The Effects of Some Organic Amendments on Sediment Yield, Splash Loss, and Runoff of Soils of Selected Parent Materials in Southeastern Nigeria
Soil erosion has been linked to stream sedimentation, ecosystem degradation, and loss of soil nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of some organic amendment on sediment yield, splash loss, and runoff of soils of selected parent materials in southeastern Nigeria. A total of 20 locations, five from each of four parent materials namely: Asu River Group (ARG), Bende Ameki Group (BAG), Coastal Plain Sand (CPS) and Falsebedded Sandstone (FBS) were used for the study. Collected soil samples were analyzed with standard methods for the initial soil properties. Rainfall simulation at an intensity of 190 mm hr-1was conducted for 30 minutes on the soil samples at both the initial stage and after amendment to obtain erosion parameters. The influence of parent material on sediment yield, splash loss and runoff based on rainfall simulation was tested for using one way analyses of variance, while the influence of organic material and their combinations were a factorially fitted in a randomized complete block design. The organic amendments include; goat dropping (GD), poultry dropping (PD), municipal solid waste (MSW) and their combinations (COA) applied at four rates of 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 respectively. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance suitable for a factorial experiment. Significant means were separated using LSD at 5 % probability levels. Result showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) lower values of sediment yield, splash loss and runoff following amendment. For instance, organic amendment reduced sediment yield under wet and dry runs by 12.91 % and 26.16% in Ishiagu, 40.76% and 45.67%, in Bende, 16.17% and 50% in Obinze and 22.80% and 42.35% in Umulolo respectively. Goat dropping and combination of amendment gave the best results in reducing sediment yield.
Effects of Soil Organic Amendment Types and Rates on Growth and Yield of Amaranthus cruentus, Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria
Experiment was conducted for two years (2013 and 2014) at Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Teaching and Research Farm to study the effects of soil organic amendment types and rates on soil chemical fertility improvement, growth and yield of Amarathus cruentus in the southern guinea savannah, lapai, Niger state, Nigeria. Soil and manure samples were collected and analysed for physical and chemical components. The experiments were laid out in 3 x 4 factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Consisting of three (3) levels of soil amendment types (Poultry manure, goat manure and cowdung) and four (4) levels of amendment rates (0, 6, 12 and 18 t ha-1). Data collected include plant height/plant (cm), number of leaves/plant, leaf area/ plant (cm2) at 2, 4, 6 and 8WAT, fresh vegetable yield/plant, fresh vegetable yield/plot and fresh vegetable yield in tons ha-1. The result obtained showed that, Amaranthus cruentus height, number of leaves and leaf area were not significantly affected by the type of organic amendment and rates at 2WAT in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. However, at 4, 6 and 8 WAT, significant differences were observed among the types of amendment and their rates. Application of poultry manure as soil amendment supported taller, large number of leaves and wider leaf area, and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05) which was closely followed by goat manure in the two (2) cropping seasons. In addition, the application of 18 t ha-1 was superior to 12, 6 and the control by producing tallest amaranthus plants, higher number of leaves, wider leaf area and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05). In conclusion, the use of 18 t ha-1poultry manure is therefore recommended as soil amendment for Amaranthus cruentus in southern guinea savannah of Nigeria.
The Road to Abolition of Death Penalty in China: With the Perspective of the Ninth Amendment
This paper supplies some possible approaches of the death penalty reform in China basic on the analyzing the reformation conducted by the Ninth Amendment. There now are 46 crimes punishable by death, and this penalty still plays a significant role in the criminal punishment structure. In order to abolish entirely the death penalty in Penal Code, the legislature of China should gradually abolish the death penalty for the nonviolent crimes and then for the nonlethal violent crimes and finally for the lethal violent crimes. In the case where the death penalty has not yet been abolished completely, increasing the applicable conditions of suspension of execution of death penalty and reducing the scope of applicable objects (elderly defendant and other kinds of special objects) of death penalty would be an effective road to control and limit the use of death penalty in judicial practice.
The Problems with the Amendment of a Living Trust in South Africa
It was ruled that an inter vivos trust must be amended according to the rules of the stipulatio alteri, or ‘contract in favour of a third party’, that South African adopted from its Roman-Dutch common law. The application of the principles of the stipulatio alteri on the inter vivos trust has developed in case law to imply that once the beneficiary has accepted benefits, he becomes a party to the contract. This consequently means that he must consent to any amendments that the trustees want to make. This poses practical difficulties such as finding all the beneficiaries that have accepted to sign the amendment that the trustees would want to circumvent in administering the trust. One of the questions relating to this issue is, however, whether the principles of the stipulatio alteri are correctly interpreted and consequently applied to the inter vivos trust to mean that the beneficiaries who accepted must consent to any amendment. The subsequent question relates to the rights the beneficiary receives upon acceptance. There seems to be a different view of what a vested right or a contingent right of the beneficiary means in relation to the inter vivos trust. These rights also have an impact on the amendment of a trust deed. Such an investigation and refining of the interpretation of the stipulatio alteri’s application on the inter vivos trust may result in solutions to circumvent the adverse effects of getting the beneficiary’s consent for amendments.
Influence of Environment-Friendly Organic Wastes on the Properties of Sandy Soil under Growing Zea mays L. in Arid Regions
Environment-friendly organic wastes of Brewers' spent grain, a byproduct of the brewing process, have recently used as soil amendment to improve soil fertility and plant production. In this work, treatments of 1% (T1) and 2% (T2) of spent grains, 1% (C1) and 2% (C2) of compost and mix of both sources (C1T1) were used and compared to the control for growing Zea mays L. on sandy soil under arid Mediterranean climate. Soils were previously incubated at 65% saturation capacity for a month. The most relevant soil physical and chemical parameters were analysed. Water holding capacity and soil organic matter (OM) increased significantly along the treatments with the highest values in T2. Soil pH decreased along the treatments and the lowest pH was in C1T1. Bicarbonate decreased by 69% in C1T1 comparing to control. Total nitrogen (TN) and available P varied significantly among all treatments and T2, C1T1 and C2 treatments increased 25, 17 and 11 folds in TN and 1.2, 0.6 and 0.3 folds in P, respectively related to control. Available K showed the highest values in C1T1. Soil micronutrients increased significantly along all treatments with the highest values in T2. After corn germination, significant variation was observed in the velocity of germination coefficients (VGC) among all treatments in the order of C1T1>T2>T1>C2>C1>control. The highest records of final germination and germination index were in C1T1 and T2. The spent grains may compensate deficiencies of macro and micronutrients in newly reclaimed sandy soils without adverse effects to sustain crop production with a rider that excessive or continuous use need to be circumvented.
Combating Illegal Logging in Malaysia: Policies and Strategies under National Forestry Act (NFA) 1984
The National Forestry Act (NFA) 1984 is the primary forest law that regulates forest-related activities in Peninsular Malaysia. In the 1990s, abundance of illegal logging cases have called for legislative reform of the NFA 1984. As a result, NFA 1984 was amended in 1993 with the principal goal of controlling illegal forest encroachment in the forms of illegal logging, unauthorized harvesting, unlicensed forest settlement and other forms of unlawful activities. At a conceptual level, this paper discusses the policies and strategies implemented under the NFA 1984 (Amendment 1993) that are dedicated to overcome illegal logging. Then, the policies and strategies employed are reviewed and evaluated. Next, this paper conceptually discusses the loopholes of NFA 1984 (Amendment 1993) in relation to aspects where the regulation is considered insufficient to curb illegal logging. In the final section, vital actions and suggested improvements to improve the overall effectiveness of NFA 1984 (Amendment 1993) are examined.
Effects of Application of Rice Husk Charcoal-Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Growth, Yield, and Properties of Lowland Rice
Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans thus; rice cultivation is the major agricultural activity of the country. The application of inorganic fertilizer has become a burden to the country. The excessive application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can potentially lead to deterioration of the quality of water. In mixing both urea and rice husk charcoal and rice straw compost in soils causes a slow release of nitrogen fertilizer, thus reducing the cost of importations of nitrogen based fertilizers per unit area of cultivation. Objective of this study was to evaluate rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer and compare the total N,P, K, organic matter in soil and yield of rice production. Five treatments were used for twenty pots (pot size 30 cm diameter and 45 cm height) each replicated four times as: inorganic fertilizer only (Urea, TSP and MOP) (Treatment 1); rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP (Treatment 2); inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP and MOP) with rice straw compost only (Treatment 3); rice husk charcoal urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost (Treatment 4); and no fertilizer as the control (Treatment 5). Rice grain yield was significantly higher in treatment 4 where rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost. The lowest yield was observed in control (treatment 5). The lower the value of the nitrogen to phosphorous ratio in soil, it indicates higher uptake of phosphorous. Charcoal can be used as a soil amendment and organic fertilizer, but adjustment of pH was required at high application rates. K content of soil of treatment 3 and 4 were the highest with compared to the treatment 1. Rice husk charcoal coated urea can potentially be used as a slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer.
Poultry Manure and Its Derived Biochar as a Soil Amendment for Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils under Arid and Semi-Arid Conditions
Sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are characterized by poor physical and biochemical properties such as low water retention, rapid organic matter decomposition, low nutrients use efficiency, and limited crop productivity. Addition of organic amendments is crucial to develop soil properties and consequently enhance nutrients use efficiency and lessen organic carbon decomposition. Two years field experiments were developed to investigate the feasibility of using poultry manure and its derived biochar integrated with different levels of N fertilizer as a soil amendment for newly reclaimed sandy soils in Western Desert of El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Results of this research revealed that poultry manure and its derived biochar addition induced pronounced effects on soil moisture content at saturation point, field capacity (FC) and consequently available water. Data showed that application of poultry manure (PM) or PM-derived biochar (PMB) in combination with inorganic N levels had caused significant changes on a range of the investigated sandy soil biochemical properties including pH, EC, mineral N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic N (DON) and quotient DOC/DON. Overall, the impact of PMB on soil physical properties was detected to be superior than the impact of PM, regardless the inorganic N levels. In addition, the obtained results showed that PM and PM application had the capacity to stimulate vigorous growth, nutritional status, production levels of wheat and sorghum, and to increase soil organic matter content and N uptake and recovery compared to control. By contrast, comparing between PM and PMB at different levels of inorganic N, the obtained results showed higher relative increases in both grain and straw yields of wheat in plots treated with PM than in those treated with PMB. The interesting feature of this research is that the biochar derived from PM increased treated sandy soil organic carbon (SOC) 1.75 times more than soil treated with PM itself at the end of cropping seasons albeit double-applied amount of PM. This was attributed to the higher carbon stability of biochar treated sandy soils increasing soil persistence for carbon decomposition in comparison with PM labile carbon. It could be concluded that organic manures applied to sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are subjected to high decomposition and mineralization rates through crop seasons. Biochar derived from organic wastes considers as a source of stable carbon and could be very hopeful choice for substituting easily decomposable organic manures under arid conditions. Therefore, sustainable agriculture and productivity in newly reclaimed sandy soils desire one high rate addition of biochar derived from organic manures instead of frequent addition of such organic amendments.
A Comparative Analysis of the Private and Social Benefit-Cost Ratios of Organic and Inorganic Rice Farming: Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in the Aveyime Community, Ghana
The Aveyime community in the Volta region of Ghana is one of the major hubs for rice production. In the past, rice farmers applied organic pesticides to control pests, and compost as a soil amendment to improve fertility and productivity. However, the introduction of chemical pesticides and fertilizers have led many farmers to convert to inorganic system of rice production, without considering the social costs (e.g. groundwater contamination and health costs) related to the use of pesticides. The study estimates and compares the private and social BCRs of organic and inorganic systems of rice production. Both stratified and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select 300 organic and inorganic rice farmers and 50 pesticide applicators. The respondents were interviewed with pre-tested questionnaires. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) which elucidates organic farmers` Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) was employed to estimate the cost of groundwater contamination. The Cost of Illness (COI) analysis was used to estimate the health cost of pesticide-induced poisoning of applicators. The data collated, was analyzed with the aid of Microsoft excel. The study found that high private benefit (e.g. increase in farm yield and income) was the most influential factor for the rapid adoption of pesticides among rice farmers. The study also shows that the social costs of inorganic rice production were high. As such the social BCR of inorganic farming (0.2) was low as compared to organic farming (0.7). Based on the results, it was recommended that government should impose pesticide environmental tax, review current agricultural policies to favour organic farming and promote extension education to farmers on pesticide risk, to ensure agricultural and environmental sustainability.
Contributions of Microbial Activities to Tomato Growth and Yield under an Organic Production System
Optimizing microbiological activities in an organic crop production system is crucial to the realization of optimum growth and development of the crops. Field and pot experiments were conducted to assess soil microbial activities, growth and yield of tomato varieties in response to 4 rates of composted plant and animal residues. The compost rates were 0, 5, 10 and 20 t ha-1, and improved Ibadan and Ibadan local constituted the varieties. Fungi population, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellulase and proteinase activities were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) at the rhizosphere of the local variety than that of improved variety. This led to a significantly higher number of branches, plant height, leaf area, number of fruits and less days to maturity in the local variety. Furthermore, compost-amended soil had significantly higher microbial populations, microbial biomass N, P and C, enzyme activities, soil N, P and organic carbon than control, but amendment of 20 t ha-1 gave significantly higher values than other compost rates. Consequently, growth parameters and tissue N significantly increased in all compost treatments while dry matter yield and weight of fruits were significantly higher in soil amended with 20 t ha-1. Correlation analysis showed that microbial activities at 6 weeks after transplanting (6 WAT) were more consistently and highly correlated with growth and yield parameters. It was concluded that microbial activities could be optimized to improve the yield of the two tomato varieties in an organic production system, through the application of compost, particularly at 20 t ha-1.
Factors Influencing the Resistance of the Purchase of Organic Food and Market Education Process in Indonesia
The market share of organic food in Indonesia just reaches 0.5-2 percents from the entire of agricultural products. The aim of this research is to analyze the relation of gender, work, age and final education toward the buying interest of organic food, to identify the factors influencing the resistance of the purchase of organic food, and to identify the market education process. The analysis result of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) shows the factors causing the resistance of the purchase of organic food are the negative attitude toward organic food, the lack of affordable in range for organic food product and the lack of awareness toward organic food, while the subjective norms have no significant effect toward the buying interest. The market education process which can be done is the education about the use of the health of organic food, the organic certification and the economic value.
Consumer Attitude and Purchase Intention towards Organic Food: Insights from Pakistan
Organic food is commonly known for its healthier content without the use of pesticides, herbicides, inorganic fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of health consciousness, environmental concern and organic food knowledge on both the intention to buy organic foods and the attitude towards organic foods and the effect of attitude towards organic foods on the intention to buy organic foods in Pakistan. Primary data was used which was collected through adopted questionnaire from previous research. Non- probability convenience sampling was used to select sample size of 200 consumers based on Karachi. The data was analyzed through Descriptive statistics and Multi regression method. The findings of the study showed that the attitude and the intention to buy organic food were affected by health consciousness, environmental concern, and organic food knowledge. The results also revealed that attitude also affects the intention to buy organic food.
Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation: Feasible Alternative to Soil Chemical Fumigants
Phytophthora nicotianae is the principal causal agent of root and crown rot disease of red pepper plants in Extremadura (Western Spain). There is a need to develop a biologically-based method of soil disinfestation that facilitates profitable and sustainable production without the use of chemical fumigants. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD), as well know as biodisinfestation, has been shown to control a wide range of soil-borne pathogens and nematodes in numerous crop production systems. This method implies soil wetting, incorporation of a easily decomposable carbon-rich organic amendment and covering with plastic film for several weeks. ASD with rapeseed cake (var. Tocatta, a glucosinolates-free variety) used as C-source was assayed in spring 2014, before the pepper crop establishment. The field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Centre Finca La Orden (Southwestern Spain) and the treatments were: rapeseed cake (RCP); rapeseed cake without plastic cover (RC); control non-amendment (CP) and control non-amendment without plastic cover (C). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replicates and a plot size of 5 x 5 m. On 26 March, rapeseed cake (1 kg·m-2) was incorporated into the soil with a rotovator. Biological probes with the inoculum were buried at 15 and 30-cm depth (biological probes were previously prepared with 100 g of disinfected soil inoculated with chlamydospores (chlam) of P. nicotianae P13 isolate [100 chlam·g-1 of soil] and wrapped in agryl cloth). Sprinkler irrigation was run until field capacity and the corresponding plots were covered with transparent plastic (PE 0.05 mm). On 6 May plastics were removed, the biological probes were dug out and a bioassay was established. One pepper seedling at the 2 to 4 true-leaves stage was transplanted in the soil from each biological probe. Plants were grown in a climatic chamber and disease symptoms were recorded every week during 2 months. Fragments of roots and crown of symptomatic plants were analyzed on NARPH media and soil from rizospheres was analyzed using carnation petals as baits. Results of “survival” were expressed as the percentage of soil samples where P. nicotianae was detected and results of “infectivity” were expressed as the percentage of diseased plants. No differences were detected in deep effect. Infectivity of P. nicotianae chlamydospores was successfully reduced in RCP treatment (4.2% of infectivity) compared with the controls (41.7% of infectivity). The pattern of survival was similar to infectivity observed by the bioassay: 21% of survival in RCP; 79% in CP; 83% in C and 87% in RC. Although ASD may be an effective alternative to chemical fumigants to pest management, more research is necessary to show their impact on the microbial community and chemistry of the soil.
State Coercion and Social Movements: Legacy of Authoritarian Regime
This paper aims to examine the meaning of ‘state’ as a monopoly of violence, in regard with South Korean democratic transition. Since institutional democratization in 1987, it is conventionally known that governmental authority has exercised its power through law and police force, rather than inclusive or private violence. In other words, 1987 pro-democracy movement has been a critical juncture for a step towards democratic consolidation. However, state coercion may continually be exerted despite institutional specification by law in South Korean context. Explicit case would be amendment of ‘the Law on Assembly and Demonstration’ which determines citizens’ right to take collective action mostly against government actions. This paper investigates amendment process of the law along with social reality since 1987 until 2015 to see how effectively institutionalization has progressed.
Consumer Behavior and Knowledge on Organic Products in Thailand
The objective of this study was to investigate the
awareness, knowledge and consumer behavior towards organic
products in Thailand. For this study, a purposive sampling technique
was used to identify a sample group of 2,575 consumers over the age
of 20 years who intended or made purchases from 1) green shops; 2)
supermarkets with branches; and, 3) green markets. A questionnaire
was used for data collection across the country. Descriptive statistics
were used for data analysis. The results showed that more than 92%
of consumers were aware of organic agriculture, but had less
knowledge about it. More than 60% of consumers knew that organic
agriculture production and processing did not allow the use of
chemicals. And about 40% of consumers were confused between the
food safety logo and the certified organic logo, and whether GMO
was allowed in organic agriculture practice or not. In addition, most
consumers perceived that organic agricultural products, good
agricultural practice (GAP) products, agricultural chemicals free
products, and hydroponic vegetable products had the same standard.
In the view of organic consumers, the organic Thailand label was the
most seen and reliable among various organic labels. Less than 3% of
consumers thought that the International Federation of Organic
Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) Global Organic Mark (GOM) was
the most seen and reliable. For the behaviors of organic consumers,
they purchased organic products mainly at the supermarket and green
shop (55.4%), one to two times per month, and with a total
expenditure of about 200 to 400 baht each time. The main reason for
buying organic products was safety and free from agricultural
chemicals. The considered factors in organic product selection were
price (29.5%), convenience (22.4%), and a reliable certification
system (21.3%). The demands for organic products were mainly rice,
vegetables and fruits. Processed organic products were relatively
small in quantity.
An Organic Dye-Based Staining for Plant DNA
In plant biotechnology, electrophoresis is used to detect nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used as an intercalator dye to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this study, a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye (N-719) for staining plant DNA in comparison to EtBr. When prestaining and post-staining for gel electrophoresis, N-719 stained both DNA and PCR product bands with the same clarity as EtBr. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. The organic dye was found to have staining activity suitable for the identification of DNA.Consequently, N-719 organic dye can be used to stain and visualize DNA during gel electrophoresis as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.
An Organic Dye-Based Staining for Plant DNA
In plant biotechnology, electrophoresis is used to detect nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used as an intercalator dye to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this study, a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye (N-719) for staining plant DNA in comparison to EtBr. When prestaining and post-staining for gel electrophoresis, N-719 stained both DNA and PCR product bands with the same clarity as EtBr. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. The organic dye was found to have staining activity suitable for the identification of DNA.Consequently, N-719 organic dye can be used to stain and visualize DNA during gel electrophoresis as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.
Influence of Pseudomonas japonica on Growth and Metal Tolerance of Celosia cristata L.
Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants as they pose serious health and environmental threats. They can be removed by various physiochemical methods but are costly and responsible for additional environmental problems. Bioremediation that exploits plants and their associated microbes have been referred as cost effective and environmental friendly technique. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential of Celosia cristata and effects of bacteria, Pseudomonas japonica, and organic amendment moss/compost on tolerating/accumulating heavy metals. Two weeks old seedlings were transferred to soil in pots, and after four weeks they were inoculated with bacterial strain, while after growth of six weeks they were watered with a metal containing synthetic wastewater and were harvested after a growth period of nine weeks. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters and metal content of plants were measured. The results showed highest plant growth and biomass production in case of organic amendments while highest metal uptake has been found in non-amended pots. Positive controls have shown highest Pb uptake of 2900 mg/kg DW, while P. japonica amended pots have shown highest Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu uptake of 963.53, 1481.17, 1022.01 and 602.17 mg/kg DW, respectively. In conclusion organic amendments have strong impacts on growth enhancement while P. japonica enhances metal translocation and accumulation to aerial parts with little significant involvement in plant growth.
Effect of Poultry Manure and Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (15:15:15) Soil Amendment on Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus carota)
This present experiment was carried out during the 2012 cropping season, at the Farming for the Future Experimental Field of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala Campus in the Northern Region of Ghana. The objective of the experiment was to determine the carrot growth and yield responses to poultry manure and N.P.K (15:15:15). Six treatments (Control (no amendment), 20 t/ha poultry manure (PM), 40 t/ha PM, 70 t/ha PM, 35 t/ha PM + 0.11t/ha N.P.K and 0.23 t/ha N.P.K) with three replications for each were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves per plant, canopy spread, root diameter, root weight, and root length. Microsoft Excel and Genstat Statistical Package (9th edition) were used for the data analysis. The treatment means were compared by using Least Significant Difference at 10%. Generally, the results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.1) among the treatments with respect to number of leaves per plant, root diameter, root weight, and root length. However, significant differences occurred among plant heights and canopy spreads. Plant height treated with 40 t/ha PM at the fourth week after planting and canopy spread at eight weeks after planting and ten weeks after planting by 70 t/ha PM and 20 t/ha PM respectively showed significant difference (P<0.1). The study recommended that any of the amended treatments can be applied at their recommended rates to plots for carrot production, since there were no significant differences among the treatments.
Simulation and Characterization of Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics Using Physics Based Tool
Research and development in organic photovoltaic cells and Organic Light Emitting Diodes have gained wider acceptance due to the advent of many advanced techniques to enhance the efficiency and operational hours. Here we report our work on design, simulation and characterizationracterize the bulk heterojunction organic photo cell and polymer light emitting diodes in different layer configurations using ATLAS, a licensed device simulation tool. Bulk heterojuction and multilayer devices were simulated for comparing their performance parameters.
Friction Coefficient of Epiphen Epoxy System Filled with Powder Resulting from the Grinding of Pine Needles
Recent ecological interests have resulted in scientific concerns regarding natural-organic powder composites. Because natural-organic powders are cheap and biodegradable, green composites represent a substantial contribution in polymer science area. The aim of this study is to point out the effect of natural-organic powder resulting from the grinding of pine needles used as a modifying agent for Epiphen epoxy resin and is focused on friction coefficient behavior. A pin-on-disc setup is used for friction coefficient experiments. Epiphen epoxy resin was used with the different ratio of organic powder from the grinding of pine needles. Because of the challenges of natural organic powder, more and more companies are looking at organic composite materials.
The Effect of Fermented Organic Feed into Nutritive Contents of Kampong Chicken Meat
The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of the fermented organic feed to dry matter, ash, organic matter, protein, fat and crude fiber contents of kampong chicken meat. The research had conducted at January until June, 2016. One hundreds chickens were used in this research. Experimental method and completely randomized design were used to support this research. We had 4 treatment namely P0: organic feed without fermentation, P1: Organic feed with fermented rice bran, P2: Organic feed with fermented corn, P3: Organic feed with fermented rice bran and corn with 5 replication. The conclusion was the treatment had not a significant effect in the dry matter, ash, organic matter and protein contents of chicken meat. On the other hand, it had a significant effect in the fat and crude fiber contents of chicken meat.
Increase of Completion Rate of Nursing Care during Therapeutic Hypothermia in Critical Patients
Background: Patients received therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after resuscitation from cardiac arrest are more dependent on continue and intensive nursing care. It involves many difficult steps, especially achieving target body temperature. To our best knowledge, there is no consensus or recommended standards on nursing practice of TH.
Aim: The aim of this study is to increase the completion rate of nursing care at therapeutic hypothermia. Methods: We took five measures: (1) Amendment of nursing standards of therapeutic hypothermia; (2) Amendment of TH checklist items to nursing records; (3) Establishment of monitor procedure; (4) Design each period of TH care reminder cards; (5) Providing in-service training sections of TH for ICU nursing staff.
Outcomes: The completion rate of nursing care at therapeutic hypothermia increased from 78.1% to 89.3%. Conclusion: The project team not only increased the completion rate but also improved patient safety and quality of care.
The Influence of Organic Waste on Vegetable Nutritional Components and Healthy Livelihood, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Household waste form a larger proportion of waste generated across the state, accumulation of organic waste is an apparent problem and the existing dump sites could be overstressed. Niger state has abundant arable land and water resources thus should be one of the highest producers of agricultural crops in the country. However, the major challenge to agricultural sector today is the loss of soil nutrient coupled with high cost of fertilizer. These have continued to increase the use of fertilizer and decomposed solid waste for enhancing agricultural yield, which have varying effects on the soil as well a threat to human livelihood. Consequently, vegetable yield samples from poultry droppings decomposed household waste manure, NPK treatments and control from each replication were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the nutritional and anti-nutritional component as well as heavy metal concentration. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS software and Randomized complete Block Design means were compared. The result shows that the treatments do not devoid the concentrations of any nutritional components while the anti-nutritional analysis proved that NPK had higher oxalate content than control and organic treats. The concentration of lead and cadmium are within safe permissible level while the mercury level exceeded the FAO/WHO maximum permissible limit for the entire treatments depicts the need for urgent intervention to minimize mercury levels in soil and manure in order to mitigate its toxic effect. Thus, eco-agriculture should be widely accepted and promoted by the stakeholders for soil amendment, higher yield, strategies for sustainable environmental protection, food security, poverty eradication, attainment of sustainable development and healthy livelihood.
Remediation of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production (O&G E&P) Wastes Using Soil-Poultry Dropping Amendment
Oily wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (O&G E&P) activities were remediated for twelve weeks using Soil-Poultry dropping amendment. Culture-dependent microbiological, chemical and enzymatic techniques were employed to assess the efficacy of remediation process. Microbiological activities of the remediated wastes showed increased hydrocarbonoclastic microbial populations with increased remediation time; 2.7±0.1 x 105cfu/g to 8.3 ± 0.04 x106cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, 1.7 ± 0.2 x103cfu/g to 6.0 ± 0.01 x 104cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing fungi and 2.2 ± 0.1 x 102cfu/g to 6.7 ± 0.1 x 103cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing actinomycetes. Bacteria associated with the remediated wastes after the remediation period included the genera Bacillus, Psuedomonas, Beijerinckia, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes and Serratia. Fungal isolates included species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium, while the Actinomycetes included species of Rhodococcus, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Slight fluctuations in pH values between 6.5± 0.2 and 7.1 ± 0.08 were recorded throughout the process, while total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content decreased from 89, 900 ± 0.03mg/kg to 425 ± 0.1 mg/kg after twelve weeks of remediation. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels decreased with increased remediation time; naphthalene, flourene, pheneanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(b)flouranthene showed decreased values < 0.01 after twelve weeks of remediation. Enzyme activities revealed increased dehydrogenase and urease activities with increased remediation time and decreased phenol oxidase activity with increased remediation period. There was a positive linear correlation between densities of hydrocarbonoclastic microbes and dehydrogenase activity. On the contrary, phenol oxidase and urease activities showed negative correlation with microbial population. Results of this study confirmed that remediation of oily wastes using soil-poultry dropping amendment can result in eco-friendly O&G E&P wastes. It also indicates that urease and phenol oxidase activities can be reliable indices/tools to monitor PAH levels and rates of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation.
Identifying Dominant Anaerobic Microorganisms for Degradation of Benzene
An optimal recipe of amendment (nutrients and electron acceptors) was developed and dominant indigenous benzene-degrading microorganisms were characterized in this study. Lessons were learnt from the development of the optimal amendment recipe: (1) salinity and substantial initial concentration of benzene were detrimental for benzene biodegradation; (2) large dose of amendments can shorten the lag time for benzene biodegradation occurrence; (3) toluene was an essential co-substance for promoting benzene degradation activity. The stable isotope probing study identified incorporation 13C from 13C-benzene into microorganisms, which can be considered as a direct evidence of the occurrence of benzene biodegradation. The dominant mechanism for benzene removal was identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to be nitrate reduction. Microbial analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal RNA) demonstrated that members of genus Dokdonella spp., Pusillimonas spp., and Advenella spp. were predominant within the microbial community and involved in the anaerobic benzene bioremediation.
Secondary Compression Behavior of Organic Soils in One-Dimensional Consolidation Tests
The standard one-dimensional consolidation test is used to find the consolidation behaviour of artificially consolidated organic soils. Incremental loading tests were conducted on the clay without and with organic matter. The study was conducted with soil having different organic content keeping all other parameters constant. The tests were conducted on clay and artificially prepared organic soil sample at different vertical pressure. The load increment ratio considered for the test is equal to one. Artificial organic soils are used for the test by adding starch to the clay. The percentage of organic content in starch is determined by adding 5% by weight starch into the clay (inorganic soil) sample and corresponding change in organic content of soil was determined. This was expressed as percentage by weight of starch, and it was found that about 95% organic content in the soil sample. Accordingly percentage of organic content fixed and added to the sample for testing to understand the consolidation behaviour clayey soils with organic content. A detailed study of the results obtained from IL test was investigated. The main items investigated were (i) coefficient of consolidation (cv), (ii) coefficient of volume compression (mv), (iii) coefficient of permeability (k). The consolidation parameter obtained from IL test was used for determining the creep strain and creep parameter and also predicting their variation with vertical stress and organic content.
