Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 56859

Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments
In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique, author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.
Research on Planning Strategy of Characteristic Town from the Perspective of Ecological Concept: A Case Study on Hangzhou Dream Town in Zhejiang
Under the new normal situation, some urban spaces with the industrial base and regional features in Zhejiang, China have been selected to build a characteristic town, a kind of environmentally-friendly development platform with city-industry integrated, in an attempt to achieve the most optimized layout of productivity with the least space resource. After analysis on the connotation, mechanism and mode of characteristic town in Zhejiang, it is suggested in this paper that characteristic town should take improving the regional ecological environment as an important object in planning strategy from the perspective of ecological concept. Improved environmental quality, optimized resource allocation, and compact industrial distribution should be realized so as to drive the regional green and sustainable development. Finally, this paper analyzes location selection, industrial distribution, spatial organization and environment construction based on the exploration of the dream town of Zhejiang province, the first batch of provincial-level characteristic towns to demonstrate how to apply the ecological concept to the design of characteristic town.
Toward a Characteristic Optimal Power Flow Model for Temporal Constraints
While the regular optimal power flow model focuses on a single time scan, the optimization of power systems is typically intended for a time duration with respect to a desired objective function. In this paper, a temporal optimal power flow model for a time period is proposed. To reduce the computation burden needed for calculating temporal optimal power flow, a characteristic optimal power flow model is proposed, which employs different characteristic load patterns to represent the objective function and security constraints. A numerical method based on the interior point method is also proposed for solving the characteristic optimal power flow model. Both the temporal optimal power flow model and characteristic optimal power flow model can improve the systems’ desired objective function for the entire time period. Numerical studies are conducted on the IEEE 14 and 118-bus test systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed characteristic optimal power flow model.
Characteristic Components in Cornusofficinalis to AGEs Injury Protective Effect and Mechanism of HUVEC
The present study aimed to explain the protective effect of Cornus officinalis characteristic components, under AGEs damage to HUVEC. After cultured HUVEC adhered, Cornus officinalis characteristic components such as loganin, morroniside, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and aminoguanidine (positive control dug) hatched, after 1h the AGEs (200 mg/L) were added. After 24h, LDH, SOD, MDA, NO, ET, and AngⅡ, TGF-β, IL-1β, ROS in the supernatant were determined. The results showed the Cornus officinalis characteristic compounds could improve vitality of SOD, NO, reduce the MDA, ET, AngⅡ, TGF-β, IL-1β, ROS significantly when compared with the model groug. Loganin, oleanic acid, ursolic acid, had significant protective effect on AGEs injured HUVEC. As a conclusion, characteristic components in Cornus officinalis had a positive effect after HUVEC injured by AGEs.
Classifying and Analysis 8-Bit to 8-Bit S-Boxes Characteristic Using S-Box Evaluation Characteristic
S-Boxes is one of the linear parts of the cryptographic algorithm. The existence of S-Box in the cryptographic algorithm is needed to maintain non-linearity of the algorithm. Nowadays, modern cryptographic algorithms use an S-Box as a part of algorithm process. Despite the fact that several cryptographic algorithms today reuse theoretically secure and carefully constructed S-Boxes, there is an evaluation characteristic that can measure security properties of S-Boxes and hence the corresponding primitives. Analysis of an S-Box usually is done using manual mathematics calculation. Several S-Boxes are presented as a Truth Table without any mathematical background algorithm. Then, it’s rather difficult to determine the strength of Truth Table S-Box without a mathematical algorithm. A comprehensive analysis should be applied to the Truth Table S-Box to determine the characteristic. Several important characteristics should be owned by the S-Boxes, they are Nonlinearity, Balancedness, Algebraic degree, LAT, DAT, differential delta uniformity, correlation immunity and global avalanche criterion. Then, a comprehensive tool will be present to automatically calculate the characteristics of S-Boxes and determine the strength of S-Box. Comprehensive analysis is done on a deterministic process to produce a sequence of S-Boxes characteristic and give advice for a better S-Box construction.
Analysis of the Engineering Judgement Influence on the Selection of Geotechnical Parameters Characteristic Values
A characteristic value of certain geotechnical parameter results from an engineering assessment. Its selection has to be based on technical principles and standards of engineering practice. It has been shown that the results of engineering assessment of different authors for the same problem and input data are significantly dispersed. A survey was conducted in which participants had to estimate the force that causes a 10 cm displacement at the top of a axially in-situ compressed pile. Fifty experts from all over the world took part in it. The lowest estimated force value was 42% and the highest was 133% of measured force resulting from a mentioned static pile load test. These extreme values result in significantly different technical solutions to the same engineering task. In case of selecting a characteristic value of a geotechnical parameter the importance of the influence of an engineering assessment can be reduced by using statistical methods. An informative annex of Eurocode 1 prescribes the method of selecting the characteristic values of material properties. This is followed by Eurocode 7 with certain specificities linked to selecting characteristic values of geotechnical parameters. The paper shows the procedure of selecting characteristic values of a geotechnical parameter by using a statistical method with different initial conditions. The aim of the paper is to quantify an engineering assessment in the example of determining a characteristic value of a specific geotechnical parameter. It is assumed that this assessment is a random variable and that its statistical features will be determined. For this purpose, a survey research was conducted among relevant experts from the field of geotechnical engineering. Conclusively, the results of the survey and the application of statistical method were compared.
Characteristic Study on Conventional and Soliton Based Transmission System
Here, we study the characteristic feature of conventional (ON-OFF keying) and soliton based transmission system. We consider 20 Gbps transmission system implemented with Conventional Single Mode Fiber (C-SMF) to examine the role of Gaussian pulse which is the characteristic of conventional propagation and hyperbolic-secant pulse which is the characteristic of soliton propagation in it. We note the influence of these pulses with respect to different dispersion lengths and soliton period in conventional and soliton system, respectively, and evaluate the system performance in terms of quality factor. From the analysis, we could prove that the soliton pulse has more consistent performance even for long distance without dispersion compensation than the conventional system as it is robust to dispersion. For the length of transmission of 200 Km, soliton system yielded Q of 33.958 while the conventional system totally exhausted with Q=0.
3D Receiver Operator Characteristic Histogram
ROC curves, as a widely used evaluating tool in machine learning field, are the tradeoff of true positive rate and negative rate. However, they are blamed for ignoring some vital information in the evaluation process, such as the amount of information about the target that each instance carries, predicted score given by each classification model to each instance. Hence, in this paper, a new classification performance method is proposed by extending the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to 3D space, which is denoted as 3D ROC Histogram. In the histogram, the
Screening Post-Menopausal Women for Osteoporosis by Complex Impedance Measurements of the Dominant Arm
Cole-Cole parameters of 40 post-menopausal women are compared with their DEXA bone mineral density measurements. Impedance characteristics of four extremities are compared; left and right extremities are statistically same, but lower extremities are statistically different than upper ones due to their different fat content. The correlation of Cole-Cole impedance parameters to bone mineral density (BMD) is observed to be higher for a dominant arm. With the post menopausal population, ANOVA tests of the dominant arm characteristic frequency, as a predictor for DEXA classified osteopenic and osteoporotic population around the lumbar spine, is statistically very significant. When used for total lumbar spine osteoporosis diagnosis, the area under the Receiver Operating Curve of the characteristic frequency is 0.875, suggesting that the Cole-Cole plot characteristic frequency could be a useful diagnostic parameter when integrated into standard screening methods for osteoporosis. Moreover, the characteristic frequency can be directly measured by monitoring frequency driven the angular behavior of the dominant arm without performing any complex calculation.
Corporate Social Responsibility Participation on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Different Job Characteristic Profiles
We made an effort to resolve a research question, which is about the relationship between employees’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) participation and their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and an effect of profiles of job characteristics. To test the question, we divided sample into two groups that have the profiles of each job characteristic. One group had high level on the five dimensions of job characteristic (D group), whereas another group had low level on the dimensions (R group). As a result, regression analyses showed that the relationship between CSR participation and OCB is positive in the D group, but the relationship is not significant in the R group. The results raise a question to the argument of recent studies showing that there is positive relationship between the CSR and the OCB. Implications and limitations are demonstrated in the conclusion.
Investigation of Dynamic Characteristic of Planetary Gear Set Based On Three-Axes Torque Measurement
A planetary gear set is widely used in hybrid vehicles as the power distribution system or in electric vehicles as the high reduction system, but due to its complexity with planet gears, its dynamic characteristic is not fully understood. There are many reports on two-axes driving or displacement of the planet gears under these conditions, but only few reports deal with three-axes driving. A three-axes driving condition is tested using three-axes torque measurement and focuses on the dynamic characteristic around the planet gears in this report. From experimental result, it was confirmed that the transition forces around the planet gears were balanced and the torques were also balanced around the instantaneous rotation center. The meshing frequency under these conditions was revealed to be the harmonics of two meshing frequencies; meshing frequency of the ring gear and that of the planet gears. The input power of the ring gear is distributed to the carrier and the sun gear in the dynamic sequential change of three fixed conditions; planet, star and solar modes.
The Effect of Prior Characteristic on Perceived Prosocial Content in Media
It was important to understand the impact of media in young adolescents. The animated film, Khun Tong Dang the Inspirations (2015), was purposefully created for teaching young children to have a positive personal trait. The current study used this film as the case study. The objective is to understand the relationship between the good characteristic of movie audiences and their perception of the good characteristic of a movie character. One-hundred students from various age ranges responded to quantitative questionnaires. The questions included their age, gender, perception about their own personal traits, perception about their experiences with others, and perception about the bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character. It was found that a good personal trait has a strong relationship with the perception of bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character.
Axle Load Estimation of Moving Vehicles Using BWIM Technique
Although vehicle driving test for the development of BWIM system is necessary, but it needs much cost and time in addition application of various driving condition. Thus, we need the numerical-simulation method resolving the cost and time problems of vehicle driving test and the way of measuring response of bridge according to the various driving condition. Using the precision analysis model reflecting the dynamic characteristic is contributed to increase accuracy in numerical simulation. In this paper, we conduct a numerical simulation to apply precision analysis model, which reflects the dynamic characteristic of bridge using Bridge Weigh-in-Motion technique and suggest overload vehicle enforcement technology using precision analysis model.
Propagation of Weak Non-Linear Waves in Non-Equilibrium Flow
In this paper, the propagation of weak nonlinear waves in non-equilibrium flow has been studied in detail using the perturbation method. The expansive action of receding piston undergoing infinite acceleration has been discussed. Central expansion fan, compression waves and shock fronts have been discussed and the solutions up to the first order in the characteristic plane and physical plane have been obtained.
Software-Defined Radio Based Channel Measurement System of Wideband HF Communication System in Low-Latitude Region
HF Communication system is one of the attractive fields among many researchers since it can be reached long-distance areas with low-cost. This long-distance communication can be achieved by exploiting the ionosphere as a transmission medium for the HF radio wave. However, due to the dynamic nature of ionosphere, the channel characteristic of HF communication has to be investigated in order to gives better performances. Many techniques to characterize HF channel are available in the literature. However, none of those techniques describe the HF channel characteristic in low-latitude regions, especially equatorial areas. Since the ionosphere around equatorial region has an ESF phenomenon, it becomes an important investigation to characterize the wideband HF Channel in low-latitude region. On the other sides, the appearance of software-defined radio attracts the interest of many researchers. Accordingly, in this paper a SDR-based channel measurement system is proposed to be used for characterizing the HF channel in low-latitude region.
Classifications of Sleep Apnea (Obstructive, Central, Mixed) and Hypopnea Events Using Wavelet Packet Transform and Support Vector Machines (VSM)
Sleep apnea events as obstructive, central, mixed or hypopnea are characterized by frequent breathing cessations or reduction in upper airflow during sleep. An advanced method for analyzing the patterning of biomedical signals to recognize obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea is presented. In the aim to extract characteristic parameters, which will be used for classifying the above stated (obstructive, central, mixed) sleep apnea and hypopnea, the proposed method is based first on the analysis of polysomnography signals such as electrocardiogram signal (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG), then classification of the (obstructive, central, mixed) sleep apnea and hypopnea. The analysis is carried out using the wavelet transform technique in order to extract characteristic parameters whereas classification is carried out by applying the SVM (support vector machine) technique. The obtained results show good recognition rates using characteristic parameters.
Characteristic Sentence Stems in Academic English Texts: Definition, Identification, and Extraction
Phraseological units in academic English texts have been a central focus in recent corpus linguistic research. A wide variety of phraseological units have been explored, including collocations, chunks, lexical bundles, patterns, semantic sequences, etc. This paper describes a special category of clause-level phraseological units, namely, Characteristic Sentence Stems (CSSs), with a view to describing their defining criteria and extraction method. CSSs are contiguous lexico-grammatical sequences which contain a subject-predicate structure and which are frame expressions characteristic of academic writing. The extraction of CSSs consists of six steps: Part-of-speech tagging, n-gram segmentation, structure identification, significance of occurrence calculation, text range calculation, and overlapping sequence reduction. Significance of occurrence calculation is the crux of this study. It includes the computing of both the internal association and the boundary independence of a CSS and tests the occurring significance of the CSS from both inside and outside perspectives. A new normalization algorithm is also introduced into the calculation of LocalMaxs for reducing overlapping sequences. It is argued that many sentence stems are so recurrent in academic texts that the most typical of them have become the habitual ways of making meaning in academic writing. Therefore, studies of CSSs could have potential implications and reference value for academic discourse analysis, English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teaching and writing.
Performance Analysis of BPJLT with Different Gate and Spacer Materials
The paper presents a simulation study of the electrical characteristic of Bulk Planar Junctionless Transistor (BPJLT) using spacer. The BPJLT is a transistor without any PN junctions in the vertical direction. It is a gate controlled variable resistor. The characteristics of BPJLT are analyzed by varying the oxide material under the gate. It can be shown from the simulation that an ideal subthreshold slope of ~60 mV/decade can be achieved by using highk dielectric. The effects of variation of spacer length and material on the electrical characteristic of BPJLT are also investigated in the paper. The ION / IOFF ratio improvement is of the order of 107 and the OFF current reduction of 10-4 is obtained by using gate dielectric of HfO2 instead of SiO2.
Response of Vibration and Damping System of UV Irradiated Renewable Biopolymer
Biopolymer made from renewable material are one of the most important group of polymer because of their versatility and they can be manufactured in a wide range of densities and stiffness. In this project, biopolymer based on waste vegetable oil were synthesized and crosslink with commercial polymethane polyphenyl isocyanate (known as BF).The BF was compressed by using hot compression moulding technique at 90 oC based on the evaporation of volatile matter and known as compress biopolymer (CB). The density, vibration and damping characteristic of CB were determined after UV irradiation. Treatment with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was found to affect the physical property of compress biopolymer composite (CBC). The density of CBC samples was steadily increased with an increase of UV irradiation time and TiO2 loading. The highest density of CBC samples is at 10 % of TiO2 loading of 1.1088 g/cm3 due to the amount of filler loading. The vibration and damping characteristic of CBC samples was generated at displacements of 1 mm and 1.5 mm and acceleration of 0.1 G and 0.15 G base excitation according to ASTM D3580-9. It was revealed that, the vibration and damping characteristic of CBC samples is significantly increased with the increasing of UV irradiation time, lowest thickness and percentages of TiO2 loading at the frequency range of 15 - 25 Hz. Therefore, this study indicated that the damping property of CBC could be improved upon prolonged exposure to UV irradiation.
Characteristic and Prevalence of Cleft Lip and Palate Patient in Bandung Cleft Lip and Palate Center: A Descriptive Study
Cleft lip and palate are one of the most common congenital abnormalities in the face. It could happen to anyone, but mostly affect Asian population including Indonesia. Factors that influence the occurrence of cleft lip and palate vary from genetic to environmental factors. Children with cleft lip and palate will often have various problems such as airway disorders, eating disorders, speech and language developmental disorders, hearing disorders and psycho-social disorders, one of which is caused by appearance disorders. During his life, the child will experience multidisciplinary surgery and non-surgical treatment and can be accompanied by a psychological and financial burden on himself and his family. In Indonesia, there are no detailed scientific data on the prevalence and characteristic of cleft lip and palate patients. It was mainly caused by the absence of a national level organization, differences in geographical location, and the absence of national guidelines. This study aimed to describe the characteristic and prevalence of cleft lip and palate patients in Bandung Cleft Lip and Palate Center from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2017. A total of 560 patients were included in the study. The highest percentage of cases are left unilateral cleft lip and palate with higher number of female patient and labioplasty as the most often surgical procedure to be conducted in Bandung Cleft Lip and Palate Center. In order to improve quality of life in patients with cleft lip and palate, early recognition and early treatment based on actual comprehensive data should be conducted. The data from Bandung Cleft Lip and Palate Center as one of the largest center of cleft lip and palate in West Java Indonesia hopefully could provide a big step of further comprehensive data collection in Indonesia and for the better overall management of cleft lip and palate in the future.
Preparation of Fluoroalkyl End-Capped Oligomers/Silica Nanocomposites Possessing a Nonflammable Characteristic Even After Calcination at 800 oC
Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers [RF-(M)n-RF; RF = fluoroalkyl groups; M = radical polymerizable monomers] can form nanometre size-controlled self-assembled oligomeric aggregates through the aggregations of end-capped fluoroalkyl groups. Fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomeric aggregates can also interact with guest molecules to afford fluorinated aggregate/guest molecule nanocomposites; although the corresponding non-fluorinated oligomers cannot form such molecular aggregates to interact with guest molecules. For example, silica nanoparticles should act as guest molecules in fluorinated oligomeric aggregate cores to give new fluorinated oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles (fluorinated oligomer/silica nanocomposites). In these fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers/silica nanocomposites, some fluorinated oligomers/silica nanocomposites were found to exhibit no weight loss behavior corresponding to the contents of oligomers in the silica matrices even after calcination at 800 oC. Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomer-coated silica nanoparticles can be prepared by the sol-gel reaction of the corresponding fluorinated oligomer under alkaline conditions. The modified glass surface treated with this fluorinated oligomeric nanoparticle exhibited a completely super-hydrophobic characteristic. These fluorinated nanoparticles were also applied to the surface modification possessing a super-oleophobic characteristic. Not only fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers but also low molecular weight fluorinated surfactants such as perfluoro-1,3-propanedisulfonic acid (PFPS) were applied to the preparation of fluorinated surfactants/silica nanocomposites to give no weight loss in proportion to the content of the surfactants in the nanocomposites even after calcination at 800 oC.
Influence of Quantile Values on the Reliability of Lateral Loaded Monopile Foundations
Pile foundations are among the most widely used foundation systems. They do not only play a key role onshore but also offshore where monopile foundations for wind energy turbines are used in relatively shallow waters. The lateral bearing mechanism can be simplified by using a Winkler model in which the soil is represented by springs with non-linear load-displacement relationships (p-y curves). When designing laterally loaded piles uncertainties due to variability of the soil properties and loads are taken into account by using partial factors of safety. These factors shall establish at least a safety level of beta = 3.8 according to the Eurocode-0 in conjunction with Eurocode-7. The reliability of the system depends heavily on the choice of the safety factor and the choice of the characteristic soil properties. The safety factors stated in the standards are mainly based on experience which was gained in the past through different practical onshore applications. Characteristic values, on the other hand, are not strictly regulated; but the choice of characteristic values also affects the safety level. In current engineering practice, no general accepted method of the calculation of a characteristic value exists. In this study, the influence of the chosen quantile values of the deterministic system for a lateral loaded monopile foundation shall be investigated by using a Monte-Carlo simulation for the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) as well as the Serviceability Limit State (SLS). For the reliability analysis, the Winkler model with a homogenous sand layer is used. The influence of basic soil parameters such as the internal angle of friction and the unit weight are chosen within their typical variability. The result of the reliability-based analysis is compared to the deterministic design. As an outcome, it can be stated that the safety strongly depends on the chosen quantile value. According to the standards it is recommended to apply at least one standard deviation below the mean value as characteristic property to achieve the target safety level within a deterministic design.
Photovoltaic Cells Characteristics Measurement Systems
Power provided by the photovoltaic array varies with solar radiation and temperature, since these parameters influence the electrical characteristic (Ipv-Vpv) of solar cells. In Scientific research, there are different methods to obtain these characteristics. In this paper, we present three methods. A simulation one using Matlab/Simulink. The second one is the standard experimental voltage method and the third one is by using LabVIEW software. This latter is based on an electronic circuit to test PV modules. All details of this electronic schemes are presented and obtained results of the three methods with a comparison and under different meteorological conditions are presented. The proposed method is simple and very efficiency for testing and measurements of electrical characteristic curves of photovoltaic panels.
The Effect of Psychological Capital and Psychological Empowerment on Employees' Commitment to Change
Organizations nowadays have to change and adjust themselves to the changing external environment in order to survive the globalization era. However, not all the organizational change had been succeeded. Commitment to change is one important factor why the change process often failed. Even so, this commitment to change cannot be separated with the individual’s characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify the role of psychological capital and psychological empowerment as the individual’s positive characteristic on commitment to change. This research was conducted on Indonesian employees who have or are currently experiencing a change in their organization. Data was collected using Commitment to Change Inventory, Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, and Psychological Capital Questionnaire. The results showed that both psychological capital and psychological empowerment have a positive and significant influence on commitment to change.
An Exploratory Study on 'Sub-Region Life Circle' in Chinese Big Cities Based on Human High-Probability Daily Activity: Characteristic and Formation Mechanism as a Case of Wuhan
With an increasing trend of regionalization and polycentricity in Chinese contemporary big cities, “sub-region life circle” turns to be an effective method on rational organization of urban function and spatial structure. By the method of questionnaire, network big data, route inversion on internet map, GIS spatial analysis and logistic regression, this article makes research on characteristic and formation mechanism of “sub-region life circle” based on human high-probability daily activity in Chinese big cities. Firstly, it shows that “sub-region life circle” has been a new general spatial sphere of residents' high-probability daily activity and mobility in China. Unlike the former analysis of the whole metropolitan or the micro community, “sub-region life circle” has its own characteristic on geographical sphere, functional element, spatial morphology and land distribution. Secondly, according to the analysis result with Binary Logistic Regression Model, the research also shows that seven factors including land-use mixed degree and bus station density impact the formation of “sub-region life circle” most, and then analyzes the index critical value of each factor. Finally, to establish a smarter “sub-region life circle”, this paper indicates that several strategies including jobs-housing fit, service cohesion and space reconstruction are the keys for its spatial organization optimization. This study expands the further understanding of cities' inner sub-region spatial structure based on human daily activity, and contributes to the theory of “life circle” in urban's meso-scale.
Proficient Estimation Procedure for a Rare Sensitive Attribute Using Poisson Distribution
The present manuscript addresses the estimation procedure of population parameter using Poisson probability distribution when characteristic under study possesses a rare sensitive attribute. The generalized form of unrelated randomized response model is suggested in order to acquire the truthful responses from respondents. The resultant estimators have been proposed for two situations when the information on an unrelated rare non-sensitive characteristic is known as well as unknown. The properties of the proposed estimators are derived, and the measure of confidentiality of respondent is also suggested for respondents. Empirical studies are carried out in the support of discussed theory.
Flow Characteristic Analysis for Hatch Type Air Vent Head of Bulk Cargo Ship by Computational Fluid Dynamics
The air vent head prevents the inflow of seawater into the cargo holds when it is used for the ballast tank on heavy weather. In this study, the flow characteristics and the grid size were created by the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics by taking into the consideration of comparison of test results. Then, the accuracy of the analysis was verified by comparing with experimental results. Based on this analysis, accurate turbulence model and grid size can be selected. Thus, the design characteristic of air vent head for bulk carrier contributes the reliability based on the research results.
A Study on Improvement of the Electromagnetic Vibration of a Polygon Mirror Scanner Motor
Electric machines for office automation device such as printer and scanner have been required the low noise and vibration performance. Many researches about the low noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor have been also progressed. The noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor can be classified by aerodynamic, structural and electromagnetic. Electromagnetic noise and vibration can be occurred by high cogging torque and nonsinusoidal back EMF. To improve the cogging torque and back EMF characteristic, we apply unequal air-gap. To analyze characteristic of a polygon mirror scanner motor, two dimensional finite element method is used. To minimize the cogging torque of a polygon mirror motor, Kriging based on latin hypercube sampling (LHS) is utilized. Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 23.4 % while maintaining the back EMF and average torque. To verify the optimal design results, the experiment was performed. We measured the vibration in motors at 23,600 rpm which is the rated velocity. The radial and axial gravitational acceleration of the optimal model were declined more than seven times and three times, respectively. From these results, a shape optimized unequal polygon mirror scanner motor has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and electromagnetic vibration characteristic.
An Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detecting in Rack-Type Warehouses
Rack type warehouses are different from general buildings in the kinds, amount, and arrangement of stored goods, so the fire risk of rack type warehouses is different from those buildings. The fire pattern of rack type warehouses is different in combustion characteristic and storing condition of stored goods. The initial fire burning rate is different in the surface condition of materials, but the running time of fire is closely related with the kinds of stored materials and stored conditions. The stored goods of the warehouse are consisted of diverse combustibles, combustible liquid, and so on. Fire detection time may be delayed because the residents are less than office and commercial buildings. If fire detectors installed in rack type warehouses are inadaptable, the fire of the warehouse may be the great fire because of delaying of fire detection. In this paper, we studied what kinds of fire detectors are optimized in early detecting of rack type warehouse fire by real-scale fire tests. The fire detectors used in the tests are rate of rise type, fixed type, photo electric type, and aspirating type detectors. We considered optimum fire detecting method in rack type warehouses suggested by the response characteristic and comparative analysis of the fire detectors.
A Survey on Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criterion
Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion is a powerful approach to determine stability of linear time invariant systems. On the other hand, applying this criterion to characteristic equation of a system, whose stability or marginal stability can be determined. Although the command roots (.) of MATLAB software can be easily used to determine the roots of a polynomial, the characteristic equation of closed loop system usually includes parameters, so software cannot handle it; however, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion results the region of parameter changes where the stability is guaranteed. Moreover, this criterion has been extended to characterize the stability of interval polynomials as well as fractional-order polynomials. Furthermore, it can help us to design stable and minimum-phase controllers. In this paper, theory and application of this criterion will be reviewed. Also, several illustrative examples are given.
Characteristic Matrix Faults for Flight Control System
A major issue in air transportation is in flight safety. Recent developments in control engineering have an attractive potential for resolving new issues related to guidance, navigation, and control of flying vehicles. Many future atmospheric missions will require increased on board autonomy including fault diagnosis and the subsequent control and guidance recovery actions. To improve designing system diagnostic, an efficient FDI- fault detection and identification- methodology is necessary to achieve. Contribute to characteristic of different faults in sensor and actuator in the view of mathematics brings a lot of profit in some condition changes in the system. This research finds some profit to reduce a trade-off to achieve between fault detection and performance of the closed loop system and cost and calculated in simulation.
Improved Estimation Strategies of Sensitive Characteristics Using Scrambled Response Techniques in Successive Sampling
This research work is an effort to analyse the consequences of scrambled response technique to estimate the current population mean in two-occasion successive sampling when the characteristic of interest is sensitive in nature. The generalized estimation procedures have been proposed using sensitive auxiliary variables under additive and multiplicative scramble models. The properties of resultant estimators have been deeply examined. Simulation, as well as empirical studies, are carried out to evaluate the performances of the proposed estimators with respect to other competent estimators. The results of our studies suggest that the proposed estimation procedures are highly effective under the presence of non-response situation. The result of this study also suggests that additive scrambled response model is a better choice in the perspective of cost of the survey and privacy of the respondents.
Analysis Customer Loyalty Characteristic and Segmentation Analysis in Mobile Phone Category in Indonesia
The main purpose of this study is to explore consumer loyalty characteristic of mobile phone category in Indonesia. Second, this research attempts to identify consumer segment and to explore their profile in each segment as the basis of marketing strategy formulation. This study used some tools of multivariate analysis such as discriminant analysis and cluster analysis. Discriminate analysis used to discriminate consumer loyal and not loyal by using particular variables. Cluster analysis used to reveal various segment in mobile phone category. In addition to having better customer understanding in each segment, this study used descriptive analysis and cross tab analysis in each segment defined by cluster analysis. This study expected several findings. First, consumer can be divided into two large group of loyal versus not loyal by set of variables. Second, this study identifies customer segment in mobile phone category. Third, exploring customer profile in each segment that has been identified. This study answer a call for additional empirical research into different product categories. Therefore, a replication research is advisable. By knowing the customer loyalty characteristic, and deep analysis of their consumption behavior and profile for each segment, this study is very advisable for high impact marketing strategy development. This study contributes body of knowledge by adding empirical study of consumer loyalty, segmentation analysis in mobile phone category by multiple brand analysis.
The Study of Hydro Physical Complex Characteristic of Clay Soil-Ground of Colchis Lowland
It has been studied phenomena subjected on the water physical (hydrophysical, mineralogy containing, specific hydrophysical) class of heavy clay soils of the Colchis lowland, according to various categories and forms of the porous water, which will be the base of the distributed used methods of the engineering practice and reclamation effectiveness evaluation. According to of clay grounds data, it has been chosen three research bases section in the central part of lowland, where has implemented investigation works by using a special program. It has been established, that three of cuts are somewhat identical, and by morphological grounds separated layers are the difference by Gallic quality. It has been implemented suitable laboratory experimental research at the samples taken from the cuts, at the base of these created classification mark of physical-technical characteristic, which is the base of suitable calculation of hydrophysical researches.
Application of Genetic Programming for Evolution of Glass-Forming Ability Parameter
A few glass forming ability expressions in terms of characteristic temperatures have been proposed in the literature. Attempts have been made to correlate the expression with the critical diameter of the bulk metallic glass composition. However, with the advent of new alloys, many exceptions have been noted and reported. In the present approach, a genetic programming based code which generates an expression in terms of input variables, i.e., three characteristic temperatures viz. glass transition temperature (Tg), onset crystallization temperature (Tx) and offset temperature of melting (Tl) with maximum correlation with a critical diameter (Dmax). The expression evolved shows improved correlation with the critical diameter. In addition, the expression can be explained on the basis of time-temperature transformation curve.
Lyapunov Exponents in the Restricted Three Body Problem under the Influence of Perturbations
The Lyapunov characteristic exponent (LCE) is an important tool to describe behavior of a dynamical system, which measures the average rate of divergence (or convergence) of a trajectory emanating in the vicinity of initial point. To analyze the behavior of nearby trajectory emanating in the neighborhood of an equilibrium point in the restricted three-body problem under the influence of perturbations in the form of radiation pressure and oblateness, we compute LCEs of first order with the help of slandered method which is based on variational equation of the system. It is observed that trajectories are chaotic in nature due positive LCEs. Also, we analyze the effect of radiation pressure and oblateness on the LCEs. Results are applicable to study the behavior of more generalized RTBP in the presence of perturbations such as PR drag, solar wind drag etc.
Design of Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement
The quality of concrete is usually defined by compressive strength, but flexural strength is the most important characteristic of concrete in a pavement which control the mix design of concrete instead of compressive strength. Therefore, the aggregates which are selected for the pavements are affected by higher flexural strength. Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement (RCCP) is not a new construction method. The other characteristic of this method is no bleeding and less shrinkage due to the lower amount of water. For this purpose, a roller is needed for placing and compacting. The surface of RCCP is not smooth; therefore, the most common use of this pavement is in an industrial zone with slower traffic speed which requires durable and tough pavement. For preparing a smoother surface, it can be achieved by asphalt paver. RCCP decrease the finishing cost because there are no bars, formwork, and the lesser labor need for placing the concrete. In this paper, different aspect of RCCP such as mix design, flexural, compressive strength and focus on the different part of RCCP on detail have been investigated.
Research on Transmission Parameters Determination Method Based on Dynamic Characteristic Analysis
Parameter control strategy based on statistical characteristics can analyze the choice of the transmission ratio of an automobile transmission. According to the difference of the transmission gear, the number and spacing of the gear can be determined. Transmission ratio distribution of transmission needs to satisfy certain distribution law. According to the statistic characteristics of driving parameters, the shift control strategy of the vehicle is analyzed. CVT shift schedule adjustment algorithm based on statistical characteristic parameters can be seen from the above analysis, if according to the certain algorithm to adjust the size of, can adjust the target point are in the best efficiency curve and dynamic curve between the location, to alter the vehicle characteristics. Based on the dynamic characteristics and the practical application of the vehicle, this paper presents the setting scheme of the transmission ratio.
Strength of Fine Concrete Used in Textile Reinforced Concrete by Changing Water-Binder Ratio
Recently, the abnormal climate phenomenon has enlarged due to the global warming. As a result, temperature variation is increasing and the term is being prolonged, frequency of high and low temperature is increasing by heat wave and severe cold. Especially for reinforced concrete structure, the corrosion of reinforcement has occurred by concrete crack due to temperature change and the durability of the structure that has decreased by concrete crack. Accordingly, the textile reinforced concrete (TRC) which does not corrode due to using textile is getting the interest and the investigation of TRC is proceeding. The study of TRC structure behavior has proceeded, but the characteristic study of the concrete used in TRC is insufficient. Therefore, characteristic of the concrete by changing mixing ratio is studied in this paper. As a result, mixing ratio with different water-binder ratio has influenced to the strength of concrete. Also, as the water-binder ratio has decreased, strength of concrete has increased.
Statistical Assessment of Models for Determination of Soil–Water Characteristic Curves of Sand Soils
Characterization of the engineering behavior of unsaturated soil is dependent on the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), a graphical representation of the relationship between water content or degree of saturation and soil suction. A reasonable description of the SWCC is thus important for the accurate prediction of unsaturated soil parameters. The measurement procedures for determining the SWCC, however, are difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. During the past few decades, researchers have laid a major focus on developing empirical equations for predicting the SWCC, with a large number of empirical models suggested. One of the most crucial questions is how precisely existing equations can represent the SWCC. As different models have different ranges of capability, it is essential to evaluate the precision of the SWCC models used for each particular soil type for better SWCC estimation. It is expected that better estimation of SWCC would be achieved via a thorough statistical analysis of its distribution within a particular soil class. With this in view, a statistical analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the reliability of the SWCC prediction models against laboratory measurement. Optimization techniques were used to obtain the best-fit of the model parameters in four forms of SWCC equation, using laboratory data for relatively coarse-textured (i.e., sandy) soil. The four most prominent SWCCs were evaluated and computed for each sample. The result shows that the Brooks and Corey model is the most consistent in describing the SWCC for sand soil type. The Brooks and Corey model prediction also exhibit compatibility with samples ranging from low to high soil water content in which subjected to the samples that evaluated in this study.
Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates
Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.
Research on Urban Point of Interest Generalization Method Based on Mapping Presentation
Without taking account of the attribute richness of POI (point of interest) data and spatial distribution limited by roads, a POI generalization method considering both attribute information and spatial distribution has been proposed against the existing point generalization algorithm merely focusing on overall information of point groups. Hierarchical characteristic of urban POI information expression has been firstly analyzed to point out the measurement feature of the corresponding hierarchy. On this basis, an urban POI generalizing strategy has been put forward: POIs urban road network have been divided into three distribution pattern; corresponding generalization methods have been proposed according to the characteristic of POI data in different distribution patterns. Experimental results showed that the method taking into account both attribute information and spatial distribution characteristics of POI can better implement urban POI generalization in the mapping presentation.
A Study of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristic, Meat Quality and Association of Polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II Gene with Fat Accumulation in the Female Broiler, Thai Native and Betong Chickens
The objective of this study was to determine the growth performance, carcass characteristic, meat quality and association of polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene with fat accumulation in the female broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens at 4-14 weeks. The chickens were used and reared under the same environment and management (100 chicks per breed). The results showed that BW of broiler chickens was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01) through all the experiment. At 4-8 weeks of age, FCR of broiler chickens was significantly better than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01), then was increased at week 8-14. The percentage of breast, abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat of broiler chickens was significantly greater than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01). However, Thai Native chickens showed the highest percentage of liver (P < 0.01) when compared to other breeds. In addition, the percentage of wing of Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than broiler chickens. Meat quality was also determined and found that, pH45 and pH24 of broiler was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01) whereas the percentage of drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss and shear force was not significantly different between breeds. The PCR-RFLP technique was used to genotype the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene in the broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens. The results found that, the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene at VLDL6 loci was not associated with fat accumulation in those studied population.
Customers’ Intention to Use Electronic Payment System for Purchasing
The purpose of this research was to study the factors of characteristic of business, website quality and trust affected intention to use electronic payment systems for online purchasing. This survey research used questionnaire as a tool to collect the data of 300 customers who purchased online products and used an electronic payment system. The descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that customers had a good opinion towards the characteristic of the business and website quality. However, they have a moderate opinion towards trust and intention to repurchase. In addition, the characteristics of the business affected the purchase intention the most, followed by website quality and the trust with statistical significance at 0.05 level. For particular, the terms of reputation, communication, information quality, perceived risk and word of mouth affected the intention to use the electronic payment system. In contrast, the terms of size, system quality and service quality did not affect intention to use an electronic payment system.
On the Bootstrap P-Value Method in Identifying out of Control Signals in Multivariate Control Chart
In any production process, every product is aimed to attain a certain standard, but the presence of assignable cause of variability affects our process, thereby leading to low quality of product. The ability to identify and remove this type of variability reduces its overall effect, thereby improving the quality of the product. In case of a univariate control chart signal, it is easy to detect the problem and give a solution since it is related to a single quality characteristic. However, the problems involved in the use of multivariate control chart are the violation of multivariate normal assumption and the difficulty in identifying the quality characteristic(s) that resulted in the out of control signals. The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of non-parametric control chart (the bootstrap approach) for obtaining control limit to overcome the problem of multivariate distributional assumption and the p-value method for detecting out of control signals. Results from a performance study show that the proposed bootstrap method enables the setting of control limit that can enhance the detection of out of control signals when compared, while the p-value method also enhanced in identifying out of control variables.
Effect of Electric Stimulation on Characteristic Changes in Hot-Boned Beef Brisket of Different Potential Tenderness
In this study, the effect of electric stimulation on the quality of hot-boned beef brisket muscles was evaluated, including the tenderness, pH, temperature change, and colorant. Muscles were obtained from steers in the local slaughter house. (3 steers for each muscle), removed from the carcasses 4-hour postmortem and variable time to treated with direct current electric 1 and 5 minutes, respectively. Six different electric intensities (direct current voltage of 50, 70 and 90 Volt, pulse with 10, 20 and 40 ms) plus a control were applied to each muscle to determine the optimum treatment conditions. Hot-boned beef brisket was found to get tender with increasing treatment direct current voltage and reduction in the shear force with pulsed with electric treatment. But in a long time to treated with electric current get fading in red color and temperature increase whereas pH quite different compared to non-treated control samples.
Characterization of Edible Film from Uwi Starch (Dioscorea alata L.)
The research about modification uwi starch (Dioscorea alata L) by using propylene oxide has been done. Concentration of propylene oxide were 6%(v/w), 8%(v/w), and 10%(v/w). The amilograf parameters after modification were characteristic breakdown viscosity 43 BU and setback viscosity 975 BU. The modification starch have edible properties according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) which have degree of modification < 7%, degree of substitution < 0,1 and propylene oxide concentration < 10%(v/w). The best propylene oxide in making of edible film was 8 %( v/w). The starch control can be made into edible film with thickness 0,136 mm, tensile strength 20,4605 MPa and elongation 22%. Modification starch of uwi can be made into edible film with thickness 0,146 mm, tensile strength 25, 3521 Mpa, elongation 30% and water vapor transmission 7, 2651 g/m2/24 hours. FTIR characterization of uwi starch showed the occurrence of hydroxypropylation. The peak spectrum at 2900 cm-1 showed bonding of C-H from methyl group, which is characteristic for modification starch with hydroxypropyl. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy showed that modification of uwi starch has turned the granule of starch to be fully swallon.
Low Trigger Voltage Silicon Controlled Rectifier Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for High Voltage Applications
A SCR stacking structure is proposed to have improved Latch-up immunity. In comparison with conventional SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), the proposed Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit has a lower trigger characteristic by using the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Trigger) structure. Also the proposed ESD protection circuit has improved Holding Voltage Characteristic by using N-stack technique. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity in operating conditions. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD. It has a trigger voltage of 8.9V and a holding voltage of 1.8V in a single structure. And when applying the stack technique, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 3.8V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 5.1 V.
An Analytical Study of Small Unmanned Arial Vehicle Dynamic Stability Characteristics
This paper presents an analytical study of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) dynamic stability derivatives. Simulating SUAV dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the earliest design stages is too important and more efficient design aspect. The approach suggested in this paper is using the wind tunnel experiment to collect the aerodynamic data and get the dynamic stability derivatives. AutoCAD Software was used to draw the case study (wildlife surveillance SUAV). The SUAV is scaled down to be 0.25% of the real SUAV dimensions and converted to a wind tunnel model. The model was tested in three different speeds for three different attitudes which are; pitch, roll and yaw. The wind tunnel results were then used to determine the case study stability derivative values, and hence it used to calculate the roots of the characteristic equation for both longitudinal and lateral motions. Finally, the characteristic equation roots were found and discussed in all possible cases.
Design of a Vehicle Door Structure Based on Finite Element Method
The performance of door assembly is very significant for the vehicle design. In the present paper, the finite element method is used in the development processes of the door assembly. The stiffness, strength, modal characteristic, and anti-extrusion of a newly developed passenger vehicle door assembly are calculated and evaluated by several finite element analysis commercial software. The structural problems discovered by FE analysis have been modified and finally achieved the expected door structure performance target of this new vehicle. The issue in focus is to predict the performance of the door assembly by powerful finite element analysis software, and optimize the structure to meet the design targets. It is observed that this method can be used to forecast the performance of vehicle door efficiently when it’s designed. In order to reduce lead time and cost in the product development of vehicles more development will be made virtually.
Quasi–Periodicity of Tonic Intervals in Octave and Innovation of Themes in Music Compositions
Quasi-periodicity of frequency intervals observed in Shruti based Absolute Scale of Music has been used to graphically identify the Anchor notes ‘Vadi’ and ‘Samvadi’ which are nodal points for expansion, elaboration and iteration of the emotional theme represented by the characteristic tonic arrangement in Raga compositions. This analysis leads to defining the Tonic parameters in the octave including the key-note frequency, tonic intervals’ anchor notes and the on-set and range of quasi-periodicities as exponents of 2. Such uniformity of representation of characteristic data would facilitate computational analysis and synthesis of music compositions and also help develop noise suppression techniques. Criteria for tuning of strings for compatibility with placement of frets on finger boards is discussed. Natural Rhythmic cycles in music compositions are analytically shown to lie between 3 and 126 beats.
Shock Isolation Performance of a Pre-Compressed Large Deformation Shock Isolator with Quasi-Zero-Stiffness Characteristic
Based on the synthetic principle of force, a pre-compressed nonlinear isolator with quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) is developed for shock isolation of ship equipment. The proposed isolator consists of a vertical spring with positive stiffness and several lateral springs with negative stiffness. An analytical expression of vertical stiffness of the nonlinear isolator is derived and numerical simulation on the effect of the geometric design parameters is carried out. Besides, a pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system model is established. The stiffness characteristic of the system is studied and the effects of excitation amplitude and friction damping on shock isolation performance are discussed respectively. The research results show that in comparison with linear shock isolation system, the pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system could realize constant-force or approximately constant-force function and perform better anti-impact performance.
CE Method for Development of Japan's Stochastic Earthquake Catalogue
Stochastic catalog represents the events module of the earthquake loss estimation models. It includes series of events with different magnitudes and corresponding frequencies/probabilities. For the development of the stochastic catalog, random or uniform sampling methods are used to sample the events from the seismicity model. For covering all the Magnitude Frequency Distribution (MFD), a huge number of events should be generated for the above-mentioned methods. Characteristic Event (CE) method chooses the events based on the interest of the insurance industry. We divide the MFD of each source into bins. We have chosen the bins based on the probability of the interest by the insurance industry. First, we have collected the information for the available seismic sources. Sources are divided into Fault sources, subduction, and events without specific fault source. We have developed the MFD for each of the individual and areal source based on the seismicity of the sources. Afterward, we have calculated the CE magnitudes based on the desired probability. To develop the stochastic catalog, we have introduced uncertainty to the location of the events too.
Utilizing Google Earth for Internet GIS
The objective of this examination is to explore the capability of utilizing Google Earth for Internet GIS applications. The study particularly analyzes the utilization of vector and characteristic information and the capability of showing and preparing this information in new ways utilizing the Google Earth stage. It has progressively been perceived that future improvements in GIS will fixate on Internet GIS, and in three noteworthy territories: GIS information access, spatial data scattering and GIS displaying/preparing. Google Earth is one of the group of geobrowsers that offer a free and simple to utilize administration that empower information with a spatial part to be overlain on top of a 3-D model of the Earth. This examination makes a methodological structure to accomplish its objective that comprises of three noteworthy parts: A database level, an application level and a customer level. As verification of idea a web model has been produced, which incorporates a differing scope of datasets and lets clients direst inquiries and make perceptions of this custom information. The outcomes uncovered that both vector and property information can be successfully spoken to and imagined utilizing Google Earth. In addition, the usefulness to question custom information and envision results has been added to the Google Earth stage.
A Fast Algorithm for Electromagnetic Compatibility Estimation for Radio Communication Network Equipment in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the ability of a Radio Communication Equipment (RCE) to operate with a desired quality of service in a given Electromagnetic Environment (EME) and not to create harmful interference with other RCE. This paper presents an algorithm which improves the simulation speed of estimating EMC of RCE in a complex EME, based on a stage by stage frequency-energy criterion of filtering. This algorithm considers different interference types including: Blocking and intermodulation. It consist of the following steps: simplified energy criterion where filtration is based on comparing the free space interference level to the industrial noise, frequency criterion which checks whether the interfering emissions characteristic overlap with the receiver’s channels characteristic and lastly the detailed energy criterion where the real channel interference level is compared to the noise level. In each of these stages, some interference cases are filtered out by the relevant criteria. This reduces the total number of dual and different combinations of RCE involved in the tedious detailed energy analysis and thus provides an improved simulation speed.
Fengqiao: An Ongoing Experiment with 'UrbanMemory' Theory in an Ancient Town and ItsDesign Experience
Ancient town is a unique carrier of urban culture, maintaining the core culture of a region and continuing the urban context. Fengqiao, a nearly 2000-year-old town was on the brink of dilapidation in the past few decades. The town faced such problems as poor construction quality, environmental degeneration, inadequate open space, cultural characteristics and industry vitality. Therefore, the research upholds the principle of ‘organic renewal’ and puts forward three practical updated strategies which are ‘Repair Old as Ever,' ‘Activate Function’ and ‘Fill in with The New’. Also as a participant in updating the design, the author aims to ‘keep the memory of the history and see the development of the present’ as the goal of updating the design and regards the process of town renewal as the experimental venue for realizing this purpose. The research will sum up innovations on the designing process and the engineering progress in the past two years, and find out the innovation experiment and the effect of its implementation on the methodological level of the organic renewal design in Fengqiao ancient town. From here, we can also enjoy the very characteristic development trend presented by China in the design practice of the organic renewal in the ancient town.
Praetical and Theoretical Study on Characteristic Landscape Construction of Tujia Village in Xiaguping, Shennongjia Forestry Distric
Compared with other regions, the construction for villages and towns in regions inhabited by minority nationality shall be deeply rooted in natural and cultural endowment in locality, and more importance shall be attached to building of characteristics. In this kind of area, landscape design is very important for its character and tradition. By empirical study in Shennongjia Area, some findings could be summarized as below. There are unique natural and cultural resources in Shennongjia Forestry District; during transformation on style and features of Tujia Village, Xiaguping, special style and features have been successfully shaped through 4 strategies: (1) highlighting Tujia Culture and architectural style in west region of Hubei Province; (2) merging with local natural environment; (3) introducing system of rural coordination architect; and (4) making great efforts to design and construct environmental embellishments with village and town symbols.
Effect of Size and Soil Characteristic on Contribution of Side and Tip Resistance of the Drilled Shafts Axial Load Carrying Capacity
Drilled shafts are the most popular of deep foundations, because they have the capability that one single shaft can easily carry the entire load of a large column from a bridge or tall building. Drilled shaft may be an economical alternative to pile foundations because a pile cap is not needed, which not only reduces that expense, but also provides a rough surface in the border of soil and concrete to carry a more axial load. Due to the larger construction sizes of drilled shafts, they have an excellent axial load carrying capacity. Part of the axial load carrying capacity of the drilled shaft is resisted by the soil below the tip of the shaft which is tip resistance and the other part is resisted by the friction developed around the drilled shaft which is side resistance. The condition at the bottom of the excavation can affect the end bearing capacity of the drilled shaft. Also, type of the soil and size of the drilled shaft can affect the frictional resistance. The main loads applied on the drilled shafts are axial compressive loads. It is important to know how many percent of the maximum applied load will be shed inside friction and how much will be transferred to the base. The axial capacity of the drilled shaft foundation is influenced by the size of the drilled shaft, and soil characteristics. In this study, the effect of the size and soil characteristic will be investigated on the contribution of side resistance and end-bearing capacity. Also, the study presents a three-dimensional finite element modeling of a drilled shaft subjected to axial load using ANSYS. The top displacement and settlement of the drilled shaft are verified with analytical results. The soil profile is considered as Table 1 and for a drilled shaft with 7 ft diameter and 95 ft length the stresses in z-direction are calculated through the length of the shaft. From the stresses in z-direction through the length of the shaft the side resistance can be calculated and with the z-direction stress at the tip, the tip resistance can be calculated. The result of the side and tip resistance for this drilled shaft are compared with the analytical results.
