfur bacteria. The bacteria are fed to crude oil in a unique manner. Its coated onto potato dextrose agar beads, cultured for 24 hours (growth time coincides with time when it begins reacting) and fed into the reactor. The beads are to be replenished with O2 by passing them through a jacket around the reactor which has O2 supply. The O2 can’t be supplied directly as crude oil is inflammable, hence the process. Beads are made to move around based on the concept of fluidized bed reactor. By controlling the velocity of inert gas pumped , the beads are made to settle down when exhausted of O2. It is recycled through the jacket where O2 is re-fed and beads which were inside the ring substitute the exhausted ones. Crude-oil is maintained between 1 atm-270 M Pa pressure and 45°C treated with tartaric acid (Ph reason for bacteria growth) for optimum output. Bacteria being of oxidising type react with Sulphur in crude-oil and liberate out SO4^2- and no gas. SO4^2- is absorbed into H2O. NaOH is fed once reaction is complete and beads separated. Crude-oil is thus separated of SO4^2-, thereby Sulphur, tartaric acid and other acids which are separated out. Bio-corrosion is taken care of by internal wall painting (phenolepoxy paints). Earlier methods used included use of Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species. They were found to be inefficient, time and energy consuming and reduce the fuel value as they fed on skeleton.
141
32340
Improving 99mTc-tetrofosmin Myocardial Perfusion Images by Time Subtraction Technique
Abstract:
Quantitative measurement of myocardium perfusion is possible with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using a semiconductor detector. However, accumulation of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in the liver may make it difficult to assess that accurately in the inferior myocardium. Our idea is to reduce the high accumulation in the liver by using dynamic SPECT imaging and a technique called time subtraction. We evaluated the performance of a new SPECT system with a cadmium-zinc-telluride solid-state semi- conductor detector (Discovery NM 530c; GE Healthcare). Our system acquired list-mode raw data over 10 minutes for a typical patient. From the data, ten SPECT images were reconstructed, one for every minute of acquired data. Reconstruction with the semiconductor detector was based on an implementation of a 3-D iterative Bayesian reconstruction algorithm. We studied 20 patients with coronary artery disease (mean age 75.4 &plusmn; 12.1 years; range 42-86; 16 males and 4 females). In each subject, 259 MBq of 99mTc-tetrofosmin was injected intravenously. We performed both a phantom and a clinical study using dynamic SPECT. An approximation to a liver-only image is obtained by reconstructing an image from the early projections during which time the liver accumulation dominates (0.5~2.5 minutes SPECT image-5~10 minutes SPECT image). The extracted liver-only image is then subtracted from a later SPECT image that shows both the liver and the myocardial uptake (5~10 minutes SPECT image-liver-only image). The time subtraction of liver was possible in both a phantom and the clinical study. The visualization of the inferior myocardium was improved. In past reports, higher accumulation in the myocardium due to the overlap of the liver is un-diagnosable. Using our time subtraction method, the image quality of the 99mTc-tetorofosmin myocardial SPECT image is considerably improved.
140
76975
Non-Contact Digital Music Instrument Using Light Sensing Technology
Abstract:
A Non-Contact Digital Music System has been conceptualized and implemented to create a new era of digital music. This system replaces the strings of a traditional stringed instrument with laser beams to avoid bruising of the user&rsquo;s hand. The system consists of seven laser modules, detector modules and distance sensors that form the basic hardware blocks of this instrument. Arduino ATmega2560 microcontroller is used as the primary interface between the hardware and the software. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is used as the protocol to establish communication between the instrument and the virtual synthesizer software.
139
38510
X-Ray Detector Technology Optimization In CT Imaging
Authors:
Abstract:
Most of multi-slices CT scanners are built with detectors composed of scintillator - photodiodes arrays. The photodiodes arrays are mainly based on front-illuminated technology for detectors under 64 slices and on back-illuminated photodiode for systems of 64 slices or more. The designs based on back-illuminated photodiodes were being investigated for CT machines to overcome the challenge of the higher number of runs and connection required in front-illuminated diodes. In backlit diodes, the electronic noise has already been improved because of the reduction of the load capacitance due to the routing reduction. This translated by a better image quality in low signal application, improving low dose imaging in large patient population. With the fast development of multi-detector-rows CT (MDCT) scanners and the increasing number of examinations, the clinical community has raised significant concerns on radiation dose received by the patient in both medical and regulatory community. In order to reduce individual exposure and in response to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which suggests that all exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), every manufacturer is trying to implement strategies and solutions to optimize dose efficiency and image quality based on x-ray emission and scanning parameters. The added demands on the CT detector performance also comes from the increased utilization of spectral CT or dual-energy CT in which projection data of two different tube potentials are collected. One of the approaches utilizes a technology called fast-kVp switching in which the tube voltage is switched between 80kVp and 140kVp in fraction of a millisecond. To reduce the cross-contamination of signals, the scintillator based detector temporal response has to be extremely fast to minimize the residual signal from previous samples. In addition, this paper will present an overview of detector technologies and image chain improvement which have been investigated in the last few years to improve the signal-noise ratio and the dose efficiency CT scanners in regular examinations and in energy discrimination techniques. Several parameters of the image chain in general and in the detector technology contribute in the optimization of the final image quality. We will go through the properties of the post-patient collimation to improve the scatter-to-primary ratio, the scintillator material properties such as light output, afterglow, primary speed, crosstalk to improve the spectral imaging, the photodiode design characteristics and the data acquisition system (DAS) to optimize for crosstalk, noise and temporal/spatial resolution.
138
57303
X-Ray Detector Technology Optimization in Computed Tomography
Authors:
Abstract:
Most of multi-slices Computed Tomography (CT) scanners are built with detectors composed of scintillator - photodiodes arrays. The photodiodes arrays are mainly based on front-illuminated technology for detectors under 64 slices and on back-illuminated photodiode for systems of 64 slices or more. The designs based on back-illuminated photodiodes were being investigated for CT machines to overcome the challenge of the higher number of runs and connection required in front-illuminated diodes. In backlit diodes, the electronic noise has already been improved because of the reduction of the load capacitance due to the routing reduction. This is translated by a better image quality in low signal application, improving low dose imaging in large patient population. With the fast development of multi-detector-rows CT (MDCT) scanners and the increasing number of examinations, the clinical community has raised significant concerns on radiation dose received by the patient in both medical and regulatory community. In order to reduce individual exposure and in response to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which suggests that all exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), every manufacturer is trying to implement strategies and solutions to optimize dose efficiency and image quality based on x-ray emission and scanning parameters. The added demands on the CT detector performance also comes from the increased utilization of spectral CT or dual-energy CT in which projection data of two different tube potentials are collected. One of the approaches utilizes a technology called fast-kVp switching in which the tube voltage is switched between 80 kVp and 140 kVp in fraction of a millisecond. To reduce the cross-contamination of signals, the scintillator based detector temporal response has to be extremely fast to minimize the residual signal from previous samples. In addition, this paper will present an overview of detector technologies and image chain improvement which have been investigated in the last few years to improve the signal-noise ratio and the dose efficiency CT scanners in regular examinations and in energy discrimination techniques. Several parameters of the image chain in general and in the detector technology contribute in the optimization of the final image quality. We will go through the properties of the post-patient collimation to improve the scatter-to-primary ratio, the scintillator material properties such as light output, afterglow, primary speed, crosstalk to improve the spectral imaging, the photodiode design characteristics and the data acquisition system (DAS) to optimize for crosstalk, noise and temporal/spatial resolution.
137
6668
Study of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)-Clay Nanocomposites Prepareted by Extrusion Reactive Method
Abstract:
A method for the exfoliation of polyethylene terephtalate (PET) - clay nanocomposites has been reported in this study. Montmorillonite clay based polyethylene terephtalate nanocomposites were prepared by reactive melt-mixing. To achieve this, untreated clay was first functionalized with the crosslinking agent compound based mainly on peroxide/sulphur and TMTD as accelerator or activator for sulphur. Furthermore, the different blends composition of PET/clay were directly mixed in melt state in closed chamber of plastograph at given working conditions for short time and in one step process. To investigate the microstructure modification and thermal, mechanical and rheological properties the DSC, WAXS, microhardness, FTIR and tensile properties were performed. The resulting structure of the modified samples shows that total exfoliation appears at 4% w/w of clay to PET matrices. The crystallinity and tensile modulus were correlated by the H microhardness and the DSC shows no significant effect on the cristallinity degree. The mechanical properties were improved significantly. The viscosity decreases for 4% clay and the activation energy is the minimum. The WAXS measurement shows a partial exfoliation without any intercalation which is the most relevant point. The grafting of organic to inorganic nanolayers was observed by Si—O—C and Si—C bonds by FTIR.
136
68666
Research and Design on a Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft
Abstract:
Based on the acoustics cascade sound theory, the mechanism of air leak sound producing, transmitting and signal detecting has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1 Pa&middot;m3/s, the testing radius is longer than 20 mm, the mass is less than 1.0 kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2 W.
135
53263
Blind Speech Separation Using SRP-PHAT Localization and Optimal Beamformer in Two-Speaker Environments
Abstract:
This paper investigates the problem of blind speech separation from the speech mixture of two speakers. A voice activity detector employing the Steered Response Power - Phase Transform (SRP-PHAT) is presented for detecting the activity information of speech sources and then the desired speech signals are extracted from the speech mixture by using an optimal beamformer. For evaluation, the algorithm effectiveness, a simulation using real speech recordings had been performed in a double-talk situation where two speakers are active all the time. Evaluations show that the proposed blind speech separation algorithm offers a good interference suppression level whilst maintaining a low distortion level of the desired signal.
134
90793
Development of a Combustible Gas Detector with Two Sensor Modules to Enable Measuring Range of Low Concentration
Abstract:
In the gas industrial fields, there are many problems to detect extremely small amounts of combustible gas (CH₄) if a conventional semiconductor is used. Those reasons are that measuring is difficult at the low concentration level, the stabilization time is long, and an initial response time is slow. In this study, we propose a method to solve these issues using two specific sensors to overcome the circumstances of temperature and humidity. This idea is to combine a catalytic and a semiconductor type sensor and to utilize every advantage from every sensor’s characteristic. In order to achieve the goal, we reduced fluctuations of a gas sensor for temperature and humidity by applying designed circuits for sensing temperature and humidity. And we induced the best calibration line of gas sensors through adjusting a weight value corresponding to changeable patterns of temperature and humidity after their data are previously acquired and stored. We proposed and developed the gas leak detector using two sensor modules, which is first operated by a semiconductor sensor for measuring small gas quantities and second a catalytic type sensor is detected if measuring range of the first sensor is beyond. We conclusively verified characteristics of sharp sensitivity and fast response time against even at lower gas concentration level through experiments other than a conventional gas sensor. We think that our proposed idea is very useful if another gas leak is developed to enable measuring extremely small quantities of toxic and flammable gases.
133
55424
Probing Extensive Air Shower Primaries and Their Interactions by Combining Individual Muon Tracks and Shower Depth
Abstract:
The current large area cosmic ray detector surface arrays typically measure only the net flux and arrival-time of the charged particles produced in an extensive air shower (EAS). Measurement of the individual charged particles at a surface array will provide additional distinguishing parameters to identify the primary and to map the very high energy interactions in the upper layers of the atmosphere. In turn, these may probe anomalies in QCD interactions at energies beyond the reach of current accelerators. The recent attempts of studying the individual muon tracks are limited in their expandability to larger arrays and can only probe primary particles with energy up to about 10^15.5 eV. New developments in detector technology allow for a realistic cost of large area detectors, however with limitations on energy resolutions, directional information, and dynamic range. In this study, we perform a simulation study using CORSIKA to combine the energy spectrum and lateral spread of the muons with the longitudinal depth (Xmax) of an EAS initiated by a primary at ultra high energies (10¹⁶ – 10¹⁹) eV. Using proton and iron as the shower primaries, we show that the muon observables and Xmax together can be used to distinguish the primary. This study can be used to design a future detector for the surface array, which will be able to enhance our knowledge of primaries and QCD interactions.
132
102623
Verifying the Performance of the Argon-41 Monitoring System from Fluorine-18 Production for Medical Applications
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to characterize, from radiation protection point of view, the emission into the environment of air contaminated by argon-41. In this research work, 41Ar is produced by a TR19PET cyclotron, operated at 19 MeV, installed at 'A. Gemelli' University Hospital, Rome, Italy, for fluorine-18 production. The production rate of 41Ar has been calculated on the basis of the scheduled operation cycles of the cyclotron and by utilising proper production algorithms. Then extensive Monte Carlo calculations, carried out by MCNP code, have allowed to determine the absolute detection efficiency to 41Ar gamma rays of a Geiger Muller detector placed in the terminal part of the chimney. Results showed unsatisfactory detection efficiency values and the need for integrating the detection system with more efficient detectors.
131
34837
Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Alprazolam with ACE Inhibitors in Bulk, Respective Pharmaceutical Products and Human Serum
Abstract:
Present study describes a simple and a fast liquid chromatographic method using ultraviolet detector for simultaneous determination of anxiety relief medicine alprazolam with ACE inhibitors i.e; lisinopril, captopril and enalapril employing purospher star C18 (25 cm, 0.46 cm, 5 µm). Separation was achieved within 5 min at ambient temperature via methanol: water (8:2 v/v) with pH adjusted to 2.9, monitoring the detector response at 220 nm. Optimum parameters were set up as per ICH (2006) guidelines. Calibration range was found out to be 0.312-10 µg mL-1 for alprazolam and 0.625-20 µg mL-1 for all the ACE inhibitors with correlation coefficients > 0.998 and detection limits 85, 37, 68 and 32 ng mL-1 for lisinopril, captopril, enalapril and alprazolam respectively. Intra-day, inter-day precision and accuracy of the assay were in acceptable range of 0.05-1.62% RSD and 98.85-100.76% recovery. Method was determined to be robust and effectively useful for the estimation of studied drugs in dosage formulations and human serum without obstruction of excipients or serum components.
130
38566
Dependence of the Photoelectric Exponent on the Source Spectrum of the CT
Abstract:
X-ray attenuation coefficient [µ(E)] of any substance, for energy (E), is a sum of the contributions from the Compton scattering [ μCom(E)] and photoelectric effect [µPh(E)]. In terms of the, electron density (ρe) and the effective atomic number (Zeff) we have µCom(E) is proportional to [(ρe)fKN(E)] while µPh(E) is proportional to [(ρeZeffx)/Ey] with fKN(E) being the Klein-Nishina formula, with x and y being the exponents for photoelectric effect. By taking the sample's HU at two different excitation voltages (V=V1, V2) of the CT machine, we can solve for X=ρe, Y=ρeZeffx from these two independent equations, as is attempted in DECT inversion. Since µCom(E) and µPh(E) are both energy dependent, the coefficients of inversion are also dependent on (a) the source spectrum S(E,V) and (b) the detector efficiency D(E) of the CT machine. In the present paper we tabulate these coefficients of inversion for different practical manifestations of S(E,V) and D(E). The HU(V) values from the CT follow: =[1+HU(V)/1000] where the subscript 'w' refers to water and the averaging process accounts for the source spectrum S(E,V) and the detector efficiency D(E). Linearity of μ(E) with respect to X and Y implies that (a) is a linear combination of X and Y and (b) for inversion, X and Y can be written as linear combinations of two independent observations , with V1≠V2. These coefficients of inversion would naturally depend upon S(E, V) and D(E). We numerically investigate this dependence for some practical cases, by taking V = 100 , 140 kVp, as are used for cardiological investigations. The S(E,V) are generated by using the Boone-Seibert source spectrum, being superposed on aluminium filters of different thickness lAl with 7mm≤lAl≤12mm and the D(E) is considered to be that of a typical Si[Li] solid state and GdOS scintilator detector. In the values of X and Y, found by using the calculated inversion coefficients, errors are below 2% for data with solutions of glycerol, sucrose and glucose. For low Zeff materials like propionic acid, Zeffx is overestimated by 20% with X being within1%. For high Zeffx materials like KOH the value of Zeffx is underestimated by 22% while the error in X is + 15%. These imply that the source may have additional filtering than the aluminium filter specified by the manufacturer. Also it is found that the difference in the values of the inversion coefficients for the two types of detectors is negligible. The type of the detector does not affect on the DECT inversion algorithm to find the unknown chemical characteristic of the scanned materials. The effect of the source should be considered as an important factor to calculate the coefficients of inversion.
129
41895
The MCNP Simulation of Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis at TRR-1/M1
Abstract:
The prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis system (PGNAA) has been constructed and installed at a 6 inch diameter neutron beam port of the Thai Research Reactor-1/ Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) since 1989. It was designed for the reactor operating power at 1.2 MW. The purpose of the system is for an elemental and isotopic analytical. In 2016, the PGNAA facility will be developed to reduce the leakage and background of neutrons and gamma radiation at the sample and detector position. In this work, the designed condition of these facilities is carried out based on the Monte Carlo method using MCNP5 computer code. The conditions with different modification materials, thicknesses and structure of the PGNAA facility, including gamma collimator and radiation shields of the detector, are simulated, and then the optimal structure parameters with a significantly improved performance of the facility are obtained.
128
40538
X-Corner Detection for Camera Calibration Using Saddle Points
Abstract:
This paper discusses a corner detection algorithm for camera calibration. Calibration is a necessary step in many computer vision and image processing applications. Robust corner detection for an image of a checkerboard is required to determine intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. In this paper, an algorithm for fully automatic and robust X-corner detection is presented. Checkerboard corner points are automatically found in each image without user interaction or any prior information regarding the number of rows or columns. The approach represents each X-corner with a quadratic fitting function. Using the fact that the X-corners are saddle points, the coefficients in the fitting function are used to identify each corner location. The automation of this process greatly simplifies calibration. Our method is robust against noise and different camera orientations. Experimental analysis shows the accuracy of our method using actual images acquired at different camera locations and orientations.
127
6175
A Robust Digital Image Watermarking Against Geometrical Attack Based on Hybrid Scheme
Abstract:
This paper presents a hybrid digital image-watermarking scheme, which is robust against varieties of attacks and geometric distortions. The image content is represented by important feature points obtained by an image-texture-based adaptive Harris corner detector. These feature points are extracted from LL2 of 2-D discrete wavelet transform which are obtained by using the Harris-Laplacian detector. We calculate the Fourier transform of circular regions around these points. The amplitude of this transform is rotation invariant. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method against the geometric distortions and various common image processing operations such as JPEG compression, colour reduction, Gaussian filtering, median filtering, and rotation.
126
83178
Effect of Al on Glancing Angle Deposition Synthesized In₂O₃ Nanocolumn for Photodetector Application
Abstract:
Aluminium (Al) doped In2O3 (Indium Oxide) nanocolumn array was synthesized by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique on Si (n-type) substrate for photodetector application. The sample was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the nanocolumn was calculated from the top view of the SEM image and found to be ∼80 nm. The length of the nanocolumn (~500 nm) was calculated from cross sectional SEM image and it shows that the nanocolumns are perpendicular to the substrate. The EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Al (Aluminium), In (Indium), O (Oxygen) elements in the samples. The XRD patterns of the Al-doped In2O3 nanocolumn show the presence of different phases of the Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn i.e. (222) and (622). Three different peaks were observed from the PL analysis of Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn at 365 nm, 415 nm and 435 nm respectively. The peak at PL emission at 365 nm can be attributed to the near band gap transition of In2O3 whereas the peaks at 415 nm and 435 nm can be attributed to the trap state emissions due to oxygen vacancies and oxygen–indium vacancy centre in Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn. The current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of the Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn based detector was measured through the Au Schottky contact. The devices were then examined under the halogen light (20 W) illumination for photocurrent measurement. The Al-doped In2O3 nanocolumn based optical detector showed high conductivity and low turn on voltage at 0.69 V under white light illumination. A maximum photoresponsivity of 82 A/W at 380 nm was observed for the device. The device shows a high internal gain of ~267 at UV region (380 nm) and ∼127 at visible region (760 nm). Also the rise time and fall time for the device at 650 nm is 0.15 and 0.16 sec respectively which makes it suitable for fast response detector.
125
29995
Design Of High Sensitivity Transceiver for WSN
Abstract:
The realization of truly ubiquitous wireless sensor networks (WSN) demands Ultra-low power wireless communication capability. Because the radio transceiver in a wireless sensor node consumes more power when compared to the computation part it is necessary to reduce the power consumption. Hence, a low power transceiver is designed and implemented in a 120 nm CMOS technology for wireless sensor nodes. The power consumption of the transceiver is reduced still by maintaining the sensitivity. The transceiver designed combines the blocks including differential oscillator, mixer, envelope detector, power amplifiers, and LNA. RF signal modulation and demodulation is carried by On-Off keying method at 2.4 GHz which is said as ISM band. The transmitter demonstrates an output power of 2.075 mW while consuming a supply voltage of range 1.2 V-5.0 V. Here the comparison of LNA and power amplifier is done to obtain an amplifier which produces a high gain of 1.608 dB at receiver which is suitable to produce a desired sensitivity. The multistage RF amplifier is used to improve the gain at the receiver side. The power dissipation of the circuit is in the range of 0.183-0.323 mW. The receiver achieves a sensitivity of about -95 dBm with data rate of 1 Mbps.