Consumer Behavior in Buying Organic Product: A Case Study of Consumer in the Bangkok Metropolits and Vicinity
The objectives of this study were to investigate 1) consumers’ behaviors in buying organic products; and 2) the relationships between personal factors, cultural factors, social factors, psychological factors and marketing mix factors, and the behavior in buying organic products of consumers in the greater Bangkok metropolitan area. The sample group was 400 consumers at the age of 15 and older, who bought organic agricultural products from green markets and green shops in Bangkok, including its suburbs. The data were collected by using a questionnaire, which were analyzed by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. The results showed that the consumers bought 3 – 4 types of fresh vegetables with a total expenditure of less than 499 Baht each time. They purchased organic products mainly at a supermarket, 2 – 4 times per month, most frequently on Sundays, which took less than 30 minutes of shopping each time. The purpose of the purchase was for self-consuming. Gaining or retaining good health was the reason for the consumption of the products. Additionally, the first considered factor in the organic product selection was the quality. The decisions in purchasing the products were made directly by consumers, who were influenced mainly by advertising media on television. For the relationships among personal, cultural, social, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumers’ behavior in buying organic products, the results showed the following: 1) personal factors, which were gender, age and educational level, were related to the behavior in terms of “What”, “Why”, and “Where” the consumers bought organic products (p< 0.05); 2) cultural factors were related to “Why” the consumers bought organic products (p< 0.05); 3) social factors were related to “Where” and “How” the consumers bought organic products (p< 0.05); 4) psychological factors were related to “When” the consumers bought organic products (p< 0.05). 5) For the marketing mix factors, “Product” was related to “Who participated” in buying, “What” and “Where” the consumers bought organic products (p< 0.05), while “Price” was related to “What” and “When” the consumers bought organic products (p< 0.05). “Place” was related to “What” and “How” the consumers bought organic products (p< 0.05). Furthermore, “Promotion” was related to “What” and “Where” the consumers bought organic products (p< 0.05).
Impact of Long Term Application of Municipal Solid Waste on Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters and Heavy Metal Distribution in Soils in Accordance to Its Agricultural Uses
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), being a rich source of organic materials, can be used for agricultural applications as an important source of nutrients for soil and plants. This is also an alternative beneficial management practice for MSW generated in developing countries. In the present study, MSW treated soil samples from last four to six years at farmer’s field in Rohtak and Gurgaon states (Haryana, India) were collected. The samples were analyzed for all-important agricultural parameters and compared with the control untreated soil samples. The treated soil at farmer’s field showed increase in total N by 48 to 68%, P by 45.7 to 51.3%, and K by 60 to 67% compared to untreated soil samples. Application of sewage sludge at different sites led to increase in microbial biomass C by 60 to 68% compared to untreated soil. There was significant increase in total Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn in all sewage sludge amended soil samples; however, concentration of all the metals were still below the current permitted (EU) limits. To study the adverse effect of heavy metals accumulation on various soil microbial activities, the sewage sludge samples (from wastewater treatment plant at Gurgaon) were artificially contaminated with heavy metal concentration above the EU limits. They were then applied to soil samples with different rates (0.5 to 4.0%) and incubated for 90 days under laboratory conditions. The samples were drawn at different intervals and analyzed for various parameters like pH, EC, total N, P, K, microbial biomass C, carbon mineralization, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) exactable heavy metals. The results were compared to the uncontaminated sewage sludge. The increasing level of sewage sludge from 0.5 to 4% led to build of organic C and total N, P and K content at the early stages of incubation. But, organic C was decreased after 90 days because of decomposition of organic matter. Biomass production was significantly increased in both contaminated and uncontaminated sewage soil samples, but also led to slight increases in metal accumulation and their bioavailability in soil. The maximum metal concentrations were found in treatment with 4% of contaminated sewage sludge amendment.
Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal
The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.
Choosing Local Organic Food: Consumer Motivations and Ethical Spaces
In recent years, the organic sector has increased significantly. However, with the ‘conventionalization’ of these products, it has been questioned whether these products have been losing their original vision. Accordingly, this research based on 31 phenomenological interviews with committed organic consumers in urban and rural areas of Portugal, aims to analyse how ethical motivations and ecological awareness are related to organic food consumption. The content thematic analysis highlights aspects related to society and environmental concerns. On an individual level, the importance of internal coherence, peace of mind and balance that these consumers find in the consumption of local organic products was stressed. For these consumers, local organic products consumption made for significant changes in their lives, aiding in the establishment of a green identity, and involves a certain philosophy of life. This vision of an organic lifestyle is grounded in a political and ecological perspective, beyond the usual organic definition, as a ‘post-organic era’. The paper contributes to better understand how an ideological environmental discourse allows highlighting the relationship between consumers’ environmental concerns and the politics of food, resulting in a possible transition to new sustainable consumption practices.
Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine
The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the manufacture of liquid organic fertilizer totaled 42 people. Data were collected through observation and interview. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the perception of livestock farmers of using liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine provide additional revenue benefits, cost minimization farming, reducing environmental pollution which not contrary to the customs.
Potential of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals
A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Field experiments with a randomized, complete block design with five treatments (control, compost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa, and vemicompost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa) were carried out. The accumulation of heavy metals in the sunflower plant and the quality of the sunflower oil (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) were determined. The tested organic amendments significantly influenced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the sunflower plant. The incorporation of 40 t/decare of compost and 20 t/decare of vermicompost to the soil led to an increase in the ability of the sunflower to take up and accumulate Cd, Pb and Zn. Sunflower can be subjected to the accumulators of Pb, Zn and Cd and can be successfully used for phytoremediation of contaminated soils with heavy metals. The 40 t/daa compost treatment led to a decrease in heavy metal content in sunflower oil to below the regulated limits. Oil content and fatty acids composition were affected by compost and vermicompost amendment treatments. Adding compost and vermicompost increased the oil content in the seeds. Adding organic amendments increased the content of stearic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, and reduced the content of palmitic and gadoleic acids in sunflower oil. The possibility of further industrial processing of seeds to oil and use of the obtained oil will make sunflowers economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.
The Study of the Absorption and Translocation of Chromium by Lygeum spartum in the Mining Region of Djebel Hamimat and Soil-Plant Interaction
Since century of the Development Activities extraction and a dispersed mineral processing Toxic metals and much more contaminated vast areas occupied by what they natural outcrops. New types of metalliferous habitats are so appeared. A species that is Lygeum spartum attracted our curiosity because apart from its valuable role in desertification, it is apparently able to exclude antimony and other metals can be. This species, green leaf blades which are provided as cattle feed, would be a good subject for phytoremediation of mineral soils. The study of absorption and translocation of chromium by the Lygeum spartum in the mining region of Djebel Hamimat and the interaction soil-plant, revealed that soils of this species living in this region are alkaline, calcareous majority in their fine texture medium and saline in their minority. They have normal levels of organic matter. They are moderately rich in nitrogen. They contain total chromium content reaches a maximum of 66,80 mg Kg^(-1) and a total absence of soluble chromium. The results of the analysis of variance of the difference between bare soils and soils appear Lygeum spartum made a significant difference only for the silt and organic matter. But for the other variables analyzed this difference is not significant. Thus, this plant has only one action on the amendment, only the levels of silt and organic matter in soils.
The results of the multiple regression of the chromium content of the roots according to all soil variables studied did appear that among the studied variables included in the model, only the electrical conductivity and clay occur in the explanation of contents chromium in roots. The chromium content of the aerial parts analyzed by regression based on all studied soil variables allows us to see only the variables: electrical conductivity and content of chromium in the root portion involved in the explanation of the content chromium in the aerial part.
On-Farm Research on Organic Fruits Production in the Eastern Thailand
Organic agriculture has become a major policy theme for agricultural development in Thailand since October 2005. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda, to promote safe food and national export, and many government authorities have initiated projects and activities centered on organic farming promotion. Currently, Thailand has the market share of about 32 million US$ a year by exporting organic products of rice, vegetables, tea, fruits and a few medicinal herbs. There is high potential in organic crop production as there is the tropical environment promoting crop growth and leader farmer in organic farming. However, organic sector is relatively small (0.2%) comparing with conventional agricultural area, since there are many factors affecting farmers’ adoption and success in organic farming. The objective of this project was to get the organic production technology for at least 3 organic crops. The treatment and method were complied with Thai Organic Standard, and were mainly concerned on increase plant biodiversity and soil improvement by using organic fertilizer and bio-extract from fish, egg, plant and fruits. The bio-logical control, plant-extracts, and cultural practices were used to control insect pests and diseases of 3 crops including mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), longkong (Aglaia dookoo Griff.) and banana (Musa (AA group)). The experiments were carried out at research centers of Department of Agriculture and farmers’ farms in Rayong and Chanthaburi provinces from 2009 to 2013. We found that both locations, plant biodiversity by intercropping mangosteen or longkong with banana and soil improvement with composts and bio-extract from fish could increased yield and farmers’ income by 6,835 US$/ha/year. Farmers got knowledge from these technologies to produce organic crops. The organic products were sold both in domestic and international countries. The organic production technologies were also environmental friendly and could be used as an alternative way for farmers in Thailand.
Production and Market of Certified Organic Products in Thailand
The objective of this study was to assess the production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. A purposive sampling technique was used to identify a sample group of 154 organic entrepreneurs for the study. A survey and in-depth interview were employed for data collection. Also, secondary data from organic agriculture certification body and publications was collected. Then descriptive statistics and content analysis technique were used to describe about production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. Results showed that there were 9,218 farmers on 213,183.68 Rai (83,309.2 acre) of certified organic agriculture land (0.29% of national agriculture land). A total of 57.8% of certified organic agricultural lands were certified by the international certification body. Organic farmers produced around 71,847 tons/year and worth around THB 1,914 million (Euro 47.92 million). Excluding primary producers, 471 operators involved in the Thai organic supply chains, including processors, exporters, distributors, green shops, modern trade shops (supermarket shop), farmer’s markets and food establishments were included. Export market was the major market channel and most of organic products were exported to Europe and North America. The total Thai organic market in 2014 was estimated to be worth around THB 2,331.55 million (Euro 58.22 million), of which, 77.9% was for export and 22.06% was for the domestic market. The largest exports of certified organic products were processed foods (66.1% of total export value), followed by organic rice (30.4%). In the domestic market, modern trade was the largest sale channel, accounting for 59.48% of total domestic sales, followed by green shop (29.47%) and food establishment (5.85%). To become a center of organic farming and trading within ASEAN, the Thai organic sector needs to have more policy support in regard to agricultural chemicals, GMO, and community land title. In addition, appropriate strategies need to be developed.
Comparison of Non-Organic (Suspended and Solved) Solids Removal with and without Sediments in Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater with and without Ozonation
In this research, removal of Non-Organic Suspended Solids and Non-Organic Solved Solids with and without sediment in treatment of an industrial wastewater system before and after ozonation was studied and compared. The most hazardous part of these substances is monomers of chlorophenolic combinations which in biological reactors in a liquid phase could be absorbed much easier and with a high velocity. These monomers and particularly monomers with high molecular weights are seen a lot in such wastewater treatment systems. After the treatment, the measured non-organic solved and suspended solids contents in the cyclic ozonation-biotreatment system compared to the non-organic solved and suspended solids values in the treatment method without ozonation. Sedimentation was the other factor which was considered in this experiment.The solids removals were measured with and without sediments. The comparison revealed that the remarkable efficiency of the cyclic ozonation-biotreatment system in removing the non-organic solids both with and without sediments is extremely considerable. Results of the experiments showed that ozone can be dramatically effective for solving most organic materials in activated sludge in such a wastewater or for making them mineral. Moreover, bio dissolubility increase related to the solved materials was reported.
De-Commoditisation of Food: How Organic Farmers from the Madrid Region Reconnect Products and Places through Web Marketing
The growth of organic farming practices in the last few decades is continuing to stimulate the international debate about this alternative food market. As a part of a PhD project research about embeddedness in Alternative Food Networks (AFNs), this paper focuses on the promotional aspects of organic farms websites from the Madrid region. As a theoretical tool, some knowledge categories drawn on the geographic studies literature are used to classify the many ideas expressed in the web pages. By analysing texts and pictures of 30 websites, the study aims to question how and to what extent actors from organic world communicate to the potential customers their personal beliefs about farming practices, products qualities, and ecological and social benefits. Moreover, the paper raises the question of whether organic farming laws and regulations lack of completeness about the social and cultural aspects of food.
Fire Effects on Soil Properties of Meshchera Plain, Russia
The properties of soils affected by the wildfires of 2002, 2010, and 2012 in Meshchera plain (Moscow region, Russia) were considered in a current research. The formation of ash horizons instead of organic peat horizons was detected both in histosols and histic podzols. The increase of pH and magnetic susceptibility was observed in soil profiles. Significant burning out of organic matter was observed, but already two years after the fire the new stage of organic matter accumulation started.
A Study of Farming Earthworms Commercial with Organic Waste
This study aimed to study the artificial barriers and potential restrictions. Aspects of farming, marketing and cost oriented commercial farming earthworms with organic waste. To promote the use of waste recycling and reduce the amount of organic waste that must be disposed. And to create added value this research focuses on qualitative and quantitative research. By earthworm farms surveyed collected insights to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, including problems, conditions and limitations. To get more updates, which covers the cost of marketing and farm management.
Education in the Constitutions: The Comparison of Turkey with Indonesia, France, Japan, South Africa, and the United States of America
The main purpose of this study is to find out, analyze and discuss basic principles of education and training in the constitutions, including the latest amendment, of France, Indonesia, Japan, South Africa, the United States of America, and Turkey. This research specifically aims at establishing a framework in order to compare educational values such as right of education, responsibilities of states and those of people, and other issues pertaining to education in the Constitution of Turkey to others. Additionally, it emphasizes the meaning of education in constitution, the reasons for references to education in constitutions and why it is important for people, states or nations and state organs. Qualitative analysis technique is performed to accomplish the aim of this study. Maximum variation sampling is used. The main data source of the analysis is official organic laws of those countries. The data is examined by using descriptive and content analysis method.
Application of Recycled Paper Mill Sludge on the Growth of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Effect on Soil Properties, Nutrients and Heavy Metals
The paper industry performs an essential role in the global economy of the world. A study was conducted on the paper mill sludge that is applied on the Khaya senegalensis for 1 year planning period at University Agriculture Park, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia to determine the growth of Khaya senegalensis, soil properties, nutrients concentrations and effects on the status of heavy metals. Paper Mill Sludge (PMS) and composted Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) were used with different rates of nitrogen (0, 150, 300 and 600 kg ha-1) at the ratio of 1:1 (Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) : Empty Fruit Brunch (EFB). The growth parameters were measured twice a month for 1 year. Plant nutrients and heavy metal uptake were determined. The paper mill sludge has the potential to be a supplementary N fertilizer as well as a soil amendment. The application of RPMS with N, significantly contributed to the improvement in plant growth parameters such as plant height (4.24 m), basal diameter (10.30 cm), total plant biomass and improved soil physical and chemical properties. The pH, EC, available P and total C in soil were varied among the treatments during the planting period. The treatments with raw and RPM compost had higher pH values than those applied with inorganic fertilizer and control. Nevertheless, there was no salinity problem recorded during the planting period and available P in soil treated with raw and RPMS compost was higher than the control plots that reflects the mineralization of organic P from the decomposition of pulp sludge. The weight of the free and occluded light fractions of carbon concentration was significantly higher in the soils treated with raw and RPMS compost. The application of raw and composted RPMS gave significantly higher concentration of the heavy metals, but the total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were below the critical values. Hence, the paper mill sludge can be successfully used as soil amendment in acidic soil without any serious threat. The use of paper mill sludge for the soil fertility, shows improvement in land application signifies a unique opportunity to recycle sludge back to the land to alleviate the potential waste management problem.