On Figuring the City Characteristics and Landscape in Overall Urban Design: A Case Study in Xiangyang Central City, China
Chinese overall urban design faces a large number of problems such as the neglect of urban characteristics, generalization of content, and difficulty in implementation. Focusing on these issues, this paper proposes the main points of shaping urban characteristics in overall urban design: focuses on core problems in city function and scale, landscape pattern, historical culture, social resources and modern city style and digs the urban characteristic genes. Then, we put forward "core problem location and characteristic gene enhancement" as a kind of overall urban design technical method. Firstly, based on the main problems in urban space as a whole, for the operability goal, the method extracts the key genes and integrates into the multi-dimension system in a targeted manner. Secondly, hierarchical management and guidance system is established which may be in line with administrative management. Finally, by converting the results, action plan is drawn up that can be dynamically implemented. Based on the above idea and method, a practical exploration has been performed in the case of Xiangyang central city.
Bearing Capacity of Sulphuric Acid Content Soil
Tests were conducted to determine the property of soil with variation of H2SO4 content for soils under different stage. The soils had varying amounts of plasticity’s ranging from low to high plasticity. The unsaturated soil behavior was investigated for different conditions, covering a range of compactive efforts and water contents. The soil characteristic curves were more sensitive to changes in compaction effort than changes in compaction water content. In this research paper two types of water (Ground water Ph =7.9, Turbidity= 13 ppm; Cl =2.1mg/l and surface water Ph =8.65; Turbidity=18.5; Cl=1mg/l) were selected of Bhilai Nagar, State-Chhattisgarh, India which is mixed with a certain type of soil. Results shows that by the presence of ground water day by day the particles are becoming coarser in 7 days thereafter its size reduces; on the other hand by the presence of surface water the courser particles are disintegrating, finer particles are accumulating and also the dry density is reduces. Plasticity soils retained the smallest water content and the highest plasticity soils retained the highest water content at a specified suction. In addition, soil characteristic for soils to be compacted in the laboratory and in the field are still under process for analyzing the bearing capacity. The bearing capacity was reduced 2 to 3 times in the presence of H2SO4.
Comparison of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Smoothing Methods
The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a commonly used statistical tool for evaluating the diagnostic performance of screening and diagnostic test with continuous or ordinal scale results which aims to predict the presence or absence probability of a condition, usually a disease. When the test results were measured as numeric values, sensitivity and specificity can be computed across all possible threshold values which discriminate the subjects as diseased and non-diseased. There are infinite numbers of possible decision thresholds along the continuum of the test results. The ROC curve presents the trade-off between sensitivity and the 1-specificity as the threshold changes. The empirical ROC curve which is a non-parametric estimator of the ROC curve is robust and it represents data accurately. However, especially for small sample sizes, it has a problem of variability and as it is a step function there can be different false positive rates for a true positive rate value and vice versa. Besides, the estimated ROC curve being in a jagged form, since the true ROC curve is a smooth curve, it underestimates the true ROC curve. Since the true ROC curve is assumed to be smooth, several smoothing methods have been explored to smooth a ROC curve. These include using kernel estimates, using log-concave densities, to fit parameters for the specified density function to the data with the maximum-likelihood fitting of univariate distributions or to create a probability distribution by fitting the specified distribution to the data nd using smooth versions of the empirical distribution functions. In the present paper, we aimed to propose a smooth ROC curve estimation based on the boundary corrected kernel function and to compare the performances of ROC curve smoothing methods for the diagnostic test results coming from different distributions in different sample sizes. We performed simulation study to compare the performances of different methods for different scenarios with 1000 repetitions. It is seen that the performance of the proposed method was typically better than that of the empirical ROC curve and only slightly worse compared to the binormal model when in fact the underlying samples were generated from the normal distribution.
Experimental Verification of Similarity Criteria for Sound Absorption of Perforated Panels
Scaled modeling is very common in the areas of science such as aerodynamics or fluid mechanics, since defining characteristic numbers enables to determine relations between objects under test and their models. In acoustics, scaled modeling is aimed mainly at investigation of room acoustics, sound insulation and sound absorption phenomena. Despite such a range of application, there is no method developed that would enable scaling acoustical perforated panels freely, maintaining their sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range. However, conducted theoretical and numerical analyses have proven that it is not physically possible to obtain given sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range by directly scaling only all of the physical dimensions of a perforated panel, according to a defined characteristic number. This paper is a continuation of the research mentioned above and presents practical evaluation of theoretical and numerical analyses. The measurements of sound absorption coefficient of perforated panels were performed in order to verify previous analyses and as a result find the relations between full-scale perforated panels and their models which will enable to scale them properly. The measurements were conducted in a one-to-eight model of a reverberation chamber of Technical Acoustics Laboratory, AGH. Obtained results verify theses proposed after theoretical and numerical analyses. Finding the relations between full-scale and modeled perforated panels will allow to produce measurement samples equivalent to the original ones. As a consequence, it will make the process of designing acoustical perforated panels easier and will also lower the costs of prototypes production. Having this knowledge, it will be possible to emulate in a constructed model panels used, or to be used, in a full-scale room more precisely and as a result imitate or predict the acoustics of a modeled space more accurately.
Internal DC Short-Circuit Fault Analysis and Protection for VSI of Wind Power Generation Systems
Traditional HVDC systems are tough to DC short circuits as they are current regulated with a large reactance connected in series with cables. Multi-terminal DC wind farm topologies are attracting increasing research attempt. With AC/DC converters on the generator side, this topology can be developed into a multi-terminal DC network for wind power collection, which is especially suitable for large-scale offshore wind farms. For wind farms, the topology uses high-voltage direct-current transmission based on voltage-source converters (VSC-HVDC). Therefore, they do not suffer from over currents due to DC cable faults and there is no over current to react to. In this study, the multi-terminal DC wind farm topology is introduced. Then, possible internal DC faults are analyzed according to type and characteristic. Fault over current expressions are given in detail. Under this characteristic analysis, fault detection and detailed protection methods are proposed. Theoretical analysis and PSCAD/EMTDC simulations are provided.
Fire Characteristic of Commercial Retardant Flame Polycarbonate under Different Oxygen Concentration: Ignition Time and Heat Blockage
The commercial retardant flame polycarbonate samples as the main high speed train interior carriage material with different thicknesses were investigated in Fire Propagation Apparatus with different external heat fluxes under different oxygen concentration from 12% to 40% to study the fire characteristics and quantitatively analyze the ignition time, mass loss rate and heat blockage. The additives of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate were intumescent and maintained a steady height before ignition when heated. The results showed the transformed ignition time (1/t_ig)ⁿ increased linearly with external flux under different oxygen concentration after deducting the heat blockage due to pyrolysis products, the mass loss rate was taken on linearly with external heat fluxes and the slop of the fitting line for mass loss rate and external heat fluxes decreased with the enhanced oxygen concentration and the heat blockage independent on external heat fluxes rose with oxygen concentration increasing. The inquired data as the input of the fire simulation model was the most important to be used to evaluate the fire risk of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate.
The Development of Leisure and Endowment Characteristic Villages in the Perspective of Balancing the Dwellers and Aged Visitors:A Case Study of Villages in Hangzhou Metropolitan Area
Under the background of increasing aging population, the situation of city endowment resources shortage gradually revealed. And many villages in the metropolitan area with the good natural ecological environment and leisure tourism base, have become one of the main destinations of urban old people for the off-site pension. This paper is based on a survey of more than ten villages which are characterized by leisure and endowment in Hangzhou metropolitan area, China. The satisfaction degree of the two main groups in the villages, dwellers, and aged visitors, is researched using the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The statistics are obtained from 535 questionnaires and qualitative interview. According to the satisfaction scores, it could be determined whether the dwellers and aged visitors have reached the equilibrium state. The equilibrium state is the development target of the villages, and it`s defined by environmentally friendly, proper for employment and pension, facilities sharing and harmonious life for each other. Furthermore, this paper comes up with some planning countermeasures in order to avoid "imbalance between dwellers and aged visitors" and obtain sustainable development while maintaining the economic benefit.
Fouling of Regenerated Ultrafiltration Membrane in Treatment of Oily Wastewater of Palm Oil Refinery
Oily wastewater in Malaysian refinery has become a big issue of water and environment pollution to be solved urgently. The results of an experimental study on separation of oily wastewaters are presented. The characteristic of filtration behavior of commercial polymer ultrafiltration (UF) membranes was evaluated in the treatment of oily wastewater from palm oil refinery. The performance of different molecular weight cut off 5kDa and 10kDa regenerated cellulose membrane were evaluated and compared and the fouling behavior were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of pressure (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 bar) and sample concentration (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%) on fouling of 5kDa and 10kDa membrane were evaluated. The characteristic of the sample solutions were analyzed for turbidity, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), BOD, and COD. The results showed that the best fit to experimental data corresponds to the cake layer formation followed by the intermediate blocking for the experimental conditions tested. A more detailed analysis of the fouling mechanisms was studied by dividing the filtration curves into different regions corresponding to the different fouling mechanisms. Intermediate blocking and cake layer formation or combinations of them were found to occur during the UF experiments depending on the operating conditions.
Lamb Waves Propagation in Elastic-Viscoelastic Three-Layer Adhesive Joints
In this paper, the propagation of lamb waves in three-layer joints is investigated using global matrix method. Theoretical boundary value problem in three-layer adhesive joints with perfect bond and traction free boundary conditions on their outer surfaces is solved to find a combination of frequencies and modes with the lowest attenuation. The characteristic equation is derived by applying continuity and boundary conditions in three-layer joints using global matrix method. Attenuation and phase velocity dispersion curves are obtained with numerical solution of this equation by a computer code for a three-layer joint, including an aluminum repair patch bonded to the aircraft aluminum skin by a layer of viscoelastic epoxy adhesive. To validate the numerical solution results of the characteristic equation, wave structure curves are plotted for a special mode in two different frequencies in the adhesive joint. The purpose of present paper is to find a combination of frequencies and modes with minimum attenuation in high and low frequencies. These frequencies and modes are recognizable by transducers in inspections with Lamb waves because of low attenuation level.
Urban Boundary Layer and Its Effects on Haze Episode in Thailand
Atmospheric boundary layer shows effects of land cover on atmospheric characteristic in term of temperature gradient and wind profile. They are key factors to control atmospheric process such as atmospheric dilution and mixing via thermal and mechanical turbulent. Bangkok, ChiangMai, and Hatyai are major cities of central, southern and northern of Thailand, respectively. The different of them are location, geography and size of the city, Bangkok is the most urbanized city and classified as mega city compared to ChiangMai and HatYai, respectively. They have been suffering from air pollution episode such as transboundary haze. The worst period of the northern part of Thailand was occurred at the end of February through April of each year. The particulate matter less than 10 micrometer (PM10) concentrations were higher than Thai’s ambient air quality standard (120 micrograms per cubic meter) more than two times. Radiosonde technique and air pollutant (CO, PM10, TSP, O3, NOx) measurements were used to identify characteristics of urban boundary layer and air pollutions problems in the cities. Furthermore, air pollutant profiles showed good relationship to characteristic’s urban boundary layer especially on daytime temperature inversion on 29 February 2009 caused two times higher than normal concentrations of CO and particulate matter.
Demographic Bomb or Bonus in All Provinces in 100 Years after Indonesian Independence
According to National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN), demographic bonus will occur in 2025-2035, when the number of people within the productive age bracket is higher than the number of elderly people and children. This time will be a gold moment for Indonesia to achieve maximum productivity and prosperity. But it will be a demographic bomb if it isn’t balanced by economic and social aspect considerations. Therefore it is important to make a prediction mapping of all provinces in Indonesia whether in demographic bomb or bonus condition after 100 years Indonesian independence. The purpose of this research were to make the demographic mapping based on the economic and social aspects of the provinces in Indonesia and categorizing them into demographic bomb and bonus condition. The research data are gained from Statistics Indonesia (BPS) as the secondary data. The multiregional component method, regression and quadrant analysis were used to predict the number of people, economic growth, Human Development Index (HDI), and gender equality in education and employment. There were different characteristic of provinces in Indonesia from economic aspect and social aspect. The west Indonesia was already better developed than the east one. The prediction result, many provinces in Indonesia will get demographic bonus but the others will get demographic bomb. It is important to prepare particular strategy to particular provinces with all of their characteristic based on the prediction result so the demographic bomb can be minimalized.
Diagnosis and Analysis of Automated Liver and Tumor Segmentation on CT
For view the internal structures of the human body such as liver, brain, kidney etc have a wide range of different modalities for medical images are provided nowadays. Computer Tomography is one of the most significant medical image modalities. In this paper use CT liver images for study the use of automatic computer aided techniques to calculate the volume of the liver tumor. Segmentation method is used for the detection of tumor from the CT scan is proposed. Gaussian filter is used for denoising the liver image and Adaptive Thresholding algorithm is used for segmentation. Multiple Region Of Interest(ROI) based method that may help to characteristic the feature different. It provides a significant impact on classification performance. Due to the characteristic of liver tumor lesion, inherent difficulties appear selective. For a better performance, a novel proposed system is introduced. Multiple ROI based feature selection and classification are performed. In order to obtain of relevant features for Support Vector Machine(SVM) classifier is important for better generalization performance. The proposed system helps to improve the better classification performance, reason in which we can see a significant reduction of features is used. The diagnosis of liver cancer from the computer tomography images is very difficult in nature. Early detection of liver tumor is very helpful to save the human life.
Oscillatory Electroosmotic Flow of Power-Law Fluids in a Microchannel
The Oscillatory electroosmotic flow (OEOF) in power law fluids through a microchannel is studied numerically. A time-dependent external electric field (AC) is suddenly imposed at the ends of the microchannel which induces the fluid motion. The continuity and momentum equations in the x and y direction for the flow field were simplified in the limit of the lubrication approximation theory (LAT), and then solved using a numerical scheme. The solution of the electric potential is based on the Debye-H&uml;uckel approximation which suggest that the surface potential is small,say, smaller than 0.025V and for a symmetric (z : z) electrolyte. Our results suggest that the velocity profiles across the channel-width are controlled by the following dimensionless parameters: the angular Reynolds number, Re&omega;, the electrokinetic parameter, &macr;&kappa;, defined as the ratio of the characteristic length scale to the Debye length, the parameter &lambda; which represents the ratio of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to the characteristic length scale and the flow behavior index, n. Also, the results reveal that the velocity profiles become more and more non-uniform across the channel-width as the Re&omega; and &macr;&kappa; are increased, so oscillatory OEOF can be really useful in micro-fluidic devices such as micro-mixers.
Earthquake Relocations and Constraints on the Lateral Velocity Variations along the Gulf of Suez, Using the Modified Joint Hypocenter Method Determination
Hypocenters of 250 earthquakes recorded by more than 5 stations from the Egyptian seismic network around the Gulf of Suez were relocated and the seismic stations correction for the P-wave is estimated, using the modified joint hypocenter method determination. Five stations TR1, SHR, GRB, ZAF and ZET have minus signs in the station P-wave travel time corrections and their values are -0.235, -0.366, -0.288, -0.366 and -0.058, respectively. It is possible to assume that, the underground model in this area has a particular characteristic of high velocity structure in which the other stations TR2, RDS, SUZ, HRG and ZNM have positive signs and their values are 0.024, 0.187, 0.314, 0.645 and 0.145, respectively. It is possible to assume that, the underground model in this area has particular characteristic of low velocity structure. The hypocenteral location determined by the Modified joint hypocenter method is more precise than those determined by the other routine work program. This method simultaneously solves the earthquake locations and station corrections. The station corrections reflect, not only the different crustal conditions in the vicinity of the stations, but also the difference between the actual and modeled seismic velocities along each of the earthquake - station ray paths. The stations correction obtained is correlated with the major surface geological features in the study area. As a result of the relocation, the low velocity area appears in the northeastern and southwestern sides of the Gulf of Suez, while the southeastern and northwestern parts are of high velocity area.
Does Socio-Religious Categories Can Make Difference in Fertility: A Study of Malda District of West Bengal
The paper is an effort to come across the fertility differential by religion and socio-economic characteristic by religion. Religion and Socio-economic characteristic are conceptualised as touching demography in two ways- through its theoretical content, and in terms of the socio-economic ‘characteristics’ of different religious groups. The mean number of children ever born (MCEB) is used to measure fertility. Efficient contrast of Muslims and Non-Muslims shows little difference in their theological positions on demographic issues, with the omission of their position on birth control. The present paper using data from a primary field survey of 2590 households in the Malda district of West Bengal. Older and younger cohorts of women were examined separately for assessing fertility differential. MCEB was found to be high for women with husbands employed as labourers with a low monthly income. This was true for both the cohorts, but fertility levels were much higher among the older cohort. Low MCEB was found with increasing income and for those in regular salaried jobs. The analysis shows that there is a major dissimilarity in the effects of various socio-economic aspects on the number of children-ever-born among the religious groups, suggesting that religious groups may need to be targeted differently by policy-makers in order to influence demographic decision-making.
Estimating the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve from Clustered Data and Case-Control Studies
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have been widely used in medical research to illustrate the performance of the biomarker in correctly distinguishing the diseased and non-diseased groups. Correlated biomarker data arises in study designs that include subjects that contain same genetic or environmental factors. The information about correlation might help to identify family members at increased risk of disease development, and may lead to initiating treatment to slow or stop the progression to disease. Approaches appropriate to a case-control design matched by family identification, must be able to accommodate both the correlation inherent in the design in correctly estimating the biomarker’s ability to differentiate between cases and controls, as well as to handle estimation from a matched case control design. This talk will review some developed methods for ROC curve estimation in settings with correlated data from case control design and will discuss the limitations of current methods for analyzing correlated familial paired data. An alternative approach using Conditional ROC curves will be demonstrated, to provide appropriate ROC curves for correlated paired data. The proposed approach will use the information about the correlation among biomarker values, producing conditional ROC curves that evaluate the ability of a biomarker to discriminate between diseased and non-diseased subjects in a familial paired design.
Investigation of Vortex Induced Vibration and Galloping Characteristic for Various Shape Slender Bridge Hanger
Hanger at the arch bridges is an important part to transfer load on the bridge deck onto the arch. Bridges are subjected to several types of loadings, such as dead load, temperature load, wind load, moving loads etc. Usually the hanger bridge has a typical bluff body shape such as circle, square, H beam, etc. When flow past bluff body, the flow separates from the body surface generating an unsteady broad wake. These vortices are shed to the wake periodically with some frequency that is related to the undisturbed wind speed and the size of the cross-section body by the well-known Strouhal relationship. The dynamic characteristic and hanger shape are crucial for the evaluation of vortex induced vibrations and structural vibrations. The effect of vortex induced vibration is not catastrophic as a flutter phenomenon, but it can make fatigue failure to the structure. Wind tunnel tests are conducted to investigate the VIV and galloping effect at circle, hexagonal, and H beam bluff body for hanger bridge. From this research, the hanger bridge with hexagonal shape has a minimum vibration amplitude due to VIV phenomenon compared to circle and H beam. However, when the wind bruises the acute angle of hexagon shape, the vibration amplitude of bridge hanger with hexagonal shape is higher than the other bluff body.
Macular Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer Thinning
Background: To compare the thinning patterns of the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) as measured using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in patients with visual field (VF) defects that respect the vertical meridian. Methods: Twenty eyes of eleven patients with VF defects that respect the vertical meridian were enrolled retrospectively. The thicknesses of the macular GCIPL and pRNFL were measured using Cirrus HD-OCT. The 5% and 1% thinning area index (TAI) was calculated as the proportion of abnormally thin sectors at the 5% and 1% probability level within the area corresponding to the affected VF. The 5% and 1% TAI were compared between the GCIPL and pRNFL measurements. Results: The color-coded GCIPL deviation map showed a characteristic vertical thinning pattern of the GCIPL, which is also seen in the VF of patients with brain lesions. The 5% and 1% TAI were significantly higher in the GCIPL measurements than in the pRNFL measurements (all P < 0.01). Conclusions: Macular GCIPL analysis clearly visualized a characteristic topographic pattern of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in patients with VF defects that respect the vertical meridian, unlike pRNFL measurements. Macular GCIPL measurements provide more valuable information than pRNFL measurements for detecting the loss of RGCs in patients with retrograde degeneration of the optic nerve fibers.
Performance Comparison of Tablet Devices and Medical Diagnostic Display Devices Using Digital Object Patterns in PACS Environment
Tablet devices have been introduced into the medical environment in recent years. The performance of display can be varied based on the use of different hardware specifications and types of display technologies. Therefore, the differences between tablet devices and medical diagnostic LCDs have to be verified to ensure that image quality is not jeopardized for clinical diagnosis in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). In this study, a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) were developed, which included randomly located spheres in abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were asked to independently review the CT images on different generations of iPads and a diagnostic monochrome medical LCD monitor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed by using a five-point rating scale, and the average area under curve (AUC) and average reading time (ART) were calculated. The AUC values for the second generation iPad, iPad mini, iPad Air, and monochrome medical monitor were 0.712, 0.717, 0.725, and 0.740, respectively. The differences between iPads were not significant. The ARTs were 177 min and 127 min for iPad mini and medical LCD monitor, respectively. A significant difference appeared (p = 0.04). The results show that the iPads were slightly inferior to the monochrome medical LCD monitor. However, tablet devices possess advantages in portability and versatility, which can improve the convenience of rapid diagnosis and teleradiology. With advances in display technology, the applicability of tablet devices and mobile devices may be more diversified in PACS.
Relationship between Response of the Resistive Sensors on the Chosen Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Their Concentration
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the fungi metabolites in the gaseous form produced during improper storage of agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, food). The spoilt commodities produce a wide range of VOCs including alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, furans, phenols etc. The characteristic VOCs and odours can be determined by using electronic nose (e-Nose) which contains a matrix of different kinds of sensors e.g. resistive sensors. The aim of the present studies was to determine relationship between response of the resistive sensors on the chosen volatiles and their concentration. According to the literature, it was chosen volatiles characteristic for the cereals: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and hexanal. Analysis of the sensor signals shows that a signal shape is different for the different substances. Moreover, each VOC signal gives information about a maximum of the normalized sensor response (R/Rmax), an impregnation time (tIM) and a cleaning time at half maximum of R/Rmax (tCL). These three parameters can be regarded as a ‘VOC fingerprint’. Seven resistive sensors (TGS2600-B00, TGS2602-B00, TGS2610-C00, TGS2611-C00, TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00, TGS2620-C00) produced by Figaro USA Inc., and one (AS-MLV-P2) produced by AMS AG, Austria were used. Two out of seven sensors (TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00) did not react to the chosen VOCs. The most responsive sensor was AS-MLV-P2. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.
Performance Assessment of a Variable-Flux Permanent-Magnet Memory Motor
The variable flux permanent magnet synchronous motor (VF-PMSM), also called 'Memory Motor', is a new generation of motor capable of modifying the magnetization state with short pulses of current during operation or standstill. The impact of such operation is the expansion of the operating range in the torque-speed characteristic and an improvement in energy efficiency at high-speed in comparison to conventional permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs). This paper reviews the operating principle and the unique features of the proposed memory motor. The benefits of this concept are highlighted by comparing the performance of the rotor of the VF-PMSM to that of two PM rotors that are typically found in the industry. The investigation emphasizes the properties of the variable magnetization and presents the comparison of the torque-speed characteristic with the capability of loss reduction in a VF-PMSM by means of experimental results, especially when tests are conducted under identical conditions for each rotor (same stator, same inverter, and same experimental setup). The experimental results demonstrated that the VF-PMSM gives an additional degree of freedom to optimize the efficiency over a wide speed range. Thus, with a design easy to manufacture and with the possibility of controlling the magnetization and the demagnetization of the magnets during operations, the VF- PMSM can be interesting for various applications.