124
80273
Devulcanization of Waste Rubber Tyre Utilizing Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ultrasonic Energy
Abstract:
This particular study of interest aims to study the effect of coupling ultrasonic treatment with eutectic solvents in devulcanization process of waste rubber tyre. Specifically, three different types of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) were utilized, namely ChCl:Urea (1:2), ChCl:ZnCl₂ (1:2) and ZnCl₂:urea (2:7) in which their physicochemical properties were analysed and proven to have permissible water content that is less than 3.0 wt%, degradation temperature below 200ᵒC and freezing point below 60ᵒC. The mass ratio of rubber to DES was varied from 1:20-1:40, sonicated for 1 hour at 37 kHz and heated at variable time of 5-30 min at 180ᵒC. Energy dispersive x-rays (EDX) results revealed that the first two DESs give the highest degree of sulphur removal at 74.44 and 76.69% respectively with optimum heating time at 15 minutes whereby if prolonged, reformation of crosslink network would be experienced. Such is supported by the evidence shown by both FTIR and FESEM results where di-sulfide peak reappears at 30 minutes and morphological structures from 15 to 30 minutes change from smooth with high voidage to rigid with low voidage respectively. Furthermore, TGA curve reveals similar phenomena whereby at 15 minutes thermal decomposition temperature is at the lowest due to the decrease of molecular weight as a result of sulphur removal but increases back at 30 minutes. Type of bond change was also analysed whereby it was found that only di-sulphide bond was cleaved and which indicates partial-devulcanization. Overall, the results show that DES has a great potential to be used as devulcanizing solvent.
123
42006
Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Hemodialysis
Abstract:
Thyroid dysfunction in hemodialysis subjects is represented mainly by hypothyroidism. The objective of our work is to determine the thyroid profile of our hemodialysis patients and to highlight the prevalence of different thyroid disorders. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed on a mono centric 2 months (February and March 2013) on 42 hemodialysis patients (11 male and 31 female). We made the dosage of thyroid hormones Thyrotropin (TSH) ((free thyroxin ) FT4 and free Triodothyronin ) FT3) by chemiluminescence immunoassay method on cobas 6000 Roche Diagnostics. The results: The prevalence of biological hypothyroidism was 18% (7% with a high TSH isolated and a mean +/- SD 9.44 +/- 6.29, 5% with high TSH, and with low FT4 a mean +/- SD is 8.18 +/- 0.53 for TSH and 9.69 +/- 0.22 for FT4, One patient with a high TSH, and low FT4, FT3. 4% of patients with a low T3 syndrome with a mean +/- SD of 3.93 +/- 0,3 for FT3), we notice that 5% of patients with hyperthyroidism TSH collapsed and mean +/- SD of TSH is 0.017 +/- 0,001. Conclusion: The biological Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder in chronic hemodialysis.
122
94363
A Target Detection System for Mobile Robot Based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector Network
Abstract:
Recent years, neural networks are used widely in the field of image processing. Neural networks have made great achievements in image classification, target detection and semantic segmentation since 2012. In this paper, a target detection system for mobile robot is proposed based on the SSD (Single Shot Multibox Detector) neural network. The SSD neural network is trained to learn the features of input images using labeled dataset. The network model will converge using gradient descent algorithm during training. Then the network becomes robust enough and is able to locate targets in images. In our research, we find that the performance of network is so perfect that it can hardly be done using traditional image processing algorithms. Especially, SSD network is most suitable for our system. The SSD network shows great adaptability, with 76.2% mAP (mean average precision) in the test dataset during our experiments. Detection algorithm based on SSD network has a great performance during experiments.
121
94364
A Target Detection System for Mobile Robot Based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector Network
Abstract:
Recent years, neural networks are used widely in the field of image processing. Neural networks have made great achievements in image classification, target detection and semantic segmentation since 2012. In this paper, a target detection system for mobile robot is proposed based on the SSD (Single Shot Multibox Detector) neural network. The SSD neural network is trained to learn the features of input images using labeled dataset. The network model will converge using gradient descent algorithm during training. Then the network becomes robust enough and is able to locate targets in images. In our research, we find that the performance of network is so perfect that it can hardly be done using traditional image processing algorithms. Especially, SSD network is most suitable for our system. The SSD network shows great adaptability, with 76.2% mAP (mean average precision) in the test dataset during our experiments. Detection algorithm based on SSD network has a great performance during experiments.
120
94365
A Target Detection System for Mobile Robot Based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector Network
Abstract:
Recent years, neural networks are used widely in the field of image processing. Neural networks have made great achievements in image classification, target detection and semantic segmentation since 2012. In this paper, a target detection system for mobile robot is proposed based on the SSD (Single Shot Multibox Detector) neural network. The SSD neural network is trained to learn the features of input images using labeled dataset. The network model will converge using gradient descent algorithm during training. Then the network becomes robust enough and is able to locate targets in images. In our research, we find that the performance of network is so perfect that it can hardly be done using traditional image processing algorithms. Especially, SSD network is most suitable for our system. The SSD network shows great adaptability, with 76.2% mAP (mean average precision) in the test dataset during our experiments. Detection algorithm based on SSD network has a great performance during experiments.
119
94368
A Target Detection System for Mobile Robot Based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector Network
Abstract:
Recent years, neural networks are used widely in the field of image processing. Neural networks have made great achievements in image classification, target detection and semantic segmentation since 2012. In this paper, a target detection system for mobile robot is proposed based on the SSD (Single Shot Multibox Detector) neural network. The SSD neural network is trained to learn the features of input images using labeled dataset. The network model will converge using gradient descent algorithm during training. Then the network becomes robust enough and is able to locate targets in images. In our research, we find that the performance of network is so perfect that it can hardly be done using traditional image processing algorithms. Especially, SSD network is most suitable for our system. The SSD network shows great adaptability, with 76.2% mAP (mean average precision) in the test dataset during our experiments. Detection algorithm based on SSD network has a great performance during experiments.
118
73761
Secondary Charged Fragments Tracking for On-Line Beam Range Monitoring in Particle Therapy
Abstract:
In Particle Therapy (PT) treatments a large amount of secondary particles, whose emission point is correlated to the dose released in the crossed tissues, is produced. The measurement of the secondary charged fragments component could represent a valid technique to monitor the beam range during the PT treatments, that is a still missing item in the clinical practice. A sub-millimetrical precision on the beam range measurement is required to significantly optimise the technique and to improve the treatment quality. In this contribution, a detector, named Dose Profiler (DP), is presented. It is specifically planned to monitor on-line the beam range exploiting the secondary charged particles produced in PT Carbon ions treatment. In particular, the DP is designed to track the secondary fragments emitted at large angles with respect to the beam direction (mainly protons), with the aim to reconstruct the spatial coordinates of the fragment emission point extrapolating the measured track toward the beam axis. The DP is currently under development within of the INSIDE collaboration (Innovative Solutions for In-beam Dosimetry in hadrontherapy). The tracker is made by six layers (20 × 20 cm²) of BCF-12 square scintillating fibres (500 μm) coupled to Silicon Photo-Multipliers, followed by two plastic scintillator layers of 6 mm thickness. A system of front-end boards based on FPGAs arranged around the detector provides the data acquisition. The detector characterization with cosmic rays is currently undergoing, and a data taking campaign with protons will take place in May 2017. The DP design and the performances measured with using MIPs and protons beam will be reviewed.
117
16468
An Efficient Encryption Scheme Using DWT and Arnold Transforms
Abstract:
Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. The color image is decomposed into red, green, and blue channels. The blue and green channels are compressed using 3-levels discrete wavelet transform. The Arnold transform uses to changes the locations of red image channel pixels as image scrambling process. Then all these channels are encrypted separately using a key image that has same original size and is generating using private keys and modulo operations. Performing the X-OR and modulo operations between the encrypted channels images for image pixel values change purpose. The extracted contours of color image recovery can be obtained with accepted level of distortion using Canny edge detector. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D color image and completely reconstructed without any distortion. It has shown that the color image can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.
116
17151
Environmentally Adaptive Acoustic Echo Suppression for Barge-in Speech Recognition
Abstract:
In this study, we propose a novel technique for acoustic echo suppression (AES) during speech recognition under barge-in conditions. Conventional AES methods based on spectral subtraction apply fixed weights to the estimated echo path transfer function (EPTF) at the current signal segment and to the EPTF estimated until the previous time interval. We propose a new approach that adaptively updates weight parameters in response to abrupt changes in the acoustic environment due to background noises or double-talk. Furthermore, we devised a voice activity detector and an initial time-delay estimator for barge-in speech recognition in communication networks. The initial time delay is estimated using log-spectral distance measure, as well as cross-correlation coefficients. The experimental results show that the developed techniques can be successfully applied in barge-in speech recognition systems.
115
23969
Evaluation of the Photo Neutron Contamination inside and outside of Treatment Room for High Energy Elekta Synergy® Linear Accelerator
Abstract:
Medical linear accelerators (LINAC’s) used in radiotherapy treatments produce undesired neutrons when they are operated at energies above 8 MeV, both in electron and photon configuration. Neutrons are produced by high-energy photons and electrons through electronuclear (e, n) a photonuclear giant dipole resonance (GDR) reactions. These reactions occurs when incoming photon or electron incident through the various materials of target, flattening filter, collimators, and other shielding components in LINAC’s structure. These neutrons may reach directly to the patient, or they may interact with the surrounding materials until they become thermalized. A work has been set up to study the effect of different parameter on the production of neutron around the room by photonuclear reactions induced by photons above ~8 MeV. One of the commercial available neutron detector (Ludlum Model 42-31H Neutron Detector) is used for the detection of thermal and fast neutrons (0.025 eV to approximately 12 MeV) inside and outside of the treatment room. Measurements were performed for different field sizes at 100 cm source to surface distance (SSD) of detector, at different distances from the isocenter and at the place of primary and secondary walls. Other measurements were performed at door and treatment console for the potential radiation safety concerns of the therapists who must walk in and out of the room for the treatments. Exposures have taken place from Elekta Synergy® linear accelerators for two different energies (10 MV and 18 MV) for a given 200 MU’s and dose rate of 600 MU per minute. Results indicates that neutron doses at 100 cm SSD depend on accelerator characteristics means jaw settings as jaws are made of high atomic number material so provides significant interaction of photons to produce neutrons, while doses at the place of larger distance from isocenter are strongly influenced by the treatment room geometry and backscattering from the walls cause a greater doses as compare to dose at 100 cm distance from isocenter. In the treatment room the ambient dose equivalent due to photons produced during decay of activation nuclei varies from 4.22 mSv.h−1 to 13.2 mSv.h−1 (at isocenter),6.21 mSv.h−1 to 29.2 mSv.h−1 (primary wall) and 8.73 mSv.h−1 to 37.2 mSv.h−1 (secondary wall) for 10 and 18 MV respectively. The ambient dose equivalent for neutrons at door is 5 μSv.h−1 to 2 μSv.h−1 while at treatment console room it is 2 μSv.h−1 to 0 μSv.h−1 for 10 and 18 MV respectively which shows that a 2 m thick and 5m longer concrete maze provides sufficient shielding for neutron at door as well as at treatment console for 10 and 18 MV photons.
114
98953
Macronutrient Accumulation and Partitioning for Six Wheat Genotypes Grown at Contrasting Nitrogen Supply
Abstract:
Partitioning of macro-nutrients in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant organs have not been extensively studied, particularly for modern genotypes grown under contrasting N supply. Nutrient accumulation and partitioning of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur (P, K, Ca, Mg and S) were determined for six wheat genotypes [12S2-2021, 12S3-3019, 13S3-2026, Discovery, Duchess and Reliance] grown with (200 kg/ha) or without (0 kg/ha) nitrogen (N), in a fully irrigated field experiment in 2017-18 season at Lincoln, New Zealand. Data were collected at three growth stages (GS): tillering (GS21), anthesis (GS60) and grain maturity (GS92). Grain yield varied with both N and genotype; from 6-7.5 t/ha for the 0 kg N/ha crops and 8.1-9.3 t/ha for the 200 kg N/ha treatments. Plant nutrient uptake at maturity responded to both N supply and genotype for all nutrients, except S which did not differ among the genotypes. For example, total P uptake averaged 13.5 (12.4-14.3) kg/ha for the 0 kg N/ha treatments and 17.8 (15.1-19.7) kg/ha when 200 kg N/ha was applied. Similarly, K uptake increased from an average of 23 (21.6-25.3) for the 0 kg N/ha treatments to 34.3 (32.4-40.8) kg/ha when 200 kg N/ha was applied. Similar trends were observed for Ca and Mg. The S content only responded to N supply but not to genotype, increasing from 7.9 kg/ha for the 0 kg N treatments to 12.8 kg/ha when 200 kg N was applied. Relative nutrient content at anthesis compared with those at maturity were 30% for P, 100% for both K and Ca and 34% of Mg. Sulphur content at anthesis decreased 29% with N supply and was highest for genotypes 12S2-2021 compared with the other five genotype. At grain maturity, the ratio of nutrients in grain to total plant nutrient, defined as the nutrient harvest index (NHI) varied with both N supply and genotype. Averaged across treatments, the NHI was 0.96 for P, 0.53 for K, 0.58 for Ca, 0.90 for Mg and 0.85 for S. These results suggest that Ca and K should be provided earlier in the season as there is limited or no uptake after anthesis. These results also show that Ca and K are important for structural functions, while P, Mg and S are remobilised to the grains and become important for quality.
113
49802
Environment Management Practices at Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Hazira Gas Processing Complex
Abstract:
Harmful emissions from oil and gas processing facilities have long remained a matter of concern for governments and environmentalists throughout the world. This paper analyses Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) gas processing plant in Hazira, Gujarat, India. It is the largest gas-processing complex in the country designed to process 41MMSCMD sour natural gas & associated sour condensate. The complex, sprawling over an area of approximate 705 hectares is the mother plant for almost all industries at Hazira and enroute Hazira Bijapur Jagdishpur pipeline. Various sources of pollution from each unit starting from Gas Terminal to Dew Point Depression unit and Caustic Wash unit along the processing chain were examined with the help of different emission data obtained from ONGC. Pollution discharged to the environment was classified into Water, Air, Hazardous Waste and Solid (Non-Hazardous) Waste so as to analyze each one of them efficiently. To protect air environment, Sulphur recovery unit along with automatic ambient air quality monitoring stations, automatic stack monitoring stations among numerous practices were adopted. To protect water environment different effluent treatment plants were used with due emphasis on aquaculture of the nearby area. Hazira plant has obtained the authorization for handling and disposal of five types of hazardous waste. Most of the hazardous waste were sold to authorized recyclers and the rest was given to Gujarat Pollution Control Board authorized vendors. Non-Hazardous waste was also handled with an overall objective of zero negative impact on the environment. The effect of methods adopted is evident from emission data of the plant which was found to be well under Gujarat Pollution Control Board limits.
112
46931
Status Report of the GERDA Phase II Startup
Abstract:
The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, searches for 0νββ of 76Ge. Germanium diodes enriched to ∼ 86 % in the double beta emitter 76Ge(enrGe) are exposed being both source and detectors of 0νββ decay. Neutrinoless double beta decay is considered a powerful probe to address still open issues in the neutrino sector of the (beyond) Standard Model of particle Physics. Since 2013, just after the completion of the first part of its experimental program (Phase I), the GERDA setup has been upgraded to perform its next step in the 0νββ searches (Phase II). Phase II aims to reach a sensitivity to the 0νββ decay half-life larger than 1026 yr in about 3 years of physics data taking. This exposing a detector mass of about 35 kg of enrGe and with a background index of about 10^−3 cts/(keV·kg·yr). One of the main new implementations is the liquid argon scintillation light read-out, to veto those events that only partially deposit their energy both in Ge and in the surrounding LAr. In this paper, the GERDA Phase II expected goals, the upgrade work and few selected features from the 2015 commissioning and 2016 calibration runs will be presented. The main Phase I achievements will be also reviewed.
111
94472
Effects of Injection Conditions on Flame Structures in Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector
Abstract:
In the development of space launch vehicles, the high efficiency and high performance of the liquid rocket engine is an essential development. For liquid propellant rocket applications, the staged combustion cycle has been used to improve the efficiency and performance of the liquid rocket engine. The staged combustion cycle needs the injector of the gas-liquid propellant, and the research has been performed in many years. However, the research of the gas-centered swirl coaxial injector has not been clearly understood because of its complicated design as evidenced by the calculation of dynamic characteristics. The gas-centered swirl coaxial injector is one of an airblast atomizer; the central gas jet in the breakup of the liquid sheet into drops is key factor to determine the quality of atomization. Therefore the objective of this study is to observe effects of injection conditions on the flame structure using the gas-centered swirl coaxial injector. For injection conditions, the mass flow rate and differential pressure between the combustion chamber pressure and injection pressure are varied to control the momentum flux ratio. The backlight images are used in cold flow test to observe the atomization and spray angle. Also, the high-speed camera is established to capture the flame structure that is visualized from the CH* chemiluminescence in the hot fire test. The photomultiplier tube and dynamic pressure transmitter are setup to observe the dynamic characteristics such as the combustion instability. For the cold flow test, the gaseous nitrogen and liquid water are used. Also, the gaseous oxygen and liquid kerosene for the propellant are used in the hot fire test. The mass flow rate of gaseous nitrogen was set up to 3 g/s, and liquid water was from 13 g/s to 26 g/s. Also, the injection pressure was around 0.2 MPa and 0.1 MPa, respectively. In the backlight images, the quality of the atomization increased at high momentum flux ratio. Also, the spray angle decreased from 64 degrees to 46 degrees as the momentum flux ratio increased from 0.59 to 6.64. These results can be explained by the increase in the velocity of the gas jet which increases the breakup and atomization performance. The interval of each injector is important because spray interference affects the efficiency and performance of the engine. Therefore, the spray angle is a significant factor to determine the efficiency and performance. In this study, the combustion instability intensity by the propellant injection conditions will be analyzed quantitatively using the dynamic pressure transmitter and the photomultiplier tube. Additionally, the flame structure will be visualized to obtain images of CH* chemiluminescence, which is related to the combustion reaction zone. Results from this study will be expected that flame structures by injection conditions can be analyzed with the data of dynamic characteristics such as combustion instability.
110
29085
A Wireless Sensor System for Continuous Monitoring of Particulate Air Pollution
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to design, develop and test the low-cost implementation of a particulate air pollution sensor system for continuous monitoring of outdoors and indoors particulate air pollution at a lower cost than existing instruments. In this study, measuring electrostatic charge of particles technique via high efficiency particulate-free air filter was carried out. The developed detector consists of a PM10 impactor, a particle charger, a Faraday cup electrometer, a flow meter and controller, a vacuum pump, a DC high voltage power supply and a data processing and control unit. It was reported that the developed detector was capable of measuring mass concentration of particulate ranging from 0 to 500 µg/m3 corresponding to number concentration of particulate ranging from 106 to 1012 particles/m3 with measurement time less than 1 sec. The measurement data of the sensor connects to the internet through a GSM connection to a public cellular network. In this development, the apparatus was applied the energy by a 12 V, 7 A internal battery for continuous measurement of about 20 hours. Finally, the developed apparatus was found to be close agreement with the import standard instrument, portable and benefit for air pollution and particulate matter measurements.
109
13682
MicroRNA Expression Distinguishes Neutrophil Subtypes
Abstract:
Neutrophils are the most abundant innate immune cells to against invading microorganisms. Numerous data shown neutrophils have plasticity in response to physiological and pathological conditions. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN) exist in distinct types of tumor and play an important role in cancer biology. Different transcriptomic profiles of neutrophils in tumor and non-tumor samples have been identified. Several miRNAs have been recognized as regulators of gene expression in neutrophil, which may have key roles in neutrophil activation. However, the miRNAs expression patterns in TAN are not well known. To address this question, magnetic bead isolated neutrophils from tumor-bearing mice were used in this study. We analyzed production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. The expression of miRNAs targeting NADPH oxidase, ROS generation and autophagy was explored using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our data suggest that tumor environment influence neutrophil develop to differential states of activation via miRNAs regulation.
108
53405
A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes
Abstract:
Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 &deg;C and 600 &deg;C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 &deg;C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 &deg;C to 600 &deg;C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.
107
24145
Determination of Aflatoxins in Edible-Medicinal Plant Samples by HPLC with Fluorescence Detector and KOBRA-Cell
Abstract:
Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. AFs can be absorbed through the skin. Potent carcinogens like AFs should be completely absent from cosmetics, this can be achieved by careful quality control of the raw plant materials. Regulatory limits for aflatoxins have been established in many countries, and reliable testing methodology is needed to implement and enforce the regulatory limits. In this study, ten medicinal plant samples (Bundelia tournefortti, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Carduus tenuiflorus, Cardaria draba, Malva neglecta, Malvella sharardiana, Melissa officinalis, Sideritis libanotica, Stakys thirkei, Thymus nummularius) were investigated for aflatoxin (AF) contaminations by employing an HPLC assay for the determination of AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. The samples were extracted with 70% (v/v) methanol in water before further cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column and followed by the detection of AFs by using an electrochemically post-column derivatization with Kobra-Cell and fluorescence detector. The extraction procedure was optimized in order to obtain the best recovery. The method was successfully carried out with all medicinal plant samples. The results revealed that five (50%) of samples were contaminated with AFs. The association between particular samples and the AF contaminated could not be determined due to the low frequency of positive samples.