Synthesis and Application of an Organic Dye in Nanostructure Solar Cells Device
Two organic dyes comprising carbazole as the electron donors and cyanoacetic acid moieties as the electron acceptors were synthesized. The organic dye was prepared by standard reaction from carbazole as the starting material. To this end, carbazole was reacted with bromobenzene and further oxidation and reacted with cyanoacetic acid. The obtained organic dye was purified and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) and elemental analysis. The influence of heteroatom on carbazole donors and cyno substitution on the acid acceptor is evidenced by spectral and electrochemical photovoltaic experiments. Finally, light fastness properties for organic dye were investigated.
The use of biosolids from thermal conversion of palm waste for soil fertility enhancement was tested in acidic soil of Southern Nigeria for the growing of Habanero chili pepper (Capsicum chinense jacq.). Soil samples from the two sites, showed pH 4.8 and 4.8 for site A and B respectively, below 5.6-6.8 optimum range and other fertility parameters indicating a low threshold for pepper growth. Nursery planting was done at different weeks to determine the optimum planting period. Ash analysis showed that it contains 26% of total K, 20% of total Ca, 0.27% of total P, and pH 11. The two sites were laid for an experiment in randomized complete block design and setup with three replications side by side. Each plot measured 3 x 2 m and a total of 15 plots for each site, four treatments, and one control. Outlined as control, 2, 4, 6 and 8 tonnes/hectare of palm waste ash, the combined average for both sites with correspondent yield after six harvests in one season are; 0, 5.8, 6, 6, 14.5 tonnes/hectare respectively to treatments. Optimum nursery survival rate was high in July; the crop yield was linear to the ash application. Site A had 6% yield higher than site B. Fruit development, weight, and total yield in relation to the control plot showed that palm waste ash is effective for soil amendment, nutrient delivery, and exchange.
The Effect of Acid Treatment of PEDOT: PSS Anode for Organic Solar Cells
In this project, PEDOT:PSS layer was treated with formic acid, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, methanol, acetone, and dichlorobenzene:methanol. The resistivity measurements with 2-probes were carried out and the best-chosen method was employed to make an organic solar cell device.
Soil Respiration Rate of Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests
We assessed the ecology of the organic and mineral soil layers of laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (BB-2 and Pw) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The soil respiration rate was higher in the deeper horizons (F and H) of organic layers than in those of mineral soil layers, suggesting organic layers may be where active microbial metabolism occurs. Respiration rates in the soil of BB-1, BB-2 and Pw forests were closely similar at 5 and 10°C. However, the soil respiration rate increased in proportion to temperatures of 15°C or above. We therefore consider the activity of soil microorganisms to markedly decrease at temperatures below 10°C. At a temperature of 15°C or above, the soil respiration rate in the BB-1 organic layers was higher than in those of the BB-2 and Pw organic layers, due to differences in forest vegetation that appeared to influence several salient soil properties, particularly pH and the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the F and H horizons.
Biochar Assisted Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Nutrient Recycling
Pyrolysis can be used for energy production from waste biomass of agriculture and forestry. Biochar is the solid byproduct of pyrolysis and its cascading use can offset the cost of the process. A wide variety of research on biochar has highlighted its ability to absorb nutrients, metal and complex compounds; filter suspended solids; enhance microorganisms’ growth; retain water and nutrients as well as to increase carbon content of soil. In addition, sustainable biochar systems are an attractive approach for carbon sequestration and total waste management cycle. Commercially available biochar from Sigma Aldrich was studied for adsorption of nitrogen from effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. Adsorption isotherm and breakthrough curve were determined for the biochar. Similarly, biochar’s effects in aerobic as well as anaerobic bioreactors were also studied. In both cases, the biomass was increased in presence of biochar. The amount of gas produced for anaerobic digestion of fruit mix (apple and banana) was similar but the rate of production was significantly faster in biochar fed reactors. The cumulative goal of the study is to use biochar in various wastewater treatment units like aeration tank, secondary clarifier and tertiary nutrient recovery system as well as in anaerobic digestion of the sludge to optimize utilization and add value before being used as a soil amendment.
The Preliminary Exposition of Soil Biological Activity, Microbial Diversity and Morpho-Physiological Indexes of Cucumber under Interactive Effect of Allelopathic Garlic Stalk: A Short-Term Dynamic Response in Replanted Alkaline Soil
Background and Aims: In recent years, protected cultivation trend, especially in the northern parts of China, spread dynamically where production area, structure, and crops diversity have expanded gradually under plastic greenhouse vegetable cropping (PGVC) system. Under this growing system, continuous monoculture with excessive synthetic fertilizers inputs are common cultivation practices frequently adopted by commercial producers. Such long-term cumulative wild exercise year after year sponsor the continuous cropping obstacles in PGVC soil, which have greatly threatened the regional soil eco-sustainability and further impose the continuous assault on soil ecological diversity leading to the exhaustion of agriculture productivity. The aim of this study was to develop new allelopathic insights by exploiting available biological resources in the favor of sustainable PGVC to illuminate the continuous obstacle factors in plastic greenhouse. Method: A greenhouse study was executed under plastic tunnel located at the Horticulture Experimental Station of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, one of the prominent regions for intensive commercial PGVC in China. Post-harvest garlic residues (stalk, leaves) mechanically smashed, homogenized into powder size and incorporated at the ratio of 1:100; 3:100; 5:100 as a soil amendment in a replanted soil that have been used for continuous cucumber monoculture for 7 years (annually double cropping system in a greenhouse). Results: Incorporated C-rich garlic stalk significantly influenced the soil condition through various ways; organic matter decomposition and mineralization, moderately adjusted the soil pH, enhanced the soil nutrient availability, increased enzymatic activities, and promoted 20% more cucumber yield in short-time. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rDNA genes, the current study revealed that addition of garlic stalk/residue could also improve the microbial abundance and community composition in extensively exploited soil, and contributed in soil functionality, caused prosper changes in soil characteristics, reinforced to good crop yield. Conclusion: Our study provided evidence that addition of garlic stalk as soil fertility amendment is a feasible, cost-effective and efficient resource utilization way for renovation of degraded soil health, ameliorate soil quality components and improve ecological environment in short duration. Our study may provide a better scientific understanding for efficient crop residue management typically from allelopathic source.
Using Sea Cucumber for Mitigation of Marine Pollution
Kuwait’s marine environment suffers from increased organic pollution. Sea cucumbers play an important role in the marine environment. They create a healthier environment for many types of benthic micro-organisms through their slow movement and feeding mechanism on micro-organisms and organic material. A preliminary study has been conducted in Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the possibility of using sea cucumbers for mitigation of the coastal pollution. Sediments were collected from locations identified to be heavily loaded with organic pollutants. Ten aquaria glass tanks, 65x 40x 30cm will be supplied with 10 cm height (14 kg) of the sediments added in each tank and filled with 70 L of filtered seawater. Two species were used in this study, Stichopus hermanni, and Holothuria atra. Water and sediment samples were analyzed weekly. The results showed promising possibility for using sea cucumber to lower the organic load in sediments.
Absorption Control of Organic Solar Cells under LED Light for High Efficiency Indoor Power System
Organic solar cells have high potential which enables these to absorb much weaker light than 1-sun in indoor environment. They also have several practical advantages, such as flexibility, cost-advantage, and semi-transparency that can have superiority in indoor solar energy harvesting. We investigate organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) for indoor application while Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were run to find the optimized structure. This may provide the highest short-circuit current density to acquire high efficiency under indoor illumination.
Impact of Organic Architecture in Building Design
Physical fitness, as one of the most important keys to a healthy wellbeing, is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. As a result, the fitness world is expanding every day. It is believed that a fitness centre is a place of healing and also the natural environment is vital to speedy recovery. The aim of this paper is to propose and designs a suitable location for a fitness centre in Batagarawa metropolis. Batagarawa city is enriched with four tertiary institutions with diverse commerce and culture but lacks the facility of a well-equipped fitness centre. The proposed fitness centre intends to be an organically sound centre that will make use of principles of organic architecture to create a new pleasant environment between man and his environments. Organic architecture is the science of designing a building within pleasant natural resources and features surrounding the environment. It is regarded as visual poetry and reinterpretation of nature’s principles; as well as embodies a settlement of person, place, and materials. Using organic architecture, the design was interlaced with the dynamic, organic and monumental features surrounding the environment. The city has inadequate/no facility that is considered organic where one can keep fit in a friendly, conducive and adequate location. Thus, the need for establishing a fitness centre to cater for this need cannot be over-emphasised. Conclusively, a fitness centre will be an added advantage to this fast growing centre of learning.
Microbial and Meiofaunal Dynamics in the Intertidal Sediments of the Northern Red Sea
The meiofaunal population fluctuation, microbial dynamic and the composition of the sedimentary organic matter were investigated seasonally in the Egyptian shores along the northern part of Red Sea. Total meiofaunal population densities were extremely low with an annual average of 109 ±26 ind./10 cm2 and largely dominated by nematodes (on annual average from 52% to 94% of total meiofaunal density). The benthic microbial population densities ranged from 0.26±0.02 x 108 to 102.67±18.62 x 108/g dry sediment. Total sedimentary organic matter concentrations varied between 5.8 and 11.6 mg/g and the organic carbon, which was measured as summation of the carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, accounted for only a small fraction of being 32 % of the total organic matter. Chlorophyll a attained very low values and fluctuated between 2 and 11 µg/g. The very low chlorophyll a concentration in the Egyptian coasts along the Red Sea can suggest that the sedimentary organic matter along the Egyptian coasts is dominated by organic detrital and heterotrophic bacteria on one hand, and do not promote carbon transfer towards the higher trophic level on the other hand. However, the present study indicates that the existing of well diversified meiofaunal group, with a total of ten meiofaunal taxa, can serve as food for higher trophic levels in the Red Sea marine ecosystem.
Organic Geochemical Characteristics of Cenozoic Mudstones, NE Bengal Basin, Bangladesh
Cenozoic mudstone samples, obtained from drilled cored and outcrop in northeastern Bengal Basin of Bangladesh were organic geochemically analyzed to identify vertical variations of organic facies, thermal maturity, hydrocarbon potential and depositional environments. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges from 0.11 to 1.56 wt% with an average of 0.43 wt%, indicating a good source rock potential. Total sulphur content is variable with values ranging from ~0.001 to 1.75 wt% with an average of 0.065 wt%. Rock-Eval S1 and S2 yields range from 0.03 to 0.14 mg HC/g rock and 0.01 to 0.66 mg HC/g rock, respectively. The hydrogen index values range from 2.71 to 56.09 mg HC/g TOC. These results revealed that the samples are dominated by type III kerogene. Tmax values of 426 to 453 °C and vitrinite reflectance of 0.51 to 0.66% indicate the organic matter is immature to mature. Saturated hydrocarbon ratios such as pristane, phytane, steranes, and hopanes, indicate mostly terrigenous organic matter with small influence of marine organic matter.
Organic matter in the succession was accumulated in three different environmental conditions based on the integration of biomarker proxies. First phase (late Eocene to early Miocene): Deposition occurred entirely in seawater-dominated oxic conditions, with high inputs of land plants organic matter including angiosperms. Second phase (middle to late Miocene): Deposition occurred in freshwater-dominated anoxic conditions, with phytoplanktonic organic matter and a small influence of land plants. Third phase (late Miocene to Pleistocene): Deposition occurred in oxygen-poor freshwater conditions, with abundant input of planktonic organic matter and high influx of angiosperms. The lower part (middle Eocene to early Miocene) of the succession with moderate TOC contents and primarily terrestrial organic matter could have generated some condensates and oils in and around the study area.
Safety Date Fruits for Human Being as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization Applications in Egypt
This study was conducted during three seasons 2010, 2011 and 2012 on Zahhloul date palm cultivar grown in calcareous soil, Alexandria governorate, Egypt. The palms received recommended dose of mineral N only or plus different rates of organic N with or without bio fertilizer to study the effect of such treatments on date palm yield and fruit nitrate and nitrite content due to its negative influence on human, animal and environment. The obtained results clarified that all used treatments of organic and bio fertilizers were effective in improving date palm yield and decreased fruit content of NO2 and NO3 in comparison with 100 % mineral N. It was also noticed that combined treatments of 50 % mineral N + 50 % organic manure with bio fertilizer is the superior treatments for increasing the values of yield and decreasing its content of NO2 and NO3. Hence, it could be concluded that, minimizing the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizer to half of recommended dose through addition of 50 % mineral N + 50 % organic manure with bio fertilizer and also, the utilization of organic and bio fertilizers is considered as a promising alternative for chemical fertilizers to avoid pollution and reduce the costs of mineral fertilizers.
Evaluation of Different Cropping Systems under Organic, Inorganic and Integrated Production Systems
Any kind of research on production technology of individual crop / commodity /breed has not brought sustainability or stability in crop production. The sustainability of the system over years depends on the maintenance of the soil health. Organic production system includes use of organic manures, biofertilizers, green manuring for nutrient supply and biopesticides for plant protection helps to sustain the productivity even under adverse climatic condition. The study was initiated to evaluate the performance of different cropping systems under organic, inorganic and integrated production systems at The Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka-India) under ICAR Network Project on Organic Farming. The trial was conducted for four years (2013-14 to 2016-17) on fixed site. Five cropping systems viz., sequence cropping of cowpea – safflower, greengram– rabi sorghum, maize-bengalgram, sole cropping of pigeonpea and intercropping of groundnut + cotton were evaluated under six nutrient management practices. The nutrient management practices are NM1 (100% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 100% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes), NM2 (75% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 75% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application), NM3 (Integrated farming (50% Organic + 50% Inorganic nutrients, NM4 (Integrated farming (75% Organic + 25% Inorganic nutrients, NM5 (100% Inorganic farming (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers)) and NM6 (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + Recommended rate of farm yard manure (FYM). Among the cropping systems evaluated for different production systems indicated that the Groundnut + Hybrid cotton (2:1) intercropping system found more remunerative as compared to Sole pigeonpea cropping system, Greengram-Sorghum sequence cropping system, Maize-Chickpea sequence cropping system and Cowpea-Safflower sequence cropping system irrespective of the production systems. Production practices involving application of recommended rates of fertilizers + recommended rates of organic manures (Farmyard manure) produced higher net monetary returns and higher B:C ratio as compared to integrated production system involving application of 50 % organics + 50 % inorganic and application of 75 % organics + 25 % inorganic and organic production system only Both the two organic production systems viz., 100 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 100 % N (Cereals/cotton) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) and 75 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 75 % N (Cereals) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application) are found to be on par. Further, integrated production system involving application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers found more beneficial over organic production systems.
Temperature Effects on CO₂ Intake of MIL-101 and ZIF-301
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for CO₂ capture and they have high adsorption capacity towards CO₂. In this study, two different metal organic frameworks (i.e. MIL-101 and ZIF-301) were tested for different flue gases that have different CO₂ fractions. In addition, the effect of temperature was investigated for MIL-101 and ZIF-301. The results show that MIL-101 performs well for pure CO₂ stream while its intake decreases dramatically for other flue gases that have variable CO₂ fraction ranging from 5 to 15 %. The second material (ZIF-301) showed a better result in all flue gases and higher CO₂ intake compared to MIL-101 even at high temperature.