Electrochemical Properties of Bimetallic Silver-Platinum Core-Shell Nanoparticles
Silver-platinum (Ag-Pt) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with varying mole fractions (1:1, 1:3 and 3:1) were prepared by co-reduction of hexachloroplatinate and silver nitrate with sodium citrate. Upon successful formation of both monometallic and bimetallic (BM) core shell nanoparticles, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the NPs. The drop coated nanofilms on the GC substrate showed characteristic peaks of monometallic Ag NPs; Ag+/Ag0 redox couple as well as the Pt NPs; hydrogen adsorption and desorption peaks. These characteristic peaks were confirmed in the bimetallic NPs voltammograms. The following varying current trends were observed in the BM NPs ratios; GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 > GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 > GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1. Fundamental electrochemical properties which directly or indirectly affects the applicability of films such as; diffusion coefficient (D), electroactive surface coverage, electrochemical band gap, electron transfer coefficient (α) and charge (Q) were assessed using Randles - Sevcik plot and Laviron’s equations . High charge and surface coverage was observed in GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 which supports its enhanced current. GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 showed high diffusion coefficient while GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1 possessed high electron transfer coefficient that is facilitated by its high apparent heterogeneous rate constant relative to other BM NPs ratios. Surface redox reaction was determined as adsorption controlled in all modified GCEs. Surface coverage is inversely proportional to size; therefore the surface coverage data suggests that Ag-Pt 1:1 NPs have a small particle size. Generally, GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 depicts the best electrochemical properties.
Simulation of Turboexpander Potential in a City Gate Station under Variations of Feed Characteristic
This paper presents a feasibility assessment of an expansion system applied to the natural gas transportation process in Iran. Power can be generated from the pressure energy of natural gas along its supply chain at various pressure reduction points by using turboexpanders. This technology is being applied in different countries around the world. The system consists of a turboexpander reducing the natural gas pressure and providing mechanical energy to drive electric generator. Moreover, gas pre-heating, required to prevent hydrate formation, is performed upstream of expansion stage using burner. The city gate station (CGS) has a nominal flow rate in range of 45000 to 270000 cubic meters per hour and a pressure reduction from maximum 62 bar at the upstream to 6 bar. Due to variable feed pressure and temperature in this station sensitivity analysis of generated electricity and required heat is performed. Results show that plant gain is more sensible to pressure variation than temperature changes. Furthermore, using turboexpander to reduce the pressure result in an electrical generation of 2757 to 17574 kW with the value of approximately 4 million US$ per year. Moreover, the required heat range to prevent a hydrate formation is almost 2189 to 14157 kW. To provide this heat, a burner is used with a maximum annual cost of 268,640 $ burner fuel. Therefore, the actual annual benefit of proposed plant modification is approximately over 6,5 million US$.
Detection of Curvilinear Structure via Recursive Anisotropic Diffusion
The detection of curvilinear structures often plays an important role in the analysis of images. In particular, it is considered as a crucial step for the diagnosis of chronic respiratory diseases to localize the fissures in chest CT imagery where the lung is divided into five lobes by the fissures that are characterized by linear features in appearance. However, the characteristic linear features for the fissures are often shown to be subtle due to the high intensity variability, pathological deformation or image noise involved in the imaging procedure, which leads to the uncertainty in the quantification of anatomical or functional properties of the lung. Thus, it is desired to enhance the linear features present in the chest CT images so that the distinctiveness in the delineation of the lobe is improved. We propose a recursive diffusion process that prefers coherent features based on the analysis of structure tensor in an anisotropic manner. The local image features associated with certain scales and directions can be characterized by the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor that is often regularized via isotropic diffusion filters. However, the isotropic diffusion filters involved in the computation of the structure tensor generally blur geometrically significant structure of the features leading to the degradation of the characteristic power in the feature space. Thus, it is required to take into consideration of local structure of the feature in scale and direction when computing the structure tensor. We apply an anisotropic diffusion in consideration of scale and direction of the features in the computation of the structure tensor that subsequently provides the geometrical structure of the features by its eigenanalysis that determines the shape of the anisotropic diffusion kernel. The recursive application of the anisotropic diffusion with the kernel the shape of which is derived from the structure tensor leading to the anisotropic scale-space where the geometrical features are preserved via the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor computed from the diffused image. The recursive interaction between the anisotropic diffusion based on the geometry-driven kernels and the computation of the structure tensor that determines the shape of the diffusion kernels yields a scale-space where geometrical properties of the image structure are effectively characterized. We apply our recursive anisotropic diffusion algorithm to the detection of curvilinear structure in the chest CT imagery where the fissures present curvilinear features and define the boundary of lobes. It is shown that our algorithm yields precise detection of the fissures while overcoming the subtlety in defining the characteristic linear features. The quantitative evaluation demonstrates the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for the detection of fissures in the chest CT in terms of the false positive and the true positive measures. The receiver operating characteristic curves indicate the potential of our algorithm as a segmentation tool in the clinical environment. This work was supported by the MISP(Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the National Program for Excellence in SW (20170001000011001) supervised by the IITP(Institute for Information and Communications Technology Promotion).
Detection of Curvilinear Structure via Recursive Anisotropic Diffusion
The detection of curvilinear structures often plays an important role in the analysis of images. In particular, it is considered as a crucial step for the diagnosis of chronic respiratory diseases to localize the fissures in chest CT imagery where the lung is divided into five lobes by the fissures that are characterized by linear features in appearance. However, the characteristic linear features for the fissures are often shown to be subtle due to the high intensity variability, pathological deformation or image noise involved in the imaging procedure, which leads to the uncertainty in the quantification of anatomical or functional properties of the lung. Thus, it is desired to enhance the linear features present in the chest CT images so that the distinctiveness in the delineation of the lobe is improved. We propose a recursive diffusion process that prefers coherent features based on the analysis of structure tensor in an anisotropic manner. The local image features associated with certain scales and directions can be characterized by the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor that is often regularized via isotropic diffusion filters. However, the isotropic diffusion filters involved in the computation of the structure tensor generally blur geometrically significant structure of the features leading to the degradation of the characteristic power in the feature space. Thus, it is required to take into consideration of local structure of the feature in scale and direction when computing the structure tensor. We apply an anisotropic diffusion in consideration of scale and direction of the features in the computation of the structure tensor that subsequently provides the geometrical structure of the features by its eigenanalysis that determines the shape of the anisotropic diffusion kernel. The recursive application of the anisotropic diffusion with the kernel the shape of which is derived from the structure tensor leading to the anisotropic scale-space where the geometrical features are preserved via the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor computed from the diffused image. The recursive interaction between the anisotropic diffusion based on the geometry-driven kernels and the computation of the structure tensor that determines the shape of the diffusion kernels yields a scale-space where geometrical properties of the image structure are effectively characterized. We apply our recursive anisotropic diffusion algorithm to the detection of curvilinear structure in the chest CT imagery where the fissures present curvilinear features and define the boundary of lobes. It is shown that our algorithm yields precise detection of the fissures while overcoming the subtlety in defining the characteristic linear features. The quantitative evaluation demonstrates the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for the detection of fissures in the chest CT in terms of the false positive and the true positive measures. The receiver operating characteristic curves indicate the potential of our algorithm as a segmentation tool in the clinical environment. This work was supported by the MISP(Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the National Program for Excellence in SW (20170001000011001) supervised by the IITP(Institute for Information and Communications Technology Promotion).
Detection of Curvilinear Structure via Recursive Anisotropic Diffusion
The detection of curvilinear structures often plays an important role in the analysis of images. In particular, it is considered as a crucial step for the diagnosis of chronic respiratory diseases to localize the fissures in chest CT imagery where the lung is divided into five lobes by the fissures that are characterized by linear features in appearance. However, the characteristic linear features for the fissures are often shown to be subtle due to the high intensity variability, pathological deformation or image noise involved in the imaging procedure, which leads to the uncertainty in the quantification of anatomical or functional properties of the lung. Thus, it is desired to enhance the linear features present in the chest CT images so that the distinctiveness in the delineation of the lobe is improved. We propose a recursive diffusion process that prefers coherent features based on the analysis of structure tensor in an anisotropic manner. The local image features associated with certain scales and directions can be characterized by the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor that is often regularized via isotropic diffusion filters. However, the isotropic diffusion filters involved in the computation of the structure tensor generally blur geometrically significant structure of the features leading to the degradation of the characteristic power in the feature space. Thus, it is required to take into consideration of local structure of the feature in scale and direction when computing the structure tensor. We apply an anisotropic diffusion in consideration of scale and direction of the features in the computation of the structure tensor that subsequently provides the geometrical structure of the features by its eigenanalysis that determines the shape of the anisotropic diffusion kernel. The recursive application of the anisotropic diffusion with the kernel the shape of which is derived from the structure tensor leading to the anisotropic scale-space where the geometrical features are preserved via the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor computed from the diffused image. The recursive interaction between the anisotropic diffusion based on the geometry-driven kernels and the computation of the structure tensor that determines the shape of the diffusion kernels yields a scale-space where geometrical properties of the image structure are effectively characterized. We apply our recursive anisotropic diffusion algorithm to the detection of curvilinear structure in the chest CT imagery where the fissures present curvilinear features and define the boundary of lobes. It is shown that our algorithm yields precise detection of the fissures while overcoming the subtlety in defining the characteristic linear features. The quantitative evaluation demonstrates the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for the detection of fissures in the chest CT in terms of the false positive and the true positive measures. The receiver operating characteristic curves indicate the potential of our algorithm as a segmentation tool in the clinical environment. This work was supported by the MISP(Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the National Program for Excellence in SW (20170001000011001) supervised by the IITP(Institute for Information and Communications Technology Promotion).
Studies on Toxicity and Mechanical Properties of Nonmetallic Printed Circuit Boards Waste in Recycled HDPE Composites
The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reusing nonmetallic printed circuit boards (PCBs) waste in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in terms of toxicity and mechanical properties. A series of X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) analysis tests have been conducted on raw nonmetallic PCBs waste to determine the chemical compositions. It can be seen that the nonmetallic PCBs approximately 72% of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin materials such as SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, BaO, Na2O, and SrO, 9.4% of metallic materials such as CuO, SnO2, and Fe2O3, and 6.53% of Br. Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests also have been done to study the toxicity characteristics of raw nonmetallic PCB powders, rHDPE/PCB and virgin HDPE for comparison purposes. For both of the testing, Cu was identified as the highest metal element contained in raw PCBs with the concentration of 905 mg/kg and 59.09 mg/L for TTLC and TCLP, respectively. However, once the nonmetallic PCB was filled in rHDPE composites, the concentrations of Cu were reduced to 134 mg/kg for TTLC and to 3 mg/L for TCLP testing. For mechanical properties testing, incorporation of 40 wt% nonmetallic PCB into rHDPE has increased the flexural modulus and flexural strength by 140% and 36%, respectively. While, Izod Impact strength decreased steadily with incorporation of 10 – 40 wt% nonmetallic PCBs.
Analysis of Accurate Direct-Estimation of the Maximum Power Point and Thermal Characteristics of High Concentration Photovoltaic Modules
Performance-related parameters of high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) modules (e.g. current and voltage) are required when estimating the maximum power point using numerical and approximation methods. The maximum power point on the characteristic curve for a photovoltaic module varies when temperature or solar radiation is different. It is also difficult to estimate the output performance and maximum power point (MPP) due to the special characteristics of HCPV modules. Based on the p-n junction semiconductor theory, a brand new and simple method is presented in this study to directly evaluate the MPP of HCPV modules. The MPP of HCPV modules can be determined from an irradiated I-V characteristic curve, because there is a non-linear relationship between the temperature of a solar cell and solar radiation. Numerical simulations and field tests are conducted to examine the characteristics of HCPV modules during maximum output power tracking. The performance of the presented method is evaluated by examining the dependence of temperature and irradiation intensity on the MPP characteristics of HCPV modules. These results show that the presented method allows HCPV modules to achieve their maximum power and perform power tracking under various operation conditions. A 0.1% error is found between the estimated and the real maximum power point.
Time Effective Structural Frequency Response Testing with Oblique Impact
Structural frequency response testing is accurate in identifying the dynamic characteristic of a machinery structure. In practical perspective, conventional structural frequency response testing such as experimental modal analysis with impulse technique (also known as "impulse testing") has limitation especially on its long acquisition time. The high acquisition time is mainly due to the redundancy procedure where the engineer has to repeatedly perform the test in 3 directions, namely the axial-, horizontal- and vertical-axis, in order to comprehensively define the dynamic behavior of a 3D structure. This is unfavorable to numerous industries where the downtime cost is high. This study proposes to reduce the testing time by using oblique impact. Theoretically, a single oblique impact can induce significant vibration responses and vibration modes in all the 3 directions. Hence, the acquisition time with the implementation of the oblique impulse technique can be reduced by a factor of three (i.e. for a 3D dynamic system). This study initiates an experimental investigation of impulse testing with oblique excitation. A motor-driven test rig has been used for the testing purpose. Its dynamic characteristic has been identified using the impulse testing with the conventional normal impact and the proposed oblique impact respectively. The results show that the proposed oblique impulse testing is able to obtain all the desired natural frequencies in all 3 directions and thus providing a feasible solution for a fast and time effective way of conducting the impulse testing.
Design of a New Architecture of IDS Called BiIDS (IDS Based on Two Principles of Detection)
An IDS is a tool which is used to improve the level of security.In this paper we present different architectures of IDS. We will also discuss measures that define the effectiveness of IDS and the very recent works of standardization and homogenization of IDS. At the end, we propose a new model of IDS called BiIDS (IDS Based on the two principles of detection).
Designing Agile Product Development Processes by Transferring Mechanisms of Action Used in Agile Software Development
Due to the fugacity of markets and the reduction of product lifecycles, manufacturing companies from high-wage countries are nowadays faced with the challenge to place more innovative products within even shorter development time on the market. At the same time, volatile customer requirements have to be satisfied in order to successfully differentiate from market competitors. One potential approach to address the explained challenges is provided by agile values and principles. These agile values and principles already proofed their success within software development projects in the form of management frameworks like Scrum or concrete procedure models such as Extreme Programming or Crystal Clear. Those models lead to significant improvements regarding quality, costs and development time and are therefore used within most software development projects. Motivated by the success within the software industry, manufacturing companies have tried to transfer agile mechanisms of action to the development of hardware products ever since. Though first empirical studies show similar effects in the agile development of hardware products, no comprehensive procedure model for the design of development iterations has been developed for hardware development yet due to different constraints of the domains. For this reason, this paper focusses on the design of agile product development processes by transferring mechanisms of action used in agile software development towards product development. This is conducted by decomposing the individual systems 'product development' and 'agile software development' into relevant elements and symbiotically composing the elements of both systems in respect of the design of agile product development processes afterwards. In a first step, existing product development processes are described following existing approaches of the system theory. By analyzing existing case studies from industrial companies as well as academic approaches, characteristic objectives, activities and artefacts are identified within a target-, action- and object-system. In partial model two, mechanisms of action are derived from existing procedure models of agile software development. These mechanisms of action are classified in a superior strategy level, in a system level comprising characteristic, domain-independent activities and their cause-effect relationships as well as in an activity-based element level. Within partial model three, the influence of the identified agile mechanism of action towards the characteristic system elements of product development processes is analyzed. For this reason, target-, action- and object-system of the product development are compared with the strategy-, system- and element-level of agile mechanism of action by using the graph theory. Furthermore, the necessity of existence of activities within iteration can be determined by defining activity-specific degrees of freedom. Based on this analysis, agile product development processes are designed in form of different types of iterations within a last step. By defining iteration-differentiating characteristics and their interdependencies, a logic for the configuration of activities, their form of execution as well as relevant artefacts for the specific iteration is developed. Furthermore, characteristic types of iteration for the agile product development are identified.
A Prediction Model for Dynamic Responses of Building from Earthquake Based on Evolutionary Learning
The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to prevent seismic damage. Structural seismic damage of building is caused by the instantaneous stress concentration which is related with dynamic characteristic of earthquake. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the dynamic responses of building demands significantly high computational cost. To prevent the failure of structural members from the characteristic of the earthquake and the significantly high computational cost for seismic response analysis, this paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for dynamic responses of building considering specific time length. Through the measured dynamic responses, input and output node of the ANN are formed by the length of specific time, and adopted for the training. In the model, evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN), that radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with evolutionary optimization algorithm to find variables in RBF, is implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified through an analytical study applying responses from dynamic analysis for multi-degree of freedom system to training data in ERBFNN.
The Importance of Clinicopathological Features for Differentiation Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of two specific gastrointestinal disorders: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Despite their distinct natures, these two diseases share many similar etiologic, clinical and pathological features, as a result, their accurate differential diagnosis may sometimes be difficult. Correct diagnosis is important because surgical treatment and long-term prognosis differ from UC and CD. Aim: This study aims to study the characteristic clinicopathological features which help in the differential diagnosis between UC and CD, and assess the disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 50 selected cases. The cases included 27 cases of UC and 23 cases of CD. All the cases were examined using H& E and immunohistochemically for bcl-2 expression. Results: Characteristic features of UC include: decrease in mucous content, irregular or villous surface, crypt distortion, and cryptitis, whereas the main cardinal histopathological features seen in CD were: epitheloid granuloma, transmural chronic inflammation, absence of mucin depletion, irregular surface, or crypt distortion. 3 cases of UC were found to be associated with dysplasia. UC mucosa contains fewer Bcl-2+ cells compared with CD mucosa. Conclusion: This study using multiple parameters such clinicopathological features and Bcl-2 expression as studied by immunohistochemical stain, helped to gain an accurate differentiation between UC and CD. Furthermore, this work spotted the light on the activity and different grades of UC which could be important for the prediction of relapse.
Water Quality of Cengkareng Drain in Maritime Security Perspective
The scope about maritime security copes all of the problems emanating from maritime domain. Those problems can give such threats to national security of the state. One of threats taking place nowadays in maritime domain is about pollution. Pollution coming from many sources may increase water-borne disease risk that can cause the instability of national security. Pollution coming from many sources may increase water-borne disease risk. Hence the pollution makes an improper condition of environments for humans and others biota dwelling in the waters. One of the tools that can determine about pollution is by measuring about the water quality of its waters. In this case, what brings the waste and pollutants is there an activity of tidal waves introducing substances or energy into the natural environment. Cengkareng Drain is one of the water channels which is affected by tidal waves. Cengkareng Drain was become an observation area to examine the relation between water quality and tide waves. This research was conducted monthly from July to November 2015. Sampling of water was conducted every ebb and tide in every observation. Pollution index showed that the level of pollution on Cengkareng drain was moderately polluted, with the score about 7.7-8.6. Based on the results of t-test and analysis of similarity, the characteristic of water quality on rising tide does not significantly differ from the characteristic of water quality on ebbing tide. Therefore, we need a proper management as a means to control the pollutants in order to make good maritime security strategy.
Effect of Minerals in Middlings on the Reactivity of Gasification-Coke by Blending a Large Proportion of Long Flame Coal
In this study, gasification-coke were produced by blending the middlings (MC), and coking coal (CC) and a large proportion of long flame coal (Shenfu coal, SC), the effects of blending ratio were investigated. Mineral evolution and crystalline order obtained by XRD methods were reproduced within reasonable accuracy. Structure characteristics of partially gasification-coke such as surface area and porosity were determined using the N₂ adsorption and mercury porosimetry. Experimental data of gasification-coke was dominated by the TGA results provided trend, reactivity differences between gasification-cokes are discussed in terms of structure characteristic, crystallinity, and alkali index (AI). The first-order reaction equation was suitable for the gasification reaction kinetics of CO₂ atmosphere which was represented by the volumetric reaction model with linear correlation coefficient above 0.985. The differences in the microporous structure of gasification-coke and catalysis caused by the minerals in parent coals were supposed to be the main factors which affect its reactivity. The addition of MC made the samples enriched with a large amount of ash causing a higher surface area and a lower crystalline order to gasification-coke which was beneficial to gasification reaction. The higher SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ contents, causing a decreasing AI value and increasing activation energy, which reduced the gasification reaction activity. It was found that the increasing amount of MC got a better performance on the coke gasification reactivity by blending > 30% SC with this coking process.
Securing Web Servers by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
An IDS is a tool which is used to improve the level of security. We present in this paper different architectures of IDS. We will also discuss measures that define the effectiveness of IDS and the very recent works of standardization and homogenization of IDS. At the end, we propose a new model of IDS called BiIDS (IDS Based on the two principles of detection) for securing web servers and applications by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS).
Analysis of Force Convection in Bandung Triga Reactor Core Plate Types Fueled Using Coolod-N2
Any pretensions to stop the production of TRIGA fuel elements by TRIGA reactor fuel elements manufacturer should be anticipated by the operating agency of TRIGA reactor to replace the cylinder type fuel element with plate type fuel element, that available on the market. This away was performed the calculation on U3Si2Al fuel with uranium enrichment of 19.75% and a load level of 2.96 gU/cm3. Maximum power that can be operated on free convection cooling mode at the BANDUNG TRIGA reactor fuel plate was 600 kW. This study has been conducted thermalhydraulic characteristic calculation model of the reactor core power 2MW. BANDUNG TRIGA reactor core fueled plate type is composed of 16 fuel elements, 4 control elements and one irradiation facility which is located right in the middle of the core. The reactor core is cooled using a pump which is already available with flow rate 900 gpm. Analysis on forced convection cooling mode with flow from the top down from 10%, 20%, 30% and so on up to a 100% rate of coolant flow. performed using the COOLOD-N2 code. The calculations result showed that the 2 MW power with inlet coolant temperature at 37 °C and cooling rate percentage of 50%, then the coolant temperature, maximum cladding and meat respectively 64.96 oC, 124.81 oC, and 125.08 oC, DNBR (departure from nucleate boiling ratio)=1.23 and OFIR (onset of flow instability ratio)=1:00. The results are expected to be used as a reference for determining the power and cooling rate level of the BANDUNG TRIGA reactor core plate types fueled.
Thermoluminescence Characteristic of Nanocrystalline BaSO4 Doped with Europium
The subject of undertaking for this paper is the study of BaSO4 nanophosphor doped with Europium in which mainly the concentration of the rare earth impurity Eu (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 mol %) has been varied. A comparative study of the thermoluminescence(TL) properties of the given nanophosphor has also been done using a well-known standard dosimetry material i.e. TLD-100.Firstly, a number of samples were prepared successfully by the chemical co-precipitation method. The whole lot was then compared to a well established standard material (TLD-100) for its TL sensitivity property. BaSO4:Eu ( 0.2 mol%) showed the highest sensitivity out of the lot. It was also found that when compared to the standard TLD-100, BaSo4:Eu (0.2mol%) showed surprisingly high sensitivity for a large range of doses. The TL response curve for all prepared samples has also been studied over a wide range of doses i.e 10Gy to 2kGy for gamma radiation. Almost all the samples of BaSO4:Eu showed a remarkable linearity for a broad range of doses, which is a characteristic feature of a fine TL dosimeter. The graph remained linear even beyond 1kGy for gamma radiation. Thus, the given nanophosphor has been successfully optimised for the concentration of the dopant material to achieve its highest TL sensitivity. Further, the comparative study with the standard material revealed that the current optimised sample shows an astonishingly better TL sensitivity and a phenomenal linear response curve for an incredibly wide range of doses for gamma radiation (Co-60) as compared to the standard TLD-100, which makes the current optimised BaSo4:Eu quite promising as an efficient gamma radiation dosimeter. Lastly, the present phosphor has been optimised for its annealing temperature to acquire the best results while also studying its fading and reusability properties.
Bias-Corrected Estimation Methods for Receiver Operating Characteristic Surface
With three diagnostic categories, assessment of the performance of diagnostic tests is achieved by the analysis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface, which generalizes the ROC curve for binary diagnostic outcomes. The volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is a summary index usually employed for measuring the overall diagnostic accuracy. When the true disease status can be exactly assessed by means of a gold standard (GS) test, unbiased nonparametric estimators of the ROC surface and VUS are easily obtained. In practice, unfortunately, disease status verification via the GS test could be unavailable for all study subjects, due to the expensiveness or invasiveness of the GS test. Thus, often only a subset of patients undergoes disease verification. Statistical evaluations of diagnostic accuracy based only on data from subjects with verified disease status are typically biased. This bias is known as verification bias. Here, we consider the problem of correcting for verification bias when continuous diagnostic tests for three-class disease status are considered. We assume that selection for disease verification does not depend on disease status, given test results and other observed covariates, i.e., we assume that the true disease status, when missing, is missing at random. Under this assumption, we discuss several solutions for ROC surface analysis based on imputation and re-weighting methods. In particular, verification bias-corrected estimators of the ROC surface and of VUS are proposed, namely, full imputation, mean score imputation, inverse probability weighting and semiparametric efficient estimators. Consistency and asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators are established, and their finite sample behavior is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation studies. Two illustrations using real datasets are also given.