106
27613
A Simple Adaptive Atomic Decomposition Voice Activity Detector Implemented by Matching Pursuit
Abstract:
A simple adaptive voice activity detector (VAD) is implemented using Gabor and gammatone atomic decomposition of speech for high Gaussian noise environments. Matching pursuit is used for atomic decomposition, and is shown to achieve optimal speech detection capability at high data compression rates for low signal to noise ratios. The most active dictionary elements found by matching pursuit are used for the signal reconstruction so that the algorithm adapts to the individual speakers dominant time-frequency characteristics. Speech has a high peak to average ratio enabling matching pursuit greedy heuristic of highest inner products to isolate high energy speech components in high noise environments. Gabor and gammatone atoms are both investigated with identical logarithmically spaced center frequencies, and similar bandwidths. The algorithm performs equally well for both Gabor and gammatone atoms with no significant statistical differences. The algorithm achieves 70% accuracy at a 0 dB SNR, 90% accuracy at a 5 dB SNR and 98% accuracy at a 20dB SNR using 30dB SNR as a reference for voice activity.
105
80347
Variation of Biologically Active Compounds and Antioxidancy in the Process of Blueberry Storage
Abstract:
Cultivation of blueberry in Georgia started in 21st century. There are more than 20 species of blueberry cultivated in this region from all other the world. The species are mostly planted on acidic soil, previously occupied by tea plantations. Many of the plantations have pretty good yield. It is known that changing the location of a plant to a new soil or climate effects chemical compositions of the plant. However, even though these plants are brought from other countries, no research has been conducted to fully examine the blueberry fruit cultivated in Georgia. Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation Grant FR/335/10-160/14, gave us an opportunity to continue our previous works and conduct research on several berries, among them of course the chemical composition of stored Blueberry. We were able to conduct the first study that included examining qualitative and quantitative features of bioactive compounds in Georgian Blueberry. This experiments were held in the ‘West Georgia Regional Chromatography center’ (Grant AP/96/13) of our university, that is equipped with modern equipment like HPLC UV-Vis, RI-detector, HPLC-conductivity detector, UPLC-MS-detector. Biochemical analysis was conducted using different physico-chemical and instrumental methods. Separation-identification and quantitative analysis were conducted using UPLC-MS (Waters Acquity QDa detector), HPLC (Waters Brceze 1525, UV-Vis 2489 detectors), pH-meters (Mettler Toledo). Refractrometer -Misco , Spectrometer –Cuvette Changer (Mettler Toledo UV5A), C18 Cartridge Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Waters Sep-Pak C18 (500 mg), Chemicals – stability radical- 2,2-Diphenil-1-picrilhydrazyl (Aldrich-germany), Acetonitrile, Methanol, Acetic Acid (Merck-Germany), AlCl3, Folin Ciocalteu reagent (preparation), Standarts –Callic acid, Quercetin. Carbohydrate HPLC-RI analysis used systems acetonitrile-water (80-20). UPLC-MS analysis used systems- solvent A- Water +1 % acetic acid და solvent -B Methanol +1% acetic acid). It was concluded that the amount of sugars was in range of 5-9 %, mostly glucose and fructose. Also, the amount of organic acids was 0.2-1.2% most of which was malic and citric acid. Anthocians were also present in the sample 200-550mg/100g. We were able to identify up to 15 different compounds, most of which were products of delphinidine and cyanide. All species have high antioxidant level(DPPH). By rapidly freezing the sample and then keeping it in specific conditions allowed us to keep the sample for 12 months.
104
34329
Outdoor Anomaly Detection with a Spectroscopic Line Detector
Abstract:
One of the tasks of optical surveillance is to detect anomalies in large amounts of image data. However, if the size of the anomaly is very small, limited information is available to distinguish it from the surrounding environment. Spectral detection provides a useful source of additional information and may help to detect anomalies with a size of a few pixels or less. Unfortunately, spectral cameras are expensive because of the difficulty of separating two spatial in addition to one spectral dimension. We investigate the possibility of modifying a simpler spectral line detector for outdoor detection. This may be especially useful if the area of interest forms a line, such as the horizon. We use a monochrome CCD that also enables detection into the near infrared. A simple camera is attached to the setup to determine which part of the environment is spectrally imaged. Our preliminary results indicate that sensitive detection of very small targets is indeed possible. Spectra could be taken from the various targets by averaging columns in the line image. By imaging a set of lines of various width we found narrow lines that could not be seen in the color image but remained visible in the spectral line image. A simultaneous analysis of the entire spectra can produce better results than visual inspection of the line spectral image. We are presently developing calibration targets for spatial and spectral focusing and alignment with the spatial camera. This will present improved results and more use in outdoor application
103
86594
Non-Waste Utilization of Copper Smelting Slags for Production of Demanded Products
Abstract:
Smelting of copper matte is followed by production of a large amount of slag. This slag mostly contains silicates and can be utilized in a construction industry. In addition to silicates it also contains Fe; if the Fe content is high, the density of the silicate phases increases and such a slag cannot be used as an additive for the concrete. Furthermore, slags obtained during copper matte production contain copper, sulphur, zinc and some other elements. Fe is the element with the highest price in these slags. An extraction of Fe is possible even using the conventional methods, e.g., the addition of slag to the charge materials during production of sinter for the blast furnace smelting. However, in this case, the blast furnace hot metal would accumulate sulphur and copper which is very harmful impurity for the steelmaking. An accumulation of copper by the blast furnace hot metal is unacceptable, as copper cannot be removed during further steelmaking operations having a critical effect on the properties of steel. In present work, the technological scheme for non-waste utilization of the copper smelting slags has been suggested and experimentally confirmed. This scheme includes a solid state reduction of Fe and smelting for the separation of cast iron and slag. During solid state reduction, the zinc vapor was trapped. After the reduction and smelting operations, the cast iron containing copper was used for the production of metal balls with increased mechanical properties allowing their utilization for milling of ore minerals. Such a cast iron could also be applied in the production of special types of steel with copper. The silicate slag freed from Fe might be used as a propping agent in the oil industry, or granulated for application as an additive for concrete in a construction industry. Thereby, the suggested products for a Mini Mill plant with non-waste utilization of the copper smelting slags are cast iron grinding balls for the ore minerals, special types of steel with copper, silicate slag utilized as an additive for the concrete and propping agents for the oil industry.
102
17042
Robotics and Embedded Systems Applied to the Buried Pipeline Inspection
Abstract:
The work aims to develop a robot in the form of autonomous vehicle to detect, inspection and mapping of underground pipelines through the ATmega328 Arduino platform. Hardware prototyping very similar to C / C ++ language that facilitates its use in robotics open source, resembles PLC used in large industrial processes. The robot will traverse the surface independently of direct human action, in order to automate the process of detecting buried pipes, guided by electromagnetic induction. The induction comes from coils that sends the signal to the Arduino microcontroller contained in that will make the difference in intensity and the treatment of the information, then this determines actions to electrical components such as relays and motors, allowing the prototype to move on the surface and getting the necessary information. The robot was developed by electrical and electronic assemblies that allowed test your application. The assembly is made up of metal detector coils, circuit boards and microprocessor, which interconnected circuits previously developed can determine, process control and mechanical actions for a robot (autonomous car) that will make the detection and mapping of buried pipelines plates.
101
96262
Biogas Production from Kitchen Waste for a Household Sustainability
Abstract:
South African’s informal settlements produce tonnes of kitchen waste (KW) per year which is dumped into the landfill. These landfill sites are normally located in close proximity to the household of the poor communities; this is a problem in which the young children from those communities end up playing in these landfill sites which may result in some health hazards because of methane, carbon dioxide and sulphur gases which are produced. To reduce this large amount of organic materials being deposited into landfills and to provide a cleaner place for those within the community especially the children, an energy conversion process such as anaerobic digestion of the organic waste to produce biogas was implemented. In this study, the digestion of various kitchen waste was investigated in order to understand and develop a system that is suitable for household use to produce biogas for cooking. Three sets of waste of different nutritional compositions were digested as per acquired in the waste streams of a household at mesophilic temperature (35ᵒC). These sets of KW were co-digested with cow dung (CW) at different ratios to observe the microbial behaviour and the system’s stability in a laboratory scale system. The gas chromatography-flame ionization detector analyses have been performed to identify and quantify the presence of organic compounds in the liquid samples from co-digested and mono-digested food waste. Acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid are the fatty acids which were studied. Acetic acid (1.98 g/L), propionic acid (0.75 g/L) and butyric acid (2.16g/L) were the most prevailing fatty acids. The results obtained from organic acids analysis suggest that the KW can be an innovative substituent to animal manure for biogas production. The faster degradation period in which the microbes break down the organic compound to produce the fatty acids during the anaerobic process of KW also makes it a better feedstock during high energy demand periods. The C/N ratio analysis showed that from the three waste streams the first stream containing vegetables (55%), fruits (16%), meat (25%) and pap (4%) yielded more methane-based biogas of 317mL/g of volatile solids (VS) at C/N of 21.06. Generally, this shows that a household will require a heterogeneous composition of nutrient-based waste to be fed into the digester to acquire the best biogas yield to sustain a households cooking needs.
100
56376
An Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detecting in Rack-Type Warehouses
Abstract:
Rack type warehouses are different from general buildings in the kinds, amount, and arrangement of stored goods, so the fire risk of rack type warehouses is different from those buildings. The fire pattern of rack type warehouses is different in combustion characteristic and storing condition of stored goods. The initial fire burning rate is different in the surface condition of materials, but the running time of fire is closely related with the kinds of stored materials and stored conditions. The stored goods of the warehouse are consisted of diverse combustibles, combustible liquid, and so on. Fire detection time may be delayed because the residents are less than office and commercial buildings. If fire detectors installed in rack type warehouses are inadaptable, the fire of the warehouse may be the great fire because of delaying of fire detection. In this paper, we studied what kinds of fire detectors are optimized in early detecting of rack type warehouse fire by real-scale fire tests. The fire detectors used in the tests are rate of rise type, fixed type, photo electric type, and aspirating type detectors. We considered optimum fire detecting method in rack type warehouses suggested by the response characteristic and comparative analysis of the fire detectors.
99
18656
Dissolution of South African Limestone for Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization
Abstract:
Wet Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems are commonly used to remove sulphur dioxide from flue gas by contacting it with limestone in aqueous phase which is obtained by dissolution. Dissolution is important as it affects the overall performance of a wet FGD system. In the present study, effects of pH, stirring speed, solid to liquid ratio and acid concentration on the dissolution of limestone using an organic acid (adipic acid) were investigated. This was investigated using the pH stat apparatus. Calcium ions were analyzed at the end of each experiment using Atomic Absorption (AAS) machine.
98
90958
A Combination of Anisotropic Diffusion and Sobel Operator to Enhance the Performance of the Morphological Component Analysis for Automatic Crack Detection
Abstract:
The crack detection on a concrete bridge is an important and constant task in civil engineering. Chronically, humans are checking the bridge for inspection of cracks to maintain the quality and reliability of bridge. But this process is very long and costly. To overcome such limitations, we have used a drone with a digital camera, which took some images of bridge deck and these images are processed by morphological component analysis (MCA). MCA technique is a very strong application of sparse coding and it explores the possibility of separation of images. In this paper, MCA has been used to decompose the image into coarse and fine components with the effectiveness of two dictionaries namely anisotropic diffusion and wavelet transform. An anisotropic diffusion is an adaptive smoothing process used to adjust diffusion coefficient by finding gray level and gradient as features. These cracks in image are enhanced by subtracting the diffused coarse image into the original image and the results are treated by Sobel edge detector and binary filtering to exhibit the cracks in a fine way. Our results demonstrated that proposed MCA framework using anisotropic diffusion followed by Sobel operator and binary filtering may contribute to an automation of crack detection even in open field sever conditions such as bridge decks.
97
94936
Peruvian Diagnostic Reference Levels for Patients Undergoing Different X-Rays Procedures
Abstract:
Reference levels for common X-rays procedures have been set in many protocols. In Peru, during quality control tests, the dose tolerance is set by these international recommendations. Nevertheless, further studies can be made to assess the national reality and relate dose levels with different parameters such as kV, mA/mAs, exposure time, type of processing (digital, digitalized or conventional), etc. In this paper three radiologic procedures were taken into account for study, general X-rays (fixed and mobile), intraoral X-rays (fixed, mobile and portable) and mammography. For this purpose, an Unfors Xi detector was used; the dose was measured at a focus - detector distance which varied depending on the procedure, and was corrected afterward to find the surface entry dose. The data used in this paper was gathered over a period of over 3 years (2015-2018). In addition, each X-ray machine was taken into consideration only once. The results hope to achieve a new standard which reflects the local practice, and address the issues of the ‘Bonn Call for Action’ in Peru. For this purpose, the 75% percentile of the dose of each radiologic procedure was calculated. In future quality control services, those machines with dose values higher than the selected threshold should be informed that they surpass the reference dose levels established in comparison other radiological centers in the country.
96
74830
Interior Architecture in the Anthropocene: Engaging the Subnature through the Intensification of Body-Surface Interaction
Abstract:
The Anthropocene – as scientists define as a new geological epoch where human intervention has the dominant influence on the geological, atmospheric, and ecological processes challenges the contemporary discourse in architecture and interior. The dominant influence characterises the incapability to distinguish the notion of nature, subnature, human and non-human. Consequently, living in the Anthropocene demands sensitivity and responsiveness to heighten our sense of the rhythm of transformation and recognition of our environment as a product of natural, social and historical processes. The notion of subnature is particularly emphasised in this paper to investigate the poetic sense of living with subnature. It could be associated with the critical tool for exploring the aesthetic and programmatic implications of subnature on interiority. The ephemeral immaterial attached to subnature promotes the sense of atmospheric delineation of interiority, the very inner significance of body-surface interaction, which central to interior architecture discourse. This would then reflect human’s activities; examine the transformative change, the architectural motion and the traces that left between moments. In this way, engaging the notion of subnature enable us to better understand the critical subject on interiority and might provide an in-depth study on interior architecture. Incorporating the exploration on the form, materiality, and pattern of subnature, this research seeks to grasp the inner significance of micro to macro approaches so that the future of interior might be compelled to depend more on the investigation and development of responsive environment. To reflect upon the form, materiality and intensity of subnature that specifically characterized by the natural, social and historical processes, this research examines a volcanic land, White Island/Whakaari, New Zealand as the chosen site of investigation. Emitting various forms and intensities of subnatures - smokes, mud, sulphur gas, this volcanic land also open to the new inhabitation within the sulphur factory ruins that reflects human’s past occupation. In this way, temporal and natural selected manifestations of materiality, artefact, and performance can be traced out and might reveal the meaningful relations among space, inhabitation, and well-being of inhabitants in the Anthropocene.
95
90887
Effects of Injection Conditions on Flame Structures in Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to observe the effects of injection conditions on flame structures in gas-centered swirl coaxial injector. Gaseous oxygen and liquid kerosene were used as propellants. For different injection conditions, two types of injector, which only differ in the diameter of the tangential inlet, were used in this study. In addition, oxidizer injection pressure was varied to control the combustion chamber pressure in different types of injector. In order to analyze the combustion instability intensity, the dynamic pressure was measured in both the combustion chamber and propellants lines. With the increase in differential pressure between the propellant injection pressure and the combustion chamber pressure, the combustion instability intensity increased. In addition, the flame structure was recorded using a high-speed camera to detect CH* chemiluminescence intensity. With the change in the injection conditions in the gas-centered swirl coaxial injector, the flame structure changed.
94
98003
Thermally Stable Crystalline Triazine-Based Organic Polymeric Nanodendrites for Mercury(2+) Ion Sensing
Abstract:
Organic polymers, constructed from light elements like carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and boron atoms, are the emergent class of non-toxic, metal-free, environmental benign advanced materials. Covalent triazine-based polymers with a functional triazine group are significant class of organic materials due to their remarkable stability arising out of strong covalent bonds. They can conventionally form hydrogen bonds, favour π–π contacts, and they were recently revealed to be involved in interesting anion–π interactions. The present work mainly focuses upon the development of a single-crystalline, highly cross-linked triazine-based nitrogen-rich organic polymer with nanodendritic morphology and significant thermal stability. The polymer has been synthesized through hydrothermal treatment of melamine and ethylene glycol resulting in cross-polymerization via condensation-polymerization reaction. The crystal structure of the polymer has been evaluated by employing Rietveld whole profile fitting method. The polymer has been found to be composed of monoclinic melamine having space group P21/a. A detailed insight into the chemical structure of the as synthesized polymer has been elucidated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic analysis. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic (XPS) analysis has also been carried out for further understanding of the different types of linkages required to create the backbone of the polymer. The unique rod-like morphology of the triazine based polymer has been revealed from the images obtained from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Interestingly, this polymer has been found to selectively detect mercury (Hg²⁺) ions at an extremely low concentration through fluorescent quenching with detection limit as low as 0.03 ppb. The high toxicity of mercury ions (Hg²⁺) arise from its strong affinity towards the sulphur atoms of biological building blocks. Even a trace quantity of this metal is dangerous for human health. Furthermore, owing to its small ionic radius and high solvation energy, Hg²⁺ ions remain encapsulated by water molecules making its detection a challenging task. There are some existing reports on fluorescent-based heavy metal ion sensors using covalent organic frameworks (COFs) but reports on mercury sensing using triazine based polymers are rather undeveloped. Thus, the importance of ultra-trace detection of Hg²⁺ ions with high level of selectivity and sensitivity has contemporary significance. A plausible sensing phenomenon by the polymer has been proposed to understand the applicability of the material as a potential sensor. The impressive sensitivity of the polymer sample towards Hg²⁺ is the very first report in the field of highly crystalline triazine based polymers (without the introduction of any sulphur groups or functionalization) towards mercury ion detection through photoluminescence quenching technique. This crystalline metal-free organic polymer being cheap, non-toxic and scalable has current relevance and could be a promising candidate for Hg²⁺ ion sensing at commercial level.
93
31989
Sniff-Camera for Imaging of Ethanol Vapor in Human Body Gases after Drinking
Abstract:
A 2-dimensional imaging system (Sniff-camera) for gaseous ethanol emissions from a human palm skin was constructed and demonstrated. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence (CL) by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. A conversion of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional CL was conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. High sensitivity imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each pixel on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions based on the metabolism of oral alcohol administration. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin.
92
25313
Flue Gas Characterisation for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels
Abstract:
Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever-present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.
91
26115
A Two-Step, Temperature-Staged, Direct Coal Liquefaction Process
Abstract:
The world crude oil demand is projected to rise to 108.5 million bbl/d by the year 2035. With reserves estimated at 869 billion tonnes worldwide, coal is an abundant resource. This work was aimed at producing a high value hydrocarbon liquid product from the Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL) process at, comparatively, mild operating conditions. Via hydrogenation, the temperature-staged approach was investigated. In a two reactor lab-scale pilot plant facility, the objectives included maximising thermal dissolution of the coal in the presence of a hydrogen donor solvent in the first stage, subsequently promoting hydrogen saturation and hydrodesulphurization (HDS) performance in the second. The feed slurry consisted of high grade, pulverized bituminous coal on a moisture-free basis with a size fraction of < 100μm; and Tetralin mixed in 2:1 and 3:1 solvent/coal ratios. Magnetite (Fe3O4) at 0.25wt% of the dry coal feed was added for the catalysed runs. For both stages, hydrogen gas was used to maintain a system pressure of 100barg. In the first stage, temperatures of 250℃ and 300℃, reaction times of 30 and 60 minutes were investigated in an agitated batch reactor. The first stage liquid product was pumped into the second stage vertical reactor, which was designed to counter-currently contact the hydrogen rich gas stream and incoming liquid flow in the fixed catalyst bed. Two commercial hydrotreating catalysts; Cobalt-Molybdenum (CoMo) and Nickel-Molybdenum (NiMo); were compared in terms of their conversion, selectivity and HDS performance at temperatures 50℃ higher than the respective first stage tests. The catalysts were activated at 300°C with a hydrogen flowrate of approximately 10 ml/min prior to the testing. A gas-liquid separator at the outlet of the reactor ensured that the gas was exhausted to the online VARIOplus gas analyser. The liquid was collected and sampled for analysis using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Internal standard quantification methods for the sulphur content, the BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and alkene quality; alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in the liquid products were guided by ASTM standards of practice for hydrocarbon analysis. In the first stage, using a 2:1 solvent/coal ratio, an increased coal to liquid conversion was favoured by a lower operating temperature of 250℃, 60 minutes and a system catalysed by magnetite. Tetralin functioned effectively as the hydrogen donor solvent. A 3:1 ratio favoured increased concentrations of the long chain alkanes undecane and dodecane, unsaturated alkenes octene and nonene and PAH compounds such as indene. The second stage product distribution showed an increase in the BTX quality of the liquid product, branched chain alkanes and a reduction in the sulphur concentration. As an HDS performer and selectivity to the production of long and branched chain alkanes, NiMo performed better than CoMo. CoMo is selective to a higher concentration of cyclohexane. For 16 days on stream each, NiMo had a higher activity than CoMo. The potential to cover the demand for low–sulphur, crude diesel and solvents from the production of high value hydrocarbon liquid in the said process, is thus demonstrated.