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based Metabolomics and 13C Isotopic Ratio Evaluation to Differentiate Conventional and Organic Soy Sauce
Organic food products are becoming increasingly popular in recent years, as consumers have turned more health conscious and environmentally aware. A lot of consumers have understood that the organic foods are healthier than conventionally produced food stuffs. Price difference between conventional and organic foods is very high. So, it is very common to cheat the consumers by mislabeling and adulteration. Our study describes the 1H NMR based approach to characterize and differentiate soy sauce prepared from organically and conventionally grown raw materials (wheat and soybean). Commercial soy sauce samples fermented from organic and conventional raw materials were purchased from local markets. Principal component analysis showed clear separation among organic and conventional soy sauce samples. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed a significant (p < 0.01) separation among two types of soy sauce yielding leucine, isoleucine, ethanol, glutamate, lactate, acetate, β-glucose, sucrose, choline, valine, phenylalanine and tyrosine as important metabolites contributing towards this separation. Abundance ratio of 13C to 12C was also evaluated by 1H NMR spectroscopy which showed an increased ratio of 13C isotope in organic soy sauce samples indicating the organically grown wheat and soybean used for the preparation of organic soy sauce. Results of the study can be helpful to the end users to select the soy sauce of their choice. This information could also pave the way to further trace and authenticate the raw materials used in production of soy sauce.
Econometric Analysis of Organic Vegetable Production in Turkey
Reliable foods must be consumed in terms of healthy nutrition. The production and dissemination of diatom products in Turkey is rapidly evolving on the basis of preserving ecological balance, ensuring sustainability in agriculture and offering quality, reliable products to consumers. In this study, year in Turkey as (2002- 2015) to determine values of such as cultivated land of organic vegetable production, production levels, production quantity, number of products, number of farmers. It is intended to make the econometric analysis of the factors affecting the production of organic vegetable production (Number of products, Number of farmers and cultivated land). The main material of the study has created secondary data in relation to the 2002-2015 period as organic vegetable production in Turkey and regression analysis of the factors affecting the value of production of organic vegetable is determined by the Least Squares Method with EViews statistical software package.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Small Scale Farmers on Organic Agriculture in a Rural Community in Ifugao, Philippines
A survey was conducted to describe knowledge, attitude, practices, information needs, and information seeking behavior of small-scale farmers on Organic Agriculture Production (OAP) in a rural community in Ifugao, Philippines. Respondents’ age ranged from 23-67 years old. Most of them are male, married, and have reached high school level. The major source of income is farming with an average monthly income of less than Php 5,000 for a household size of seven. More than fifty percent of the respondents are members of a farmer’s organization. Farm size is less than one hectare. Majority of them own their farms and have been farming for more than twenty years. Very few attended training on Organic Agriculture Production (OAP). Most of them are not aware of any OAP program in their community. Hence, their farming practices are mostly conventional. The overall level of knowledge on OAP among all respondents was below the average. On attitude, most of the respondents agreed that organic farming would decrease production costs by reducing input purchases. They believe it benefits both the consumer and the producer. In fact, they are aware of the many benefits of organic farming, especially on health. Likewise, many of them agreed on the benefits of organic farming to soil fertility, to the environment, and to increase the income of farmers. Many of them, however, see organic farming as troublesome and difficult in terms of time and effort, obtaining organic inputs, limited production, and marketing aspects. They also have heavy reliance on pesticides and herbicides to control pests and diseases. On practices, majority of the respondents stated that they practiced crop rotation, manual weeding, and the use of animal manure. Most of them desired to do organic farming but needed information such as production techniques, costs, and marketing opportunities. Their most preferred communication channel is through extension agents and contact farmers. Their most preferred communication method is through trainings and seminars as well as through farm demonstrations. Results of this study will serve as a basis for developing appropriate communication strategies to improve knowledge, attitude, and practices of respondents on organic agriculture as well as enhance the promotion of organic agriculture production in the community.
Depositional Environment and Source Potential of Devonian Source Rock, Ghadames Basin, Southern Tunisia
Depositional environment and source potential of the different organic rich levels of Devonian age (up to 990m thick) from the onshore EC-1 well (Southern Tunisia) were investigated using different geochemical techniques (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, GC-MS) of over than 130 cutting samples. The obtained results including Rock Eval Pyrolysis data and biomarker distribution (terpanes, steranes and aromatics) have been used to describe the depositional environment and to assess the thermal maturity of the Devonian organic matter. These results show that the Emsian deposits exhibit poor to fair TOC contents. The associated organic matter is composed of mixed kerogen (type II/III), as indicated by the predominance of C29 steranes over C27 and C28 homologous, that was deposited in a slightly reduced environment favoring organic matter preservation. Thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TNR and MPI-1 values shows a mature stage of organic matter. The Middle Devonian (Eifelian) shales are rich in type II organic matter that was deposited in an open marine depositional environment. The TOC values are high and vary between 2 and 7 % indicating good to excellent source rock. The relatively high IH values (reaching 547 mg HC/g TOC) and the low values of t19/t23 ratio (down to 0.2) confirm the marine origin of the organic matter (type II). During the Upper Devonian, the organic matter was deposited under variable redox conditions, oxic to suboxic which is clearly indicated by the low C35/C34 hopanes ratio, immature to marginally mature with the vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 Ro and Tmax value of 426°C-436 °C and the TOC values range between 0.8% to 4%.
Contribution of Soluble Microbial Products on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Wastewater Effluent from Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is known as one of the persistence nitrogenous pollutant being originated from secondary treated effluent of municipal sewage treatment plant. However, effect of key system operating condition on the fate and behavior of residual DON in the treated effluent is still not known. This study aims to investigate effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on the residual level of DON in the biofilm reactor effluent. Synthetic municipal wastewater was fed into moving bed biofilm reactors at OLR of 1.6x10-3 and 3.2x10-3 kg SCOD/m3-d. The results showed higher organic removal efficiency was found in the reactor operating at higher OLR. However, DON was observed at higher value in the effluent of the higher OLR reactor than that of the lower OLR reactor evidencing a clear influence of OLR on the residual DON level in the treated effluent of the biofilm reactors. It is possible that the lower DON being observed in the reactor at lower OLR is likely to be a result of providing the microbe with the additional period for utilizing the refractory DON molecules during operation at lower organic loading. All the experiments were repeated using raw wastewaters and similar trend was obtained.
Preparation and Characterization of Organic Silver Precursors for Conductive Ink
Low ink sintering temperature is desired for flexible electronics, as it would widen the application of the ink on temperature-sensitive substrates where the selection of silver precursor is very critical. In this paper, four types of organic silver precursors, silver carbonate, silver oxalate, silver tartrate and silver itaconate, were synthesized using an ion exchange method, firstly. Various characterization methods were employed to investigate their physical phase, chemical composition, morphologies and thermal decomposition behavior. It was found that silver oxalate had the ideal thermal property and showed the lowest decomposition temperature. An ink was then formulated by complexing the as-prepared silver oxalate with ethylenediamine in organic solvents. Results show that a favorable conductive film with a uniform surface structure consisting of silver nanoparticles and few voids could be produced from the ink at a sintering temperature of 150 °C.
Evaluation of the Adsorption Adaptability of Activated Carbon Using Dispersion Force
We attempted to predict adsorption coefficients by utilizing dispersion energies. We performed liquid-phase free energy calculations based on gas-phase geometries of organic compounds using the DFT and studied the relationship between the adsorption of organic compounds by activated carbon and dispersion energies of the organic compounds. A linear correlation between absorption coefficients and dispersion energies was observed.
The Effects of Agricultural Waste Compost Applications on Soil Properties
The wastes that come out as a result of agricultural productions are disposed randomly and always by burning. Agricultural wastes have a great volume and agricultural wastes cause environmental pollution. Spent mushroom compost and cut flower carnation wastes have a serious potential in Turkey and especially in Antalya. One of the best evaluation methods of agricultural wastes is composting methods and so agricultural wastes transformed for a new product. In this study, agricultural wastes were evaluated the effects of compost and organic material on soil pH, EC, soil organic matter, and macro-micro nutrient contents of soil that it growth carnation. The effects of compost applications on soils were found to be statistically significant. Organic material applications have caused an increase in all physical and chemical parameters except for pH that pH decreased with compost added in soils. The best results among the compost applications were determined R1 compost that R1 compost included %75 Carnation Wastes + %25 Spent Mushroom Compost. The structural properties of soils can be improved with reusing of agricultural wastes by composting so it can be provided that decreasing the harmful effects of organic wastes on the environment.
Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Organic Vegetables in Oyo State
The role of organic agriculture in providing food and income is now gaining wider recognition (Van Elzakker et al 2007). The increasing public concerns about food safety issues on the use of fertilizers, pesticide residues, growth hormones, GM organisms, and increasing awareness of environmental quality issues have led to an expanding demand for environmentally friendly products (Thompson, 1998; Rimal et al., 2005). As a result national governments are concerned about diet and health, and there has been renewed recognition of the role of public policy in promoting healthy diets, thus to provide healthier, safer, more confident citizens (Poole et al., 2007), With these benefits, a study into organic vegetables is very vital to all the major stakeholders. This study analyzed the willingness of consumers to pay for organic vegetables in Oyo state, Nigeria. Primary data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to 168 respondents. These were selected using multistage random sampling. The first stage involved the selection two (2) ADP zones out of the three (3) ADP zones in Oyo state, The second stage involved the random selection of two (2) local government areas each out of the two (2) ADP zones which are; Ibadan South West and Ogbomoso North and random selection of 4 wards each from the local government areas. The third stage involved random selection of 42 household each from of the local government areas. Descriptive statistics, the principal component analysis, and the logistic regression were used to analyze the data.
Results showed 55 percent of the respondents were female while 80 percent were 50 years. 74 percent of the respondents agreed that organic vegetables are of better quality. 31 percent of the respondents were aware of organic vegetables as against 69 percent who were not aware. From the logistic model, educational attainment, amount spent on organic vegetables monthly, better quality of organic vegetables and accessibility to organic vegetables were significant and had a positive relationship on willingness to pay for organic vegetable. The variables that were significant and had a negative relationship with WTP are less attractiveness of organic vegetables and household size of the respondents. This study concludes that consumers with higher level of education were more likely to be aware and willing to pay for organic vegetables than those with low levels of education, the study therefore recommends creation of awareness on the relevance of consuming organic vegetables through effective marketing and educational campaigns.
Utilization of Silicon for Sustainable Rice Yield Improvement in Acid Sulfate Soil
Utilization of silicon for sustainable rice cultivation in acid sulfate soils was studied for 2 years. The study was conducted on Rungsit soils in Amphoe Tanyaburi, Pathumtani Province. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of high quality organic fertilizer in combination with silicon and chemical fertilizer on rice yield, chemical soil properties after using soil amendments, and also to assess the economic return. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 10 treatments and 3 replications were employed. The treatments were as follows: 1) control 2) chemical fertilizer (recommended by Land Development Department, LDD 3) silicon 312 kg/ha 4) high quality organic fertilizer at 1875 kg/ha (the recommendation rate by LDD) 5) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha 6) silicon at the 312 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha 7) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer 8) silicon at the 312 kg/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer 9) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with ½ chemical fertilizer rate, and 10) silicon 312 kg/ha in combination with ½ chemical fertilizer rate. The results of 2 years indicated the treatment tended to increase soil pH (from 5.1 to 4.7-5.5), percentage of organic matter (from 2.43 to 2.54 - 2.94%); avail. P (from 7.5 to 7-21 mg kg-1 P; ext. K (from 616 to 451-572 mg kg-1 K), ext Ca (from 1962 to 2042.3-4339.7 mg kg-1 Ca); ext Mg (from 1586 to 808.7-900 mg kg-1 Mg); but decrease the ext. Al (from 2.56 to 0.89-2.54 cmol kg-1 Al. Two years average of rice yield, the highest yield was obtained from silicon 156 kg/ha application in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 300 kg/rai (3770 kg/ha), or using silicon at the 312 kg/ha combination with high quality organic fertilizer 300 kg/rai. (3,750 kg/ha). It was noted that chemical fertilizer application with 156 and 312 kg/ha silicon gave only 3,260 และ 3,133 kg/ha, respectively. On the other hand, half rate of chemical fertilizer with 156 and 312 kg/ha with silicon gave the yield of 2,934 และ 3,218 kg/ha, respectively. While high quality organic fertilizer only can produce 3,318 kg/ha as compare to rice yield of 2,812 kg/ha from control. It was noted that the highest economic return was obtained from chemical fertilizer treated plots (886 dollars/ha). Silicon application at the rate of 156 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha gave the economic return of 846 dollars/ha, while 312 kg/ha of silicon with chemical fertilizer gave the lowest economic return (697 dollars/ha).
Effect of Dietary Organic Zinc Supplementation on Immunocompetance and Reproductive Performance in Rats
The zinc (Zn) is the second most abundant trace element in mammals and birds, forming structural component of over 300 enzymes, playing an important role in anti-oxidant defense, immune response and reproduction. Organic trace minerals are more readily absorbed from the digestive tract and more biologically available compared with its inorganic salt. Thus, the present study was undertaken on 60 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (275±2.04 g) for experimental duration of 12 weeks to investigate the effect of dietary Zn supplementation from various organic sources on immunity, reproduction, oxidative defense mechanism and blood biochemical profile. The rats were randomly allotted to 30 replicates (2 per replicate) which were in turn randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments varying in Zn source i.e., one inorganic source (Zn carbonate) and 4 organic sources (Zn-proteinate, Zn-propionate, Zn-amino acid complex and Zn-methionine) so as to supply NRC recommended Zn concentration (12 ppm Zn). Supplementation of organic Zn had no effect on various haematological and serum biochemical constituents compared to inorganic Zn fed rats. The TBARS and protein carbonyls concentration in liver indicative of oxidative stress was comparable between various organic and inorganic groups. The glutathione reductase activity in haemolysate (P< 0.05) and reduced glutathione concentration in liver (P< 0.01) was higher when fed organic Zn and RBC catalase activity was higher (P< 0.01) on Zn methionine compared to other organic sources tested and the inorganic source. The humoral immune response assessed as antibody titres against sheep RBC was higher (P< 0.05) when fed organic sources of zinc compared to inorganic source. The cell mediated immune response expressed as delayed type hypersensitivity reaction was higher (P< 0.05) in rats fed Zn propionate with no effect of other organic Zn sources. The serum progesterone concentration was higher (P< 0.05) in rats fed organic Zn sources compared to inorganic zinc. The data on ovarian folliculogenesis indicated that organic Zn supplementation increased (P< 0.05) the number of graafian follicles and corpus luteum with no effect on primary, secondary and tertiary follicle number. The study indicated that rats fed organic sources of Zn had higher antioxidant enzyme activities, immune response and serum progesterone concentration with higher number of mature follicles. Though the effect of feeding various organic sources were comparable, rats fed zinc methionine had higher antioxidant activity and cell mediated immune response was higher in rats on Zn propionate.
Morphological Characteristic of Hybrid Thin Films
Currently, organic-inorganic hybrid thin films have attracted researchers to explore them, where these thin films can give a lot of benefits. Hybrid thin films are thin films that consist of inorganic and organic materials. Inorganic and organic materials give high efficiency and low manufacturing cost in some applications such as solar cells application, furthermore, organic materials are environment-friendly. In this study, poly (3-hexylthiophene) was choosing as organic material which combined with inorganic nanoparticles, Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) quantum dots. Samples were prepared using new technique, Angle Lifting Deposition (ALD) at different weight percentage. All prepared samples were then characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to study surface of samples and determine their surface roughness. Results show that these inorganic nanoparticles have affected the surface of samples and surface roughness of samples increased due to increasing of weight percentage of CdS in the thin films samples.