Approach to Honey Volatiles' Profiling by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry
Biodiversity of flora provides many different nectar sources for the bees. Unifloral honeys possess distinctive flavours, mainly derived from their nectar sources (characteristic volatile organic components (VOCs)). Specific or nonspecific VOCs (chemical markers) could be used for unifloral honey characterisation as addition to the melissopalynologycal analysis. The main honey volatiles belong, in general, to three principal categories: terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Some of these substances have been described as characteristics of the floral source, and other compounds, like several alcohols, branched aldehydes, and furan derivatives, may be related to the microbial purity of honey processing and storage conditions. Selection of the extraction method for the honey volatiles profiling should consider that heating of the honey produce different artefacts and therefore conventional methods of VOCs isolation (such as hydrodistillation) cannot be applied for the honey. Two-way approach for the isolation of the honey VOCs was applied using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HS-SPME (with the fibers of different polarity such as polydimethylsiloxane/ divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) or divinylbenzene/carboxene/ polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS)) enabled isolation of high volatile headspace VOCs of the honey samples. Among them, some characteristic or specific compounds can be found such as 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan (in Centaurea cyanus L. honey) or 1H-indole, methyl anthranilate, and cis-jasmone (in Citrus unshiu Marc. honey). USE with different solvents (mainly dichloromethane or the mixture pentane : diethyl ether 1 : 2 v/v) enabled isolation of less volatile and semi-volatile VOCs of the honey samples. Characteristic compounds from C. unshiu honey extracts were caffeine, 1H-indole, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, methyl anthranilate, and phenylacetonitrile. Sometimes, the selection of solvent sequence was useful for more complete profiling such as sequence I: pentane → diethyl ether or sequence II: pentane → pentane/diethyl ether (1:2, v/v) → dichloromethane). The extracts with diethyl ether contained hydroquinone and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the major compounds, while (E)-4-(r-1’,t-2’,c-4’-trihydroxy-2’,6’,6’-trimethylcyclo-hexyl)but-3-en-2-one predominated in dichloromethane extracts of Allium ursinum L. honey. With this two-way approach, it was possible to obtain a more detailed insight into the honey volatile and semi-volatile compounds and to minimize the risks of compound discrimination due to their partial extraction that is of significant importance for the complete honey profiling and identification of the chemical biomarkers that can complement the pollen analysis.
A Clinical Study of Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica: Findings from a Large Chinese Cohort
Background and study aims: Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is an uncommon disease of the tracheobronchial system that leads to narrowing of the airway lumen from cartilaginous and/or osseous submucosal nodules. The aim of this study is to perform a detailed review of this rare disease in a large cohort of patients with TO proven by fiberoptic bronchoscopy from China. Patients and Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed on 41,600 patients who underwent bronchoscopy in the Department of Respiratory Medicine of Changhai Hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Cases of TO were identified based on characteristic features during bronchoscopic examination. Results: 22 cases of bronchoscopic TO were identified. Among whom one-half were male and the mean age was 47.45 ±10.91 years old. The most frequent symptoms at presentation were chronic cough (n=14) and increased sputum production (n=10). Radiographic abnormalities were observed in 3/18 patients and findings on computed tomography consistent with TO such as beaded intraluminal calcifications and/or increased luminal thickenings were observed in 18/22 patients. Patients were classified into the following categories based on the severity of bronchoscopic findings: Stage I (n=2), Stage II (n=6) and Stage III(n=14). The result that bronchoscopic improvement was observed in 2 patients administered with inhaled corticosteroids suggested that resolution of this disease is possible. Conclusions: TO is a benign disease with slow progression, which could be roughly divided into 3 stages on the basis of the characteristic endoscopic features and histopathologic findings. Chronic inflammation was thought to be more important than the other existing plausible hypotheses in the course of TO. Inhaled corticosteroids might have some impact on patients at Stage I/II.
A Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Study for Multivariate Measurement Systems
Measurement system analysis (MSA) plays an important role in helping organizations to improve their product quality. Generally speaking, the gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GRR) study is performed according to the MSA handbook stated in QS9000 standards. Usually, GRR study for assessing the adequacy of gauge variation needs to be conducted prior to the process capability analysis. Traditional MSA only considers a single quality characteristic. With the advent of modern technology, industrial products have become very sophisticated with more than one quality characteristic. Thus, it becomes necessary to perform multivariate GRR analysis for a measurement system when collecting data with multiple responses. In this paper, we take the correlation coefficients among tolerances into account to revise the multivariate precision-to-tolerance (P/T) ratio as proposed by Majeske (2008). We then compare the performance of our revised P/T ratio with that of the existing ratios. The simulation results show that our revised P/T ratio outperforms others in terms of robustness and proximity to the actual value. Moreover, the optimal allocation of several parameters such as the number of quality characteristics (v), sample size of parts (p), number of operators (o) and replicate measurements (r) is discussed using the confidence interval of the revised P/T ratio. Finally, a standard operating procedure (S.O.P.) to perform the GRR study for multivariate measurement systems is proposed based on the research results. Hopefully, it can be served as a useful reference for quality practitioners when conducting such study in industries. Measurement system analysis (MSA) plays an important role in helping organizations to improve their product quality. Generally speaking, the gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GRR) study is performed according to the MSA handbook stated in QS9000 standards. Usually, GRR study for assessing the adequacy of gauge variation needs to be conducted prior to the process capability analysis. Traditional MSA only considers a single quality characteristic. With the advent of modern technology, industrial products have become very sophisticated with more than one quality characteristic. Thus, it becomes necessary to perform multivariate GRR analysis for a measurement system when collecting data with multiple responses. In this paper, we take the correlation coefficients among tolerances into account to revise the multivariate precision-to-tolerance (P/T) ratio as proposed by Majeske (2008). We then compare the performance of our revised P/T ratio with that of the existing ratios. The simulation results show that our revised P/T ratio outperforms others in terms of robustness and proximity to the actual value. Moreover, the optimal allocation of several parameters such as the number of quality characteristics (v), sample size of parts (p), number of operators (o) and replicate measurements (r) is discussed using the confidence interval of the revised P/T ratio. Finally, a standard operating procedure (S.O.P.) to perform the GRR study for multivariate measurement systems is proposed based on the research results. Hopefully, it can be served as a useful reference for quality practitioners when conducting such study in industries.
Producing of Amorphous-Nanocrystalline Composite Powders
CuZrAl amorphous alloys have attracted high interest due to unique physical and mechanical properties, which can be enhanced by adding of Ni and Ti elements. It is known that this properties can be enhanced by crystallization of amorphous alloys creating nanocrystallines in the matrix. The present work intends to produce nanosized crystalline parti-cle reinforced amorphous matrix composite powders by crystallization of amorphous powders. As the first step the amorphous powders were synthe-tized by ball-milling of crystalline powders. (Cu49Zr45Al6) 80Ni10Ti10 and (Cu49Zr44Al7) 80Ni10Ti10 (at%) alloys were ball-milled for 12 hours in order to reach the fully amorphous structure. The impact en-ergy of the balls during milling causes the change of the structure in the powders. Scanning electron microscopical (SEM) images shows that the phases mixed first and then changed into a fully amorphous matrix. Furthermore, nanosized particles in the amorphous matrix were crystallized by heat treatment of the amorphous powders that was confirmed by TEM measurement. It was of importance to define the tem-perature when the amorphous phase starts to crystal-lize. Amorphous alloys have a special heating curve and characteristic temperatures, which can be meas-ured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A typical DSC curve of an amorphous alloy exhibits an endothermic event characteristic of the equilibrium glass transition (Tg) and a distinct undercooled liquid region, followed by one or two exothermic events corresponding to crystallization processes (Tp). After measuring the DSC traces of the amorphous powders, the annealing temperatures should be determined between Tx and Tp. In our experiments several temperatures from the annealing temperature range were selected and de-pendency of crystallized nanoparticles fraction on their hardness was investigated.
Satellite-Based Drought Monitoring in Korea: Methodologies and Merits
Satellite-based remote sensing technique has been widely used in the area of drought and environmental monitoring to overcome the weakness of in-situ based monitoring. There are many advantages of remote sensing for drought watch in terms of data accessibility, monitoring resolution and types of available hydro-meteorological data including environmental areas. This study was focused on the applicability of drought monitoring based on satellite imageries by applying to the historical drought events, which had a huge impact on meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought. Satellite-based drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Mission (GPM); Vegetation Health Index (VHI) using MODIS based Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); and Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) were evaluated to assess its capability to analyze the complex topography of the Korean peninsula. While the VHI was accurate when capturing moderate drought conditions in agricultural drought-damaged areas, the SDCI was relatively well monitored in hydrological drought-damaged areas. In addition, this study found correlations among various drought indices and applicability using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) method, which will expand our understanding of the relationships between hydro-meteorological variables and drought events at global scale. The results of this research are expected to assist decision makers in taking timely and appropriate action in order to save millions of lives in drought-damaged areas.
Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as an Early Marker of Acute Kidney Injury in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients with an incidence of 21–73%. Prevention and early diagnosis reduces the frequency and severity of this complication. Predictive biomarkers are of major importance to timely diagnosis. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a widely investigated novel biomarker for early diagnosis of AKI. However, no study assessed NGAL for AKI diagnosis in HSCT patients. Methods: We performed further analyses on gathered data from our recent trial to evaluate the performance of urine NGAL (uNGAL) as an indicator of AKI in 72 allogeneic HSCT patients. AKI diagnosis and severity were assessed using Risk–Injury–Failure–Loss–End-stage renal disease and AKI Network criteria. We assessed uNGAL on days -6, -3, +3, +9 and +15. Results: Time-dependent Cox regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between uNGAL and AKI occurrence. (HR=1.04 (1.008-1.07), P=0.01). There was a relation between uNGAL day +9 to baseline ratio and incidence of AKI (unadjusted HR=.1.047(1.012-1.083), P< 0.01). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for day +9 to baseline ratio was 0.86 (0.74-0.99, P< 0.01) and a cut-off value of 2.62 was 85% sensitive and 83% specific in predicting AKI. Conclusions: Our results indicated that increase in uNGAL augmented the risk of AKI and the changes of day +9 uNGAL concentrations from baseline could be of value for predicting AKI in HSCT patients. Additionally uNGAL changes preceded serum creatinine rises by nearly 2 days.
Indigenous Dayak People’s Perceptions of Wildlife Loss and Gain Related to Oil Palm Development
Controversies surrounding the impacts of oil palm plantations have resulted in some heated debates, especially concerning biodiversity loss and indigenous people well-being. The indigenous people of Dayak generally used wildlife to fulfill their daily needs thus were assumed to have experienced negative impacts due to oil palm developments within and surrounding their settlement areas. This study was conducted to identify the characteristics of the Dayak community settled around an oil palm plantation, to determine their perceptions of wildlife loss or gain as the results of the development of oil palm plantations, and to identify the determinant characteristic of the perceptions. The research was conducted on March 2018 in Nanga Tayap and Tajok Kayong Villages, which were located around the oil palm plantation of NTYE of Ketapang, West Kalimantan-Indonesia. Data were collected through in depth-structured interview, using closed and semi-open questionnaires and three-scale Likert statements. Interviews were conducted with 74 respondents using accidental sampling, and categorized into respondents who were dependent on oil palm for their livelihoods and those who were not. Data were analyzed using quantitative statistics method, Likert Scale, Chi-Square Test, Spearman Test, and Mann-Whitney Test. The research found that the indigenous Dayak people were aware of wildlife species loss and gain since the establishment of the plantation. Nevertheless, wildlife loss did not affect their social, economic, and cultural needs since they could find substitutions. It was found that prior to the plantation&rsquo;s development, the local Dayak communities were already slowly experiencing some livelihood transitions through local village development. The only determinant characteristic of the community that influenced their perceptions of wildlife loss/gain was level of education.
Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of the Reaction and Flow on the Membrane Wall of Entrained Flow Gasifier
In an entrained flow gasifier, the combustible components are converted into the gas phase, and the mineral content is converted into ash. Most of the ash particles or droplets are deposited on the refractory or membrane wall and form a slag layer that flows down to the quenching system. The captured particle reaction process and slag flow and phase transformation play an important role in gasifier performance and safe and stable operation. The reaction characteristic of captured char particles on the molten slag had been studied by applied a high-temperature stage microscope. The gasification process of captured chars with CO2 on the slag surface was observed and recorded, compared to the original char gasification. The particle size evolution, heat transfer process are discussed, and the gasification reaction index of the capture char particle are modeled. Molten slag layer promoted the char reactivity from the analysis of reaction index, Coupled with heat transfer analysis, shrinking particle model (SPM) was applied and modified to predict the gasification time at carbon conversion of 0.9, and results showed an agreement with the experimental data. A comprehensive model with gas-particle-slag flow and reaction models was used to model the different industry gasifier. The carbon conversion information in the spatial space and slag layer surface are investigated. The slag flow characteristic, such as slag velocity, molten slag thickness, slag temperature distribution on the membrane wall and refractory brick are discussed.
Modeling of Masonry In-Filled R/C Frame to Evaluate Seismic Performance of Existing Building
This paper deals with different modeling aspects of masonry infill: no infill model, Layered shell infill model, and strut infill model. These models consider the complicated behavior of the in-filled plane frames under lateral load similar to an earthquake load. Three strut infill models are used: NBCC (2005) strut infill model, ASCE/SEI 41-06 strut infill model and proposed strut infill model based on modification to Canadian, NBCC (2005) strut infill model. Pushover and modal analyses of a masonry infill concrete frame with a single storey and an existing 5-storey RC building have been carried out by using different models for masonry infill. The corresponding hinge status, the value of base shear at target displacement as well as their dynamic characteristics have been determined and compared. A validation of the structural numerical models for the existing 5-storey RC building has been achieved by comparing the experimentally measured and the analytically estimated natural frequencies and their mode shapes. This study shows that ASCE/SEI 41-06 equation underestimates the values for the equivalent properties of the diagonal strut while Canadian, NBCC (2005) equation gives realistic values for the equivalent properties. The results indicate that both ASCE/SEI 41-06 and Canadian, NBCC (2005) equations for strut infill model give over estimated values for dynamic characteristic of the building. Proposed modification to Canadian, NBCC (2005) equation shows that the fundamental dynamic characteristic values of the building are nearly similar to the corresponding values using layered shell elements as well as measured field results.
The Influence of Different Technologies on the Infiltration Properties and Soil Surface Crusting Processing in the North Bohemia Region
The infiltration characteristic of the soil surface is one of the major factors that determines the potential soil degradation risk. The physical, chemical and biological characteristic of soil is changed by the processing of soil. The infiltration soil ability has an important role in soil and water conservation. The subject of the contribution is the evaluation of the influence of the conventional tillage and reduced tillage technology on soil surface crusting processing and infiltration properties of the soil in the North Bohemia region. Field experimental work at the area was carried out in the years 2013-2016 on Cambisol district medium-heavy clayey soil. The research was conducted on sloping erosion-endangered blocks of compacted arable land. The areas were chosen each year in the way that one of the experimental areas was handled by conventional tillage technologies and the other by reduced tillage technologies. Intact soil samples were taken into Kopecký´s cylinders in the three landscape positions, at a depth of 10 cm (representing topsoil) and 30 cm (representing subsoil). The cumulative infiltration was measured using a mini-disc infiltrometer near the consumption points. The Zhang method (1997), which provides an estimate of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h), was used for the evaluation of the infiltration tests of the mini-disc infiltrometer. The soil profile processed by conventional tillage showed a higher degree of compaction and soil crusting processing. The bulk density was between 1.10–1.67⁻³, compared to the land processed by the reduced tillage technology, where the values were between 0.80–1.29⁻³. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were about one-third higher within the reduced tillage technology soil processing.
Using Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Population Growth and Stability Obtaining
The Knowledge of the population growth of a nation is paramount to national planning. The population of a place is studied and a model developed over a period of time, Matrices is used to form model for population growth. The eigenvalue ƛ of the matrix A and its corresponding eigenvector X is such that AX = ƛX is calculated. The stable age distribution of the population is obtained using the eigenvalue and the characteristic polynomial. Hence, estimation could be made using eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Combustion Characteristic of Propane/Acetylene Fuel Blends Pool Fire
A kind of gas-fueled burner, named Burning Rate Emulator, was proposed for the purpose of the emulation of condensed fuel recently. The gaseous fuel can be pure combustible fuel gas or blends of gaseous fuel or inert gas. However, this concept was recently proposed without detailed study on the combustion characteristic of fuel blends. In this study, two kinds of common gaseous fuels were selected, propane and acetylene, to provide the combustion heat as well as a large amount of smoke, which widely exists in liquid and solid fuel burning process. A set of experiments were carried out using a gas-fueled burner with a diameter of 8 cm. The total volume flow rate of propane and acetylene was kept at 3 liters per minute. The volume fraction of propane varied from 0% to 100% at interval of 10%. It is found that the flame height increases with propane volume fraction, which may be caused by the increase of heat release rate, as the energy density of propane is larger than that of acetylene. The dimensionless flame height is correlated against dimensionless heat release rate, which shows a power function relationship. The radiation fraction of the flame does not show a monotonic relationship with propane volume fraction. With the increase of propane volume fraction from 0% to 100%, the value of radiation fraction increases first and reach a maximum value around 0.46 at a propane volume fraction of 10%, and then decreases continuously to a value of 0.25 at the propane volume fraction of 100%. The flame radiation is related to the soot in the flame. The trend of the radiation fraction reflects that there may be a synergistic effect of soot formation between propane and acetylene which can be guessed from the significantly high radiation fraction at a propane volume fraction of 10%. This work provides data for combustion of gaseous fuel blends pool fire and also give reference on the design of Burning Rate Emulator.
Separating Landform from Noise in High-Resolution Digital Elevation Models through Scale-Adaptive Window-Based Regression
High-resolution elevation data are becoming increasingly available, but typical approaches for computing topographic features, like slope and curvature, still assume small sliding windows, for example, of size 3x3. That means that the digital elevation model (DEM) has to be resampled to the scale of the landform features that are of interest. Any higher resolution is lost in this resampling. When the topographic features are computed through regression that is performed at the resolution of the original data, the accuracy can be much higher, and the reported result can be adjusted to the length scale that is relevant locally. Slope and variance are calculated for overlapping windows, meaning that one regression result is computed per raster point. The number of window centers per area is the same for the output as for the original DEM. Slope and variance are computed by performing regression on the points in the surrounding window. Such an approach is computationally feasible because of the additive nature of regression parameters and variance. Any doubling of window size in each direction only takes a single pass over the data, corresponding to a logarithmic scaling of the resulting algorithm as a function of the window size. Slope and variance are stored for each aggregation step, allowing the reported slope to be selected to minimize variance. The approach thereby adjusts the effective window size to the landform features that are characteristic to the area within the DEM. Starting with a window size of 2x2, each iteration aggregates 2x2 non-overlapping windows from the previous iteration. Regression results are stored for each iteration, and the slope at minimal variance is reported in the final result. As such, the reported slope is adjusted to the length scale that is characteristic of the landform locally. The length scale itself and the variance at that length scale are also visualized to aid in interpreting the results for slope. The relevant length scale is taken to be half of the window size of the window over which the minimum variance was achieved. The resulting process was evaluated for 1-meter DEM data and for artificial data that was constructed to have defined length scales and added noise. A comparison with ESRI ArcMap was performed and showed the potential of the proposed algorithm. The resolution of the resulting output is much higher and the slope and aspect much less affected by noise. Additionally, the algorithm adjusts to the scale of interest within the region of the image. These benefits are gained without additional computational cost in comparison with resampling the DEM and computing the slope over 3x3 images in ESRI ArcMap for each resolution. In summary, the proposed approach extracts slope and aspect of DEMs at the lengths scales that are characteristic locally. The result is of higher resolution and less affected by noise than existing techniques.
Multiple Organ Manifestation in Neonatal Lupus Erythematous: Report of Two Cases
Neonatal lupus erythematous (NLE) is a rare disease marked by clinical characteristic and specific maternal autoantibody. Many cutaneous, cardiac, liver, and hematological manifestations could happen with affect of one organ or multiple. In this case, both babies were premature, low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and born through caesarean section from a systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) mother. In the first case, we found a baby girl with dyspnea and grunting. Chest X ray showed respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) great I and echocardiography showed small atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD). She also developed anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated C-reactive protein, hypoalbuminemia, increasing coagulation factors, hyperbilirubinemia, and positive blood culture of Klebsiella pneumonia. Anti-Ro/SSA and Anti-nRNP/sm were positive. Intravenous fluid, antibiotic, transfusion of blood, thrombocyte concentrate, and fresh frozen plasma were given. The second baby, male presented with necrotic tissue on the left ear and skin rashes, erythematous macula, athropic scarring, hyperpigmentation on all of his body with various size and facial haemorrhage. He also suffered from thrombocytopenia, mild elevated transaminase enzyme, hyperbilirubinemia, anti-Ro/SSA was positive. Intravenous fluid, methyprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), blood, and thrombocyte concentrate transfution were given. Two cases of neonatal lupus erythematous had been presented. Diagnosis based on clinical presentation and maternal auto antibody on neonate. Organ involvement in NLE can occur as single or multiple manifestations.
Control Algorithm Design of Single-Phase Inverter For ZnO Breakdown Characteristics Tests
ZnO voltage dependent resistor was widely used as components of the electrical system for over-voltage protection. It has a wide application prospect in superconducting energy-removal, generator de-excitation, overvoltage protection of electrical & electronics equipment. At present, the research for the application of ZnO voltage dependent resistor stop, it uses just in the field of its nonlinear voltage current characteristic and overvoltage protection areas. There is no further study over the over-voltage breakdown characteristics, such as the combustion phenomena and the measure of the voltage/current when it breakdown, and the affect to its surrounding equipment. It is also a blind spot in its application. So, when we do the feature test of ZnO voltage dependent resistor, we need to design a reasonable test power supply, making the terminal voltage keep for sine wave, simulating the real use of PF voltage in power supply conditions. We put forward the solutions of using inverter to generate a controllable power. The paper mainly focuses on the breakdown characteristic test power supply of nonlinear ZnO voltage dependent resistor. According to the current mature switching power supply technology, we proposed power control system using the inverter as the core. The power mainly realize the sin-voltage output on the condition of three-phase PF-AC input, and 3 control modes (RMS, Peak, Average) of the current output. We choose TMS320F2812M as the control part of the hardware platform. It is used to convert the power from three-phase to a controlled single-phase sin-voltage through a rectifier, filter, and inverter. Design controller produce SPWM, to get the controlled voltage source via appropriate multi-loop control strategy, while execute data acquisition and display, system protection, start logic control, etc. The TMS320F2812M is able to complete the multi-loop control quickly and can be a good completion of the inverter output control.
Enhancement of Aircraft Longitudinal Stability Using Tubercles
Mimicked from the humpback whale flippers, the application of tubercle technology is seen to be particularly advantageous at high angles of attack. This particular advantage is of paramount importance when it comes to structures producing lift at high angles of attack. This characteristic of the technology makes it ideal for horizontal stabilizers and selecting the same as the subject of study to identify and exploit the advantage highlighted by researchers on airfoils, this project aims in establishing a foundation for the application of the bio-mimicked technology on an existing aircraft. Using a baseline and 2 tubercle configuration integrated models, the project targets to achieve the twin aim of highlighting the possibility and merits over the base model and also choosing the right configuration in providing the best characteristic suitable for high angles of attack. To facilitate this study, the required models are generated using Solidworks followed by trials in a virtual aerodynamic environment using Fluent in Ansys for resolving the project objectives. Following a structured plan, the aim is to initially identify the advantages mathematically and then selecting the optimal configuration, simulate the end configuration at angles mimicking the actual operation envelope for the particular structure. Upon simulating the baseline configuration at various angles of attack, the stall angle was determined to be 22 degrees. Thus, the tubercle configurations will be simulated and compared at 4 different angles of attacks: 0, 10, 20, and 24. Further, after providing the optimum configuration of horizontal stabilizers, this study aims at the integration of aircraft structure so that the results better imply the end deliverables of real life application. This draws the project scope closer at this point into longitudinal static stability considerations and improvements in the manoeuvrability characteristics. The objective of the study is to achieve a complete overview ready for real life application with marked benefits obtainable from bio morphing of the tubercle technology.
Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Performance of Fe2O3 under Magnetic Field in an Oscillating Heat Pipe
This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nano particles added to kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field. The experiment was made on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP). The experiment was performed in order to measure the temperature distribution and compare the heat transfer rate of the oscillating heat pipe with and without magnetic Field. Results showed that the addition of Fe2o3 nano particles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP, compare with non-magnetic field. Furthermore applying a magnetic field enhance the heat transfer characteristic of Fe2O3 in both start up and steady state conditions. This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nano particles added to kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field. The experiment was made on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP). The experiment was performed in order to measure the temperature distribution and compare the heat transfer rate of the oscillating heat pipe with and without magnetic Field. Results showed that the addition of Fe2o3 nano particles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP, compare with non-magnetic field. Furthermore applying a magnetic field enhance the heat transfer characteristic of Fe2O3 in both start up and steady state conditions.
Study of the Azo Hydrazone Tautomerism in the 4-(9-Anthrylazo) Phenol
The spectroscopic study on 4-(9-anthrylazo) phenol has revealed that the azo dye under study exists in two tautomeric forms which are azo phenol and hydrazo keto forms in ratio of almost (1:1). The azo hydrazone tautomerism was confirmed by the use of IR spectroscopy and HNMR in which the characteristic absorption bands and chemical shifts for both tautomers were assigned.
Modeling of Leaks Effects on Transient Dispersed Bubbly Flow
Leakage problem of two-component fluids flow is modeled for a transient one-dimensional homogeneous bubbly flow and developed by taking into account the effect of a leak located at the middle point of the pipeline. The corresponding three conservation equations are numerically resolved by an improved characteristic method. The obtained results are explained and commented in terms of physical impact on the flow parameters.
A Study on Improvement of the Torque Ripple and Demagnetization Characteristics of a PMSM
The study on the torque ripple of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) has been rapidly progressed, which effects on the noise and vibration of the electric vehicle. There are several ways to reduce torque ripple, which are the increase in the number of slots and poles, the notch of the rotor and stator teeth, and the skew of the rotor and stator. However, the conventional methods have the disadvantage in terms of material cost and productivity. The demagnetization characteristic of PMSMs must be attained for electric vehicle application. Due to rare earth supply issue, the demand for Dy-free permanent magnet has been increasing, which can be applied to PMSMs for the electric vehicle. Dy-free permanent magnet has lower the coercivity; the demagnetization characteristic has become more significant. To improve the torque ripple as well as the demagnetization characteristics, which are significant parameters for electric vehicle application, an unequal air-gap model is proposed for a PMSM. A shape optimization is performed to optimize the design variables of an unequal air-gap model. Optimal design variables are the shape of an unequal air-gap and the angle between V-shape magnets. An optimization process is performed by Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), Kriging Method, and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Finite element analysis (FEA) is also utilized to analyze the torque and demagnetization characteristics. The torque ripple and the demagnetization temperature of the initial model of 45kW PMSM with unequal air-gap are 10 % and 146.8 degrees, respectively, which are reaching a critical level for electric vehicle application. Therefore, the unequal air-gap model is proposed, and then an optimization process is conducted. Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 7.7 %. In addition, the demagnetization temperature of the optimized model was also increased by 1.8 % while maintaining the efficiency. From these results, a shape optimized unequal air-gap PMSM has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and demagnetization temperature for the electric vehicle.
Parallel Multisplitting Methods for Differential Systems
We prove the superlinear convergence of asynchronous multi-splitting methods applied to differential equations. This study is based on the technique of nested sets. It permits to specify kind of the convergence in the asynchronous mode.The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays to be substantial and unpredictable. Note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.
Light Harvesting Titanium Nanocatalyst for Remediation of Methyl Orange
An eco-friendly Citrus paradisi peel extract mediated synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles is reported under sonication. U.V.-vis, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering and X-ray analyses are performed to characterize the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles. It is almost spherical in shape, having a size of 60–140 nm and the XRD peaks at 2θ = 25.363° confirm the characteristic facets for anatase form. The synthesized nano catalyst is highly active in the decomposition of methyl orange (64 mg/L) in sunlight (~73%) for 2.5 hours.
Producing Graphical User Interface from Activity Diagrams
Graphical User Interface (GUI) is essential to programming, as is any other characteristic or feature, due to the fact that GUI components provide the fundamental interaction between the user and the program. Thus, we must give more interest to GUI during building and development of systems. Also, we must give a greater attention to the user who is the basic corner in the dealing with the GUI. This paper introduces an approach for designing GUI from one of the models of business workflows which describe the workflow behavior of a system, specifically through activity diagrams (AD).
Biological Control of Woolly Apple Aphid, Eriosoma Lanigerum (Hausmann) in the Nursery Production of Spruce
Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) is a widely distributed pest of apple trees, especially where its parasites have been killed by insecticides. It can also be found on pear, hawthorn, mountain ash, and elm trees. Relatively small to medium-sized aphids, characterized by a reddish-brown body, a blood-red stain when crushed and a fluffy, flocculent wax covering. Specialized dermal glands produce the characteristic fluffy or powdery wax, which gives E. lanigerum its characteristic 'woolly' appearance. Also, woolly apple aphid is a problemm in nursery production of spure.The experiments were carried out in the nursery “Nevade” in Gornji Milanovac, "Srbijasume" on the spruce seedlings, aged 2 years. In this study, organic insecticide King Bo, aqueous solution (a. i. oxymatrine 0.2% + psoralen 0.4%), manufacturer Beijing Kingbo Biotech Co. Ltd., Beijing, China. extracted from plants and used as pesticides in nursery production were investigated. King Bo, bioinsecticide is manufactured from refined natural herbal extract several wild medicinal plants, such as Sophora flavescens Ait, Veratrum nigrum L, A. Carmichael, etc. Oxymatrine 2.4 SL is a stomach poison that has antifeeding and repellent action. This substance stimulates development and growth in a host plant and also controls the appearance of downy mildew.The trials were set according to instructions of methods-monitoring of changes in the number of larvae and adults compared to before treatment. The treatment plan was made according to fully randomized block design. The experiment was conducted in four repetitions. The basic plot had the area of 25 m2. Phytotoxicity was estimated by PP methods 1/135 (2), the intensity of infection according to Towsend-Heuberger, the efficiency by Abbott, the analysis of variance with Ducan test and PP/181 (2).
The Research on Decentralization Supervision Mechanism of Town and Village Culture Based On Authenticity Evaluation
In this paper, the evaluation criteria of authenticity evaluation system model are taken as the foundation so as to discuss the establishment problems about decentralization supervision system and mechanism of historical cultural town and village. The filtration of fitting towns and village's authenticity is conducted from the level, characteristic index and authentic assessment of evaluation model, thereby, supervising subject -interest related- coordinate organization can be taken as the venation in the management level, thus supervision mechanism of town and village's cultural inheritance can be combed, and the cultural inheritance management system and mechanism which is suitable to historical and cultural Chinese town and village will be provided. As the settlement with strong self-organizing characteristic, town and village don't recognize the management system as deeply as city. Therefore, it is necessary to establish town and village cultural evaluation system based on authenticity evaluation criteria. In this paper, authenticity evaluation system is established by taking this village's value evaluation criteria and protection as the cores, and the classification of participating options is beneficial to distribute local limited resources, protect hierarchically and accord with the local characters of town and village, build the evaluation system to run through the whole process of cultural inheritance, moreover, provide abundant information resources and make sure the value judgment criteria, thus supervision and management can be strengthened to effectively guard risk. By the above judgement and filtration of participating options, the management object with clear functions and supervision and coordination organization are established, thereby, the managerial logic of interest-related persons' decentralization can be clarified, evaluation system can be established, and the more targeted decentralization supervision system and mechanism of historical and cultural village will be built ultimately. Taking this method as a fundamental in cultural protection of town and village, not only can it be carried forward in the mass media, but also can cultivate the identity sense of indigenous people to come back historical and cultural villages, and resist the replacement of city culture.
A Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study to Explore Role of Chain Length in Predicting Useful Characteristic Properties of Commodity and Engineering Polymers
This work attempts to use molecular simulations to create equilibrated structures of a range of commercially used polymers. Generated equilibrated structures for polyvinyl acetate (isotactic), polyvinyl alcohol (atactic), polystyrene, polyethylene, polyamide 66, poly dimethyl siloxane, poly carbonate, poly ethylene oxide, poly amide 12, natural rubber, poly urethane, and polycarbonate (bisphenol-A) and poly ethylene terephthalate are employed to estimate the correct chain length that will correctly predict the chain parameters and properties. Further, the equilibrated structures are used to predict some properties like density, solubility parameter, cohesive energy density, surface energy, and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. The simulated densities for polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polypropylene, and polycarbonate are 1.15 g/cm3, 1.125 g/cm3, 1.02 g/cm3, 0.84 g/cm3 and 1.223 g/cm3 respectively are found to be in good agreement with the available literature estimates. However, the critical repeating units or the degree of polymerization after which the solubility parameter showed saturation were 15, 20, 25, 10 and 20 respectively. This also indicates that such properties that dictate the miscibility of two or more polymers in their blends are strongly dependent on the chosen polymer or its characteristic properties. An attempt has been made to correlate such properties with polymer properties like Kuhn length, free volume and the energy term which plays a vital role in predicting the mentioned properties. These results help us to screen and propose a useful library which may be used by the research groups in estimating the polymer properties using the molecular simulations of chains with the predicted critical lengths. The library shall help to obviate the need for researchers to spend efforts in finding the critical chain length needed for simulating the mentioned polymer properties.
The Inclusion of the Cabbage Waste in Buffalo Ration Made of Sugarcane Waste and Its Effect on Characteristics of the Silage
The objective of the research was to study the influence of the inclusion of the cabbage waste into a buffalo rations made of sugarcane waste on the feed formula and characteristic of complete feed silage. Research carried out a two-stage i.e. the feed formulation and experiment of making complete feed silage. Feed formulation is done by linear programming. Data input is the price of feed stuffs and their nutrient contents as well as requirements for rations, while the output is the use of each feed stuff and the price of complete feed. The experiment of complete feed silage was done by a completely random design 4 x 4. The treatments were 4 inclusion levels of the cabbage waste i.e. 0%,(T1) 5%(T2), 10%(T3) and 15% (T4), with 4 replications. The result of feed formulation for T1 was cabbage (0%), sugarcane top (17.9%), bagasse (33.3%), Molasses (5.0%), cabagge (0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (2.7%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (9.1%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T2 was cabagge (5%), sugarcane top (1.7%), bagasse (45.2%), Molasses (5.0%), , Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.6%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (7.5%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T3 was cabbage (10%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (45.3%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.8%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (3.9%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt(0.5%). The formula of T4 was cabagge (15.0%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (44.1%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.9%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (0%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). An increase in the level of inclusion of the cabbage waste can decrease the cost of rations. The cost of rations (IDR/kg on DM basis) were 1442, 1367, 1333, and 1300 respectively. The rations formula were not significantly (P > 0.05) influent the on fungal colonies, smell, texture and color of the complete ration silage, but the pH increased significantly (P < 0.05). It concluded that inclusion of cabbage waste can minimize the cost of buffalo ration, without decreasing the silage quality of complete feed.
Well-Being and Helping Technology for Retired Population in Finland
This study aimed to evaluate parameters influencing well-being and how to maintain well-being as long as possible after retirement. There is contradictory information on the health changes after retirement in Finland. This work is based on interviews, statistics, and literature evaluation of Finland. Most often, balance, multitasking reaction time, and adaptation of vision in dim and darks areas are worsened. Slowing is one characteristic that is difficult to measure properly. The most important is try to determine ways to manage daily activities and symptoms of disease after retirement. Medicine is advancing, problems are often also on the economic side. Information of technical aids is important. It is worth planning a retirement age.
Heavy Sulphide Material Characterization of Grasberg Block Cave Mine, Mimika, Papua: Implication for Tunnel Development and Mill Issue
Grasberg Cu-Au ore deposit as one of the biggest porphyry deposits located in Papua Province, Indonesia produced by several intrusion that restricted by Heavy Sulphide Zone (HSZ) in peripheral. HSZ is the rock that becomes the contact between Grassberg Igneous Complex (GIC) with sedimentary and igneous rock outside, which is rich in sulphide minerals such as pyrite ± pyrrhotite. This research is to obtain the characteristic of HSZ based on geotechnical, geochemical and mineralogy aspect and those implication for daily mining operational activities. Method used in this research are geological and alteration mapping, core logging, FAA (Fire Assay Analysis), AAS (Atomic absorption spectroscopy), RQD (Rock Quality Designation) and rock water content. Data generated from methods among RQD data, mineral composition and grade, lithological and structural geology distribution in research area. The mapping data show that HSZ material characteristics divided into three type based on rocks association, there are near igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and on HSZ area. And also divided based on its location, north and south part of research area. HSZ material characteristic consist of rock which rich of pyrite ± pyrrhotite, and RQD range valued about 25%-100%. Pyrite ± pyrrhotite which outcropped will react with H₂O and O₂ resulting acid that generates corrosive effect on steel wire and rockbolt. Whereas, pyrite precipitation proses in HSZ forming combustible H₂S gas which is harmful during blasting activities. Furthermore, the impact of H₂S gas in blasting activities is forming poison gas SO₂. Although HSZ high grade Cu-Au, however those high grade Cu-Au rich in sulphide components which is affected in flotation milling process. Pyrite ± pyrrhotite in HSZ will chemically react with Cu-Au that will settle in milling process instead of floating.
Super-Hydrophilic TFC Membrane with High Stability in Oil
Low stability in oil media and the hydrophobicity problems of the ploysulfone electrospun membranes could be overcome in the present study. Synthesis of super-hydrophilic and highly stable in oil polysulfone electrospun nanofiber membrane was achieved by electrospinning of polysulfone solution containing NaOH salt followed by activation of the dried electrospun membrane by deposition of polyamide layer on the surface using m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride. The introduced membrane has super-hydrophilicity characteristic (contact angle=3o), excellent stability in oil media and distinct performance in oil-water separation process.
Possible Sulfur Induced Superconductivity in Nano-Diamond
We report on a possible occurrence of superconductivity in 5 nm particle size diamond powders treated with sulfur (S) at 500 o C for 10 hours in ~10-2 Torr vacuum. Superconducting-like magnetization hysteresis loops M(H) have been measured up to ~ 50 K by means of the SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design). Both X-ray (Θ-2Θ geometry) and Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed no impurity or additional phases. Nevertheless, the measured Raman spectra are characteristic to the diamond with embedded disordered carbon and/or graphitic fragments suggesting a link to the previous reports of the local or surface superconductivity in graphite- and amorphous carbon–sulfur composites.
Developing a Framework for Online Auction Effectiveness
An introduction of internet auction has significantly widened the pool of consumers who participate in auctions and increased the number of companies attempting to sell their products in an auction format. Previous research on auctions has focused almost exclusively on the behavior of professional bidders. In this study, we focus on the characteristic of seller, auction parameter and the effect of supply and demand, and examine these impacts on auction effectiveness. In particular, a framework for online auction effectiveness was developed. The framework will help researchers and practitioner to find ways to improve online auction effectiveness.
Evolution of Nettlespurge Oil Mud for Drilling Mud System: A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Nettlespurge Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud
Recently the low prices of Crude oil and increase in strict environmental regulations limit limits the use of diesel based muds as these muds are relatively costlier and toxic, as a result disposal of cuttings into the eco-system is a major issue faced by the drilling industries. To overcome these issues faced by the Oil Industry, an attempt has been made to develop oil-in-water emulsion mud system using nettlespurge oil. Nettlespurge oil could be easily available and its cost is around ₹30/litre which is about half the price of diesel in India. Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with Nettlespurge oil extracted from Nettlespurge seeds using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated nettlespurge oil mud properties were analysed with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The mud density measurement showed that nettlespurge OBM was slightly higher than diesel OBM with mud density values of 9.175 lb/gal and 8.5 lb/gal, respectively, at barite content of 70 g. Thus it has a higher lubricating property. Additionally, the filtration loss test results showed that nettlespurge mud fluid loss volumes, oil was 11 ml, compared to diesel oil mud volume of 15 ml. The filtration loss test indicated that the nettlespurge oil mud with filter cake thickness of 2.2 mm had a cake characteristic of thin and squashy while the diesel oil mud resulted in filter cake thickness of 2.7 mm with cake characteristic of tenacious, rubbery and resilient. The filtration loss test results showed that nettlespurge oil mud fluid loss volumes was much less than the diesel based oil mud. The filtration loss test indicated that the nettlespurge oil mud filter cake thickness less than the diesel oil mud filter cake thickness. So Low formation damage and the emulsion stability effect was analysed with this experiment. The nettlespurge oil-in-water mud system had lower coefficient of friction than the diesel oil based mud system. All the rheological properties have shown better results relative to the diesel based oil mud. Therefore, with all the above mentioned factors and with the data of the conducted experiment we could conclude that the Nettlespurge oil based mud is economically and well as eco-logically much more feasible than the worn out and shabby diesel-based oil mud in the Drilling Industry.
Effect of the Aluminum Fraction “X” on the Laser Wavelengths in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Superlattices
In this paper, we study numerically the eigenstates existing in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs superlattice with structural disorder in trimer height barrier (THB). Aluminium concentration x takes at random two different values, one of them appears only in triply and remains inferior to the second in the studied structure. In spite of the presence of disorder, the system exhibits two kinds of sets of propagating states lying below the barrier due to the characteristic structure of the superlattice. This result allows us to note the existence of a single laser emission in trimer and wavelengths are obtained in the mid-infrared.
A Novel Antenna Design for Telemedicine Applications
To develop a reliable and cost effective communication platform for the telemedicine applications, novel antenna design has been presented using bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) technique. The proposed antenna geometry is achieved by etching a modified Koch curve fractal shape at the edges and a square shape slot at the center of the radiating element of a patch antenna. It has been found that the new antenna has achieved 43.79% size reduction and better resonating characteristic than the original patch. Representative results for both simulations and numerical validations are reported in order to assess the effectiveness of the developed methodology.
Proposition of an Ontology of Diseases and Their Signs from Medical Ontologies Integration
To assist medical diagnosis, we propose a federation of several existing and open medical ontologies and terminologies. The goal is to merge the strengths of all these resources to provide clinicians the access to a variety of shared knowledges that can facilitate identification and association of human diseases and all of their available characteristic signs such as symptoms and clinical signs. This work results to an integration model loaded from target known ontologies of the bioportal platform such as DOID, MESH, and SNOMED for diseases selection, SYMP, and CSSO for all existing signs.
Symbolic Computation on Variable-Coefficient Non-Linear Dispersive Wave Equations
The variable-coefficient non-linear dispersive wave equation is investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. By virtue of a newly developed simplified bilinear method, multi-soliton solutions for such an equation have been derived. Effects of the inhomogeneities of media and nonuniformities of boundaries, depicted by the variable coefficients, on the soliton behavior are discussed with the aid of the characteristic curve method and graphical analysis.
An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device
This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.
Parallel Multisplitting Methods for DAE’s
We consider iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays tobe substantial and unpredictable. Note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.
Characteristics of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Flour on the Soaking Time of Peeled Grains and Particle Size Treatment
Sorghum bicolor (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential as a flour for gluten-free food products. Sorghum flour production needs grain soaking treatment. Soaking can reduce the tannin content which is an anti-nutrient, so it can increase the protein digestibility. Fine particle size decreases the yield of flour, so it is necessary to study various particle sizes to increase the yield. This study aims to determine the characteristics of sorghum flour in the treatment of soaking peeled grain and particle size. The material of white sorghum varieties KD-4 from farmers in East Java, Indonesia. Factorial randomized factorial design (two factors), repeated three times, factor I were the time of grain soaking (five levels) that were 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, factor II was the size of the starch particles sifted with a fineness level of 40, 60, 80, and 100 mesh. The method of making sorghum flour is grain peeling, soaking peeled grain, drying using the oven at 60ᵒC, milling, and sieving. Physico-chemical analysis of sorghum flour. The results show that there is an interaction between soaking time of grain with the size of sorghum flour particles. Interaction in yield of flour, L* color (brightness level), whiteness index, paste properties, amylose content, protein content, bulk density, and protein digestibility. The method of making sorghum flour through the soaking of peeled grain and the difference in particle size has an important role in producing the physicochemical properties of the specific flour. Based on the characteristics of sorghum flour produced, it is determined the method of making sorghum flour through sorghum grain soaking for 24 hours, the particle size of flour 80 mesh. The sorghum flour with characteristic were 24.88% yield of flour, 88.60 color L* (brightness level), 69.95 whiteness index, 3615 Cp viscosity, 584.10 g/l of bulk density, 24.27% db protein digestibility, 90.02% db starch content, 23.4% db amylose content, 67.45% db amylopectin content, 0.22% db crude fiber content, 0.037% db tannin content, 5.30% db protein content, ash content 0.18% db, carbohydrate content 92.88 % db, and 1.94% db fat content. The sorghum flour is recommended for cookies products.
Study on Energy Absorption Characteristic of Cab Frame with FEM
Cab’s frame strength is considered as an important factor in excavator’s operator safety, especially during roll-over. In this study, we use a model of cab frame with different thicknesses and perform elastoplastic numerical analysis by using Finite Element Method (FEM). Deformation mode and energy absorption's of cab’s frame part are investigated on two conditions, with wrinkle and without wrinkle. The occurrence of wrinkle when deforming cab frame can reduce energy absorption, and among 4 parts with wrinkle, the energy absorption significantly decreases in part C. Residual stress that generated upon the bending process of part C is analyzed to confirm it possibility in increasing the energy absorption.
Study of Motion of Impurity Ions in Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) from View Point of Microstructure of Polymer Solid
Electrical properties of polymer solid is characterized by dielectric relaxation phenomenon. Complex permittivity shows a high dependence on frequency of external stimulation in the broad frequency range from 0.1mHz to 10GHz. The complex-permittivity dispersion gives us a lot of useful information about the molecular motion of polymers and the structure of polymer aggregates. However, the large dispersion of permittivity at low frequencies due to DC conduction of impurity ions often covers the dielectric relaxation in polymer solid. In experimental investigation, many researchers have tried to remove the DC conduction experimentally or analytically for a long time. On the other hand, our laboratory chose another way of research for this problem from the point of view of a reversal in thinking. The way of our research is to use the impurity ions in the DC conduction as a probe to detect the motion of polymer molecules and to investigate the structure of polymer aggregates. In addition to the complex permittivity, the electric modulus and the conductivity relaxation time are strong tools for investigating the ionic motion in DC conduction. In a non-crystalline part of melt-crystallized polymers, free spaces with inhomogeneous size exist between crystallites. As the impurity ions exist in the non-crystalline part and move through these inhomogeneous free spaces, the motion of ions reflects the microstructure of non-crystalline part. The ionic motion of impurity ions in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is investigated in this study. Frequency dependence of the loss permittivity of PVDF shows a characteristic of the direct current (DC) conduction below 1 kHz of frequency at 435 K. The electric modulus-frequency curve shows a characteristic of the dispersion with the single conductivity relaxation time. Namely, it is the Debye-type dispersion. The conductivity relaxation time analyzed from this curve is 0.00003 s at 435 K. From the plot of conductivity relaxation time of PVDF together with the other polymers against permittivity, it was found that there are two group of polymers; one of the group is characterized by small conductivity relaxation time and large permittivity, and another is characterized by large conductivity relaxation time and small permittivity.
Numerical Simulation on Airflow Structure in the Human Upper Respiratory Tract Model
The respiratory diseases such as asthma, emphysema and bronchitis are connected with the air pollution and the number of these diseases tends to increase, which may attribute to the toxic aerosol deposition in human upper respiratory tract or in the bifurcation of human lung. The therapy of these diseases mostly uses pharmaceuticals in the form of aerosol delivered into the human upper respiratory tract or the lung. Understanding of airflow structures in human upper respiratory tract plays a very important role in the analysis of the “filtering” effect in the pharynx/larynx and for obtaining correct air-particle inlet conditions to the lung. However, numerical simulation based CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) technology has its own advantage on studying airflow structure in human upper respiratory tract. In this paper, a representative human upper respiratory tract is built and the CFD technology was used to investigate the air movement characteristic in the human upper respiratory tract. The airflow movement characteristic, the effect of the airflow movement on the shear stress distribution and the probability of the wall injury caused by the shear stress are discussed. Experimentally validated computational fluid-aerosol dynamics results showed the following: the phenomenon of airflow separation appears near the outer wall of the pharynx and the trachea. The high velocity zone is created near the inner wall of the trachea. The airflow splits at the divider and a new boundary layer is generated at the inner wall of the downstream from the bifurcation with the high velocity near the inner wall of the trachea. The maximum velocity appears at the exterior of the boundary layer. The secondary swirls and axial velocity distribution result in the high shear stress acting on the inner wall of the trachea and bifurcation, finally lead to the inner wall injury. The enhancement of breathing intensity enhances the intensity of the shear stress acting on the inner wall of the trachea and the bifurcation. If human keep the high breathing intensity for long time, not only the ability for the transportation and regulation of the gas through the trachea and the bifurcation fall, but also result in the increase of the probability of the wall strain and tissue injury.