90
48964
THz Phase Extraction Algorithms for a THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar
Abstract:
Various THz phase extraction algorithms have been developed for a novel THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar (THz-MIDR) developed recently by the author. The THz-MIDR differs from the well-known FTIR technique in that it introduces a continuously modulating reference branch, compared to the time-consuming discrete FTIR stepping reference branch. Such change allows real-time tracking of a moving object and capturing of its Doppler signature. The working principle of the THz-MIDR is similar to the FTIR technique: the incoming THz emission from the scene is split by a beam splitter/combiner; one of the beams is continuously modulated by a vibrating mirror or phase modulator and the other split beam is reflected by a reflection mirror; finally both the modulated reference beam and reflected beam are combined by the same beam splitter/combiner and detected by a THz intensity detector (for example, a pyroelectric detector). In order to extract THz phase from the single intensity measurement signal, we have derived rigorous mathematical formulas for 3 Frequency Banded (FB) signals: 1) DC Low-Frequency Banded (LFB) signal; 2) Fundamental Frequency Banded (FFB) signal; and 3) Harmonic Frequency Banded (HFB) signal. The THz phase extraction algorithms are then developed based combinations of 2 or all of these 3 FB signals with efficient algorithms such as Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm. Numerical simulation has also been performed in Matlab with simulated THz-MIDR interferometric signal of various Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to verify the algorithms.
89
16799
Elastomer Composites Containing Ionic Liquids
Abstract:
The aim of this work was to study the activity of several novel benzalkonium and alkylammonium and alkylimidazolium ionic liquids with 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate for use as accelerators in the sulphur vulcanisation of butadiene-styrene elastomer (SBR). The application of novel ionic liquids allowed for the elimination of N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide from SBR compounds and for the considerable reduction of the amount of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole present in rubber products, which is favourable because, it is an allergenic agent. Synthesised salts could be used alternatively to standard accelerators in the vulcanisation of SBR, without any detrimental effects on the vulcanisation process, the physical properties or the thermal stability of the obtained vulcanisates. Ionic liquids increased the crosslink density of the vulcanisates and improved their thermal stability.
88
71767
Dose Profiler: A Tracking Device for Online Range Monitoring in Particle Therapy
Abstract:
Accelerated charged particles, mainly protons and carbon ions, are presently used in Particle Therapy (PT) to treat solid tumors. The precision of PT exploiting the charged particle high localized dose deposition in tissues and biological effectiveness in killing cancer cells demands for an online dose monitoring technique, crucial to improve the quality assurance of treatments: possible patient mis-positionings and biological changes with respect to the CT scan could negatively affect the therapy outcome. In PT the beam range confined in the irradiated target can be monitored thanks to the secondary radiation produced by the interaction of the projectiles with the patient tissue. The Dose Profiler (DP) is a novel device designed to track charged secondary particles and reconstruct their longitudinal emission distribution, correlated to the Bragg peak position. The feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated by dedicated experimental measurements. The DP has been developed in the framework of the INSIDE project, MIUR, INFN and Centro Fermi, Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche 'E. Fermi', Roma, Italy and will be tested at the Proton Therapy center of Trento (Italy) within the end of 2017. The DP combines a tracker, made of six layers of two-view scintillating fibers with square cross section (0.5 x 0.5 mm2) with two layers of two-view scintillating bars (section 12.0 x 0.6 mm2). The electronic readout is performed by silicon photomultipliers. The sensitive area of the tracking planes is 20 x 20 cm2. To optimize the detector layout, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation based on the FLUKA code has been developed. The complete DP geometry and the track reconstruction code have been fully implemented in the MC. In this contribution, the DP hardware will be described. The expected detector performance computed using a dedicated simulation of a 220 MeV/u carbon ion beam impinging on a PMMA target will be presented, and the result will be discussed in the standard clinical application framework. A possible procedure for real-time beam range monitoring is proposed, following the expectations in actual clinical operation.
87
43757
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) Monolayers
Abstract:
In this work molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) and sulphur powders are used to grow MoS2 mono layers at elevated temperatures T≥800 °C. Centimetre scale continues thin films with grain size up to 410 µm have been grown using chemical vapour deposition. To our best knowledge, these domains are the largest that have been grown so far. Advantage of our approach is not only because of the high quality films with large domain size one can produce, but also the procedure is potentially less hazardous than other methods tried. The thin films have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy.
86
95051
Adobe Attenuation Coefficient Determination and Its Comparison with Other Shielding Materials for Energies Found in Common X-Rays Procedures
Abstract:
Adobe is a construction material that fulfills the same function as a conventional brick. Widely used since ancient times, it is present in an appreciable percentage of buildings in Latin America. Adobe is a mixture of clay and sand. The interest in the study of the properties of this material arises due to its presence in the infrastructure of hospital´s radiological services, located in places with low economic resources, for the attenuation of radiation. Some materials such as lead and concrete are the most used for shielding and are widely studied in the literature. The present study will determine the mass attenuation coefficient of Adobe. The minimum required thicknesses for the primary and secondary barriers will be estimated for the shielding of radiological facilities where conventional and dental X-rays are performed. For the experimental procedure, an X-ray source emitted direct radiation towards different thicknesses of an Adobe barrier, and a detector was placed on the other side. For this purpose, an UNFORS Xi solid state detector was used, which collected information on the difference of radiation intensity. The initial parameters of the exposure started at 45 kV; and then the tube tension was varied in increments of 5 kV, reaching a maximum of 125 kV. The X-Ray tube was positioned at a distance of 0.5 m from the surface of the Adobe bricks, and the collimation of the radiation beam was set for an area of 0.15 m x 0.15 m. Finally, mathematical methods were applied to determine the mass attenuation coefficient for different energy ranges. In conclusion, the mass attenuation coefficient for Adobe was determined and the approximate thicknesses of the most common Adobe barriers in the hospital buildings were calculated for their later application in the radiological protection.
85
24936
Characterization of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Flue Gas Sources for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels
Abstract:
Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever - present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.
84
49857
Scope of Heavy Oil as a Fuel of the Future
Abstract:
Increasing imbalance between energy supply and demand has made nations and companies involved in the energy sector to boost up their research and find suitable solutions. With the high rates at which conventional oil and gas resources are depleting, efficient exploration and exploitation of heavy oil could just be the answer. Heavy oil may be defined as crude oil having API gravity value of less than 20⁰. They are highly viscous, have low hydrogen to carbon ratios and are known to produce high carbon residues. They have high contents of asphaltenes, heavy metals, sulphur and nitrogen in them. Due to these properties extraction, transportation and refining of crude oil have its share of challenges. Lack of suitable technology has hindered its production in the past, but now things are going in a more positive direction. The aim of this paper is to study the various advantages of heavy oil, associated limitations and its feasibility as a fuel of the future.
83
23354
Synthetic Cannabinoids: Extraction, Identification and Purification
Abstract:
In Australian state Victoria, synthetic cannabinoids have recently been made illegal under an amendment to the drugs, poisons and controlled substances act 1981. Identification of synthetic cannabinoids in popular brands of ‘incense’ and ‘potpourri’ has been a difficult and challenging task due to the sample complexity and changes observed in the chemical composition of the cannabinoids of interest. This study has developed analytical methodology for the targeted extraction and determination of synthetic cannabinoids available pre-ban. A simple solvent extraction and solid phase extraction methodology was developed that selectively extracted the cannabinoid of interest. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV‐visible and chemiluminescence detection (acidic potassium permanganate and tris (2,2‐bipyridine) ruthenium(III)) were used to interrogate the synthetic cannabinoid products. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used for structural elucidation of the synthetic cannabinoids. The tris(2,2‐bipyridine)ruthenium(III) detection was found to offer better sensitivity than the permanganate based reagents. In twelve different brands of herbal incense, cannabinoids were extracted and identified including UR‐144, XLR 11, AM2201, 5‐F‐AKB48 and A796‐260.
82
7133
Comparison of FNTD and OSLD Detectors' Responses to Light Ion Beams Using Monte Carlo Simulations and Exprimental Data
Abstract:
Al2O3:C,Mg fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) and Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) are becoming two of the applied detectors in ion dosimetry. Therefore, the response of these detectors to hadron beams is highly of interest in radiation therapy (RT) using ion beams. In this study, these detectors' responses to proton and Helium-4 ion beams were compared using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated data for proton beams were compared with Markus ionization chamber (IC) measurement (in water phantom) from M.D. Anderson proton therapy center. Monte Carlo simulations were performed via the FLUKA code (version 2011.2-17). The detectors were modeled in cylindrical shape at various depths of the water phantom without shading each other for obtaining relative depth dose in the phantom. Mono-energetic parallel ion beams in different incident energies (100 MeV/n to 250 MeV/n) were collided perpendicularly on the phantom surface. For proton beams, the results showed that the simulated detectors have over response relative to IC measurements in water phantom. In all cases, there were good agreements between simulated ion ranges in the water with calculated and experimental results reported by the literature. For proton, maximum peak to entrance dose ratio in the simulated water phantom was 4.3 compared with about 3 obtained from IC measurements. For He-4 ion beams, maximum peak to entrance ratio calculated by both detectors was less than 3.6 in all energies. Generally, it can be said that FLUKA is a good tool to calculate Al2O3:C,Mg FNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD detectors responses to therapeutic proton and He-4 ion beams. It can also calculate proton and He-4 ion ranges with a reasonable accuracy.
81
108980
In vitro Effects of Berberine on the Vitality and Oxidative Profile of Bovine Spermatozoa
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent in vitro effects of berberine (BER), a natural alkaloid with numerous biological properties on bovine spermatozoa during three time periods (0 h, 2 h, 24 h). Bovine semen samples were diluted and cultivated in physiological saline solution containing 0.5% DMSO together with 200, 100, 50, 10, 5 and 1 μmol/L BER. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the computer assisted semen analyzer. The viability of spermatozoa was assessed by the metabolic (MTT) assay, production of superoxide radicals was quantified using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, and chemiluminescence was used to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell lysates were prepared, and the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated using the TBARS assay. The results of the movement activity showed a significant increase in the motility during long term cultivation in case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 μmol/L BER (P < 0.01; P < 0.001; 24 h). At the same time, supplementation of 1, 5 and 10 μmol/L BER led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P < 0.001; 24 h). BER addition at a range of 1-50 μmol/L also provided a significantly higher protection against superoxide (P < 0.05) and ROS (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) overgeneration as well as LPO (P < 0.01; P < 0.05) after a 24 h cultivation. We may suggest that supplementation of BER to bovine spermatozoa, particularly at concentrations ranging between 1 and 50 μmol/L, may offer protection to the motility, viability and oxidative status of the spermatozoa, particularly notable at 24 h.
80
15642
Measurements of Scattering Cross Sections for 5.895 keV Photons in Various Polymers
Abstract:
The total differential cross section for scattering of the 5.895 keV photons by various polymers has been measured at scattering angle of 135o. The experimental measurements were carried out using the energy dispersive setup involving annular source of the 55Fe radioisotope and a low energy germanium (LEGe) detector. The cross section values are measured for 20 polymer targets namely, Paraffin Wax, Polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE), Cellulose, Silicone oil, Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyvinyl purrolidone (PVP), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Kapton, Mylar, Chitosan, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Bakelite, Carbopol, Chlorobutyl rubber (CBR), Polyetylene glycol (PEG), Polysorbate-20, Nylon-6, Cetyl alcohol, Carboxyl methyl sodium cellulose and Sodium starch glucolate. The measurements were performed in vacuum so as to avoid scattering contribution due to air and strong absorption of low energy photons in the air column. In the present investigations, the geometrical factor and efficiency of the detector were determined by measuring the K x-rays emitted from the 22Ti and 23V targets excited by the Mn K x-rays in the same experimental set up. The measured scattering cross sections have been compared with the sum of theoretically calculated elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections. The theoretical elastic (Rayleigh) scattering cross sections based on the various form factor approximations, namely, non-relativistic form factor (NF), relativistic form factor (RF), modified form factor (MF), and MF with anomalous scattering factor (ASF) as well as the second order S-matrix formalisms, and the inelastic scattering differential cross sections based on the Klein-Nishina formula after including the inelastic scattering function (KN+ISF) have been calculated. The experimental results show fairly good agreement with theoretical cross sections.
79
1872
Comparision of Bioleaching of Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans and Acidthiobacillus Thiooxidans
Abstract:
The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. The spent catalyst used in the present study was pretreated with acetone to remove the oily hydrocarbons. FESEM and XPS analysis indicated the presence of metals in sulfide and oxide forms in spent catalyst. Both At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans were found to be highly effective in producing the acid. Bioleaching with At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans led to higher recovery of metals compare to control. During bioleaching similar recoveries of metals were obtained using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. This might be due to the presence of metals as soluble oxides and sulphides in the spent catalyst. At the end of bioleaching, about 87-90% Ni, 34% Al, 65-73% Mo and 92-97% V were leached using above bacteria. It is elucidated that bioleaching with At. thiooxidans is comparatively more advantageous due to lower cost of sulphur.
78
56400
Preparation and Properties of NR Based Ebonite Rubber Suitable for Use as Engineering Material
Abstract:
The preparation of various samples of ebonite vulcanizates and their physico-mechanical properties have been investigated using standard methods. This work explores the production of ebonite dust, production of ebonite vulcanizates and investigation of the characterisation of the ebonite. Five different ebonite materials – labelled A, B, C, D, and E with sulphur content in parts per hundred grams of rubber (Phr) of 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 respectively were produced. The physico-mechanical properties carried out were tensile strength, hardness and abrasion resistance. The tensile strength (MPa) for sample A, B, C, D and E were 5.6, 3.5, 4.7, 1.7 and 2.0 respectively while the abrasion(%mass loss) were 8.49, 4.24, 2.59, 1.08 and 1.05 respectively and the hardness (IRHD) being 63, 64, 65, 70 and 82. The results show that the preparation of ebonite from natural rubber as a base polymer is feasible considering the results of characterisation obtained.
77
80164
Performance Evaluation of a Very High-Resolution Satellite Telescope
Abstract:
System performance evaluation is an essential stage in the design of high-resolution satellite telescopes prior to the development process. In this paper, a system performance evaluation of a very high-resolution satellite telescope is investigated. The evaluated system has a Korsch optical scheme design. This design has been discussed in another paper with respect to three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) scheme design and the former configuration showed better results. The investigated system is based on the Korsch optical design integrated with a time-delay and integration charge coupled device (TDI-CCD) sensor to achieve a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 25 cm. The key performance metrics considered are the spatial resolution, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the total modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system. In addition, the national image interpretability rating scale (NIIRS) metric is assessed to predict the image quality according to the modified general image quality equation (GIQE). Based on the orbital, optical and detector parameters, the estimated GSD is found to be 25 cm. The SNR has been analyzed at different illumination conditions of target albedos, sun and sensor angles. The system MTF has been computed including diffraction, aberration, optical manufacturing, smear and detector sampling as the main contributors for evaluation the MTF. Finally, the system performance evaluation results show that the computed MTF value is found to be around 0.08 at the Nyquist frequency, the SNR value was found to be 130 at albedo 0.2 with a nadir viewing angles and the predicted NIIRS is in the order of 6.5 which implies a very good system image quality.
76
104808
Source-Detector Trajectory Optimization for Target-Based C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography
Abstract:
Nowadays, three dimensional Cone Beam CT (CBCT) has turned into a widespread clinical routine imaging modality for interventional radiology. In conventional CBCT, a circular sourcedetector trajectory is used to acquire a high number of 2D projections in order to reconstruct a 3D volume. However, the accumulated radiation dose due to the repetitive use of CBCT needed for the intraoperative procedure as well as daily pretreatment patient alignment for radiotherapy has become a concern. It is of great importance for both health care providers and patients to decrease the amount of radiation dose required for these interventional images. Thus, it is desirable to find some optimized source-detector trajectories with the reduced number of projections which could therefore lead to dose reduction. In this study we investigate some source-detector trajectories with the optimal arbitrary orientation in the way to maximize performance of the reconstructed image at particular regions of interest. To achieve this approach, we developed a box phantom consisting several small target polytetrafluoroethylene spheres at regular distances through the entire phantom. Each of these spheres serves as a target inside a particular region of interest. We use the 3D Point Spread Function (PSF) as a measure to evaluate the performance of the reconstructed image. We measured the spatial variance in terms of Full-Width-Half-Maximum (FWHM) of the local PSFs each related to a particular target. The lower value of FWHM shows the better spatial resolution of reconstruction results at the target area. One important feature of interventional radiology is that we have very well-known imaging targets as a prior knowledge of patient anatomy (e.g. preoperative CT) is usually available for interventional imaging. Therefore, we use a CT scan from the box phantom as the prior knowledge and consider that as the digital phantom in our simulations to find the optimal trajectory for a specific target. Based on the simulation phase we have the optimal trajectory which can be then applied on the device in real situation. We consider a Philips Allura FD20 Xper C-arm geometry to perform the simulations and real data acquisition. Our experimental results based on both simulation and real data show our proposed optimization scheme has the capacity to find optimized trajectories with minimal number of projections in order to localize the targets. Our results show the proposed optimized trajectories are able to localize the targets as good as a standard circular trajectory while using just 1/3 number of projections. Conclusion: We demonstrate that applying a minimal dedicated set of projections with optimized orientations is sufficient to localize targets, may minimize radiation.
75
28952
Jagiellonian-PET: A Novel TOF-PET Detector Based on Plastic Scintillators
Abstract:
A new concept and results of the performance tests of the TOF-PET detection system developed at the Jagiellonian University will be presented. The novelty of the concept lies in employing long strips of polymer scintillators instead of crystals as detectors of annihilation quanta, and in using predominantly the timing of signals instead of their amplitudes for the reconstruction of Lines-of-Response. The diagnostic chamber consists of plastic scintillator strips readout by pairs of photo multipliers arranged axially around a cylindrical surface. To take advantage of the superior timing properties of plastic scintillators the signals are probed in the voltage domain with the accuracy of 20 ps by a newly developed electronics, and the data are collected by the novel trigger-less and reconfigurable data acquisition system. The hit-position and hit-time are reconstructed by the dedicated reconstruction methods based on the compressing sensing theory and the library of synchronized model signals. The solutions are subject to twelve patent applications. So far a time-of-flight resolution of ~120 ps (sigma) was achieved for a double-strip prototype with 30 cm field-of-view (FOV). It is by more than a factor of two better than TOF resolution achievable in current TOF-PET modalities and at the same time the FOV of 30 cm long prototype is significantly larger with respect to typical commercial PET devices. The Jagiellonian PET (J-PET) detector with plastic scintillators arranged axially possesses also another advantage. Its diagnostic chamber is free of any electronic devices and magnetic materials thus giving unique possibilities of combining J-PET with CT and J-PET with MRI for scanning the same part of a patient at the same time with both methods.
74
107024
Vitamin Content of Swordfish (Xhiphias gladius) Affected by Salting and Frying
Abstract:
The swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a large oceanic fish of high commercial value, which is widely distributed in waters of the world&rsquo;s oceans. They are considered to be an important source of high quality proteins, vitamins and essential fatty acids, although only half of the population follows the recommendation of nutritionists to consume fish at least twice a week. Swordfish is consumed worldwide because of its low fat content and high protein content. It is generally sold as fresh, frozen, and as pieces or slices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of salting and frying on the composition of the water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B9 and B12) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) of swordfish. Three loins of swordfish from Pacific Ocean were analyzed. All the fishes had a weight between 50 and 70 kg and were transported to the laboratory frozen (-18 &ordm;C). Before the processing, they were defrosted at 4 &ordm;C. Each loin was sliced and salted in brine. After cleaning the slices, they were divided into portions (10&times;2 cm) and fried in olive oil. The identification and quantification of vitamins were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using methanol and 0.010% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases at a flow-rate of 0.7 mL min-1. The UV-Vis detector was used for the detection of the water- and fat-soluble vitamins (A and D), as well as the fluorescence detector for the detection of the vitamin E. During salting, water and fat-soluble vitamin contents remained constant, observing an evident decrease in the values of vitamin B2. The diffusion of salt into the interior of the pieces and the loss of constitution water that occur during this stage would be related to this significant decrease. In general, after frying water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins showed a great thermolability with high percentages of retention with values among 50&ndash;100%. Vitamin B3 is the one that exhibited higher percentages of retention with values close to 100%. However, vitamin B9 presented the highest losses with a percentage of retention of less than 20%.