Thermal Diffusion of Photovoltaic Organic Semiconductors Determined by Scanning Photothermal Deflection Technique
Thermal diffusivity is an important quantity in heat conduction. It measures the rate of heat transfer from the hot side to the cold side of a material. In solid-state materials, thermal diffusivity reveals information related to morphologies and solid quality, as thermal diffusivity can be affected by microstructures. However, thermal diffusivity studies on organic semiconductors are very limited. In this study, scanning photothermal deflection (SPD) technique is used to study the thermal diffusivities of different classes of semiconducting polymers. The reliability of the technique was confirmed by crossing-checking our SPD derived experimental values of different reference materials with their known diffusivities from the literature. To show that thermal diffusivity determination is a potential tool for revealing microscopic properties of organic photovoltaic semiconductors, SPD measurements were applied to various organic semiconducting films with different crystallinities. It is observed that organic photovoltaic semiconductors possess low thermal diffusivity, with values in the range of 0.3mm²/s to 1mm²/s. It is also discovered that polymeric photovoltaic semiconductors with greater molecular planarity, stronger stacking and higher crystallinity would possess greater thermal diffusivities. Correlations between thermal, charge transport properties will be discussed.
Thiazolo[5,4-D]Thiazole-Core Organic Chromophore with Furan Spacer for Organic Solar Cells
Energy is the basis of life and strong attention has been growing for the cost-effective energy production. Recently, solution-processed small molecule organic solar cells (SMOSCs) have grown much attention due to the wages such as well-defined molecular structures, definite molecular weight, easy synthesis and easy purification techniques. In particular, the size of donor (D) and acceptor (A) unit is a crucial factor for the exciton-diffusion towards D-A interface and then charge-separation for the effective charge-transport to the electrodes. Furan-bridged materials are more electron-rich, high fluorescence, with better molecular-packing, and greater rigidity and greater solubility than their thiophene-counterparts In this work, a furan-bridged thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole based organic small molecule (RFTzR) was formulated and applied for BHJ organic solar cells (OSCs). The introduction of furan spacer with two terminal alkyl units improved its absorption and solubility in the common organic solvents, significantly. RFTzR exhibited a HOMO and LUMO energy levels of -5.36 eV and -3.14 eV, respectively. The fabricated solar cell devices of RFTzR (donor) with PC60BM (acceptor) as photoactive materials showed high performance of 2.72% (RFTzR:PC60BM, 2:1, w/w) ratio with open-circuit voltage of 0.756 V and high photocurrent density of 10.13 mA/cm².
TiO2 Adsorbed on Cement Balls for Effective Photomineralization of Organic Pollutants under UV Light Irradiation
Organic pollutants like phenols and organic dyes present in industrial waste water are posing a hazardous threat to aquatic ecosystem. Several measures have been adopted for the neutralization and photodecomposition of these harmful organic moieties, among these semiconductor photocatalysis has been provided a major thrust after the discovery of Honda-Fujishema effect. Present study demonstrates the adsorption of TiO2- P25 in nano size (~36 nm) on cement balls for effective photodegradation of Alizarin and penta chlorophenol (PCP) under UV light illumination. Triton-X was used as a stabilizer for effective adsorption of TiO2 on cement balls (TCB) followed by calcination at ~300oC for 4 h. The TCB’s were dispersed randomly in a self designed reactor for phototcatalytic performance as shown in scheme 1. The change in concentration of alizarin and PCP was observed under UV-Vis spectroscopy, PCP was detoxified within 40 min while alizarin photodecomposed within 15 min of UV light irradiation. Taking into consideration the go green slogan and future prospective this technique can be also utilized under visible light and on mass scale because this is an effective tool for environmental remediation and waste water treatment.
The Impact of Women’s Leadership in Panchayati Raj Institutions: Some of the Insights on Indian Rural Governance
India is a nation of villages. Traditionally, women had enjoyed a high social status in India. Our mythology, folklore and history are full of women who were epitomes of virtue, wisdom, power, and position. The important concern about their entry into the politics is of great importance all over the world. Women have performed excellently in social, economic and political sphere. However, the fact remains that despite constituting half of the population their representation among elected post continue to remain negligible in Panchayati Raj Institutions. Women in India suffered from many social economic handicaps such as illiteracy, economically dependent, social customs, traditions and rituals that are the main causes of their inactive participation in local governance. There is still widespread patriarchal outlook in the villages and the lack of experience on the part of women leadership are some of the major issues of debate. The implementation of the 73rd Amendment Act of the Indian Constitution in 1992 reserved 1/3 rd of the seats for women empowerment. It was a major step to encourage them to take part in the village politics. This kind of revolution was the beginning of women leadership in villages. The paper intends to study the role and importance of women leadership in Panchayati Raj Institutions in India. The paper is divided into four sections. First section deals with the introduction by taking into account the available research on this particular subject. Second section talks about the role played by women leadership in these institutions after the passing of 73rd Amendment Act. Third section deals with some of the critical insights of the study by discussing the problems faced by the active women’s leadership at the grassroots. Finally, the paper concludes with policy suggestions.
Effects of Organic Amendments on Primary Nutrients (N, P and K) in a Sandy Soil
The effect of six treatments of organic amendments were evaluated on a sandy soil in the region of Soukra in Tunisia. T1: cattle manure 55 t.ha-1, T2: commercial compost from Germany to 1 t.ha-1, T3: a mixture of 27.5 t.ha-1 of T1 with 0.5 t. ha-1 of T2, T4: commercial compost from France 2 t.ha-1, T5: a Tunisian commercial compost to 10 t.ha-1 and T0: control without treatment. The nitrogen in the soil increase to 0.029 g.kg-1 of soil treatment for the T1 and 0.021 g. kg-1 of soil treatment for the T3. The highest content of P2O5 has been registered by the T3 treatment that 0.44 g kg-1 soil with respect to the control (T0), which shows a content of 0.36 g.kg-1 soil. The soil was initially characterized by a potassium content of 0.8 g kg-1 soil, K2O exchangeable rate varied between 0.63 g.Kg-1 and 0.71 g.kg-1 soil respectively T2 and T1.
Establish a Company in Turkey for Foreigners
The New Turkish Commercial Code (TCC) No. 6102 was published in the Official Gazette on February 14, 2011. As stated in the New Turkish Commercial Code No. 6102 and Law No. 6103 on Validity and Application of the Turkish Commercial Code, TCC came into effect on July 1, 2012. The basic purpose of the TCC is to form corporate governance coherent with the international standards; to provide transparency in company management; to adjust the Turkish Commercial Code rules with European Union legislations and to simplify establishing a company for foreigner investors to move investments to Turkish market. In this context according to TCC, joint stock companies and limited liability companies can establish with only one single shareholder; the one single shareholder can be foreigner; all board of director members can be foreigner, also all shareholders and board of director members can be non-resident foreigners. Additionally, TCC does not require physical participation to the general shareholders and board members meetings. TCC allows that the general shareholders and board members meetings can hold in an electronic form and resolution of these meetings may also be approved via electronic signatures. Through this amendment, foreign investors no longer have to deal with red tapes. This amendment also means the TCC prevents foreign companies from incurring unnecessary travel expenses. In accordance with all this amendments about TCC, to invest in Turkish market is easy, simple and transparent for foreigner investors and also investors can establish a company in Turkey, irrespective of nationality or place of residence. This article aims to analyze ‘Establish a Company in Turkey for Foreigners’ and inform investors about investing (especially establishing a company) in the Turkish market.
Charge Carrier Mobility Dependent Open-Circuit Voltage in Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells
A better understanding of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) related losses in organic solar cells (OSCs) is desirable in order to assess the photovoltaic performance of these devices. We have derived Voc as a function of charge carrier mobilities (μe and μh) for organic and hybrid solar cells by optimizing the drift-diffusion current density. The optimum Voc thus obtained depends on the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and the quasi-Fermi level of holes of the donor material. We have found that the Voc depends on the ratio of the electron (μe) and hole (μh) mobilities and when μh > μe the Voc increases. The most important loss term in the Voc arises from the energetics of the donor and acceptor materials, which will be discussed in detail in this paper.
Impact of Compost Application with Different Rates of Chemical Fertilizers on Corn Growth and Production
Agricultural activities in Egypt generate annually around 35 million tons of waste. Composting is one of the most promising technologies to turnover waste in a more economical way, for many centuries. Composting has been used as a mean of recycling organic matter back into the soil to improve soil structure and fertility. Field experiments were conducted in two governorates, Giza and Al-Monofia, to find out the effect of compost with different rates of chemical fertilizers on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) during two constitutive seasons of 2012 and 2013. The experiment, laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), was carried out on five farmers’ fields in each governorate. The treatments were: unfertilized control, full dose of NPK (120, 30, and 50 kg/acre, respectively), compost at rate of 20 ton/acre, compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 25% of chemical fertilizer, compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 50% of chemical fertilizer and compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 75% of chemical fertilizer. Results revealed a superiority of the treatment of compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 50% of NPK that caused significant improvement in growth, yield and nutrient uptakes of corn in the two governorates during the two constitutive seasons. Results showed that agricultural waste could be composted into value added soil amendment to enhance efficiency of chemical fertilizer. Composting of agricultural waste could also reduce the chemical fertilizers potential hazard to the environment.
Performance and Lifetime of Tandem Organic Solar Cells
Multi-junction solar cell configurations, where two sub-cells with complementary absorption are stacked and connected in series, offer an exciting approach to tackle the single junction limitations of organic solar cells and improve their power conversion efficiency. However, the augmentation of the number of layers has, as a consequence, to increase the risk of reducing the lifetime of the cell due to the ageing phenomena present at the interfaces. In this work, we study the intrinsic degradation mechanisms, under continuous illumination AM1.5G, inert atmosphere and room temperature, in single and tandem organic solar cells using Impedance Spectroscopy, IV Curves, External Quantum Efficiency, Steady-State Photocarrier Grating, Scanning Kelvin Probe and UV-Visible light.
Retail of Organic Food in Poland
Organic farming is an important element of sustainable agriculture. It has been developing very dynamically in Poland, especially since Poland’s accession to the EU. Nevertheless, properly functioning organic market is a necessary condition justifying development of organic agriculture. Despite significant improvement, this market in Poland is still in the initial stage of growth. An important element of the market is distribution, especially retail, which offers specified product range to consumers. Therefore, there is a need to investigate retail outlets offering organic food in order to improve functioning of this part of the market.
The inquiry research conducted in three types of outlets offering organic food, between 2011 and 2012 in the 8 largest Polish cities, shows that the majority of outlets offer cereals, processed fruit and vegetables as well as spices and the least shops – meat and sausages. The distributors mostly indicate unsatisfactory product range of suppliers as the reason for this situation. The main providers of the outlets are wholesalers, particularly in case of processed products, and in fresh products – organic farms. A very important distribution obstacle is dispersion of producers, which generates high transportation costs and what follows that, high price of organics.
In the investigated shops, the most often used price calculation method is a cost method. The majority of the groceries and specialist shops apply margins between 21 and 40%. The margin in specialist outlets is the highest, in regard to the qualified service and advice. In turn, most retail networks declare the margin between 0 and 20%, which is consistent with low-price strategy applied in these shops.
Some lacks in the product range of organics and in particular high prices cause that the demand volume is rather low. Therefore there is a need to support certain market actions, e.g. on-farm processing or promotion.
Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting Biogas Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste via Anaerobic Digestion
The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using response surface methodology (RSM). The parameters studied were initial pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon (TOC). The experimental results showed that the linear model terms of initial pH and substrate concentration and the quadratic model terms of the substrate concentration and TOC had significant individual effect (p < 0.05) on biogas yield. However, there was no interactive effect between these variables (p > 0.05). The highest level of biogas produced was 53.4 L/Kg VS at optimum pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon of 6.5, 99gTS/L, and 20.32 g/L respectively.
Organic Paddy Production as a Coping Strategy to the Adverse Impact of Climate Change
Nepal is extremely vulnerable to the impact of climate change. To mitigate the climate change effects on agricultural production and productivity a range of adaptive strategies needs to be considered. The study was conducted to assess organic paddy production as a coping strategy to the adverse impact of climate change in Phulbari, VDC of Chitwan district. Altogether, 120 respondents (60 adopters of organic farming and 60 from non adopter) were selected using snowball technique of sampling. Pre- tested interview schedule, direct observation, focus group discussion, key informant interview as well as secondary data were used to collect the required information. Factors determining the adoption of organic farming were found to be age, year of schooling, training, frequency of extension contact, perception about climate change, economically active members and poor. A unit increase in these factors except poor would increase the probability of adoption by 4.1%, 7.5%, 7.8%, 43.1%, 41.8% and 7% respectively. However, for poor, it would decrease the probability of adoption of organic farming by 5.1%. Average organic matter content in the adopters' field was higher (2.7%) than the non-adopters' field (2.5%). The regression result showed that type of farmer, price and area under rice cultivation had positive and significant relationship with income; however dependency ratio had negative relationship. As the year of adoption of organic farming increases, the production of rice decline in the first two years then after goes on increasing but the cost of production goes on decreasing with the year of adoption. The respondents adapted to the changing climate through diversification of crops, use of resistance varieties and following good cropping pattern. Gradually growing consumers' awareness about health, preference towards quality food products are the strong points behind organic farming, whereas lacks of bio-fertilizers, lack of effective extension services, no price differentiation between organic and inorganic products were the weak points. There is need for more training and education to change the attitude of farmers and enhance their confidence about the role of organic farming to cope with climate change impact.
EDTA Enhanced Plant Growth, Antioxidant Defense System, and Phytoextraction of Copper by Brassica napus L.
Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and development, but in excess, it is also toxic to plants. The present study investigated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing Cu uptake and tolerance as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Brassica napus L. seedlings under Cu stress. Four-week-old seedlings were transferred to hydroponics containing Hoagland’s nutrient solution. After 2 weeks of transplanting, three levels (0, 50, and 100 μM) of Cu were applied with or without application of 2.5 mM EDTA and plants were further grown for 8 weeks in culture media. Results showed that Cu alone significantly decreased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Cu stress also reduced the activities of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) along with protein contents. Cu toxicity increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by the increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both leaves and roots. The application of EDTA significantly alleviated Cu-induced toxic effects in B. napus, showing remarkable improvement in all these parameters. EDTA amendment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes by decreasing the concentrations of MDA and H2O2 both in leaves and roots of B. napus. Although, EDTA amendment with Cu significantly increased Cu uptake in roots, stems, and leaves in decreasing order of concentration but increased the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzymes. These results showed that the application of EDTA can be a useful strategy for phytoextraction of Cu by B. napus from contaminated soils.
Effect of Organic Manure on Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
Organic farming is a fundamental principle in sustainable agriculture. Preventing excessive contamination of water and soil with pesticides and chemical fertilizers is important in order to produce healthy food. For this purpose, two potato cultivars (Sante and Marfona) and seven levels of fertilizer (non-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, granulated chicken manure, common manure, compost, vermicompost and tea compost) were evaluated by factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. According to the results, the effect of different manure was significant on number of tubers per plant, tuber weight per plant and tuber yield. The highest value of these traits was obtained by using of chicken manure which was significantly superior to other treatments. However, there was no significant difference between the two varieties. According to the results, the use of chicken manure has produced the highest potato yield even in comparison with the use of chemical fertilizer.