Scaling Analysis for the Liquefaction Phenomena Generated by Water Waves
In this work, a scaling analysis of the liquefaction phenomena is presented. The characteristic scales are obtained by balancing term by term of the well-known partial dynamics governing equations, (U − P). From the above, the order of magnitude of the horizontal displacement is very smaller compared with the vertical displacement and therefore the governing equation is only a function of the dependent vertical variables. The U − P approximation is reduced and presented in its dimensionless version. This scaling analysis can be used to obtain analytical solutions of the liquefaction phenomena under the action of the water waves.
Parallel Asynchronous Multi-Splitting Methods for Differential Algebraic Systems
We consider an iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm does not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays to be substantial and unpredictable. Accordingly, we note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.
RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method
Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.
An Investigation of Vegetable Oils as Potential Insulating Liquid
While choosing insulating oil, characteristic features such as thermal cooling, endurance, efficiency and being environment-friendly should be considered. Mineral oils are referred as petroleum-based oil. In this study, vegetable oils investigated as an alternative insulating liquid to mineral oil. Dissipation factor, breakdown voltage, relative dielectric constant and resistivity changes with the frequency and voltage of mineral, rapeseed and nut oils were measured. Experimental studies were performed according to ASTM D924 and IEC 60156 standards.
Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence
Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of gaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current.
The Used of Ceramic Stove Cover and It’s Gap to the Efficiency of Water Boiling System
Water boiling system (WBS) using conventional gas stove (CGS) is relatively inefficient unless its mechanism being considered. In this study, an addition of ceramic stove cover (CSC) to a CGS and the gap between CSC and pan have been assessed. Parameters as energy produced by fuel, CSC temperature and water temperature were used to analyze the performance of a CGS. The gaps were varied by 1 – 7 mm in a step of 1 mm. The results showed that a CSC able to increase the performance of a CGS significantly. In certain fuel rate of 0.75 l/m, the efficiency of a CGS obtained in a gap of 4 mm. The best efficiency obtained in this study was 46.4 % due to the optimum condition that achieved simultaneously in convection and radiation heat transfer processes of the heating system. CSC also indicated a good characteristic for covering heat release at the initially of WBS.
An Improvement of a Dynamic Model of the Secondary Sedimentation Tank and Field Validation
In this paper a comparison in made between two models, with and without dispersion term, and focused on the characterization of the movement of the sludge blanket in the secondary sedimentation tank using the solid flux theory and the velocity settling. This allowed us develop a one-dimensional models, with and without dispersion based on a thorough experimental study carried out in situ and the application of online data which are the mass load flow, transfer concentration, and influent characteristic. On the other hand, in the proposed model, the new settling velocity law (double-exponential function) used is based on the Vesilind function.
Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure-Thermal Coupling Dynamics Simulation Model of a Gas-Filled Fluid-Resistance Damper and Experimental Verification
Fluid resistance damper is an important damping element to attenuate vehicle vibration. It converts vibration energy into thermal energy dissipation through oil throttling. It is a typical fluid-solid-heat coupling problem. A complete three-dimensional flow-structure-thermal coupling dynamics simulation model of a gas-filled fluid-resistance damper was established. The flow-condition-based interpolation (FCBI) method and direct coupling calculation method, the unit's FCBI-C fluid numerical analysis method and iterative coupling calculation method are used to achieve the damper dynamic response of the piston rod under sinusoidal excitation; the air chamber inflation pressure, spring compression characteristics, constant flow passage cross-sectional area and oil parameters, etc. The system parameters, excitation frequency, and amplitude and other excitation parameters are analyzed and compared in detail for the effects of differential pressure characteristics, velocity characteristics, flow characteristics and dynamic response of valve opening, floating piston response and piston rod output force characteristics. Experiments were carried out on some simulation analysis conditions. The results show that the node-based FCBI (flow-condition-based interpolation) fluid numerical analysis method and direct coupling calculation method can better guarantee the conservation of flow field calculation, and the calculation step is larger, but the memory is also larger; if the chamber inflation pressure is too low, the damper will become cavitation. The inflation pressure will cause the speed characteristic hysteresis to increase, and the sealing requirements are too strict. The spring compression characteristics have a great influence on the damping characteristics of the damper, and reasonable damping characteristic needs to properly design the spring compression characteristics; the larger the cross-sectional area of the constant flow channel, the smaller the maximum output force, but the more stable when the valve plate is opening.
Synthesis of the Robust Regulators on the Basis of the Criterion of the Maximum Stability Degree
The robust control system objects with interval-undermined parameters is considers in this paper. Initial information about the system is its characteristic polynomial with interval coefficients. On the basis of coefficient estimations of quality indices and criterion of the maximum stability degree, the methods of synthesis of a robust regulator parametric is developed. The example of the robust stabilization system synthesis of the rope tension is given in this article.
Dielectrophoretic Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires for Biotechnology Application
This study investigates nanowires using Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in non-aqueous suspension of Tin (IV) Oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimenthylformamide (DMF). The self assembly of nanowires in DEP impedance spectroscopy can be determined. In this work, dielectrophoretic method was used to measure non-organic molecules for estimating the permittivity and conductivity characteristic of the nanowires. As in aqueous such as salt solution has been dominating the transport of SnO2, which are the wire growth threshold, depend on applied voltage. While DEP assembly of nanowires depend on applied frequency, the applications of dielectrophoretic collection are measured using impedance spectroscopy.
Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature
Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.
'When 2 + 2 = 5: Synergistic Effects of HRM Practices on the Organizational Performance'
Synergy is a main characteristic of human resource management (HRM) system. It highlights the hidden characteristics of HRM system. This research paper has empirically tested that internally consistent and complementary HR practices/components in the HR system are more able to predict and enhance the organizational performance than the sum of individual practice. The data was collected from the sample of 109 firm respondents of service industry through convenience sampling technique. The major finding of this research highlighted that configurational approach to synergy or the HRM system as a whole has an ability to enhance the organizational performance more than by the sum of individual HRM practices of HRM system. Hence, confirming that the whole is greater than the sum of individual parts.
A Mathematical Model for Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Impact of Vaccination on Its Dynamics
This paper describes a mathematical model developed to predict the dynamics of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to evaluate the potential impact of vaccination and treatment on its dynamics. We used a compartmental model expressed by a set of differential equations based on the characteristic of HBV transmission. With these, we find the threshold quantity R0, then find the local asymptotic stability of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease free and endemic equilibrium.
Condensation of Vapor in the Presence of Non-Condensable Gas on a Vertical Tube
The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is widely used in the advanced nuclear reactor in case of the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the main steam line break accident (MSLB). The internal heat exchanger is one of the most important equipment in the PCCS and its heat transfer characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this investigation, a theoretical model is presented for predicting the heat and mass transfer which accompanies condensation. The conduction through the liquid condensate is considered and the interface temperature is defined by iteration. The parameter in the correlation to describe the suction effect should be further determined through experimental data.
Thermal Effect in Power Electrical for HEMTs Devices with InAlN/GaN
In this paper, we have evaluated the thermal effect for high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) heterostructure InAlN/GaN with a gate length 30nm high-performance. It also shows the analysis and simulated these devices, and how can be used in different application. The simulator Tcad-Silvaco software has used for predictive results good for the DC, AC and RF characteristic, Devices offered max drain current 0.67A; transconductance is 720 mS/mm the unilateral power gain of 180 dB. A cutoff frequency of 385 GHz, and max frequency 810 GHz These results confirm the feasibility of using HEMTs with InAlN/GaN in high power amplifiers, as well as thermal places.
Influence of Principal's Professionalism on Overall Development of the Institution
The overall development of the Institution is dependent on the approach and attitude of the principal. Influence of principal’s professionalism on overall development of the Institution is the aim of this paper. Professionalism means conducting oneself with responsibility, integrity, accountability and excellence. The predominant characteristic of professionalism is the temperament of oneself to work in the public interest. By summarizing the observations based on authors’ experience regarding professionalism of principals towards the development of their respective institutions and correlating these observations with the findings in the literature and opinion of other principals and staff, the authors conceived a conceptual approach with its attributes by practicing suggested approach principals that can achieve overall development of their institutions.
Study on Hydrophilicity of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates with TiO2-NTs
This paper aims to discuss the hydrophilicity about the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with titania nanotubes (NTs). The AAO templates with pore size diameters of 20-250 nm were generated by anodizing 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in acid solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), oxalic acid (COOH)2, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4), respectively. TiO2-NTs were grown on AAO templates by the sol-gel deposition process successfully. The water contact angle on AAO/TiO2-NTs surface was lower compared to the water contact angle on AAO surface. So, the characteristic of hydrophilicity was significantly associated with the AAO pore size and what kinds of materials were immersed variables.
Field Environment Sensing and Modeling for Pears towards Precision Agriculture
The introduction of sensor technologies into agriculture is a necessary step to realize Precision Agriculture. Although sensing methodologies themselves have been prevailing owing to miniaturization and reduction in costs of sensors, there are some difficulties to analyze and understand the sensing data. Targeting at pears ’Le Lectier’, which is particular to Niigata in Japan, cultivation environmental data have been collected at pear fields by eight sorts of sensors: field temperature, field humidity, rain gauge, soil water potential, soil temperature, soil moisture, inner-bag temperature, and inner-bag humidity sensors. With regard to the inner-bag temperature and humidity sensors, they are used to measure the environment inside the fruit bag used for pre-harvest bagging of pears. In this experiment, three kinds of fruit bags were used for the pre-harvest bagging. After over 100 days continuous measurement, volumes of sensing data have been collected. Firstly, correlation analysis among sensing data measured by respective sensors reveals that one sensor can replace another sensor so that more efficient and cost-saving sensing systems can be proposed to pear farmers. Secondly, differences in characteristic and performance of the three kinds of fruit bags are clarified by the measurement results by the inner-bag environmental sensing. It is found that characteristic and performance of the inner-bags significantly differ from each other by statistical analysis. Lastly, a relational model between the sensing data and the pear outlook quality is established by use of Structural Equation Model (SEM). Here, the pear outlook quality is related with existence of stain, blob, scratch, and so on caused by physiological impair or diseases. Conceptually SEM is a combination of exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression. By using SEM, a model is constructed to connect independent and dependent variables. The proposed SEM model relates the measured sensing data and the pear outlook quality determined on the basis of farmer judgement. In particularly, it is found that the inner-bag humidity variable relatively affects the pear outlook quality. Therefore, inner-bag humidity sensing might help the farmers to control the pear outlook quality. These results are supported by a large quantity of inner-bag humidity data measured over the years 2014, 2015, and 2016. The experimental and analytical results in this research contribute to spreading Precision Agriculture technologies among the farmers growing ’Le Lectier’.
Realization of a (GIS) for Drilling (DWS) through the Adrar Region
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) include various methods and computer techniques to model, capture digitally, store, manage, view and analyze. Geographic information systems have the characteristic to appeal to many scientific and technical field, and many methods. In this article we will present a complete and operational geographic information system, following the theoretical principles of data management and adapting to spatial data, especially data concerning the monitoring of drinking water supply wells (DWS) Adrar region. The expected results of this system are firstly an offer consulting standard features, updating and editing beneficiaries and geographical data, on the other hand, provides specific functionality contractors entered data, calculations parameterized and statistics.
Municipal Solid Waste Management and Analysis of Waste Generation: A Case Study of Bangkok, Thailand
Gradually accumulated, the enormous amount of waste has caused tremendous adverse impacts to the world. Bangkok, Thailand, is chosen as an urban city of a developing country having coped with serious MSW problems due to the vast amount of waste generated, ineffective and improper waste management problems. Waste generation is the most important factor for successful planning of MSW management system. Thus, the prediction of MSW is a very important role to understand MSW distribution and characteristic; to be used for strategic planning issues. This study aims to find influencing variables that affect the amount of Bangkok MSW generation quantity.
Preliminary Analysis of a Phylogeography Study of Dendropsophus minutus in the Guiana Shield
Dendropsophus minutus, is a species distributed in South America including the slopes of the Andes, the Amazon basin, forests of southeastern Brazil and in Guyana where tropical forests are characteristic. The relationship of amphibians found in this locality is evidenced by molecular markers, with the objective of analyzing if the geographic distance is influencing the structure of the populations of D. minutus in Guyana; we analyzed 65 sequences from the 3 localities of Guyana where haplotype networks, Mantel Test and phylogeny were realized to know the influence. It was evidenced that there is a haplotypic difference in the locality of Guyana compared to Suriname and French Guyana, but this does not have a correlation with the geographic distance, but this one can be influenced by the conditions of the places.
Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels
To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.
A Study on the Non-Destructive Test Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Using Thermo-Graphic Camera
Non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques for assessing the integrity of composite structures are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of transport means due to maintenance. In this study, Analyze into non-destructive test characterization of carbon fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) internal and external defects using thermo-graphic camera and transient thermography method. non-destructive testing were characterized by defect size(∅8,∅10,∅12,∅14) and depth(1.2mm,2.4mm).
The Effect of the Parameters of the Grinding on the Characteristics of the Deposit Phosphate Ore of Kef Es Sennoun, Djebel Onk-Tebessa, Algeria
The objective of this study was to provide answers for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved during grinding. To obtain a phosphate powder, we carry out sieving - grinding circuits for each parameter influencing the process. The analysis of the average particle size of the different tests carried out served in the first place as a basis for the determination of the granulometric curve area, the characteristics and the granular coefficients, then the exploitation of the different results for the calculation of the energies consumed for the fragmentation of different ore types, the energy coefficients as well as the ability to grind. Indeed, a time of 5 to 10 minutes can be chosen as the optimal grinding time in a disc mill for a % in weight of the highest pass. However, grinding time can influence the granular characteristics of ore.
Radiographic Evaluation of Odontogenic Keratocyst: A 14 Years Retrospective Study
INTRODUCTION: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) remain as a controversial pathologic entity under the scrutiny of many researchers and maxillofacial surgeons alike. The high recurrence rate and relatively aggressive nature of this lesion demand a meticulous analysis of the radiographic characteristic of OKC leading to the formulation of an accurate diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the radiographic characteristic of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) using conventional radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients histopathologically diagnosed as OKC from 2003 to 2016 by Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographs of these cases from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry Mahidol University were retrieved. Assessment of the location, shape, border, cortication, locularity, the relationship of lesion to embedded tooth, displacement of adjacent tooth, root resorption and bony expansion of the lesion were conducted. RESULTS: Radiographs of 91 patients (44 males, 47 females) with the mean age of 31 years old (10 to 84 years) were analyzed. Among all patients, 5 cases were syndromic patients. Hence, a total of 103 OKCs were studied. The most common location was at the ramus of mandible (32%) followed by posterior maxilla (29%). Most cases presented as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated border. The lesion was in associated with embedded tooth in 48 lesions (47%). Eighty five percent of embedded tooth are impacted 3rd molar. Thirty-seven percentage of embedded tooth were entirely encapsulated in the lesion. The lesion attached to the embedded tooth at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in 40% and extended to part of root in 23% of cases. Teeth displacement and root resorption were found in 29% and 6% of cases, respectively. Bony expansion in bucco-lingual dimension was seen in 63% of cases. CONCLUSION: OKCs were predominant in the posterior region of the mandible with radiographic features of a well-defined, unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated margin. The lesions might relate to an embedded tooth by surrounding an entire tooth, attached to the CEJ level or extending to part of root. Bony expansion could be found but teeth displacement and root resorption were not common. These features might help in giving the differential diagnosis.
Flow Field Optimization for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
The flow field design in the bipolar plates affects the performance of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. This work adopted a combined optimization procedure, including a simplified conjugate-gradient method and a completely three-dimensional, two-phase, non-isothermal fuel cell model, to look for optimal flow field design for a single serpentine fuel cell of size 9×9 mm with five channels. For the direct solution, the two-fluid method was adopted to incorporate the heat effects using energy equations for entire cells. The model assumes that the system is steady; the inlet reactants are ideal gases; the flow is laminar; and the porous layers such as the diffusion layer, catalyst layer and PEM are isotropic. The model includes continuity, momentum and species equations for gaseous species, liquid water transport equations in the channels, gas diffusion layers, and catalyst layers, water transport equation in the membrane, electron and proton transport equations. The Bulter-Volumer equation was used to describe electrochemical reactions in the catalyst layers. The cell output power density Pcell is maximized subjected to an optimal set of channel heights, H1-H5, and channel widths, W2-W5. The basic case with all channel heights and widths set at 1 mm yields a Pcell=7260 Wm-2. The optimal design displays a tapered characteristic for channels 1, 3 and 4, and a diverging characteristic in height for channels 2 and 5, producing a Pcell=8894 Wm-2, about 22.5% increment. The reduced channel heights of channels 2-4 significantly increase the sub-rib convection and widths for effectively removing liquid water and oxygen transport in gas diffusion layer. The final diverging channel minimizes the leakage of fuel to outlet via sub-rib convection from channel 4 to channel 5. Near-optimal design without huge loss in cell performance but is easily manufactured is tested. The use of a straight, final channel of 0.1 mm height has led to 7.37% power loss, while the design with all channel widths to be 1 mm with optimal channel heights obtained above yields only 1.68% loss of current density. The presence of a final, diverging channel has greater impact on cell performance than the fine adjustment of channel width at the simulation conditions set herein studied.
Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor
Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.
Meiji Centennial as a Media Event: Ideas for Upcoming Turkish Republic Centennial
The Meiji Restoration was a chain of events that restored Japan in 1868 and considered as the beginning of Japanese Modernization by many scholars. In 1968, to honor its modern incarnation, Japan celebrated Meiji Centennial as one of the biggest Media Events in the country after the World War II. It was celebrated all around the country throughout the year following with a central event in Tokyo. Meanwhile, Japanese scholars started an opposition movement and claimed that Government was using this event to raise nationalism, pointing at Government’s statement on the meaning of Meiji. Most of the scholars, unfortunately, were hooked into the ideological problem of the Government’s way of planning and evaluated it as a failure. However, scholars missed out an important point that apart from the central event in Tokyo, each city planned its own event and celebrated it on a different date, also with a different theme. For example, Kyoto showed a regional characteristic and focused on Kyoto’s own culture, tradition etc., and highlighted a further past than 100 years. This was mainly because some areas/cities had a different ‘memory’ for Meiji Restoration than Tokyo which was reflected through the way they celebrated Meiji Centennial. On the other hand, 2023 will be the year of Turkish Republic Centennial. A year which will be marked by national and maybe even international events. Although an official committee has not been announced yet, The 2023 Vision, a list of goals has been released by the Government to coincide with the centenary of the Republic of Turkey in 2023 and there are some ongoing projects that are planned to be completed by then. By looking at the content of these projects, it is possible to say that Government is aiming to focus on Modernization through the Centennial. However, some of the projects are already showing some interesting characteristics such as the Istanbul New Airport whose design is inspired by Selimiye Mosque’s Islamic-Ottoman figure. It is true that Turkey and Japan have different historical backgrounds and the timeline of the Meiji Restoration and Foundation of Turkish Republic are different. Therefore, a particular comparison between these two events is not justified. However, they may have more in common than we are up to think because, each country marked the start of a new nation conceived on modern principles. For that reason, it is important to understand the similarities or differences between Meiji Centennial and Turkish Republic Centennial as a media event. This study introduces Meiji Centennial as a media event and analyses opposition movement along with the meaning of Meiji Centennial. Additionally, it explains regional characteristic differences and gives Kyoto as an example. Moreover, it introduces some of the ongoing Centennial projects in Turkey and analyses the meaning of the Turkish Republic Centennial through these projects. Without comparing Japan and Turkey, it explains the case of Japan but the discussion centers on deepening our understanding of Centennial as a Media Event and remarks some important aspects for Turkey’s upcoming Centennial events.
Heat Transfer Dependent Vortex Shedding of Thermo-Viscous Shear-Thinning Fluids
Non-Newtonian fluid properties can change the flow behaviour significantly, its prediction is more difficult when thermal effects come into play. Hence, the focal point of this work is the wake flow behind a heated circular cylinder in the laminar vortex shedding regime for thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids. In the case of isothermal flows of Newtonian fluids the vortex shedding regime is characterised by a distinct Reynolds number and an associated Strouhal number. In the case of thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids the flow regime can significantly change in dependence of the temperature of the viscous wall of the cylinder. The Reynolds number alters locally and, consequentially, the Strouhal number globally. In the present CFD study the temperature dependence of the Reynolds and Strouhal number is investigated for the flow of a Carreau fluid around a heated cylinder. The temperature dependence of the fluid viscosity has been modelled by applying the standard Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. In the present simulation campaign thermal boundary conditions have been varied over a wide range in order to derive a relation between dimensionless heat transfer, Reynolds and Strouhal number. Together with the shear thinning due to the high shear rates close to the cylinder wall this leads to a significant decrease of viscosity of three orders of magnitude in the nearfield of the cylinder and a reduction of two orders of magnitude in the wake field. Yet the shear thinning effect is able to change the flow topology: a complex K&acute;arm&acute;an vortex street occurs, also revealing distinct characteristic frequencies associated with the dominant and sub-dominant vortices. Heating up the cylinder wall leads to a delayed flow separation and narrower wake flow, giving lesser space for the sequence of counter-rotating vortices. This spatial limitation does not only reduce the amplitude of the oscillating wake flow it also shifts the dominant frequency to higher frequencies, furthermore it damps higher harmonics. Eventually the locally heated wake flow smears out. Eventually, the CFD simulation results of the systematically varied thermal flow parameter study have been used to describe a relation for the main characteristic order parameters.
Stability Analysis of Three-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Micropolar Fluids
The dynamic characteristics of a three-lobe journal bearing lubricated with micropolar fluids are determined by the linear stability theory. Lubricating oil containing additives and contaminants is modeled as micropolar fluid. The modified Reynolds equation is obtained using the micropolar lubrication theory and the finite difference technique has been used to solve it. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness, damping coefficients, the critical mass and whirl ratio are determined for various values of size of material characteristic length and the coupling number. The computed results show compared with Newtonian fluids, that micropolar fluid exhibits better stability.
The Geochemical Characteristic and Tectonic Setting of Mezoic-Cenozoic Volcanic and Granitic Rocks in Southern Sumatra, Indonesia
During 1989–1993, the Geological Research and Development Center (recent Geological Survey Institute) Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia was the collaboration with British Geological Survey, the United Kingdom to do technical assistance in order to collect data of geology in Sumatra Island. The overall corporation of technical programs was larger concern in stratigraphy, geochemical and age-dating studies. Availability of new data has been stimulated to reassessment of tectonic evolution of Sumatra Island. The study area located in Southern Sumatra within at latitudes 0°-6° S and 99°40’-106’00 E longitudes. The study tectonic is situated within along South Western margin of Sunda land, The Southeast Asia Continental extension arc of the Eurasian Plate and formed as part of Sunda Arc. The oceanic crust of Indian-Australian plate recently is being oblique subduction along the Sunda Trench off the West coast Sumatra. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic of the volcanic and granitic rocks can be divided into northern and southern plutons, defining a series subparallel, controlled by fault, northwest-southeast trending belts, some of the plutons are deformed and under-formed. They are widely exposed along the south-eastern side of the Barisan mountain. Based on the characteristic of minerals and crystallography, rocks found in this study area were granite, granitic, monzogranite and andesitic-Basaltic Volcanic Rock. It belongs to calc Alkaline was predominantly metalumina, I-Type Granite, Volcanic arc granites, Syncollisonal Granites (Syn_COLG) and tholeiitic basalt. It was formed since 169±5 to 20±1 Ma. The origin of magmas in interpreted to be derived from partial melting of igneous rock. The occurrence of the gratoid and volcanic rocks supposed to be closely related to the subduction of the Australian-Hindia oceanic crust beneath the Eurasia/Sunda land Continental Crust as Volcanic arc or continental margin granitic and shown youngest to the southwest. The subduction process having probably been different in position between one terrane to others led to the occurrence of segmentation subduction system. The positional discontinuities of the subduction are probably caused by the difference in time of emplacement and mechanism of volcanic and granitic rock between segments.