73
21656
Study of the Anaerobic Degradation Potential of High Strength Molasses Wastewater
Abstract:
The treatment of high strength wastewater by an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor has several benefits, such as high organic removal efficiency, short hydraulic retention time along with low operating costs. In addition, high volumes of biogas are released in these reactors, which can be utilized in several industrial facilities for energy production. This study aims at the examination of the application potential of anaerobic treatment of wastewater, with high molasses content derived from yeast manufacturing, by a lab-scale UASB reactor. The molasses wastewater and the sludge used in the experiments were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of a baker’s yeast manufacturing company. The experimental set-up consisted of a 15 L thermostated UASB reactor at 37 ◦C. Before the reactor start-up, the reactor was filled with sludge and molasses wastewater at a ratio 1:1 v/v. Influent was fed to the reactor at a flowrate of 12 L/d, corresponding to a hydraulic residence time of about 30 h. Effluents were collected from the system outlet and were analyzed for the determination of the following parameters: COD, pH, total solids, volatile solids, ammonium, phosphates and total nitrogen according to the standard methods of analysis. In addition, volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition of the effluent was determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID), as an indicator to evaluate the process efficiency. The volume of biogas generated in the reactor was daily measured by the water displacement method, while gas composition was analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The effluent quality was greatly enhanced due to the use of the UASB reactor and high rate of biogas production was observed. The anaerobic treatment of the molasses wastewater by the UASB reactor improved the biodegradation potential of the influent, resulting at high methane yields and an effluent with better quality than the raw wastewater.
72
57923
Reactivity Study on South African Calcium Based Material Using a pH-Stat and Citric Acid: A Statistical Approach
Abstract:
The study on reactivity of calcined calcium-based material is very important in dry flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) process, so as to produce absorbent with high sulphur dioxide capture capacity during the hydration process. The effect of calcining temperature and time on the reactivity of calcined limestone material were investigated. In this study, the reactivity was measured using a pH stat apparatus and also confirming the result by performing citric acid reactivity test. The reactivity was calculated using the shrinking core model. Based on the experiments, a mathematical model is developed to correlate the effect of time and temperature to the reactivity of absorbent. The calcination process variables were temperature (700 -1000°C) and time (1-6 hrs). It was found that reactivity increases with an increase in time and temperature.
71
71768
The Monitor for Neutron Dose in Hadrontherapy Project: Secondary Neutron Measurement in Particle Therapy
Abstract:
The particle therapy (PT) is a very modern technique of non invasive radiotherapy mainly devoted to the treatment of tumours untreatable with surgery or conventional radiotherapy, because localised closely to organ at risk (OaR). Nowadays, PT is available in about 55 centres in the word and only the 20\% of them are able to treat with carbon ion beam. However, the efficiency of the ion-beam treatments is so impressive that many new centres are in construction. The interest in this powerful technology lies to the main characteristic of PT: the high irradiation precision and conformity of the dose released to the tumour with the simultaneous preservation of the adjacent healthy tissue. However, the beam interactions with the patient produce a large component of secondary particles whose additional dose has to be taken into account during the definition of the treatment planning. Despite, the largest fraction of the dose is released to the tumour volume, a non-negligible amount is deposed in other body regions, mainly due to the scattering and nuclear interactions of the neutrons within the patient body. One of the main concerns in PT treatments is the possible occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN). While SMNs can be developed up to decades after the treatments, their incidence impacts directly life quality of the cancer survivors, in particular in pediatric patients. Dedicated Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) are used to predict the normal tissue toxicity including the risk of late complications induced by the additional dose released by secondary neutrons. However, no precise measurement of secondary neutrons flux is available, as well as their energy and angular distributions: an accurate characterization is needed in order to improve TPS and reduce safety margins. The project MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) is devoted to the construction of a secondary neutron tracker tailored to the characterization of that secondary neutron component. The detector, based on the tracking of the recoil protons produced in double-elastic scattering interactions, is a matrix of thin scintillating fibres, arranged in layer x-y oriented. The final size of the object is 10 x 10 x 20 cm3 (squared 250µm scint. fibres, double cladding). The readout of the fibres is carried out with a dedicated SPAD Array Sensor (SBAM) realised in CMOS technology by FBK (Fondazione Bruno Kessler). The detector is under development as well as the SBAM sensor and it is expected to be fully constructed for the end of the year. MONDO will make data tacking campaigns at the TIFPA Proton Therapy Center of Trento, at the CNAO (Pavia) and at HIT (Heidelberg) with carbon ion in order to characterize the neutron component and predict the additional dose delivered on the patients with much more precision and to drastically reduce the actual safety margins. Preliminary measurements with charged particles beams and MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation will be presented.
70
35783
Laser - Ultrasonic Method for the Measurement of Residual Stresses in Metals
Abstract:
The theoretical analysis is carried out to get the relation between the ultrasonic wave velocity and the value of residual stresses. The laser-ultrasonic method is developed to evaluate the residual stresses and subsurface defects in metals. The method is based on the laser thermooptical excitation of longitudinal ultrasonic wave sand their detection by a broadband piezoelectric detector. A laser pulse with the time duration of 8 ns of the full width at half of maximum and with the energy of 300 µJ is absorbed in a thin layer of the special generator that is inclined relative to the object under study. The non-uniform heating of the generator causes the formation of a broadband powerful pulse of longitudinal ultrasonic waves. It is shown that the temporal profile of this pulse is the convolution of the temporal envelope of the laser pulse and the profile of the in-depth distribution of the heat sources. The ultrasonic waves reach the surface of the object through the prism that serves as an acoustic duct. At the interface ‚laser-ultrasonic transducer-object‘ the conversion of the most part of the longitudinal wave energy takes place into the shear, subsurface longitudinal and Rayleigh waves. They spread within the subsurface layer of the studied object and are detected by the piezoelectric detector. The electrical signal that corresponds to the detected acoustic signal is acquired by an analog-to-digital converter and when is mathematically processed and visualized with a personal computer. The distance between the generator and the piezodetector as well as the spread times of acoustic waves in the acoustic ducts are the characteristic parameters of the laser-ultrasonic transducer and are determined using the calibration samples. There lative precision of the measurement of the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic waves is 0.05% that corresponds to approximately ±3 m/s for the steels of conventional quality. This precision allows one to determine the mechanical stress in the steel samples with the minimal detection threshold of approximately 22.7 MPa. The results are presented for the measured dependencies of the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the samples on the values of the applied compression stress in the range of 20-100 MPa.
69
93522
Lead Chalcogenide Quantum Dots for Use in Radiation Detectors
Abstract:
Lead chalcogenide-based (PbS, PbSe, and PbTe) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized for the purpose of implementing them in radiation detectors. Pb based materials have long been of interest for gamma and x-ray detection due to its high absorption cross section and Z number. The emphasis of the studies was on exploring how to control charge carrier transport within thin films containing the QDs. The properties of QDs itself can be altered by changing the size, shape, composition, and surface chemistry of the dots, while the properties of carrier transport within QD films are affected by post-deposition treatment of the films. The QDs were synthesized using colloidal synthesis methods and films were grown using multiple film coating techniques, such as spin coating and doctor blading. Current QD radiation detectors are based on the QD acting as fluorophores in a scintillation detector. Here the viability of using QDs in solid-state radiation detectors, for which the incident detectable radiation causes a direct electronic response within the QD film is explored. Achieving high sensitivity and accurate energy quantification in QD radiation detectors requires a large carrier mobility and diffusion lengths in the QD films. Pb chalcogenides-based QDs were synthesized with both traditional oleic acid ligands as well as more weakly binding oleylamine ligands, allowing for in-solution ligand exchange making the deposition of thick films in a single step possible. The PbS and PbSe QDs showed better air stability than PbTe. After precipitation the QDs passivated with the shorter ligand are dispersed in 2,6-difloupyridine resulting in colloidal solutions with concentrations anywhere from 10-100 mg/mL for film processing applications, More concentrated colloidal solutions produce thicker films during spin-coating, while an extremely concentrated solution (100 mg/mL) can be used to produce several micrometer thick films using doctor blading. Film thicknesses of micrometer or even millimeters are needed for radiation detector for high-energy gamma rays, which are of interest for astrophysics or nuclear security, in order to provide sufficient stopping power.
68
32180
A Novel PWM/PFM Controller for PSR Fly-Back Converter Using a New Peak Sensing Technique
Abstract:
For low-power applications such as adapters for portable devices and USB chargers, the primary side regulation (PSR) fly-back converter is widely used in lieu of the conventional fly-back converter using opto-coupler because of its simpler structure and lower cost. In the literature, there has been studies focusing on the design of PSR circuit; however, the conventional sensing method in PSR circuit using RC delay has a lower accuracy as compared to the conventional fly-back converter using opto-coupler. In this paper, we propose a novel PWM/PFM controller using new sensing technique for the PSR fly-back converter which can control an accurate output voltage. The conventional PSR circuit can sense the output voltage information from the auxiliary winding to regulate the duty cycle of the clock that control the output voltage. In the sensing signal waveform, there has two transient points at time the voltage equals to Vout+VD and Vout, respectively. In other to sense the output voltage, the PSR circuit must detect the time at which the current of the diode at the output equals to zero. In the conventional PSR flyback-converter, the sensing signal at this time has a non-sharp-negative slope that might cause a difficulty in detecting the output voltage information since a delay of sensing signal or switching clock may exist which brings out an unstable operation of PSR fly-back converter. In this paper instead of detecting output voltage at a non-sharp-negative slope, a sharp-positive slope is used to sense the proper information of the output voltage. The proposed PRS circuit consists of a saw-tooth generator, a summing circuit, a sample and hold circuit and a peak detector. Besides, there is also the start-up circuit which protects the chip from high surge current when the converter is turned on. Additionally, to reduce the standby power loss, a second mode which operates in a low frequency is designed beside the main mode at high frequency. In general, the operation of the proposed PSR circuit can be summarized as following: At the time the output information is sensed from the auxiliary winding, a saw-tooth signal from the saw-tooth generator is generated. Then, both of these signals are summed using a summing circuit. After this process, the slope of the peak of the sensing signal at the time diode current is zero becomes positive and sharp that make the peak easy to detect. The output of the summing circuit then is fed into a peak detector and the sample and hold circuit; hence, the output voltage can be properly sensed. By this way, we can sense more accurate output voltage information and extend margin even circuit is delayed or even there is the existence of noise by using only a simple circuit structure as compared with conventional circuits while the performance can be sufficiently enhanced. Circuit verification was carried out using 0.35μm 700V Magnachip process. The simulation result of sensing signal shows a maximum error of 5mV under various load and line conditions which means the operation of the converter is stable. As compared to the conventional circuit, we achieved very small error only used analog circuits compare with conventional circuits. In this paper, a PWM/PFM controller using a simple and effective sensing method for PSR fly-back converter has been presented in this paper. The circuit structure is simple as compared with the conventional designs. The gained results from simulation confirmed the idea of the design
67
21359
Adaptive CFAR Analysis for Non-Gaussian Distribution
Abstract:
Automatic detection of targets in a modern communication system RADAR is based primarily on the concept of adaptive CFAR detector. To have an effective detection, we must minimize the influence of disturbances due to the clutter. The detection algorithm adapts the CFAR detection threshold which is proportional to the average power of the clutter, maintaining a constant probability of false alarm. In this article, we analyze the performance of two variants of adaptive algorithms CA-CFAR and OS-CFAR and we compare the thresholds of these detectors in the marine environment (no-Gaussian) with a Weibull distribution.
66
58564
A Simple Olfactometer for Odour and Lateralization Thresholds of Chemical Vapours
Abstract:
A simple inexpensive olfactometer was constructed to enable valid measures of detection threshold of low concentrations of vapours of chemicals. The delivery system consists of seven syringe pumps, each connected to a Tedlar bag containing a predefined concentration of the test chemical in the air. The seven pumps are connected to a 8-way mixing valve which in turn connects to a birhinal nose piece. Chemical vapor of known concentration is generated by injection of an appropriate amount of the test chemical into a Tedlar bag with a known volume of clean air. Complete vaporization is assured by gentle heating of the bag from the outside with a heat flow. The six test concentrations are obtained by adding different volumes from the starting bag to six new Tedlar bags with known volumes of clean air. One bag contains clean air only. Thus, six different test concentrations and clean air can easily be tested in series by shifting the valve to new positions. Initial in-line measurement with a photoionization detector showed that the delivery system quickly responded to a shift in valve position. Thus 90% of the desired concentration was reached within 15 seconds. The concentrations in the bags are verified daily by gas chromatography. The stability of the system in terms of chemical concentration is monitored in real time by means of a photo-ionization detector. To determine lateralization thresholds, an additional pump supplying clean air is added to the delivery system in a way so that the nostrils can be separately and interchangeably be exposed to clean air and test chemical. Odor and lateralization thresholds were determined for three aldehydes; acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and hexanal in 20 healthy naïve individuals. Aldehydes generally have a strong odour, and the selected aldehydes are also considered to be irritating to mucous membranes. The median odor thresholds of the three aldehydes were 0.017, 0.0008, and 0.097 ppm, respectively. No lateralization threshold could be identified for acrolein, whereas the medians for crotonaldehyde and hexanal were 0.003 and 0.39 ppm, respectively. In conclusion, we constructed a simple, inexpensive olfactometer that allows for stable and easily measurable concentrations of vapors of the test chemical. Our test with aldehydes demonstrates that the system produces valid detection among volunteers in terms of odour and lateralization thresholds.
65
99603
InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiode Array ns-Response
Abstract:
InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have recently seen rapid development. However, in small pixel size large format FPAs, the occurrence of high mesa sidewall surface leakage current is a major constraint necessitating proper surface passivation. A simple pixel isolation technique in InAs/GaSb T2SL detector arrays without the conventional mesa etching has been proposed to isolate the pixels by forming a more resistive higher band gap material from the SL, in the inter-pixel region. Here, a single step femtosecond (fs) laser anneal of the T2SL structure of the inter-pixel T2SL regions, have been used to increase the band gap between the pixels by QW-intermixing and hence increase isolation between the pixels. The p-i-n photodiode structure used here consists of a 506nm, (10 monolayer {ML}) InAs:Si (1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML) GaSb SL as the bottom n-contact layer grown on an n-type GaSb substrate. The undoped absorber layer consists of 1.3µm, (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL. The top p-contact layer is a 63nm, (10ML)InAs:Be(1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML)GaSb T2SL. In order to improve the carrier transport, a 126nm of graded doped (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL layer was added between the absorber and each contact layers. A 775nm 150fs-laser at a fluence of ~6mJ/cm² is used to expose the array where the pixel regions are masked by a Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) cap. Here, in the inter-pixel regions, the p+ layer have been reactive ion etched (RIE) using CH₄+H₂ chemistry and removed before fs-laser exposure. The fs-laser anneal isolation improvement in 200-400μm pixels due to spatially selective quantum well intermixing for a blue shift of ~70meV in the inter-pixel regions is confirmed by FTIR measurements. Dark currents are measured between two adjacent pixels with the Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) caps used as contacts. The T2SL quality in the active photodiode regions masked by the Ti-Au cap is hardly affected and retains the original quality of the detector. Although, fs-laser anneal of p+ only etched p-i-n T2SL diodes show a reduction in the reverse dark current, no significant improvement in the full RIE-etched mesa structures is noticeable. Hence for a 128x128 array fabrication of 8μm square pixels and 10µm pitch, SU8 polymer isolation after RIE pixel delineation has been used. X-n+ row contacts and Y-p+ column contacts have been used to measure the optical response of the individual pixels. The photo-response of these 8μm and other 200μm pixels under a 2ns optical pulse excitation from an Optical-Parametric-Oscillator (OPO), shows a peak responsivity of ~0.03A/W and 0.2mA/W, respectively, at λ~3.7μm. Temporal response of this detector array is seen to have a fast response ~10ns followed typical slow decay with ringing, attributed to impedance mismatch of the connecting co-axial cables. In conclusion, response times of a few ns have been measured in 8µm pixels of a 128x128 array. Although fs-laser anneal has been found to be useful in increasing the inter-pixel isolation in InAs/GaSb T2SL arrays by QW inter-mixing, it has not been found to be suitable for passivation of full RIE etched mesa structures with vertical walls on InAs/GaSb T2SL.
64
73199
The Monitor for Neutron Dose in Hadrontherapy Project: Secondary Neutron Measurement in Particle Therapy
Abstract:
The particle therapy (PT) is a very modern technique of non invasive radiotherapy mainly devoted to the treatment of tumours untreatable with surgery or conventional radiotherapy, because localised closely to organ at risk (OaR). Nowadays, PT is available in about 55 centres in the word and only the 20\% of them are able to treat with carbon ion beam. However, the efficiency of the ion-beam treatments is so impressive that many new centres are in construction. The interest in this powerful technology lies to the main characteristic of PT: the high irradiation precision and conformity of the dose released to the tumour with the simultaneous preservation of the adjacent healthy tissue. However, the beam interactions with the patient produce a large component of secondary particles whose additional dose has to be taken into account during the definition of the treatment planning. Despite, the largest fraction of the dose is released to the tumour volume, a non-negligible amount is deposed in other body regions, mainly due to the scattering and nuclear interactions of the neutrons within the patient body. One of the main concerns in PT treatments is the possible occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN). While SMNs can be developed up to decades after the treatments, their incidence impacts directly life quality of the cancer survivors, in particular in pediatric patients. Dedicated Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) are used to predict the normal tissue toxicity including the risk of late complications induced by the additional dose released by secondary neutrons. However, no precise measurement of secondary neutrons flux is available, as well as their energy and angular distributions: an accurate characterization is needed in order to improve TPS and reduce safety margins. The project MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) is devoted to the construction of a secondary neutron tracker tailored to the characterization of that secondary neutron component. The detector, based on the tracking of the recoil protons produced in double-elastic scattering interactions, is a matrix of thin scintillating fibres, arranged in layer x-y oriented. The final size of the object is 10 x 10 x 20 cm3 (squared 250µm scint. fibres, double cladding). The readout of the fibres is carried out with a dedicated SPAD Array Sensor (SBAM) realised in CMOS technology by FBK (Fondazione Bruno Kessler). The detector is under development as well as the SBAM sensor and it is expected to be fully constructed for the end of the year. MONDO will make data tacking campaigns at the TIFPA Proton Therapy Center of Trento, at the CNAO (Pavia) and at HIT (Heidelberg) with carbon ion in order to characterize the neutron component and predict the additional dose delivered on the patients with much more precision and to drastically reduce the actual safety margins. Preliminary measurements with charged particles beams and MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation will be presented.
63
15572
Volatile Composition of Sucuks: A Traditional Dry-Fermented Sausage Affected by Meat and Fat Types
Abstract:
The profiles of volatile compounds of differently formulated sausages including CH (camel meat-hump), CB (camel meat-beef fat), BH (beef-hump) and BB (beef-beef fat) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in order to investigate the role of meat and fat type in aroma compounds release. A total of 47 compounds identified, were consisted of 3 acids, 1 ester, 3 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 5 sulphur compounds, and 27 terpenes. The significant differences were observed in the aroma compounds among four batches. The CH sucuk samples containing the highest (p< 0.05) fat amount among the others showed higher amounts of volatiles in consequence. The sausages prepared with hump showed higher amounts of aldehydes and lower amounts of terpenes compared to the sausages made with beef fat (p< 0.05). It seemed that meat type had an inconsiderable effect on the volatile profile of the sausages.
62
52071
The Investigation of Precipitation Conditions of Chevreul’s Salt
Abstract:
In this study, the precipitation conditions of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt were evaluated. The structure of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt was examined by considering the previous studies. Thermodynamically, the most important precipitation parameters were pH, temperature, and sulphite-copper(II) ratio. The amount of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt increased with increasing the temperature and sulphite-copper(II) ratio at the certain range, while it increased with decreasing the pH value at the chosen range. The best solution medium for recovery of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt is sulphur dioxide gas-water system. Moreover, the soluble sulphite salts are used as efficient precipitating reagents. Chevreul&rsquo;s salt is generally used to produce the highly pure copper powders from synthetic copper sulphate solutions and impure leach solutions. When the pH of the initial ammoniacal solution is greater than 8.5, ammonia in the medium is not free, and Chevreul&rsquo;s salt from solution does not precipitate. In contrast, copper ammonium sulphide is precipitated. The pH of the initial solution containing ammonia for precipitating of Chevreul&rsquo;s salt must be less than 8.5.
61
14174
Extraction of the Volatile Oils of Dictyopteris Membranacea by Focused Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Chemical Composition and Kinetic Data
Abstract:
The Supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE) and the focused microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (FMAHD) were employed to isolate the volatile fraction of the brown alga Dictyopteris membranacea from the crude extract. The volatiles fractions obtained were analyzed by GC/MS. The major compounds in this case: dictyopterene A, 6-butylcyclohepta-1,4-diene, Undec-1-en-3-one, Undeca-1,4-dien-3-one, (3-oxoundec-4-enyl) sulphur, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 3-hexyl-4,5-dithia-cycloheptanone and albicanol (this later is present only in the FMAHD oil) are identified by comparing their mass spectra with those reported on the commercial MS data base and also on our previously work. A kinetic study realized on both extraction processes and followed by an external standard quantification has allowed the study of the mass percent evolution of the major compounds in the two oils, an empirical mathematical modelling was used to describe their kinetic extraction.