Quality of So-Called Organic Fertilizers in Vietnam's Market
Organic farming is gaining interest in Vietnam. However, organic fertilizer production is not sufficiently regulated, resulting in unknown quality. This study investigated characteristics of so-called organic fertilizers in the Vietnam’s market and their mineralization in soil-plant system. We collected 15 commercial products (11 domestic and 4 imported) which labelled 'organic fertilizer' in the market to analyze nutrients composition. A 20 day-incubation experiment was carried on with 80 g sandy-textured soil, amended with the fertilizer at a rate of 109.4 mgN.kg⁻¹soil in 150 mL glass bottle at 25℃. We categorized them according to nutrients content and mineralization rate, and then selected 8 samples for cultivation experiment. The experiment was conducted by growing Komatsuna (Brassica campestris) in sandy-textured soil using an automatic watering apparatus in a greenhouse. The fertilizers were applied to the top one-third of the soil stratum at a rate of 200 mgN.kg⁻¹ soil. Our study also analyzed material flow of coffee husk compost in Central Highland of Vietnam. Total N, P, K, Ca, Mg and C: N ratio varied greatly cross the domestic products, whereas they were quite similar among the imported materials. The proportion of inorganic-N to T-N of domestic products was higher than 25% in 8 of 11 samples. These indicate that N concentration increased dramatically in most domestic products compared with their raw materials. Additionally, most domestic products contained less P, and their proportions of Truog-P to T-P were greatly different. These imply that some manufactures were interested in adjusting P concentration, but some ones were not. Furthermore, the compost was made by mixing with chemical substances to increase nutrients content (N, P), and also added construction surplus soil to gain weight before packing product to sell in the market as 'organic fertilizer'. There was a negative correlation between C:N ratio and mineralization rate of the fertilizers. There was a significant difference in N efficiency among the fertilizer treatments. N efficiency of most domestic products was higher than chemical fertilizer and imported organic fertilizers. These results suggest regulations on organic fertilizers production needed to support organic farming that is based on internationally accepted standards in Vietnam.
A Model for Predicting Organic Compounds Concentration Change in Water Associated with Horizontal Hydraulic Fracturing
Horizontal hydraulic fracturing is a technology to increase natural gas flow and improve productivity in the low permeability formation. During this drilling operation tons of flowback and produced water which contains many organic compounds return to the surface with a potential risk of influencing the surrounding environment and human health. A mathematical model is urgently needed to represent organic compounds in water transportation process behavior and the concentration change with time throughout the hydraulic fracturing operation life cycle. A comprehensive model combined Organic Matter Transport Dynamic Model with Two-Compartment First-order Model Constant (TFRC) Model has been established to quantify the organic compounds concentration. This algorithm model is composed of two transportation parts based on time factor. For the fast part, the curve fitting technique is applied using flowback water data from the Marcellus shale gas site fracturing and the coefficients of determination (R2) from all analyzed compounds demonstrate a high experimental feasibility of this numerical model. Furthermore, along a decade of drilling the concentration ratio curves have been estimated by the slow part of this model. The result shows that the larger value of Koc in chemicals, the later maximum concentration in water will reach, as well as all the maximum concentrations percentage would reach up to 90% of initial concentration from shale formation within a long sufficient period.
Design and Synthesis of Gradient Nanocomposite Materials
Organic-Inorganic hybrid materials consisting of graded distributions of inorganic nano particles in organic polymer matrices were successfully prepared by the sol-gel process. Optical and surface properties of the resulting nano composites can be manipulated by changing their compositions and nano particle distribution gradients. Applications of gradient nano composite materials include sealants for LED packaging and screen lenses for smartphones. Optical transparency, prism coupler, TEM, SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX), Izod impact strength, conductivity, pencil hardness, and thermogravimetric characterizations of the nano composites were performed and the results will be presented.
Energy Potential of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste - Colombian Housing
The growing climate change, global warming and population growth have contributed to the energy crisis, aggravated by the generation of organic solid waste, as a material with high energy potential. From the context of waste generation in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, was evaluated the potential of energy content in organic solid waste generated in La Herradura housing complex, through anaerobic digestion process in batch reactors, with mixtures of substrate, water and inoculum 1: 3: 0.2 and 1: 3: 0, reaching a total biogas production of 0,2 m³/Kg y 0,14 m³/Kg respectively, in a period of 38 days under temperature conditions of 24°C. The volume of biogas obtained was equivalent to the monthly consumption of natural gas for 75 apartments or 1.856 Kw of electric power. For the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, a production of 7.152Kw of electric power was estimated for a month, from the treatment of 22.319 tons of organic solid waste that would not be taken to the landfill. The results indicate that the treatment of organic waste from anaerobic digestion is a sustainable option to reduce pollution, contribute to the production of alternative energies and improve the efficiency of urban metabolism.
Ab Initio Studies of Organic Electrodes for Li and Na Ion Batteries Based on Tetracyanoethylene
Organic electrodes are a way to achieve high rate (high power) and environment-friendly batteries. We present a computational density functional theory study of Li and Na storage in tetracyanoethylene based molecular and crystalline materials. Up to five Li and Na atoms can be stored on TCNE chemisorbed on doped graphene (corresponding to ~1000 mAh/gTCNE), with binding energies stronger than cohesive energies of the Li and Na metals by 1-2 eV. TCNE has been experimentally shown to form a crystalline material with Li with stoichiometry Li-TCNE. We confirm this computationally and also predict that a similar crystal based of Na-TCNE is also stable. These crystalline materials have well defined channels for facile Li or Na ion insertion and diffusion. Specifically, Li and Na binding energies in Li-TCNE and Na-TCNE crystals are about 1.5 eV and stronger than the cohesive energy of Li and Na, respectively. TCNE immobilized on conducting graphene-based substrates and Li/Na-TCNE crystals could therefore become efficient anode materials for organic Li and Na ion batteries, with which it should also be possible to avoid reduction of common battery electrolytes.
Role of Organic Wastewater Constituents in Iron Redox Cycling for Ferric Sludge Reuse in the Fenton-Based Treatment
The practical application of the Fenton-based treatment method for organic compounds-contaminated water purification is limited mainly because of the large amount of ferric sludge formed during the treatment, where ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is used as the activator of the hydrogen peroxide oxidation processes. Reuse of ferric sludge collected from clarifiers to substitute Fe(II) salts allows reducing the total cost of Fenton-type treatment technologies and minimizing the accumulation of hazardous ferric waste. Dissolution of ferric iron (Fe(III)) from the sludge to liquid phase at acidic pH and autocatalytic transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by phenolic compounds (tannic acid, lignin, phenol, catechol, pyrogallol and hydroquinone) added or present as water/wastewater constituents were found to be essentially involved in the Fenton-based oxidation mechanism. Observed enhanced formation of highly reactive species, hydroxyl radicals, resulted in a substantial organic contaminant degradation increase. Sludge reuse at acidic pH and in the presence of ferric iron reductants is a novel strategy in the Fenton-based treatment application for organic compounds-contaminated water purification.
A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat
A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and super-heating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2.
Production of Organic Solvent Tolerant Hydrolytic Enzymes (Amylase and Protease) by Bacteria Isolated from Soil of a Dairy Farm
Organic solvent tolerant amylases and proteases of microbial origin are in great demand for their application in transglycosylation of water-insoluble flavanoids and in peptide synthesizing reaction in organic media. Most of the amylases and proteases are unstable in presence of organic solvent. In the present work two different bacterial strains M-11 and VP-07 were isolated from the soil sample of a dairy farm in Delhi, India, for the efficient production of extracellular amylase and protease through their screening on starch agar (SA) and skimmed milk agar (SMA) plates, respectively. Both the strains (M-11 and VP-07) were identified based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. After analysis through Ez-Taxon software, the strains M-11 and VP-07 were found to have maximum pairwise similarity of 98.63% and 100% with Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum BGSC 3A28 and Bacillus anthracis ATCC 14578 and were therefore identified as Bacillus sp. UKS1 and Bacillus sp. UKS2, respectively. Time course study of enzyme activity and bacterial growth has shown that both strains exhibited typical sigmoid growth behavior and maximum production of amylase (180 U/ml) and protease (78 U/ml) by these strains (UKS1 and UKS2) was commenced during stationary phase of growth at 24 and 20 h, respectively. Thereafter, both amylase and protease were tested for their tolerance towards organic solvents and were found to be active as well stable in p-xylene (130% and 115%), chloroform (110% and 112%), isooctane (119% and 107%), benzene (121% and 104%), n-hexane (116% and 103%) and toluene (112% and 101%, respectively). Owing to such properties, these enzymes can be exploited for their potential application in industries for organic synthesis.
Multi-Objective Exergy Optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle with Cyclohexane as Working Fluid
In this study, an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with Cyclohexane working fluid is proposed for cogeneration in the cement industry. In this regard: first, a parametric study is conducted to evaluate the effects of some key parameters on the system performances. Next, single and multi-objective optimizations are performed to achieve the system optimal design. The optimization considers the exergy efficiency, the cost per exergy unit and the environmental impact of the net produced power as objective functions. Finally, exergy, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental analysis of the cycle is carried out at the optimum operating conditions. The results show that the turbine inlet pressure, the pinch point temperature difference and the heat transfer fluid temperature have significant effects on the performances of the ORC system.
Modern Problems of Russian Sport Legislation
The author examines modern problems of Russian sport legislation and whether it need to be changed in order to allow all sportsmen to participate, train and have another sportsmen’s rights as Russian law mandates. The article provides an overview of Russian sport legislation problems, provides examples of foreign countries. In addition, the author suggests solutions for existing legal problems.
Synthesis of an Organic- Inorganic Salt of (C2H5NO2)2H4SiW12O40 and Investigation of Its Anti-Viral Effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)
Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 was synthesized. Investigation on Anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotianatabacum plants.
Synthesis of an Organic-Inorganic Salt of (C2H5NO2) 2H4SiW12O40 and Investigation of Its Anti-Viral Effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)
Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 was synthesized. Investigation on Anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotianatabacum plants.
Organic Permeation Properties of Hydrophobic Silica Membranes with Different Functional Groups
The separation of organic compounds from aqueous solutions is a key technology for recycling valuable organic compounds and for the treatment of wastewater. The wastewater from chemical plants often contains organic compounds such as ethyl acetate (EA), methylethyl ketone (MEK) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). In this study, we prepared hydrophobic silica membranes by a sol-gel method. We used phenyltrimethoxysilane (PhTMS), ethyltrimethoxysilan (ETMS), Propyltrimethoxysilane (PrTMS), N-butyltrimethoxysilane (BTMS), N-Hexyltrimethoxysilane (HTMS) as silica sources to introduce each functional groups on the membrane surface. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a molecular template to create suitable pore that enable the permeation of organic compounds. These membranes with five different functional groups were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, and permporometry. Thicknesses and pore diameters of silica layer for all membrane were about 1.0 μm and about 1 nm, respectively. In other words, functional groups had an insignificant effect on the membrane thicknesses and the formation of the pore by CTAB. We confirmed the effect of functional groups on the flux and separation factor for ethyl acetate (EA), methyl ethyl ketone, acetone and 1-butanol (1-BtOH) /water mixtures. All membranes showed a high flux for ethyl acetate compared with other compounds. In particular, the hydrophobic silica membrane prepared by using BTMS showed 0.75 kg m-2 h-1 of flux for EA. For all membranes, the fluxes of organic compounds showed the large values in the order corresponding to EA > MEK > acetone > 1-BtOH. On the other hand, carbon chain length of functional groups among ETMS, PrTMS, BTMS, PrTMS and HTMS did not have a major effect on the organic flux. Although we confirmed the relationship between organic fluxes and organic molecular diameters or fugacity of organic compounds, these factors had a low correlation with organic fluxes. It is considered that these factors affect the diffusivity. Generally, permeation through membranes is based on the diffusivity and solubility. Therefore, it is deemed that organic fluxes through these hydrophobic membranes are strongly influenced by solubility. We tried to estimate the organic fluxes by Hansen solubility parameter (HSP). HSP, which is based on the cohesion energy per molar volume and is composed of dispersion forces (δd), intermolecular dipole interactions (δp), and hydrogen-bonding interactions (δh), has recently attracted attention as a means for evaluating the resolution and aggregation behavior. Evaluation of solubility for two substances can be represented by using the Ra [(MPa)1/2] value, meaning the distance of HSPs for both of substances. A smaller Ra value means a higher solubility for each substance. On the other hand, it can be estimated that the substances with large Ra value show low solubility. We established the correlation equation, which was based on Ra, of organic flux at low concentrations of organic compounds and at 295-325 K.
Spherical Organic Particle (SOP) Emissions from Fixed-Bed Residential Coal-Burning Devices
Residential coal combustion is one of the largest sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the Highveld region of South Africa, significantly affecting the local and regional climate. In this study, we investigated single coal burning particles emitted when using different fire-ignition techniques (top-lit up-draft vs bottom-lit up-draft) and air ventilation rates (defined by the number of air holes above and below the fire grate) in selected informal braziers. Aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore filters at the SeTAR Centre Laboratory, University of Johannesburg. Individual particles (~700) were investigated using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Two distinct forms of spherical organic particles (SOPs) were identified, one less oxidized than the other. The particles were further classified into "electronically" dark and bright, according to China et al. . EDS analysis showed that 70% of the dark spherical organic particles balls had higher (~60%) relative oxygen content than in the bright SOPs. We quantify the morphology of spherical organic particles and classify them into four categories: ~50% are bare single particles; ~35% particles are aggregated and form diffusion accretion chains; 10% have inclusions; and 5% are deformed due to impaction on filter material during sampling. We conclude that there are two distinct kinds of coal burning spherical organic particles and that dark SOPs are less volatile than bright SOPs. We also show that these spherical organic particles are similar in nature and characteristics to tar balls observed in biomass combustion, and that they have the potential to absorb sunlight thereby affecting the earth’s radiative budget and climate. This study provides insights on the mixing states, morphology, and possible formation mechanisms of these organic particles from residential coal combustion in informal stoves.
Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes for Biogas Production
Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and climate change, there is a rising interest in renewable energy sources. In this concept, a wide range of biomass (energy crops, animal manure, solid wastes, etc.) are used for energy production. There has been a growing interest in biomethane production from biomass. Biomethane production from organic wastes is a promising alternative for waste management by providing organic matter stabilization. Anaerobic digestion of organic material produces biogas, and organic substrate is degraded into a more stable material. Therefore, anaerobic digestion technology helps reduction of carbon emissions and produces renewable energy. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR), as well as TS (VS) loadings, influences the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes significantly. The optimum range for HRT varies between 15 days to 30 days, whereas OLR differs between 0.5 to 5 g/L.d depending on the substrate type and its lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. The organic wastes have biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion. In this study, biomethane production potential of wastes like sugar beet bagasse, agricultural residues, food wastes, olive mill pulp, and dairy manure having different characteristics was investigated in mesophilic CSTR reactor, and their performances were compared. The reactor was mixed in order to provide homogenized content at a rate of 80 rpm. The organic matter content of these wastes was between 85 to 94 % with 61% (olive pulp) to 22 % (food waste) dry matter content. The hydraulic retention time changed between 20-30 days. High biogas productions, 13.45 to 5.70 mL/day, were achieved from the wastes studied when operated at 9 to 10.5% TS loadings where OLR varied between 2.92 and 3.95 gVS/L.day. The results showed that food wastes have higher specific methane production rate and volumetric methane production potential than the other wastes studied, under the similar OLR values. The SBP was 680, 585, 540, 390 and 295 mL/g VS for food waste, agricultural residues, sugar beet bagasse, olive pulp and dairy manure respectively. The methane content of the biogas varied between 72 and 60 %. The volatile solids conversion rate for food waste was 62%.
Synthesis of an Organic-Inorganic Salt of 12-Silicotungstate, (C2H5NO2)2H4SiW12O40 and Investigation of Its Anti-Viral Effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (Gly)2H4SiW12O40, was synthesized. Investigation on the anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotianatabacum plants.