Detecting Potential Biomarkers for Ulcerative Colitis Using Hybrid Feature Selection
Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a disease of the colon with characteristic inflammation. Clinically IBD is detected using laboratory tests (blood and stool), radiology tests (imaging using CT, MRI), capsule endoscopy and endoscopy. There are two variants of IBD referred to as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. This study employs a hybrid feature selection method that combines a correlation-based variable ranking approach with exhaustive search wrapper methods in order to find potential biomarkers for UC. The proposed biomarkers presented accurate discriminatory power thereby identifying themselves to be possible ingredients to UC therapeutics.
Synthesis and D.C. Conductivity Measurements of Polyaniline/CopperOxide Nanocomposites
The Polyaniline / Copper Oxide(PANI / CuO) nanocomposite was prepared by solution mixing of prepared Polyaniline and copper Oxide in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The synthesis involved the formation of dark green colored Polyaniline-Copper Oxide nanocomposite. The synthesized polymer nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The characteristic peaks in XRD, FTIR and UV-Visible spectra confirmed the presence of CuO in the polymer structure. SEM analysis revealed formation of PANI/CuO nano composite The D.C. conductivity measurements were performed using two probe method for various temperatures.
Relaxation Dynamics of Quantum Emitters Resonantly Coupled to a Localized Surface Plasmon
We investigate relaxation dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE), e.g., a molecule or quantum dot, located near a metal nanoparticle (MNP) exhibiting a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition. It is shown that under the condition of the QDE-MNP characteristic relaxation time being much shorter than that of the QDE in free-space but much longer than the LSP lifetime. It is also shown that energy dissipation in the QDE-MNP system is relatively weak with the probability of the photon emission being about 0.75, a number which, rather surprisingly, does not explicitly depend on the metal absorption characteristics. The degree of entanglement measured by the concurrency takes the maximum value, while the distances between the QDEs and metal ball approximately are equal.
Factors Affecting Aluminum Dissolve from Acidified Water Purification Sludge
Recovering resources from water purification sludge (WPS) have been gradually stipulated in environmental protection laws and regulations in many nations. Hence, reusing the WPS is becoming an important topic, and recovering alum from WPS is one of the many practical alternatives. Most previous research efforts have been conducted on studying the amphoteric characteristic of aluminum hydroxide for investigating the optimum pH range to dissolve the Al(III) species from WPS, but it has been lack of reaction kinetics or mechanisms related discussion. Therefore, in this investigation, water purification sludge (WPS) solution was broken by ultrasound to make particle size of reactants smaller, specific surface area larger. According to the reaction kinetics, these phenomena let the dissolved aluminum salt quantity increased and the reaction rate go faster.
Acoustic Performance and Application of Three Personalized Sound-Absorbing Materials
In recent years, more and more personalized sound absorbing materials have entered the Chinese room acoustical decoration market. The acoustic performance of three kinds of personalized sound-absorbing materials: Flame-retardant Flax Fiber Sound-absorbing Cotton, Eco-Friendly Sand Acoustic Panel and Transparent Micro-perforated Panel (Film) are tested by Reverberation Room Method. The sound absorption characteristic curves show that their performance match for or even exceed the traditional sound absorbing material. Through the application in the actual projects, these personalized sound-absorbing materials also proved their sound absorption ability and unique decorative effect.
Medical Image Classification Using Legendre Multifractal Spectrum Features
Trabecular bone structure is important texture in the study of osteoporosis. Legendre multifractal spectrum can reflect the complex and self-similarity characteristic of structures. The main objective of this paper is to develop a new technique of medical image classification based on Legendre multifractal spectrum. Novel features have been developed from basic geometrical properties of this spectrum in a supervised image classification. The proposed method has been successfully used to classify medical images of bone trabeculations, and could be a useful supplement to the clinical observations for osteoporosis diagnosis. A comparative study with existing data reveals that the results of this approach are concordant.
Visualization-Based Feature Extraction for Classification in Real-Time Interaction
This paper introduces a method of using unsupervised machine learning to visualize the feature space of a dataset in 2D, in order to find most characteristic segments in the set. After dimension reduction, users can select clusters by manual drawing. Selected clusters are recorded into a data model that is used for later predictions, based on realtime data. Predictions are made with supervised learning, using Gesture Recognition Toolkit. The paper introduces two example applications: a semantic audio organizer for analyzing incoming sounds, and a gesture database organizer where gestural data (recorded by a Leap motion) is visualized for further manipulation.
Comparison Analysis of CFD Turbulence Fluid Numerical Study for Quick Coupling
In this study, the fluid flow characteristics and performance numerical study through CFD model of the Non-split quick coupling for flow control in hydraulic system equipment for the aerospace business group focused to predict. In this study, we considered turbulence models for the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for the CFD model of the Non-split Quick Coupling for aerospace business. In addition to this, the adequacy of the CFD model were verified by comparing with standard value. Based on this analysis, accurate the fluid flow characteristics can be predicted. It is, therefore, the design of the fluid flow characteristic contribute the reliability for the Quick Coupling which is required in industries on the basis of research results.
Numerical and Analytical Approach for Film Condensation on Different Forms of Surfaces
This paper seeks to the solution of condensation around of a flat plate, circular and elliptical tube in way of numerical and analytical methods. Also, it calculates the entropy production rates. The first, problem was solved by using mesh dynamic and rational assumptions, next it was compared with the numerical solution that the result had acceptable errors. An additional supporting relation was applied based on a characteristic of condensation phenomenon for condensing elements. As it has been shown here, due to higher rates of heat transfer for elliptical tubes, they have more entropy production rates, in comparison to circular ones. Findings showed that two methods were efficient. Furthermore, analytical methods can be used to optimize the problem and reduce the entropy production rate.
Features Dimensionality Reduction and Multi-Dimensional Voice-Processing Program to Parkinson Disease Discrimination
Parkinson's disease is a pathology that involves characteristic perturbations in patients’ voices. This paper describes a proposed method that aims to diagnose persons with Parkinson (PWP) by analyzing on line their voices signals. First, Thresholds signals alterations are determined by the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP). Principal Analysis (PCA) is exploited to select the main voice principal componentsthat are significantly affected in a patient. The decision phase is realized by a Mul-tinomial Bayes (MNB) Classifier that categorizes an analyzed voice in one of the two resulting classes: healthy or PWP. The prediction accuracy achieved reaching 98.8% is very promising.
Deep Mill Level Zone (DMLZ) of Ertsberg East Skarn System, Papua; Correlation between Structure and Mineralization to Determined Characteristic Orebody of DMLZ Mine
The Ertsberg East Skarn System (EESS) is located in the Ertsberg Mining District, Papua, Indonesia. EESS is a sub-vertical zone of copper-gold mineralization hosted in both diorite (vein-style mineralization) and skarn (disseminated and vein style mineralization). Deep Mill Level Zone (DMLZ) is a mining zone in the lower part of East Ertsberg Skarn System (EESS) that product copper and gold. The Deep Mill Level Zone deposit is located below the Deep Ore Zone deposit between the 3125m to 2590m elevation, measures roughly 1,200m in length and is between 350 and 500m in width. DMLZ planned start mined on Q2-2015, being mined at an ore extraction rate about 60,000 tpd by the block cave mine method (the block cave contain 516 Mt). Mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration in the DMLZ is hosted and enclosed by a large stock (The Main Ertsberg Intrusion) that is barren on all sides and above the DMLZ. Late porphyry dikes that cut through the Main Ertsberg Intrusion are spatially associated with the center of the DMLZ hydrothermal system. DMLZ orebody hosted in diorite and skarn, both dominantly by vein style mineralization. Percentage Material Mined at DMLZ compare with current Reserves are diorite 46% (with 0.46% Cu; 0.56 ppm Au; and 0.83% EqCu); Skarn is 39% (with 1.4% Cu; 0.95 ppm Au; and 2.05% EqCu); Hornfels is 8% (with 0.84% Cu; 0.82 ppm Au; and 1.39% EqCu); and Marble 7 % possible mined waste. Correlation between Ertsberg intrusion, major structure, and vein style mineralization is important to determine characteristic orebody in DMLZ Mine. Generally Deep Mill Level Zone has 2 type of vein filling mineralization from both hosted (diorite and skarn), in diorite hosted the vein system filled by chalcopyrite-bornite-quartz and pyrite, in skarn hosted the vein filled by chalcopyrite-bornite-pyrite and magnetite without quartz. Based on orientation the stockwork vein at diorite hosted and shallow vein in skarn hosted was generally NW-SE trending and NE-SW trending with shallow-moderate dipping. Deep Mill Level Zone control by two main major faults, geologist founded and verified local structure between major structure with NW-SE trending and NE-SW trending with characteristics slickenside, shearing, gauge, water-gas channel, and some has been re-healed.
Genetic Variation of Shvicezebuvides Cattle in Tajikistan Based on Microsatellite Markers
The genetic variation of Shvicezebuvides cattle from three different farms in the Tajikistan Republic was studied using 10 microsatellite markers (SSR). The trials were laid out using a multi- locus analysis system for the analysis of cattle microsatellite locus. An estimated genetic variability of the examined livestock is given in the article. The results of our SSR analysis as well as the numbers and frequencies of common alleles in studied samples, we established a high genetic similarity of studied samples. These results can also be furthermore useful in the decision making for preservation and rational genetic resources usage of the Tajik Shvicezebuvides cattle.
Development of Work Breakdown Structure for EVMS in South Korea
In the construction site, the cost and schedules are the most important management elements. Despite efforts to integrated management the cost and schedule, WBS classification is struggling to differ from each other. The cost and schedule can be integrated and can be managed due to the characteristic of the detail system in the case of Korea around the axis of pressure and official fixture system. In this research, the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) integrating the cost and schedules around in government office construction, WBS which can be used in common was presented in order to analyze the detail system of the public institution construction and improve. As to this method, the efficient administration of not only the link application of the cost and schedule but also construction project is expected.
Characteristics and Durability Evaluation of Air Spring
Air spring system is widely accepted for railway vehicle secondary suspension to reduce and absorb the vibration and noise. The low natural frequency ensures a comfortable ride and an invariably good stiffness. In this paper, the characteristic and durability test was conducted in laboratory by using servo-hydraulic fatigue testing system to reliability evaluation of air spring for electric railway vehicle. The experimental results show that the characteristics and durability of domestically developed products are excellent. Moreover, to guarantee the adaption of air spring, the ride comfort and air pressure variation were measured in train test on subway line. Air spring developed by this study for railway vehicles can guarantee the reliability of average usage of 1 million times at 90% confidence level.
Green, Yellow, Orange and Red Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength
Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The result of physical properties is found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultraviolet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, and 706 nm, respectively.
A Proof of the N. Davydov Theorem for Douglis Algebra Valued Functions
The classical Beltrami system of elliptic equations generalizes the Cauchy Riemann equation in the complex plane and offers the possibility to consider homogeneous system with no terms of zero order. The theory of Douglis-valued functions, called Hyper-analytic functions, is special case of the above situation. In this note, we prove an analogue of the N. Davydov theorem in the framework of the theory of hyperanalytic functions. The used methodology contemplates characteristic methods of the hypercomplex analysis as well as the singular integral operators and elliptic systems of the partial differential equations theories.
Estimation of the Dynamic Fragility of Padre Jacinto Zamora Bridge Due to Traffic Loads
The Philippines, composed of many islands, is connected with approximately 8030 bridges. Continuous evaluation of the structural condition of these bridges is needed to safeguard the safety of the general public. With most bridges reaching its design life, retrofitting and replacement may be needed. Concerned government agencies allocate huge costs for periodic monitoring and maintenance of these structures. The rising volume of traffic and aging of these infrastructures is challenging structural engineers to give rise for structural health monitoring techniques. Numerous techniques are already proposed and some are now being employed in other countries. Vibration Analysis is one way. The natural frequency and vibration of a bridge are design criteria in ensuring the stability, safety and economy of the structure. Its natural frequency must not be so high so as not to cause discomfort and not so low that the structure is so stiff causing it to be both costly and heavy. It is well known that the stiffer the member is, the more load it attracts. The frequency must not also match the vibration caused by the traffic loads. If this happens, a resonance occurs. Vibration that matches a systems frequency will generate excitation and when this exceeds the member’s limit, a structural failure will happen. This study presents a method for calculating dynamic fragility through the use of vibration-based monitoring system. Dynamic fragility is the probability that a structural system exceeds a limit state when subjected to dynamic loads. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 based from the available construction drawings provided by the Department of Public Works and Highways. It was verified and adjusted based from the actual condition of the bridge. The bridge design specifications are also checked using nondestructive tests. The approach used in this method properly accounts the uncertainty of observed values and code-based structural assumptions. The vibration response of the structure due to actual loads is monitored using installed sensors on the bridge. From the determinacy of these dynamic characteristic of a system, threshold criteria can be established and fragility curves can be estimated. This study conducted in relation with the research project between Department of Science and Technology, Mapúa Institute of Technology, and the Department of Public Works and Highways also known as Mapúa-DOST Smart Bridge Project deploys Structural Health Monitoring Sensors at Zamora Bridge. The bridge is selected in coordination with the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structural plans for the bridge are also readily available.
Estimation of the Dynamic Fragility of Padre Jacinto Zamora Bridge Due to Traffic Loads
The Philippines, composed of many islands, is connected with approximately 8030 bridges. Continuous evaluation of the structural condition of these bridges is needed to safeguard the safety of the general public. With most bridges reaching its design life, retrofitting and replacement may be needed. Concerned government agencies allocate huge costs for periodic monitoring and maintenance of these structures. The rising volume of traffic and aging of these infrastructures is challenging structural engineers to give rise for structural health monitoring techniques. Numerous techniques are already proposed and some are now being employed in other countries. Vibration Analysis is one way. The natural frequency and vibration of a bridge are design criteria in ensuring the stability, safety and economy of the structure. Its natural frequency must not be so high so as not to cause discomfort and not so low that the structure is so stiff causing it to be both costly and heavy. It is well known that the stiffer the member is, the more load it attracts. The frequency must not also match the vibration caused by the traffic loads. If this happens, a resonance occurs. Vibration that matches a systems frequency will generate excitation and when this exceeds the member’s limit, a structural failure will happen. This study presents a method for calculating dynamic fragility through the use of vibration-based monitoring system. Dynamic fragility is the probability that a structural system exceeds a limit state when subjected to dynamic loads. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 based from the available construction drawings provided by the Department of Public Works and Highways. It was verified and adjusted based from the actual condition of the bridge. The bridge design specifications are also checked using nondestructive tests. The approach used in this method properly accounts the uncertainty of observed values and code-based structural assumptions. The vibration response of the structure due to actual loads is monitored using installed sensors on the bridge. From the determinacy of these dynamic characteristic of a system, threshold criteria can be established and fragility curves can be estimated. This study conducted in relation with the research project between Department of Science and Technology, Mapúa Institute of Technology, and the Department of Public Works and Highways also known as Mapúa-DOST Smart Bridge Project deploys Structural Health Monitoring Sensors at Zamora Bridge. The bridge is selected in coordination with the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structural plans for the bridge are also readily available.
Analysis of Stacked SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit with Low Trigger Voltage and Latch-Up Immunity
In this paper, we proposed the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuit for latch-up immunity. The proposed circuit has a lower trigger voltage and a higher holding voltage characteristic by using the zener diode structure. These characteristics prevent latch-up problem in normal operating conditions. The proposed circuit was analyzed to figure out the electrical characteristics by the variations of design parameters D1, D2 and stack technology to obtain the n-fold electrical characteristics. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. When using the stack technology, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 6.9V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 10.9V.
Reduction of Speckle Noise in Echocardiographic Images: A Survey
Speckle noise is a main characteristic of cardiac ultrasound images, it corresponding to grainy appearance that degrades the image quality. For this reason, the ultrasound images are difficult to use automatically in clinical use, then treatments are required for this type of images. Then a filtering procedure of these images is necessary to eliminate the speckle noise and to improve the quality of ultrasound images which will be then segmented to extract the necessary forms that exist. In this paper, we present the importance of the pre-treatment step for segmentation. This work is applied to cardiac ultrasound images. In a first step, a comparative study of speckle filtering method will be presented and then we use a segmentation algorithm to locate and extract cardiac structures.
Time Truncated Group Acceptance Sampling Plans for Exponentiated Half Logistic Distribution
In this article, we considered a group acceptance sampling plans for exponentiated half logistic distribution when the life-test is truncated at a pre-specified time. It is assumed that the index parameter of the exponentiated half logistic distribution is known. The design parameters such as the number of groups and the acceptance number are obtained by satisfying the producer’s and consumer’s risks at the specified quality levels in terms of medians and 10th percentiles under the assumption that the termination time and the number of items in each group are pre-fixed. Finally, an example is given to illustration the methodology.
Nutritional and Functional Composition of Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) Grown in Algeria
In Algeria, Opuntia ficus Indica production is important. This seasonal fruit is a characteristic of arid and semi-arid regions. Taking into account its high content in antioxidants, it has an excellent nutritional value. The aim of this research is the prickly pear morphological and physicochemical characterization study which is widely present in the Arris (Batna, Algeria) area. The results of this experimental study are comparative to those of the same species from other world regions. The whole fruit weight is estimated to reach 63.38 g with a juice ratio of 71.42%, a pH of 5.54, moisture of 89.3% and a brix of 10.4°. The quantitative amount of the phenolic compounds of the fruit revealed contents of 20.65-45.70 mg / 100 g of MF for total polyphenols and 0.519 -0.591 mg / 100 g of MF for the flavonoids.
The Study on the Overall Protection of the Ancient Villages
The discussion about elements of cultural heritage and their relevance among the ancient villages is comparably insufficient. The protection work is strongly influenced by touristic development and cultural gimmick, resulting in low protection efficiency and many omissions. Historical villages as the cultural settlement patterns bear a large number of heritage relics. They were regionally scattered with a clear characteristic of gathering. First of all, this study proposes the association and similarities of the forming mechanism between four historic cultural villages in Mian Mountain. Secondly, the study reveals that these villages own the strategic pass, underground passage, and the mountain barrier. Thirdly, based on the differentiated characteristics of villages&rsquo; space, the study discusses about the integrated conservation from three levels: the regional heritage conservation, the cultural line shaping, and the featured brand building.
A Visualization Classification Method for Identifying the Decayed Citrus Fruit Infected by Fungi Based on Hyperspectral Imaging
Early detection of fungal infection in citrus fruit is one of the major problems in the postharvest commercialization process. The automatic and nondestructive detection of infected fruits is still a challenge for the citrus industry. At present, the visual inspection of rotten citrus fruits is commonly performed by workers through the ultraviolet induction fluorescence technology or manual sorting in citrus packinghouses to remove fruit subject with fungal infection. However, the former entails a number of problems because exposing people to this kind of lighting is potentially hazardous to human health, and the latter is very inefficient. Orange is used as a research object. This study would focus on this problem and proposed an effective method based on Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm with a spectroscopic resolution of 2.8 nm. In this work, three normalization approaches are applied prior to analysis to reduce the effect of sample curvature on spectral profiles, and it is found that mean normalization was the most effective pretreatment for decreasing spectral variability due to curvature. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to a dataset composing of average spectra from decayed and normal tissue to reduce the dimensionality of data and observe the ability of Vis-NIR hyper-spectra to discriminate data from two classes. In this case, it was observed that normal and decayed spectra were separable along the resultant first principal component (PC1) axis. Subsequently, five wavelengths (band) centered at 577, 702, 751, 808, and 923 nm were selected as the characteristic wavelengths by analyzing the loadings of PC1. A multispectral combination image was generated based on five selected characteristic wavelength images. Based on the obtained multispectral combination image, the intensity slicing pseudocolor image processing method is used to generate a 2-D visual classification image that would enhance the contrast between normal and decayed tissue. Finally, an image segmentation algorithm for detection of decayed fruit was developed based on the pseudocolor image coupled with a simple thresholding method. For the investigated 238 independent set samples including infected fruits infected by Penicillium digitatum and normal fruits, the total success rate is 100% and 97.5%, respectively, and, the proposed algorithm also used to identify the orange infected by penicillium italicum with a 100% identification accuracy, indicating that the proposed multispectral algorithm here is an effective method and it is potential to be applied in citrus industry.
A Study of the Prevalence of Trichinellosis in Domestic and Wild Animals for the Region of Sofia, Bulgaria
Nemathodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution. More than 100 species of mammals, birds and reptiles are involved in the natural cycle of this nematode. At present, T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, and T. britovi have been found in Bulgaria. The existence of natural wildlife and domestic reservoirs of Trichinella spp. can be a serious threat to human health. Three trichinella isolates caused human trichinella infection outbreaks from three regions of Sofia City Province were used for the research: sample No. 1 - Ratus norvegicus, sample No. 2 – domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica), sample No. 3 - domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). Trichinella larvae of the studied species were isolated via digestive method (pepsin, hydrochloric acid, water) at 37ºC by standard procedure and were determined by gender (male and female) based on their morphological characteristics. As a reference trichinella species were used: T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, T. nativa and T. britovi. Single male and female larvae of the three isolates were crossed with single male and female larvae of the reference trichinella species as well as reciprocally. As a result of cross-breeding, offspring of muscular larvae with T. spiralis and T. britovi were obtained, while in experiments with T. pseudospiralis and T. nativa, trichinella larvae were not found in the laboratory mice. The results obtained in the control groups indicate that the trichinella larvae used from the isolates and the four trichinella species are infective. Also, the infective ability of the F1 offspring from the successful cross-breeding between isolates and reference species was investigated. Through the data obtained in the experiment was found that isolates No. 1 and No. 2 belong to the species T. spiralis, and isolate No. 3 belongs to the species T. britovi. The results were confirmed by PCR and real-time PCR analysis. Thus the presence and circulation of the species T. spiralis and T. britovi in Bulgaria was confirmed. Probably the rodents (rats) are involved in the distribution of T. spiralis in urban environment. The species T. britovi found in a domestic pig speaks of some contact with wild animals for which T. britovi is characteristic. The probable reason is that a large number of farmers in Bulgaria practice the free-range breeding of domestic pigs. Part of the farmers also used as food for domestic pigs waste products from the game (foxes, jackals, bears, wolves) and probably thus the infection was obtained. The distribution range of trichinella species in Bulgaria is not strictly outlined. It is believed that T. spiralis is most common in domestic animals and T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis are characteristic of wildlife. To answer the question whether wild and synanthropic animals are infected with the same or different trichinella species, which species predominate in nature and what their distribution among different hosts is, further research is required.
Features of Rail Strength Analysis in Conditions of Increased Force Loading
In the article are considered the problems arising at increasing of transferring from rolling stock axles on rail loading from 210 KN up to 270 KN and is offered for rail strength analysis definition of rail force loading complex integral characteristic with taking into account all affecting force factors that is characterizing specific operation condition of rail structure and defines the working capability of structure. As result of analysis due mentioned method is obtained that in the conditions of 270 KN loading the rail meets the working assessment criteria of rail and rail structures: Strength, rail track stability, rail links stability and its transverse stability, traffic safety condition that is rather important for post-Soviet countries railways.
A New Approach to the Digital Implementation of Analog Controllers for a Power System Control
In this paper, a comparison of discrete time PID, PSS controllers is presented through small signal stability of power system comprising of one machine connected to infinite bus system. This comparison achieved by using a new approach of discretization which converts the S-domain model of analog controllers to a Z-domain model to enhance the damping of a single machine power system. The new method utilizes the Plant Input Mapping (PIM) algorithm. The proposed algorithm is stable for any sampling rate, as well as it takes the closed loop characteristic into consideration. On the other hand, the traditional discretization methods such as Tustin’s method is produce satisfactory results only; when the sampling period is sufficiently low.
Rheological Behavior of Fresh Activated Sludge
Despite of few research works on municipal sludge, still there is a lack of actual data. Thus, this work was focused on the conditioning and rheology of fresh activated sludge. The effect of cationic polyelectrolyte has been investigated at different concentrations and pH values in a comparative fashion. Yield stress is presented in all results indicating the minimum stress that necessary to reach flow conditions. Connections between particle-particle is the reason for this yield stress, also, the addition of polyelectrolyte causes strong bonds between particles and water resulting in the aggregation of particles which required higher shear stress in order to flow. The results from the experiments indicate that the cationic polyelectrolytes have significant effluence on the sludge characteristic and water quality such as turbidity, SVI, zone settling rate and shear stress.
Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data
By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column&rsquo;s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.