60
64577
Multi-Residue Analysis (GC-ECD) of Some Organochlorine Pesticides in Commercial Broiler Meat Marketed in Shivamogga City, Karnataka State, India
Abstract:
Organochlorine (OC) insecticides are among the most important organotoxins and make a large group of pesticides. Physicochemical properties of these toxins, especially their lipophilicity, facilitate the absorption and storage of these toxins in the meat thus possess public health threat to humans. The presence of these toxins in broiler meat can be a quantitative and qualitative index for the presence of these toxins in animal bodies, which is attributed to Waste water of irrigation after spraying the crops, contaminated animal feeds with pesticides, polluted air are the potential sources of residues in animal products. Fifty broiler meat samples were collected from different retail outlets of Bengaluru city, Karnataka state, in ice cold conditions and later stored under -20°C until analysis. All the samples were subjected to Gas Chromatograph attached to Electron Capture Detector(GC-ECD, VARIAN make) screening and quantification of OC pesticides viz; Alachlor, Aldrin, Alpha-BHC, Beta-BHC, Dieldrin, Delta-BHC, o,p-DDE, p,p-DDE, o,p-DDD, p,p-DDD, o,p-DDT, p,p-DDT, Endosulfan-I, Endosulfan-II, Endosulfan Sulphate and Lindane(all the standards were procured from Merck). Extraction was undertaken by blending fifty grams (g) of meat sample with 50g Sodium Sulphate anahydrous, 120 ml of n-hexane, 120 ml acetone for 15 mins, extract is washed with distilled water and sample moisture is dried by sodium sulphate anahydrous, partitioning is done with 25 ml petroleum ether, 10 ml acetonitrile and 15 ml n-hexane shake vigorously for two minutes, sample clean up was done with florosil column. The reconstituted samples (using n-hexane) (Merck chem) were injected to Gas Chromatograph–Electron Capture Detector(GC-ECD). The present study reveals that, among the fifty chicken samples subjected for analysis, 60% (15/50), 32% (8/50), 28% (7/50), 20% (5/50) and 16% (4/50) of samples contaminated with DDTs, Delta-BHC, Dieldrin, Aldrin and Alachlor respectively. DDT metabolites, Delta-BHC were the most frequently detected OC pesticides. The detected levels of the pesticides were below the levels of MRL(according to Export Council of India notification for fresh poultry meat).
59
26796
Comprehensive Study of X-Ray Emission by APF Plasma Focus Device
Authors:
Abstract:
The time-resolved studies of soft and hard X-ray were carried out over a wide range of argon pressures by employing an array of eight filtered photo PIN diodes and a scintillation detector, simultaneously. In 50% of the discharges, the soft X-ray is seen to be emitted in short multiple pulses corresponding to different compression, whereas it is a single pulse for hard X-rays corresponding to only the first strong compression. It should be stated that multiple compressions dominantly occur at low pressures and high pressures are mostly in the single compression regime. In 43% of the discharges, at all pressures except for optimum pressure, the first period is characterized by two or more sharp peaks.The X–ray signal intensity during the second and subsequent compressions is much smaller than the first compression.
58
109101
Nondecoupling Signatures of Supersymmetry and an Lμ-Lτ Gauge Boson at Belle-II
Abstract:
Supersymmetry, one of the most celebrated fields of study for explaining experimental observations where the standard model (SM) falls short, is reeling from the lack of experimental vindication. At the same time, the idea of additional gauge symmetry, in particular, the gauged Lμ-Lτ symmetric models have also generated significant interest. They have been extensively proposed in order to explain the tantalizing discrepancy in the predicted and measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment alongside several other issues plaguing the SM. While very little parameter space within these models remain unconstrained, this work finds that the γ + Missing Energy (ME) signal at the Belle-II detector will be a smoking gun for supersymmetry (SUSY) in the presence of a gauged U(1)Lμ-Lτ symmetry. A remarkable consequence of breaking the enhanced symmetry appearing in the limit of degenerate (s)leptons is the nondecoupling of the radiative contribution of heavy charged sleptons to the γ-Z΄ kinetic mixing. The signal process, e⁺e⁻ →γZ΄→γ+ME, is an outcome of this ubiquitous feature. Taking the severe constraints on gauged Lμ-Lτ models by several low energy observables into account, it is shown that any significant excess in all but the highest photon energy bin would be an undeniable signature of such heavy scalar fields in SUSY coupling to the additional gauge boson Z΄. The number of signal events depends crucially on the logarithm of the ratio of stau to smuon mass in the presence of SUSY. In addition, the number is also inversely proportional to the e⁺e⁻ collision energy, making a low-energy, high-luminosity collider like Belle-II an ideal testing ground for this channel. This process can probe large swathes of the hitherto free slepton mass ratio vs. additional gauge coupling (gₓ) parameter space. More importantly, it can explore the narrow slice of Z΄ mass (MZ΄) vs. gₓ parameter space still allowed in gauged U(1)Lμ-Lτ models for superheavy sparticles. The spectacular finding that the signal significance is independent of individual slepton masses is an exciting prospect indeed. Further, the prospect that signatures of even superheavy SUSY particles that may have escaped detection at the LHC may show up at the Belle-II detector is an invigorating revelation.
57
33016
Estimation of Gaseous Pollutants at Kalyanpur, Dhaka City
Abstract:
Ambient (outdoor) air pollution is now recognized as an important problem, both nationally and worldwide. The concentrations of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO and O3) have been determined from samples collected at Kallyanpur along Shamoli corridor in Dhaka city. Pollutants were determined in a sample collected at ground level and a roof of a 7-storied building. These pollutants are emitted largely from stationary sources like fossil fuel fired power plants, industrial plants, and manufacturing facilities as well as mobile sources. The incomplete combustion of fuel, wood and the Sulphur containing fuel used in the vehicles are one of the main causes of CO and SOx respectively in our natural environment. When the temperature of combustion in high enough and some of that nitrogen reacts with oxygen in the air, various nitrogen oxides (NOx) are then formed. The VOCs react with NOx in the presence of sunlight to form O3. UV Visible spectrophotometric method has been used for the determination of SOx, NOx and O3. The sensor type device was used for the estimation of CO. It was found that the air pollutants (CO, SOx, NOx and O3) of a sample collected at the roof of a building were lower compared to the ground level; it indicated that ground level people are mostly affected by the gaseous pollutants.
56
2684
Principles of Municipal Sewage Sludge Bioconversion into Biomineral Fertilizer
Abstract:
The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge in bioleaching with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared. The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varied from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and followed the order: Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process at heterotrophic metabolism was shown. A new process for bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle temperature after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which provide sludge flocks sedimentation and concentration. The process results in biomineral fertilizer with immobilized sludge bioelements with prolonged action. The fertilizer obtained satisfied the EU limits for the sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the biomineral fertilizers obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation experiments.
55
2643
Catalytic Activity Study of Fe, Ti Loaded TUD-1
Abstract:
TUD-1 is a siliceous mesoporous material with a three-dimensional amorphous structure of random, interconnecting pores, large pore size, high surface area (400-1000 m2/g), hydrothermal stability, and tunable porosity. However, the significant disadvantage of the mesoporous silicates is few catalytic active sites. In this work, a series of bimetallic Fe and Ti incorporated into TUD-1 framework is successfully synthesized by sol–gel method. The synthesized Fe,Ti-TUD-1 is characterized by various techniques. To study the catalytic activity of Fe, Ti–TUD-1, phenol hydroxylation was selected as a model reaction. The amounts of residual phenol and oxidation products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-detector (HPLC-UV).
54
58254
Improvements and Implementation Solutions to Reduce the Computational Load for Traffic Situational Awareness with Alerts (TSAA)
Abstract:
This paper discusses the implementation solutions to reduce the computational load for the Traffic Situational Awareness with Alerts (TSAA) application, based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology. In 2008, there were 23 total mid-air collisions involving general aviation fixed-wing aircraft, 6 of which were fatal leading to 21 fatalities. These collisions occurred during visual meteorological conditions, indicating the limitations of the see-and-avoid concept for mid-air collision avoidance as defined in the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA). The commercial aviation aircraft are already equipped with collision avoidance system called TCAS, which is based on classic transponder technology. This system dramatically reduced the number of mid-air collisions involving air transport aircraft. In general aviation, the same reduction in mid-air collisions has not occurred, so this reduction is the main objective of the TSAA application. The major difference between the original conflict detection application and the TSAA application is that the conflict detection is focused on preventing loss of separation in en-route environments. Instead TSAA is devoted to reducing the probability of mid-air collision in all phases of flight. The TSAA application increases the flight crew traffic situation awareness providing alerts of traffic that are detected in conflict with ownship in support of the see-and-avoid responsibility. The relevant effort has been spent in the design process and the code generation in order to maximize the efficiency and performances in terms of computational load and memory consumption reduction. The TSAA architecture is divided into two high-level systems: the “Threats database” and the “Conflict detector”. The first one receives the traffic data from ADS-B device and provides the memorization of the target’s data history. Conflict detector module estimates ownship and targets trajectories in order to perform the detection of possible future loss of separation between ownship and each target. Finally, the alerts are verified by additional conflict verification logic, in order to prevent possible undesirable behaviors of the alert flag. In order to reduce the computational load, a pre-check evaluation module is used. This pre-check is only a computational optimization, so the performances of the conflict detector system are not modified in terms of number of alerts detected. The pre-check module uses analytical trajectories propagation for both target and ownship. This allows major accuracy and avoids the step-by-step propagation, which requests major computational load. Furthermore, the pre-check permits to exclude the target that is certainly not a threat, using an analytical and efficient geometrical approach, in order to decrease the computational load for the following modules. This software improvement is not suggested by FAA documents, and so it is the main innovation of this work. The efficiency and efficacy of this enhancement are verified using fast-time and real-time simulations and by the execution on a real device in several FAA scenarios. The final implementation also permits the FAA software certification in compliance with DO-178B standard. The computational load reduction allows the installation of TSAA application also on devices with multiple applications and/or low capacity in terms of available memory and computational capabilities
53
16379
Some Changes in Biochemical Parameters of Body and Hepato-Biliary System under the Influence of Hydrazine Derivatives
Abstract:
This research is devoted to the problems of rocket fuel and impact of its derivatives on environment and living things. Hydrazine derivatives are used in different spheres, in aero-space activity, medical practice, laboratory-diagnosis practice and etc. For Kazakhstan, which has the cosmodrome "Baikonur", the problem of environmental pollution by rocket fuel and its components is important issue. An unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine is mostly used as rocket fuel for launch vehicles which has high toxicity to humans and animals referred to the World Health Organization. The question about influence of hydrazine derivatives on human organism and ways of detoxication is very actual and requires special approaches in solving these problems. In connection with this situation, we set the goal: study the negative influence of hydrazine derivatives-hydrazine sulphur, nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), phenylhydrazine, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH) on some biochemical parameters of blood, hepatobiliary system and correction of functional damages of organism with “Salsocollin” drugs.
52
7411
View Synthesis of Kinetic Depth Imagery for 3D Security X-Ray Imaging
Abstract:
We demonstrate the synthesis of intermediary views within a sequence of X-ray images that exhibit depth from motion or kinetic depth effect in a visual display. Each synthetic image replaces the requirement for a linear X-ray detector array during the image acquisition process. Scale invariant feature transform, SIFT, in combination with epipolar morphing is employed to produce synthetic imagery. Comparison between synthetic and ground truth images is reported to quantify the performance of the approach. Our work is a key aspect in the development of a 3D imaging modality for the screening of luggage at airport checkpoints. This programme of research is in collaboration with the UK Home Office and the US Dept. of Homeland Security.
51
42311
Effect of Stress Relief of the Footbath Using Bio-Marker in Japan
Abstract:
Purpose: There are very often footbaths in the hot-spring area as culture from old days in Japan. This culture moderately supported mental and physical health among people. In Japanese hospitals, nurses provide footbath for severe patients to mental comfortable. However, there are only a few evidences effect of footbath for mental comfortable. In this presentation, we show the effect of stress relief of the footbath using biomarker among 35 college students in volunteer. Methods: The experiment was designed in two groups of the footbath group and the simple relaxation group randomly. As mental load, Kraepelin test was given to the students beforehand. Ultra-weak chemiluminescence (UCL) in saliva and self-administered liner scale measurable emotional state were measured on four times concurrently; there is before and after the mental load, after the stress relief, and 30 minutes after the stress relief. The scale that measured emotional state was consisted of 7 factors; there is excitement, relaxation, vigorous, fatigue, tension, calm, and sleepiness with 22 items. ANOVA was calculated effect of the footbath for stress relief. Results: The level of UCL (photons/100sec) was significantly increased in response on both groups after mental load. After the two types of stress relief, UCL (photons/100sec) of footbath group was significantly decreased compared to simple relaxation group. Score of sleepiness and relaxation were significantly increased after the stress relief in the footbath group than the simple relaxation group. However, score of excitement, vigorous, tension, and calm were exhibit the same degree of decrease after the stress relief on both group. Conclusion: It was suggested that salivary UCL may be a sensitive biomarker for mild stress relief as nursing care. In the future, we will measure using UCL to evaluate as stress relief for inpatients, outpatients, or general public as the subjects.
50
7423
Influence of Particulate Fractions on Air Quality for Four Major Congested Cities of India over a Period of Four Years from 2006-2009
Abstract:
India is the second most populated nation in the world. With the Indian population hitting the 1.26 billion mark in the year 2014, there has been an unprecedented rise in power and energy requirements throughout the nation. This mammoth demand for energy, both at the industrial as well as at the domestic household level, as well as the increase in the usage of automobiles has led to a corresponding increase in the total tonnage of fuels being burnt every year. This, in turn, has led to an increase in the concentration of atmospheric pollutants over the years with enhanced particulate concentrations being reported for different parts of the country. Considering the adverseness of the particulates, the paper analyses the role of the particulates on the air quality of four major congested cities of the country namely, Kolkata (22034’ N, 88024’ E), Delhi (28038’N , 77012’ E), Bangalore (12058’ N , 77038’E) and Mumbai (18.9750° N, 72.8258° E) over a period of four years from 2006-2009. The fractional contribution of the finer fractions to the coarser one has been considered in the study in addition to the relative occurrences of the particulate fractions with respect to the other gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX).
49
49928
A Video Surveillance System Using an Ensemble of Simple Neural Network Classifiers
Abstract:
This paper proposes a maritime vessel tracker composed of an ensemble of WiSARD weightless neural network classifiers. A failure detector analyzes vessel movement with a Kalman filter and corrects the tracking, if necessary, using FFT matching. The use of the WiSARD neural network to track objects is uncommon. The additional contributions of the present study include a performance comparison with four state-of-art trackers, an experimental study of the features that improve maritime vessel tracking, the first use of an ensemble of classifiers to track maritime vessels and a new quantization algorithm that compares the values of pixel pairs.
48
87423
Application of Host Factors as Biomarker in Early Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Abstract:
Introduction: On the basis of available literature we know that various host factors play a role in outcome of Tuberculosis (TB) infection by modulating innate immunity. One such factor is Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (iNOS) which help in the production of Nitric Oxide (NO), an antimicrobial agent. Expression of iNOS is in control of various host factors in which Vitamin D along with its nuclear receptor Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is one of them. Vitamin D along with its receptor also produces cathelicidin (antimicrobicidal agent). With this background, we attempted to investigate the levels of Vitamin D and NO along with their associated molecules in tuberculosis patients and household contacts as compared to healthy controls and assess the implication of these findings in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). Study subjects and methods: 100 active TB patients, 75 household contacts, and 70 healthy controls were taken. VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were studied using real-time PCR. Serum VDR, cathelicidin, iNOS levels were measured using ELISA. Serum Vitamin D levels were measured in serum samples using chemiluminescence based immunoassay. NO was measured using colorimetry based kit. Results: VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were found to be lower in active TB group compared to household contacts and healthy controls (P=0.0001 and 0.005 respectively). The serum levels of Vitamin D were also found to be lower in active TB group as compared to healthy controls (P =0.001). Levels of cathelicidin and NO was higher in patient group as compared to other groups (p=0.01 and 0.5 respectively). However, the expression of VDR and iNOS and levels of vitamin D was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in household contacts compared to both active TB and healthy control groups. Inference: Higher levels of Vitamin D along with VDR and iNOS expression in household contacts as compared to patients suggest that vitamin D might have a protective role against TB which prevents activation of the disease. From our data, we can conclude that decreased vitamin D levels could be implicated in disease progression and we can use cathelicidin and NO as a biomarker for early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
47
45550
Revalidation and Hormonization of Existing IFCC Standardized Hepatic, Cardiac, and Thyroid Function Tests by Precison Optimization and External Quality Assurance Programs
Abstract:
Revalidating and harmonizing clinical chemistry analytical principles and optimizing methods through quality control programs and assessments is the preeminent means to attain optimal outcome within the clinical laboratory services. Present study reports revalidation of our existing IFCC regularized analytical methods, particularly hepatic and thyroid function tests, by optimization of precision analyses and processing through external and internal quality assessments and regression determination. Parametric components of hepatic (Bilirubin ALT, γGT, ALP), cardiac (LDH, AST, Trop I) and thyroid/pituitary (T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4) function tests were used to validate analytical techniques on automated chemistry and immunological analyzers namely Hitachi 912, Cobas 6000 e601, Cobas c501, Cobas e411 with UV kinetic, colorimetric dry chemistry principles and Electro-Chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLi) techniques. Process of validation and revalidation was completed with evaluating and assessing the precision analyzed Preci-control data of various instruments plotting against each other with regression analyses R2. Results showed that: Revalidation and optimization of respective parameters that were accredited through CAP, CLSI and NEQAPP assessments depicted 99.0% to 99.8% optimization, in addition to the methodology and instruments used for analyses. Regression R2 analysis of BilT was 0.996, whereas that of ALT, ALP, γGT, LDH, AST, Trop I, T3, T4, TSH, FT3, and FT4 exhibited R2 0.998, 0.997, 0.993, 0.967, 0.970, 0.980, 0.976, 0.996, 0.997, 0.997, and R2 0.990, respectively. This confirmed marked harmonization of analytical methods and instrumentations thus revalidating optimized precision standardization as per IFCC recommended guidelines. It is concluded that practices of revalidating and harmonizing the existing or any new services should be followed by all clinical laboratories, especially those associated with tertiary care hospital. This is will ensure deliverance of standardized, proficiency tested, optimized services for prompt and better patient care that will guarantee maximum patients’ confidence.
46
75628
Nondestructive Inspection of Reagents under High Attenuated Cardboard Box Using Injection-Seeded THz-Wave Parametric Generator
Abstract:
In recent years, there have been numerous attempts to smuggle narcotic drugs and chemicals by concealing them in international mail. Combatting this requires a non-destructive technique that can identify such illicit substances in mail. Terahertz (THz) waves can pass through a wide variety of materials, and many chemicals show specific frequency-dependent absorption, known as a spectral fingerprint, in the THz range. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate non-destructive mail inspection techniques that use THz waves. For this reason, in this work, we tried to identify reagents under high attenuation shielding materials using injection-seeded THz-wave parametric generator (is-TPG). Our THz spectroscopic imaging system using is-TPG consisted of two non-linear crystals for emission and detection of THz waves. A micro-chip Nd:YAG laser and a continuous wave tunable external cavity diode laser were used as the pump and seed source, respectively. The pump beam and seed beam were injected to the LiNbO₃ crystal satisfying the noncollinear phase matching condition in order to generate high power THz-wave. The emitted THz wave was irradiated to the sample which was raster scanned by the x-z stage while changing the frequencies, and we obtained multispectral images. Then the transmitted THz wave was focused onto another crystal for detection and up-converted to the near infrared detection beam based on nonlinear optical parametric effects, wherein the detection beam intensity was measured using an infrared pyroelectric detector. It was difficult to identify reagents in a cardboard box because of high noise levels. In this work, we introduce improvements for noise reduction and image clarification, and the intensity of the near infrared detection beam was converted correctly to the intensity of the THz wave. A Gaussian spatial filter is also introduced for a clearer THz image. Through these improvements, we succeeded in identification of reagents hidden in a 42-mm thick cardboard box filled with several obstacles, which attenuate 56 dB at 1.3 THz, by improving analysis methods. Using this system, THz spectroscopic imaging was possible for saccharides and may also be applied to cases where illicit drugs are hidden in the box, and multiple reagents are mixed together. Moreover, THz spectroscopic imaging can be achieved through even thicker obstacles by introducing an NIR detector with higher sensitivity.
45
71264
Nutritional Value of Rabbit Meat after Contamination with 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
Abstract:
In this article reduced nutritional value of the rabbits&rsquo; meat at 1, 1 dimethylhydrazine experimental toxicosis is shown. The assay was performed on liquid chromatograph SHIMADZU LC-20 Prominence (Japan) with fluorometric and spectrophotometric detector. This research has revealed that samples of rabbit meat of the experimental group had significant differences from the control group:in amino acids concentration from 1.2% to 9.1%; vitamin concentration from 11.2% to 60.5%, macro &ndash; minerals concentration from 17.4% to 78.1% and saturated fatty acids concentration from 17,1% to 34.5%, respectively. The decrease in the chemical composition of rabbits&rsquo; meat at 1,1 dimethylhydrazine toxicosis may be due to changes in the internal processes associated with impaired metabolic homeostasis of animals.
44
26844
Study on Total Chlorine in Crude Palm Oil from Various Palm Oil Mill Operation Units
Abstract:
A palm oil mill produces crude palm oil (CPO) and has many operation units that comprises of sterilization, stripping, digestion and pressing, clarification, purification, drying and storage. This study investigated the total chlorine in palm fruit and CPO after each operating units. The total chlorine were determined by Mitsubishi NSX-2100 H, Trace Elemental Analyzer. The trace elemental analyzer is a furnace system with a micro-coulometric detector that was used for measuring and detecting total chlorine whether in organic or inorganic form. This determination is important as the chlorine is a direct precursor for 3-MCPD ester.
43
5922
OFDM Radar for Detecting a Rayleigh Fluctuating Target in Gaussian Noise
Abstract:
We develop methods for detecting a target for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based radars. As a preliminary step we introduce the target and Gaussian noise models in discrete–time form. Then, resorting to match filter (MF) we derive a detector for two different scenarios: a non-fluctuating target and a Rayleigh fluctuating target. It will be shown that a MF is not suitable for Rayleigh fluctuating targets. In this paper we propose a reduced-complexity method based on fast Fourier transfrom (FFT) for such a situation. The proposed method has better detection performance.
42
100941
Predicting Polyethylene Processing Properties Based on Reaction Conditions via a Coupled Kinetic, Stochastic and Rheological Modelling Approach
Abstract:
Being able to predict polymer properties and processing behavior based on the applied operating reaction conditions in one of the key challenges in modern polymer reaction engineering. Especially, for cost-intensive processes such as the high-pressure polymerization of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with high safety-requirements, the need for simulation-based process optimization and product design is high. A multi-scale modelling approach was set-up and validated via a series of high-pressure mini-plant autoclave reactor experiments. The approach starts with the numerical modelling of the complex reaction network of the LDPE polymerization taking into consideration the actual reaction conditions. While this gives average product properties, the complex polymeric microstructure including random short- and long-chain branching is calculated via a hybrid Monte Carlo-approach. Finally, the processing behavior of LDPE -its melt flow behavior- is determined in dependence of the previously determined polymeric microstructure using the branch on branch algorithm for randomly branched polymer systems. All three steps of the multi-scale modelling approach can be independently validated against analytical data. A triple-detector GPC containing an IR, viscosimetry and multi-angle light scattering detector is applied. It serves to determine molecular weight distributions as well as chain-length dependent short- and long-chain branching frequencies. 13C-NMR measurements give average branching frequencies, and rheological measurements in shear and extension serve to characterize the polymeric flow behavior. The accordance of experimental and modelled results was found to be extraordinary, especially taking into consideration that the applied multi-scale modelling approach does not contain parameter fitting of the data. This validates the suggested approach and proves its universality at the same time. In the next step, the modelling approach can be applied to other reactor types, such as tubular reactors or industrial scale. Moreover, sensitivity analysis for systematically varying process conditions is easily feasible. The developed multi-scale modelling approach finally gives the opportunity to predict and design LDPE processing behavior simply based on process conditions such as feed streams and inlet temperatures and pressures.
41
69771
Control of Pipeline Gas Quality to Extend Gas Turbine Life
Abstract:
Natural gas due to its cleaner combustion characteristics is expected to be the most widely used fuel in the move towards less polluting and renewable energy sources. Thus, the developed world is supplied by a complex network of gas pipelines and natural gas is becoming a major source of fuel. Natural gas delivered directly from the well will differ in composition from gas derived from LNG or produced by anaerobic digestion processes. Each will also have specific contaminants and properties although gas from all sources is likely to enter the distribution system and be blended to provide the desired characteristics such as Higher Heating Value and Wobbe No. The absence of a standard gas composition poses problems when the gas is used as a chemical feedstock, in specialised furnaces or on gas turbines. The chemical industry has suffered in the past as a result of variable gas composition. Transition metal catalysts used in ammonia, methanol and hydrogen plants were easily poisoned by sulphur, chlorides and mercury reducing both activity and catalyst expected lives from years to months. These plants now concentrate on purification and conditioning of the natural gas feed using fixed bed technologies, allowing them to run for several years and having transformed their operations. Similar technologies can be applied to the power industry reducing maintenance requirements and extending the operating life of gas turbines.
40
108437
Comparative Forensic Analysis of Lipsticks Using Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography
Abstract:
Lipsticks constitute a significant source of transfer evidence, and can, therefore, provide corroborative or inclusionary evidence in criminal investigation. This study aimed to determine the uniqueness and persistence of different lipstick smears using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), and Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionisation Detector (GC-FID). In this study, we analysed lipstick smears retrieved from tea cups exposed to the environment for up to four weeks. The n-alkane content of each sample was determined using GC-FID, while TLC was used to determine the number of bands, and retention factor of each band per smear. This study shows that TLC gives more consistent results over a 4-week period than GC-FID. It also proposes a maximum exposure time of two weeks for the analysis of lipsticks left in the open using GC-FID. Finally, we conclude that neither TLC nor GC-FID can distinguish lipstick evidence recovered from hypothetical crime scenes.
39
99242
Flexible Programmable Circuit Board Electromagnetic 1-D Scanning Micro-Mirror Laser Rangefinder by Active Triangulation
Abstract:
Scanners have been implemented within single point laser rangefinders, to determine the ranges within an environment by sweeping the laser spot across the surface of interest. The research motivation is to exploit a smaller and cheaper alternative scanning component for the emitting portion within current designs of laser rangefinders. This research implements an FPCB (Flexible Programmable Circuit Board) Electromagnetic 1-Dimensional scanning micro-mirror as a scanning component for laser rangefinding by means of triangulation. The prototype uses a laser module, micro-mirror, and receiver. The laser module is infrared (850 nm) with a power output of 4.5 mW. The receiver consists of a 50 mm convex lens and a 45mm 1-dimensional PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) placed at the focal length of the lens at 50 mm. The scanning component is an elliptical Micro-Mirror attached onto an FPCB Structure. The FPCB structure has two miniature magnets placed symmetrically underneath it on either side, which are then electromagnetically actuated by small solenoids, causing the FPCB to mechanically rotate about its torsion beams. The laser module projects a laser spot onto the micro-mirror surface, hence producing a scanning motion of the laser spot during the rotational actuation of the FPCB. The receiver is placed at a fixed distance from the micro-mirror scanner and is oriented to capture the scanning motion of the laser spot during operation. The elliptical aperture dimensions of the micro-mirror are 8mm by 5.5 mm. The micro-mirror is supported by an FPCB with two torsion beams with dimensions of 4mm by 0.5mm. The overall length of the FPCB is 23 mm. The voltage supplied to the solenoids is sinusoidal with an amplitude of 3.5 volts and 4.5 volts to achieve optical scanning angles of +/- 10 and +/- 17 degrees respectively. The operating scanning frequency during experiments was 5 Hz. For an optical angle of +/- 10 degrees, the prototype is capable of detecting objects within the ranges from 0.3-1.2 meters with an error of less than 15%. As for an optical angle of +/- 17 degrees the measuring range was from 0.3-0.7 meters with an error of 16% or less. Discrepancy between the experimental and actual data is possibly caused by misalignment of the components during experiments. Furthermore, the power of the laser spot collected by the receiver gradually decreased as the object was placed further from the sensor. A higher powered laser will be tested to potentially measure further distances more accurately. Moreover, a wide-angled lens will be used in future experiments when higher scanning angles are used. Modulation within the current and future higher powered lasers will be implemented to enable the operation of the laser rangefinder prototype without the use of safety goggles.
38
8926
OFDM Radar for High Accuracy Target Tracking
Abstract:
For a number of years, the problem of simultaneous detection and tracking of a target has been one of the most relevant and challenging issues in a wide variety of military and civilian systems. We develop methods for detecting and tracking a target using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based radar. As a preliminary step we introduce the target trajectory and Gaussian noise model in discrete time form. Then resorting to match filter and Kalman filter we derive a detector and target tracker. After that we propose an OFDM radar in order to achieve further improvement in tracking performance. The motivation for employing multiple frequencies is that the different scattering centers of a target resonate differently at each frequency. Numerical examples illustrate our analytical results, demonstrating the achieved performance improvement due to the OFDM signaling method.
37
3518
Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.
36
27873
Experimental Chevreul’s Salt Production Methods on Copper Recovery
Abstract:
The experimental production methods Chevreul’s salt being a intermediate stage product for copper recovery were investigated by dealing with the articles written on this topic. Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H2O, being a mixed valence copper sulphite compound has been obtained by using different methods and reagents. Chevreul’s salt has a intense brick-red color. It is a highly stable and expensive salt. The production of Chevreul’s salt plays a key role in hiydrometallurgy. In recent years, researchs on this compound have been intensified. Silva et al. reported that this salt is thermally stable up to 200oC. Çolak et al. precipitated the Chevreul’s salt by using ammonia and sulphur dioxide. Çalban et al. obtained at the optimum conditions by passing SO2 from leach solutions with NH3-(NH4)2SO4. Yeşiryurt and Çalban investigated the optimum precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt from synthetic CuSO4 solutions including Na2SO3. Çalban et al. achieved the precipitation of Chevreul’s salt at the optimum conditions by passing SO2 from synthetic CuSO4 solutions. Çalban et al. examined the precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt using (NH4)2SO3 from synthetic aqueous CuSO4 solutions. In light of these studies, it can be said that Chevreul’s salt can be produced practically from both a leach solutions including copper and synthetic CuSO4 solutions.
35
48379
Kerr Electric-Optic Measurement of Electric Field and Space Charge Distribution in High Voltage Pulsed Transformer Oil
Abstract:
Transformer oil is widely used in power systems because of its excellent insulation properties. The accurate measurement of electric field and space charge distribution in transformer oil under high voltage impulse has important theoretical and practical significance, but still remains challenging to date because of its low Kerr constant. In this study, the continuous electric field and space charge distribution over time between parallel-plate electrodes in high-voltage pulsed transformer oil based on the Kerr effect is directly measured using a linear array photoelectrical detector. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of this method. This study provides a feasible approach to further study the space charge effects and breakdown mechanisms in transformer oil.
34
79355
Measurement of Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section of ₆₀Nd K X-Rays Elements with 26 ≤ Z≤ 90
Abstract:
Rayleigh scattering differential cross sections have been measured for the 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays. These measurements have been done in 44 elements with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 90 at an angle of 1390. The measurements are performed by using a radiation source consisting of an annular 60Nd foil excited by the 59.54 KeV γ-ray photons from 241Am radioactive source. The Nd Kα2, Kβ1,3 X-ray photons from the 60Nd annular foil (secondary photon source) are made to scatter from the target and the scattered photons are detected using Canberra made low energy Germanium (LEGe) detector. The measured Rayleigh scattering cross sections are compared with the theoretical MF, MFASF and the SM values. The noticeable deviations are observed from the MF, MFASF and SM values for 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays.
33
73773
MONDO Neutron Tracker Characterisation by Means of Proton Therapeutical Beams and MonteCarlo Simulation Studies
Abstract:
The MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project aims a precise characterisation of the secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons produced in particle therapy treatments. The detector is composed of a matrix of scintillating fibres (250 um) readout by CMOS Digital-SPAD based sensors. Recoil protons from n-p elastic scattering are detected and used to track neutrons. A prototype was tested with proton beams (Trento Proton Therapy Centre): efficiency, light yield, and track-reconstruction capability were studied. The results of a MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation used to evaluated double scattering efficiency and expected backgrounds will be presented.
32
63561
Method Development and Validation for Quantification of Active Content and Impurities of Clodinafop Propargyl and Its Enantiomeric Separation by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Abstract:
A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method has been developed for complete analysis of Clodinafop Propargyl. Clodinafop Propargyl enantiomers were separated on chiral column, Chiral Pak AS-H (250 mm. 4.6mm x 5µm) with mobile phase n-hexane: IPA (96:4) at flow rate 1.5 ml/min. The effluent was monitored by UV detector at 230 nm. Clodinafop Propagyl content and impurity quantification was done with reverse phase HPLC. The present study describes a HPLC method using simple mobile phase for the quantification of Clodinafop Propargyl and its impurities. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, convenient and effective. Moreover, the lower solvent consumption along with short analytical run time led to a cost effective analytical method.
31
43005
Preparation and Characterization of Photocatalyst for the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol
Abstract:
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the environment is inevitable which is responsible for global warming. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuel, such as methanol, methane etc. is a promising way to reduce greenhouse gas CO2 emission. In the present work, Bi2S3/CdS was synthesized as an effective visible light responsive photocatalyst for CO2 reduction into methanol. The Bi2S3/CdS photocatalyst was prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument. The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst has been investigated for methanol production as a function of time. Gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was employed to analyze the product. The yield of methanol was found to increase with higher CdS concentration in Bi2S3/CdS and the maximum yield was obtained for 45 wt% of Bi2S3/CdS under visible light irradiation was 20 &mu;mole/g. The result establishes that Bi2S3/CdS is favorable catalyst to reduce CO2 to methanol.
30
35154
Poincare Plot for Heart Rate Variability
Abstract:
The heart is the most important part in any body organisms. It effects and affected by any factor in the body. Therefore, it is a good detector of any matter in the body. When the heart signal is non-stationary signal, therefore, it should be study its variability. So, the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has attracted considerable attention in psychology, medicine and have become important dependent measure in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Quantification and interpretation of heart rate variability. However, remain complex issues are fraught with pitfalls. This paper presents one of the non-linear techniques to analyze HRV. It discusses 'What Poincare plot is?', 'How it is work?', 'its usage benefits especially in HRV', 'the limitation of Poincare cause of standard deviation SD1, SD2', and 'How overcome this limitation by using complex correlation measure (CCM)'. The CCM is most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared to SD1 and SD2.
29
47873
Uranium and Thorium Measurements in the Water along Oum Er-Rabia River (Morocco)
Abstract:
In this work, different river water samples have been collected and analyzed from different locations along Oum Er-Rabia River in Morocco. The uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) concentrations were investigated in the studied river and dam water samples using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD). Mean activity concentrations of uranium and thorium in water were found to be between 12 – 37 Bq m^-3 and 2-10 Bq m^-3, respectively. The pH measured at all river water samples was slightly alkaline and ranged from 7.5 to 8.75. The electrical conductivity ranged from 2790 to 794 µS cm^-1. It was found that uranium and thorium concentrations were correlated with some chemical parameters in Oum Er-Rabia River water. The uranium concentrations found in river water are insignificant from the radiological point of view. The recommended value for uranium in drinking water based on its toxicity given by the Federal Environment Agency. This corresponds to an activity concentration of 238U of 123.5 mBq L^-1. In none of the samples, the uranium activity exceeds this value.
28
44818
Characterization of Emissions from the open burning of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) under Tropical Environment
Abstract:
The deliberate fires initiated by dump managers and human scavengers to reduce the volume of waste and recovery of valuable metals/materials are common at municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal sites in developed country. A large amount of toxic gases released due to this act is responsible for the deterioration of regional and local air quality, which causes visibility impairment and acute respiratory diseases. The present study was aimed at the characterization of MSW and emission characteristics of burning of MSW in the laboratory. MSW samples were collected directly from the one of the open dumpsite located in Chennai city. Solid waste sampling and laboratory analysis were carried out according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Results indicated the values of moisture content, volatile solids (VS) and calorific values of solid waste samples were 16.67%,8%,9.17MJ/kg, respectively. The elemental composition showed that the municipal solid waste contains 25.84% of carbon, 3.69% of hydrogen, 1.57% of nitrogen and 0.26% of sulphur. The calorific value of MSW was found to be 9.17 MJ/Kg which is sufficient to facilitate self-combustion of waste. The characterization of emissions from the burning of 1 kg of MSW in the test chamber showed a total of 90 mg/kg of PM10 and 243 mg/kg of PM2.5. The current research study results will be useful for municipal authorities to formulate guideline and policy structure regarding the MSW management to reduce the impact of air emissions at an open dump site.
27
4095
MMSE-Based Beamforming for Chip Interleaved CDMA in Aeronautical Mobile Radio Channel
Abstract:
This paper addresses the performance of antenna array beam-forming on Chip-Interleaved Code Division Multiple Access (CI_CDMA) system based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detector in aeronautical mobile radio channel. Multipath fading, Doppler shifts caused by the speed of the aircraft, and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) are the most important reasons that affect and reduce the performance of aeronautical system. In this paper, we suggested the CI-CDMA with antenna array to combat this fading and improve the bit error rate (BER) performance. We further evaluate the performance of the proposed system in the four standard scenarios in aeronautical mobile radio channel.
26
30070
Radar Signal Detection Using Neural Networks in Log-Normal Clutter for Multiple Targets Situations
Abstract:
Automatic radar detection requires some methods of adapting to variations in the background clutter in order to control their false alarm rate. The problem becomes more complicated in non-Gaussian environment. In fact, the conventional approach in real time applications requires a complex statistical modeling and much computational operations. To overcome these constraints, we propose another approach based on artificial neural network (ANN-CMLD-CFAR) using a Back Propagation (BP) training algorithm. The considered environment follows a log-normal distribution in the presence of multiple Rayleigh-targets. To evaluate the performances of the considered detector, several situations, such as scale parameter and the number of interferes targets, have been investigated. The simulation results show that the ANN-CMLD-CFAR processor outperforms the conventional statistical one.
25
84548
Automatic Vehicle Detection Using Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar Image
Abstract:
Automatic vehicle detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image has been widely researched, as well as using optical remote sensing images. However, most researches treat the detection as an independent problem, failing to make full use of SAR data information. In circular SAR (CSAR), the two long borders of vehicle will shrink if the imaging surface is set higher than the reference one. Based on above variance, an automatic vehicle detection using CSAR image is proposed to enhance detection ability under complex environment, such as vehicles’ closely packing, which confuses the detector. The detection method uses the multiple images generated by different height plane to obtain an energy-concentrated image for detecting and then uses the maximally stable extremal regions method (MSER) to detect vehicles. A result of vehicles’ detection is given to verify the effectiveness and correctness of proposed method.
24
40621
Sustainable Development of HV Substation in Urban Areas Considering Environmental Aspects
Abstract:
Gas Insulated Switchgears by using an insulation material named SF6 (Sulphur Hexafluoride) and its significant dielectric properties have been the only choice in urban areas and other polluted industries. However, the initial investment of GIS is more than conventional AIS substation, its total life cycle costs caused to reach huge amounts of electrical market share. SF6 environmental impacts on global warming, atmosphere depletion, and decomposing to toxic gases in high temperature situation, and highest rate in Global Warming Potential (GWP) with 23900 times of CO2e and a 3200-year period lifetime was the only undeniable concern of GIS substation. Efforts of international environmental institute and their politic supports have been able to lead SF6 emission reduction legislation. This research targeted to find an appropriate alternative for GIS substations to meet all advantages in land occupation area and to improve SF6 environmental impacts due to its leakage and emission. An innovative new conceptual design named Multi-Storey prepared a new AIS design similar in land occupation, extremely low Sf6 emission, and maximum greenhouse gas emission reduction. Surprisingly, by considering economic benefits due to carbon price saving, it can earn more than $675 million during the 30-year life cycle by replacing of just 25% of total annual worldly additional GIS switchgears.
23
79103
An Efficient Fundamental Matrix Estimation for Moving Object Detection
Abstract:
In this paper, an improved method for estimating fundamental matrix is proposed. The method is applied effectively to monocular camera based moving object detection. The method consists of corner points detection, moving object&rsquo;s motion estimation and fundamental matrix calculation. The corner points are obtained by using Harris corner detector, motions of moving objects is calculated from pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm. Through epipolar geometry analysis using RANSAC, the fundamental matrix is calculated. In this method, we have improved the performances of moving object detection by using two threshold values that determine inlier or outlier. Through the simulations, we compare the performances with varying the two threshold values.
22
29765
Reconstruction of Signal in Plastic Scintillator of PET Using Tikhonov Regularization
Abstract:
The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The J-PET detector improves the TOF resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators. Since registration of the waveform of signals with duration times of few nanoseconds is not feasible, a novel front-end electronics allowing for sampling in a voltage domain at four thresholds was developed. To take fully advantage of these fast signals a novel scheme of recovery of the waveform of the signal, based on ideas from the Tikhonov regularization (TR) and Compressive Sensing methods, is presented. The prior distribution of sparse representation is evaluated based on the linear transformation of the training set of waveform of the signals by using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) decomposition. Beside the advantage of including the additional information from training signals, a further benefit of the TR approach is that the problem of signal recovery has an optimal solution which can be determined explicitly. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This step is crucial to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. It has been proven that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of samples at voltage levels. The method is tested using signals registered by means of the single detection module of the J-PET detector built out from the 30 cm long BC-420 plastic scintillator strip. It is demonstrated that the experimental and theoretical functions describing the recovery errors in the J-PET scenario are largely consistent. The specificity and limitations of the signal recovery method in this application are discussed. It is shown that the PCA basis offers high level of information compression and an accurate recovery with just eight samples, from four voltage levels, for each signal waveform. Moreover, it is demonstrated that using the recovered waveform of the signals, instead of samples at four voltage levels alone, improves the spatial resolution of the hit position reconstruction. The experiment shows that spatial resolution evaluated based on information from four voltage levels, without a recovery of the waveform of the signal, is equal to 1.05 cm. After the application of an information from four voltage levels to the recovery of the signal waveform, the spatial resolution is improved to 0.94 cm. Moreover, the obtained result is only slightly worse than the one evaluated using the original raw-signal. The spatial resolution calculated under these conditions is equal to 0.93 cm. It is very important information since, limiting the number of threshold levels in the electronic devices to four, leads to significant reduction of the overall cost of the scanner. The developed recovery scheme is general and may be incorporated in any other investigation where a prior knowledge about the signals of interest may be utilized.
21
94371
Waveguiding in an InAs Quantum Dots Nanomaterial for Scintillation Applications
Abstract:
InAs Quantum Dots (QDs) in a GaAs matrix is a well-documented luminescent material with high light yield, as well as thermal and ionizing radiation tolerance due to quantum confinement. These benefits can be leveraged for high-efficiency, room temperature scintillation detectors. The proposed scintillator is composed of InAs QDs acting as luminescence centers in a GaAs stopping medium, which also acts as a waveguide. This system has appealing potential properties, including high light yield (~240,000 photons/MeV) and fast capture of photoelectrons (2-5ps), orders of magnitude better than currently used inorganic scintillators, such as LYSO or BaF2. The high refractive index of the GaAs matrix (n=3.4) ensures light emitted by the QDs is waveguided, which can be collected by an integrated photodiode (PD). Scintillation structures were grown using Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and consist of thick GaAs waveguiding layers with embedded sheets of modulation p-type doped InAs QDs. An AlAs sacrificial layer is grown between the waveguide and the GaAs substrate for epitaxial lift-off to separate the scintillator film and transfer it to a low-index substrate for waveguiding measurements. One consideration when using a low-density material like GaAs (~5.32 g/cm³) as a stopping medium is the matrix thickness in the dimension of radiation collection. Therefore, luminescence properties of very thick (4-20 microns) waveguides with up to 100 QD layers were studied. The optimization of the medium included QD shape, density, doping, and AlGaAs barriers at the waveguide surfaces to prevent non-radiative recombination. To characterize the efficiency of QD luminescence, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) (77-450 K) was measured and fitted using a kinetic model. The PL intensity degrades by only 40% at RT, with an activation energy for electron escape from QDs to the barrier of ~60 meV. Attenuation within the waveguide (WG) is a limiting factor for the lateral size of a scintillation detector, so PL spectroscopy in the waveguiding configuration was studied. Spectra were measured while the laser (630 nm) excitation point was scanned away from the collecting fiber coupled to the edge of the WG. The QD ground state PL peak at 1.04 eV (1190 nm) was inhomogeneously broadened with FWHM of 28 meV (33 nm) and showed a distinct red-shift due to self-absorption in the QDs. Attenuation stabilized after traveling over 1 mm through the WG, at about 3 cm⁻¹. Finally, a scintillator sample was used to test detection and evaluate timing characteristics using 5.5 MeV alpha particles. With a 2D waveguide and a small area of integrated PD, the collected charge averaged 8.4 x10⁴ electrons, corresponding to a collection efficiency of about 7%. The scintillation response had 80 ps noise-limited time resolution and a QD decay time of 0.6 ns. The data confirms unique properties of this scintillation detector which can be potentially much faster than any currently used inorganic scintillator.
20
50922
Development of a Non-Dispersive Infrared Multi Gas Analyzer for a TMS
Abstract:
A Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) multi-gas analyzer has been developed to monitor the emission of carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from various industries. The NDIR technique for gas measurement is based on the wavelength absorption in the infrared spectrum as a way to detect particular gasses. NDIR analyzers have popularly applied in the Tele-Monitoring System (TMS). The advantage of the NDIR analyzer is low energy consumption and cost compared with other spectroscopy methods. However, zero/span drift and interference are its urgent issues to be solved. Multi-pathway technique based on optical White cell was employed to improve the sensitivity of the analyzer in this work. A pyroelectric detector was used to detect the Infrared radiation. The analytical range of the analyzer was 0 ~ 200 ppm. The instrument response time was < 2 min. The detection limits of CO and SO2 were < 4 ppm and < 6 ppm, respectively. The zero and span drift of 24 h was less than 3%. The linearity of the analyzer was less than 2.5% of reference values. The precision and accuracy of both CO and SO2 channels were < 2.5% of relative standard deviation. In general, the analyzer performed well. However, the detection limit and 24h drift should be improved to be a more competitive instrument.
19
72357
Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Pleiogynium timorense Seeds and Identification of Bioactive Compounds
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to evaluate antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleiogynium timorense (DC.) Leenh (Anacardiaceae) seeds as well as to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds. Antihyperglycaemic effect was evaluated by measuring the effect of two dose levels (150 and 300 mg/kg) of 70% methanol extract of Pleiogynium timorense seeds on blood glucose level when administered 45 minutes before glucose loading. In addition, the effect of the plant extract on the lipid profile was determined by measuring serum total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the bioactive compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.The results showed that the methanolic extract of the seeds significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose,(TL), (TC), (TG) and (LDL-C) but no significant effect on (HDL-C) comparing with control group. Furthermore, four phenolic compound were isolated which were identified as; catechin, gallic acid, para methoxy benzaldehyde and pyrogallol which were isolated for the first time from the plant. In addition sulphur -containing compound (sulpholane) was isolated for the first time from the plant and from the family. To our knowledge, this is the first study about antihyperglycaemicand antihyperlipidemic activities of the seeds of Pleiogyniumtimorense and its bioactive compounds. So, the methanolic extract of the seeds of Pleiogynium timorense could be a step towards the development of new antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic drugs.
18
2458
Production and Characterization of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films and their antimicrobial activity characterized is reported. The resultant Ag: HAp films coated on commercially pure Si disks substrates were systematically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detector (X-EDS), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). GDOES measurements show that a substantial Ag content has been deposited in the films. The X-EDS and GDOES spectra revealed the presence of a material composed mainly of phosphate, calcium, oxygen, hydrogen and silver. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag:HAp thin films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated. Ag:HAp thin films could lead to a decrease of infections especially in the case of bone and dental implants by surface modification of implantable medical devices.
17
100385
Cognitive Radio in Aeronautic: Comparison of Some Spectrum Sensing Technics
Abstract:
The aeronautical field is experiencing issues with RF spectrum congestion due to the constant increase in the number of flights, aircrafts and telecom systems on board. In addition, these systems are bulky in size, weight and energy consumption. The cognitive radio helps particularly solving the spectrum congestion issue by its capacity to detect idle frequency channels then, allowing an opportunistic exploitation of the RF spectrum. The present work aims to propose a new use case for aeronautical spectrum sharing and to study the performances of three different detection techniques: energy detector, matched filter and cyclostationary detector within the aeronautical use case. The spectrum in the proposed cognitive radio is allocated dynamically where each cognitive radio follows a cognitive cycle. The spectrum sensing is a crucial step. The goal of the sensing is gathering data about the surrounding environment. Cognitive radio can use different sensors: antennas, cameras, accelerometer, thermometer, etc. In IEEE 802.22 standard, for example, a primary user (PU) has always the priority to communicate. When a frequency channel witch used by the primary user is idle, the secondary user (SU) is allowed to transmit in this channel. The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is composed of a UHF transmitter/receiver (interrogator) in the aircraft and a UHF receiver/transmitter on the ground. While the future cognitive radio will be used jointly to alleviate the spectrum congestion issue in the aeronautical field. LDACS, for example, is a good candidate; it provides two isolated data-links: ground-to-air and air-to-ground data-links. The first contribution of the present work is a strategy allowing sharing the L-band. The adopted spectrum sharing strategy is as follow: the DME will play the role of PU which is the licensed user and the LDACS1 systems will be the SUs. The SUs could use the L-band channels opportunely as long as they do not causing harmful interference signals which affect the QoS of the DME system. Although the spectrum sensing is a key step, it helps detecting holes by determining whether the primary signal is present or not in a given frequency channel. A missing detection on primary user presence creates interference between PU and SU and will affect seriously the QoS of the legacy radio. In this study, first brief definitions, concepts and the state of the art of cognitive radio will be presented. Then, a study of three communication channel detection algorithms in a cognitive radio context is carried out. The study is made from the point of view of functions, material requirements and signal detection capability in the aeronautical field. Then, we presented a modeling of the detection problem by three different methods (energy, adapted filter, and cyclostationary) as well as an algorithmic description of these detectors is done. Then, we study and compare the performance of the algorithms. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB software. We analyzed the results based on ROCs curves for SNR between -10dB and 20dB. The three detectors have been tested with a synthetics and real world signals.
16
25928
Stability of Ochratoxin a During Bread Making Process
Abstract:
In this research, stability of Ochratoxin A (OTA) during bread making process including fermentation with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Sourdough (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C were examined. Bread was prepared on a pilot-plant scale by using wheat flour spiked with standard solution of OTA. During this process, mycotoxin levels were determined after fermentation of the dough with sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast after further baking 200°C by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. According to the results, the highest stability of was observed in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest stability was observed in the baking stage in comparison to contaminated flour. In addition, compressed yeast showed the maximum impact on stability of OTA during bread making process.
15
15007
BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio
Abstract:
Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it is a lot of generic as receivers does not like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.
14
7831
Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping Algorithm for the Recognition of Isolated Words Impacted by Transient Noise Pulses
Abstract:
We consider the biggest challenge in speech recognition – noise reduction. Traditionally detected transient noise pulses are removed with the corrupted speech using pulse models. In this paper we propose to cope with the problem directly in Dynamic Time Warping domain. Bidirectional Dynamic Time Warping algorithm for the recognition of isolated words impacted by transient noise pulses is proposed. It uses simple transient noise pulse detector, employs bidirectional computation of dynamic time warping and directly manipulates with warping results. Experimental investigation with several alternative solutions confirms effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the reduction of impact of noise on recognition process – 3.9% increase of the noisy speech recognition is achieved.
13
17133
Hidrothermal Alteration Study of Tangkuban Perahu Craters, and Its Implication to Geothermal Conceptual Model
Abstract:
Tangkuban Perahu is located in West Java, Indonesia. It is active stratovolcano type and still showing hidrothermal activity. The main purpose of this study is to find correlation between subsurface structure and hidrothermal activity on the surface. Using topographic map, SRTM images, and field observation, geological condition and alteration area was mapped. Alteration sample analyzed trough petrographic analysis and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Altered rock in study area showing white-yellowish white colour, and texture changing variation from softening to hardening because of alteration by sillica and sulphur. Alteration mineral which can be observed in petrographic analysis and XRD analysis consist of crystobalite, anatase, alunite, and pyrite. This mineral assemblage showing advanced argillic alteration type with West-East alteration area orientation. Alteration area have correlation with manifestation occurance such as steam vents, solfatara, and warm to hot pools. Most of manifestation occured in main crater like Ratu Crater and Upas crater, and parasitic crater like Domas Crater and Jarian Crater. This manifestation indicates permeability in subsurface which can be created trough structural process with same orientation. For further study geophysics method such as Magneto Telluric (MT) and resistivity can be required to find permeability zone pattern in Tangkuban Perahu subsurface.
12
48288
Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste
Abstract:
Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K-1.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3% &le;&nbsp;C &le; 95.1%, 0.0% &le;&nbsp;H &le;&nbsp;14.3%, 0.0% &le;&nbsp;O &le;&nbsp;71.1%, 0.0 &le;&nbsp;N &le;&nbsp;66.7%, 0.0% &le;&nbsp;S &le;&nbsp;42.1%, 0.0% &le;&nbsp;Cl &le;&nbsp;89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.
11
92073
Phenolic-Based Chemical Production from Catalytic Depolymerization of Alkaline Lignin over Fumed Silica Catalyst
Abstract:
Lignin depolymerization into phenolic-based chemicals is an interesting process for utilizing and upgrading a benefit and value of lignin. In this study, the depolymerization reaction was performed to convert alkaline lignin into smaller molecule compounds. Fumed SiO₂ was used as a catalyst to improve catalytic activity in lignin decomposition. The important parameters in depolymerization process (i.e., reaction temperature, reaction time, etc.) were also investigated. In addition, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame-ironized detector (GC-FID), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze and characterize the lignin products. It was found that fumed SiO₂ catalyst led the good catalytic activity in lignin depolymerization. The main products from catalytic depolymerization were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, and phenols. Additionally, metal supported on fumed SiO₂ such as Cu/SiO₂ and Ni/SiO₂ increased the catalyst activity in terms of phenolic products yield.
10
33453
Non-Invasive Imaging of Human Tissue Using NIR Light
Authors:
Abstract:
Use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function.
9
9221
Optical Heterodyning of Injection-Locked Laser Sources: A Novel Technique for Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation
Abstract:
A novel technique has been developed to generate ultra-stable millimeter-wave signal by optical heterodyning of the output from two slave laser (SL) sources injection-locked to the sidebands of a frequency modulated (FM) master laser (ML). Precise thermal tuning of the SL sources is required to lock the particular slave laser frequency to the desired FM sidebands of the ML. The output signals from the injection-locked SL when coherently heterodyned in a fast response photo detector like high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), extremely stable millimeter-wave signal having very narrow line width can be generated. The scheme may also be used to generate ultra-stable sub-millimeter-wave/terahertz signal.
8
17250
Metal (Loids) Speciation Using HPLC-ICP-MS Technique in Klodnica River, Upper Silesia, Poland
Abstract:
The work allowed gaining knowledge about redox and speciation changes of As, Cr, and Sb ionic forms in Klodnica River water. This kind of studies never has been conducted in this region of Poland. In study optimized and validated previously HPLC-ICP-MS methods for determination of As, Sb and Cr was used. Separation step was done using high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with ion-exchange column followed by ICP-MS spectrometer detector. Preliminary studies included determination of the total concentration of As, Sb and Cr, pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity of the water samples. The study was conducted monthly from March to August 2014, at six points on the Klodnica River. The results indicate that exceeded at acceptable concentration of total Cr and Sb was observed in Klodnica River and we should qualify Klodnica River waters below the second purity class. In Klodnica River waters dominates oxidized antimony and arsenic forms, as well as the two forms of chromium Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Studies have also shown the methyl derivative of arsenic's presence.
7
50445
Effects of Heat Treatment on the Elastic Constants of Cedar Wood
Abstract:
Effects of heat treatment on the elastic constants of cedar wood (Cedrus libani) were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at four different temperatures (120, 150, 180, 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus (EL, ER, ET) and six Poisson ratios (μLR, μLT, μRL, μRT, μTL, μTR) were determined from compression test using bi-axial extensometer at constant moisture content (12 %). Three shear modulus were determined using ultrasound. Six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector with 1 MHz transverse transducers. The properties of the samples tested were significantly affected by heat treatment by different degree. As a result, softer treatments yielded some amount of increase in Young modulus and shear modulus values, but increase of time and temperature resulted in significant decrease for both values. Poisson ratios seemed insensitive to heat treatment.
6
101941
Performances of the Double-Crystal Setup at CERN SPS Accelerator for Physics beyond Colliders Experiments
Abstract:
We are currently presenting the recent results from the CERN accelerator facilities obtained in the frame of the UA9 Collaboration. The UA9 experiment investigates how a tiny silicon bent crystal (few millimeters long) can be used for various high-energy physics applications. Due to the huge electrostatic field (tens of GV/cm) between crystalline planes, there is a probability for charged particles, impinging the crystal, to be trapped in the channeling regime. It gives a possibility to steer a high intensity and momentum beam by bending the crystal: channeled particles will follow the crystal curvature and deflect on the certain angle (from tens microradians for LHC to few milliradians for SPS energy ranges). The measurements at SPS, performed in 2017 and 2018, confirmed that the protons deflected by the first crystal, inserted in the primary beam halo, can be caught and channeled by the second crystal. In this configuration, we measure the single pass deflection efficiency of the second crystal and prove our opportunity to perform the fixed target experiment at SPS accelerator (LHC in the future).
5
29396
Spectral Anomaly Detection and Clustering in Radiological Search
Abstract:
Radiological search and mapping depends on the successful recognition of anomalies in large data sets which contain varied and dynamic backgrounds. We present a new algorithmic approach for real-time anomaly detection which is resistant to common detector imperfections, avoids the limitations of a source template library and provides immediate, and easily interpretable, user feedback. This algorithm is based on a continuous wavelet transform for variance reduction and evaluates the deviation between a foreground measurement and a local background expectation using methods from linear algebra. We also present a technique for recognizing and visualizing spectrally similar clusters of data. This technique uses Laplacian Eigenmap Manifold Learning to perform dimensional reduction which preserves the geometric "closeness" of the data while maintaining sensitivity to outlying data. We illustrate the utility of both techniques on real-world data sets.
4
3963
Unauthorized License Verifier and Secure Access to Vehicle
Abstract:
In our day to day life, many people met with an accident due to various reasons like over speed, overload in the vehicle, violation of the traffic rules, etc. Driving license system is difficult task for the government to monitor. To prevent non-licensees from driving who are causing most of the accidents, a new system is proposed. The proposed system consists of a smart card capable of storing the license details of a particular person. Vehicles such as cars, bikes etc., should have a card reader capable of reading the particular license. A person, who wishes to drive the vehicle, should insert the card (license) in the vehicle and then enter the password in the keypad. If the license data stored in the card and database about the entire license holders in the microcontroller matches, he/she can proceed for ignition after the automated opening of the fuel tank valve, otherwise the user is restricted to use the vehicle. Moreover, overload detector in our proposed system verifies and then prompts the user to avoid overload before driving. This increases the security of vehicles and also ensures safe driving by preventing accidents.
3
109156
Review of Sulfur Unit Capacity Expansion Options
Abstract:
Sulfur recovery unit, most commonly called as Claus process, is very significant gas desulfurization process unit in refinery and gas industries. Explorations of new natural gas fields, refining of high-sulfur crude oils, and recent crude expansion projects are needing capacity expansion of Claus unit for many companies around the world. In refineries, the sulphur recovery units take acid gas from amine regeneration units and sour water strippers, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur using the Claus process. The Claus process is hydraulically limited by mass flow rate. Reducing the pressure drop across control valves, flow meters, lines, knock-out drums, and packing improves the capacity. Oxygen enrichment helps improve the capacity by removing nitrogen, this is more commonly done on all capacity expansion projects. Typical upgrades required due to oxygen enrichment are new burners, new refractory in thermal reactor, resizing of 1st condenser, instrumentation changes, and steam/condensate heat integration. Some other capacity expansion options typically considered are tail gas compressor, replacing air blower with higher head, hydrocarbon minimization in the feed, water removal, and ammonia removal. Increased capacity related upgrades in sulfur recovery unit also need changes in the tail gas treatment unit, typical changes include improvement to quench tower duty, packing area upgrades in quench and absorber towers and increased amine circulation flow rates.
2
97158
Calculation of Detection Efficiency of Horizontal Large Volume Source Using Exvol Code
Abstract:
To calculate the full energy (FE) absorption peak efficiency for arbitrary volume sample, we developed and verified the EXVol (Efficiency calculator for EXtended Voluminous source) code which is based on effective solid angle method. EXVol is possible to describe the source area as a non-uniform three-dimensional (x, y, z) source. And decompose and set it into several sets of volume units. Users can equally divide (x, y, z) coordinate system to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position of a cylindrical volume source. By determining the detection efficiency for differential volume units, the total radiative absolute distribution and the correction factor of the detection efficiency can be obtained from the nondestructive measurement of the source. In order to check the performance of the EXVol code, Si ingot of 20 cm in diameter and 50 cm in height were used as a source. The detector was moved at the collimation geometry to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position and compared with the experimental values. In this study, the performance of the EXVol code was extended to obtain the detection efficiency distribution at a specific position in a large volume source.
1
43485
Towards Integrating Statistical Color Features for Human Skin Detection
Abstract:
Human skin detection recognized as the primary step in most of the applications such as face detection, illicit image filtering, hand recognition and video surveillance. The performance of any skin detection applications greatly relies on the two components: feature extraction and classification method. Skin color is the most vital information used for skin detection purpose. However, color feature alone sometimes could not handle images with having same color distribution with skin color. A color feature of pixel-based does not eliminate the skin-like color due to the intensity of skin and skin-like color fall under the same distribution. Hence, the statistical color analysis will be exploited such mean and standard deviation as an additional feature to increase the reliability of skin detector. In this paper, we studied the effectiveness of statistical color feature for human skin detection. Furthermore, the paper analyzed the integrated color and texture using eight classifiers with three color spaces of RGB, YCbCr, and HSV. The experimental results show that the integrating statistical feature using Random Forest classifier achieved a significant performance with an F1-score 0.969.