Influence of Cationic Surfactant (TTAB) on the Rate of Dipeptide (Gly-DL-Asp) Ninhydrin Reaction in Absence and Presence of Organic Solvents
Surfactants are widely used in our daily life either directly in household and personal care products or indirectly in the industrial processes. The kinetics of the interaction of glycyl-DL-aspartic acid (Gly-DL-Asp) with ninhydrin has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous and organic-solvent media in the absence and presence of cationic surfactant of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB). The study was carried out under different experimental conditions. The first and fractional order-rate were observed for [Gly-DL-Asp] and [ninhydrin], respectively. The reaction was enhanced about four-fold by TTAB micelles. The effect of organic solvents was studied at a constant concentration of TTAB and showed an increase in the absorbance as well as the rate constant for the formation of product (Ruhemann's purple). The results obtained in micellar media are treated quantitatively in terms of pseudo-phase and Piszkiewicz cooperativity models. The Arrhenius and Eyring equations are valid for the reaction over the range of temperatures used and different activation parameters (Ea, ∆H#, ∆S#, and ∆G#) have been evaluated.
Management of Soil Borne Plant Diseases Using Agricultural Waste Residues as Green Waste and Organic Amendment
Plant disease control is important in maintaining plant vigour, grain quantity, abundance of food, feed, and fibre produced by farmers all over the world. Farmers make use of different methods in controlling these diseases but one of the commonly used method is the use of chemicals. However, the continuous and excessive usages of these agrochemicals pose a danger to the environment, man and wildlife. The more the population growth the more the food security challenge which leads to more pressure on agronomic growth. Agricultural waste also known as green waste are the residues from the growing and processing of raw agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, rice husk, corn cob, mushroom growth medium waste, coconut husk. They are widely used in land bioremediation, crop production and protection which include disease control. These agricultural wastes help the crop by improving the soil fertility, increase soil organic matter and reduce in many cases incidence and severity of disease. The objective was to review the agricultural waste that has worked effectively against certain soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythiumspp, Rhizoctonia spp so as to help minimize the use of chemicals. Climate change is a major problem of agriculture and vice versa. Climate change and agriculture are interrelated. Change in climatic conditions is already affecting agriculture with effects unevenly distributed across the world. It will increase the risk of food insecurity for some vulnerable groups such as the poor in Sub Saharan Africa. The food security challenge will become more difficult as the world will need to produce more food estimated to feed billions of people in the near future with Africa likely to be the biggest hit. In order to surmount this hurdle, smallholder farmers in Africa must embrace climate-smart agricultural techniques and innovations which includes the use of green waste in agriculture, conservative agriculture, pasture and manure management, mulching, intercropping, etc. Training and retraining of smallholder farmers on the use of green energy to mitigate the effect of climate change should be encouraged. Policy makers, academia, researchers, donors, and farmers should pay more attention to the use of green energy as a way of reducing incidence and severity of soilborne plant diseases to solve looming food security challenges.
Degradation of Different Organic Contaminates Using Corona Discharge Plasma
In this paper, corona discharge plasma reactor was used for degradation of organic pollution in aqueous solutions in batch reactor. This work examines the possibility of increasing the organic pollution removal efficiency from wastewater using non-thermal plasma. Three types of organic pollution phenol, acid blue 25 and methylene blue are presented to investigate experimentally the amount of organic pollution removal efficiency from wastewater. Measurement results for phenol degradation percentage are 71% in 35 min and 96% when its residence time is 60 min. In addition, the degradation behavior of acid blue 25 utilizing dual pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system displays a removal efficiency of 82% in 11 min. The complete decolorization was accomplished in 35 min for concentration of acid blue 25 up to 100 ppm. Furthermore, the methylene blue degradation touched up to 85% during 35 min treatment in corona discharge plasma a batch reactor system. The decolorization ratio, conductivity, corona current and discharge energy are considered at various concentration molarity for AlCl3, CaCl2, KCl and NaCl under different molar concentration. It was observed that the attendance of salts at the same concentration level considerably diminished the rate and the extent of decolorization. The research presented that the corona system could be positively utilized in a diversity of organically contaminated at diverse concentrations. Energy consumption requirements for decolorization was considered. The consequences will be valuable for designing the plasma treatment systems appropriate for industrial wastewaters.
The Service Appraisal of Soldiers of the Army of the Czech Republic in the Context of Personal Expenses
Following article provides the comparison of international norms and standards formulating personal expenses, and then it illustrates the national concept of personal expenses of the Ministry of Defence. Then a new salary system of soldiers and the importance of the service appraisal in the context of personal expenses of the Ministry of Defence are explained. The first part of the article includes formulation of the approach to the definition of personal expenses within the international norms and standards and also within the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. The structure of employees of the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic in years 2012 – 2014 and the amount of military expenses and the share of salary expenses of the Ministry of total expenses of the Ministry are clarified there, also the comparison of the amount of military expenses in chosen member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is done. The salary system of professional soldiers in connection with the amendment of the Act No. 221/1999 Coll. on Professional Soldiers is clarified in the second part of this article. The amendment significantly regulates the salary items of soldiers but changes are also in the service appraisal of soldiers which reflects one of seven salary items of soldiers – the performance bonus. The aim of this article is to clarify different approach to define personal expenses with emphasis on the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic which overlaps to the service appraisal of soldiers of the Army of the Czech Republic and their salary system in connection with personal expenses of the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. The efficient and objective system of the service appraisal and the use of its results are connected to the principles of the career advancement; only the best soldiers can advance in the system of the service careers to higher positions. That is why it is necessary to improve the service appraisal so it would provide the maximum information about the performance of a soldier and it would also motivate the soldier in his development. The attention should be paid to the service appraisal of the soldiers of the Army of the Czech Republic to achieve as much objectivity as possible.
Validation of the Formula for Air Attenuation Coefficient for Acoustic Scale Models
Methodology of measurement of sound absorption coefficient in scaled models is based on the ISO 354 standard. The measurement is realised indirectly - the coefficient is calculated from the reverberation time of an empty chamber as well as a chamber with an inserted sample. It is crucial to maintain the atmospheric conditions stable during both measurements. Possible differences may be amended basing on the formulas for atmospheric attenuation coefficient α given in ISO 9613-1. Model studies require scaling particular factors in compliance with specified characteristic numbers. For absorption coefficient measurement, these are for example: frequency range or the value of attenuation coefficient m. Thanks to the possibilities of modern electroacoustic transducers, it is no longer a problem to scale the frequencies which have to be proportionally higher. However, it may be problematic to reduce values of the attenuation coefficient. It is practically obtained by drying the air down to a defined relative humidity. Despite the change of frequency range and relative humidity of the air, ISO 9613-1 standard still allows the calculation of the amendment for little differences of the atmospheric conditions in the chamber during measurements. The paper discusses a number of theoretical analyses and experimental measurements performed in order to obtain consistency between the values of attenuation coefficient calculated from the formulas given in the standard and by measurement. The authors performed measurements of reverberation time in a chamber made in a 1/8 scale in a corresponding frequency range, i.e. 800 Hz - 40 kHz and in different values of the relative air humidity (40% 5%). Based on the measurements, empirical values of attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared with theoretical ones. In general, the values correspond with each other, but for high frequencies and low values of relative air humidity the differences are significant. Those discrepancies may directly influence the values of measured sound absorption coefficient and cause errors. Therefore, the authors made an effort to determine an amendment minimizing described inaccuracy.
Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Antibiotic Production Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents
Wastewaters from antibiotic production facilities are characterized with high concentrations of dissolved organic substances. Subsequently, it challenges wastewater treatment plant operator to achieve successful biological treatment and to meet regulatory emission levels. Of the dissolved organic substances, this research is investigating the fate of organic nitrogenous compounds (i.e., Chitin) in an antibiotic production wastewater treatment plant located in Irvine, Scotland and its impact on the WWTP removal performance. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in WWTP effluents are of significance because 1) its potential to cause eutrophication in receiving waters, 2) the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by products in drinking waters and 3) limits WWTPs ability to achieve very low total nitrogen (TN) emissions limits (5 – 25 mg/l). The latter point is where the knowledge gap lays between the operator and the regulator in setting viable TN emission levels. The samples collected from Irvine site at the different stages of the treatment were analyzed for TN and DON. Results showed that the average TN in the WWTP influents and effluents are 798 and 261 mg/l respectively, in other words, the plant achieved 67 % removal of TN. DON Represented 51% of the influents TN, while the effluents accounted 26 % of the TN concentrations. Therefore, an ongoing investigation is carried out to identify DON constituents in WWTP effluent and evaluate its impact on the WWTP performance and its potential bioavailability for algae in receiving waters, which is, in this case, Irvine Bay.
Study of Exciton Binding Energy in Photovoltaic Polymers and Non-Fullerene Acceptors
The excitonic effect in organic semiconductors plays a key role in determining the electronic devices performance. Strong exciton binding energy has been regarded as the detrimental factor limiting the further improvement in organic photovoltaic cells. To the best of our knowledge, only limited reported can be found in measuring the exciton binding energy in organic photovoltaic materials. Conventional sophisticated approach using photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and IPES) would limit the wide access of the investigation. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to study the electrical and optical quantum efficiencies of a series of conjugated photovoltaic polymer, fullerene and non-fullerene materials. Quantitative values of the exciton binding energy in those prototypical materials were obtained with concise photovoltaic device structure. And the extracted binding energies have excellent agreement with those determined by the conventional photoemission technique. More importantly, our findings can provide valuable information on the excitonic dissociation in the first excited state. Particularly, we find that the high binding energy of some non-fullerene acceptors limits the combination of polymer acceptors for efficiency exciton dissociation. The results bring insight into the engineering of excitonic effect for the development of efficient organic photovoltaic cells.
Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Improvement of Soil Microbiological Functioning under Saline Conditions of Arid Regions: Impact on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization
This study was conducted on representative and contrasting soils of arid regions. It focuses on the compared influence of two organic fertilizers: poultry manure (PM) and bovine manure (BM) on improving the microbial functioning of non-saline (SS) and saline (SSS) soils, in particularly, the process of mineralization of nitrogen and carbon. The microbiological activity was estimated by respirometric test (CO2–C emissions) and the extraction of two forms of mineral nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N). Thus, after 56 days of incubation under controlled conditions (28 degrees and 80 per cent of the field capacity), the two types of manures showed that the mineralization activity varies according to type of soil and the organic substrate itself. However, the highest cumulative quantities of CO2–C, NH4+–N and NO3-–N obtained at the end of incubation were recorded in non-saline (SS) soil treated with poultry manure with 1173.4, 4.26 and 8.40 mg/100 g of dry soil, respectively. The reductions in rates of release of CO2–C and of nitrification under saline conditions were 21 and 36, 78 %, respectively. The influence of organic substratum on the microbial density shows a stimulating effect on all microbial groups studied. The whole results show the usefulness of two types of manures for the improvement of the microbiological functioning of arid soils.
Exergy Analysis of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle Using Turbine Bleeding
This work presents an exergetical performance analysis of regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using turbine bleeding based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of finite thermal energy. Effects of system parameters such as turbine bleeding pressure and turbine bleeding fraction are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as the exergy and the second-law efficiencies. Under the conditions of the critical fraction of turbine bleeding, the simulation results show that the exergy efficiency decreases monotonically with respect to the bleeding pressure, however, the second-law efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine bleeding pressure.
Effect of Inorganic Fertilization on Soil N Dynamics in Agricultural Plots in Central Mexico
Due to food demand production, the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer has increased in agricultural soils to replace the N losses. Nevertheless, the intensive use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer in conventional agriculture negatively affects the soil and therefore the environment, so alternatives such as organic agriculture have been proposed for being more environmentally friendly. However, further research in soil is needed to see how agricultural management affects the dynamics of C and N. The objective of this research was to evaluate the C and N dynamics in the soil with three different agricultural management: an agricultural plot with intensive inorganic fertilization, a plot with semi-organic management and an agricultural plot with recent abandonment (2 years). For each plot, the soil C and N dynamics and the enzymatic activity of NAG and β-Glucosidase were characterized. Total C and N concentration of the plant biomass of each site was measured as well. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was higher in abandoned plot, as well as this plot had higher total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN), besides microbial N and microbial C. While the enzymatic activity of NAG and β-Glucosidase was greater in the agricultural plot with inorganic fertilization, as well as nitrate (NO₃) was higher in fertilized plot, in comparison with the other two plots. The aboveground biomass (AB) of maize in the plot with inorganic fertilization presented higher TC and TN concentrations than the maize AB growing in the semiorganic plot, but the C:N ratio was highest in the grass AB in the abandoned plot. The C:N ration in the maize grain was greater in the semi-organic agricultural plot. These results show that the plot under intensive agricultural management favors the loss of soil organic matter and N, degrading the dynamics of soil organic compounds, promoting its fertility depletion.
Influence of Recombination of Free and Trapped Charge Carriers on the Efficiency of Conventional and Inverted Organic Solar Cells
Organic solar cells (OSCs) have been actively investigated in the last two decades due to their several merits such as simple fabrication process, low-cost manufacturing, and lightweight. In this paper, using the optical transfer matrix method (OTMM) and solving the drift-diffusion equations processes of recombination are studied in inverted and conventional bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs. Two types of recombination processes are investigated: 1) recombination of free charge carriers using the Langevin theory and 2) of trapped charge carriers in the tail states with exponential energy distribution. These recombination processes are incorporated in simulating the current- voltage characteristics of both conventional and inverted BHJ OSCs. The results of this simulation produces a higher power conversion efficiency in the inverted structure in comparison with conventional structure, which agrees well with the experimental results.
Review of Suitable Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degradation of Organic Compounds in Produced Water during Enhanced Oil Recovery
Produced water and its treatment and management are growing challenges in all producing regions. This water is generally considered as a nonrevenue product, but it can have significant value in enhanced oil recovery techniques if it meets the required quality standards. There is also an interest in the beneficial uses of produced water for agricultural and industrial applications. Advanced Oxidation Process is a chemical technology that has been growing recently in the wastewater treatment industry, and it is highly recommended for non-easily removal of organic compounds. The efficiency of AOPs is compound specific, therefore, the optimization of each process should be done based on different aspects.
Organic Geochemistry of the Late Cenomanian–Early Turonian Source Rock in Central and Northern Tunisia
The Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian laminated, black, organic-rich limestones were described in Central Tunisia and attributed to the Bahloul Formation. It covers central and northern Tunisia, and the northern part of the Gulf of Gabes. The Bahloul Formation is considered as one of the main source rocks in Tunisia and is composed of outer-shelf to slop-laminated and dark-gray to black-colored limestones and marls. This formation had been deposited in a relatively deep-marine, calm, and anoxic environment. Rock-Eval analysis and vitrinite reflectance (Ro) measurements were performed on the basis of the organic carbon content. Several samples were chosen for molecular organic geochemistry. Saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry. Geochemical data of the Bahloul Formation in northern and central Tunisia show this level to be a good potential source rock as indicated by the high content of type II organic matter. This formation exhibits high total organic carbon contents (as much as 14%), with an average value of 2% and a good to excellent petroleum potential, ranging between 2 and 50 kg of hydrocarbon/ton of rock. The extracts from the Bahloul Formation are characterized by Pr/Ph ratios ranging between 1.5 and 3, a moderate diasterane content, a C27 sterane approximately equal to C29 sterane, a high C28/C29 ratio, low gammacerane index, a C35/C34 homohopane ratio less than 1 and carbon isotope compositions between -24 and -26‰. The thermal maturity is relatively low, corresponding to the beginning of the oil window in the western area near the Algerian border, in the oil window in the eastern area (Sahel basin) and late mature in northern part.
Synthesis, Spectral, Thermal, Optical and Dielectric Studies of Some Organic Arylidene Derivatives
Arylidene derivatives are the subclass of chalcone derivatives. Chalcone derivatives are studied widely for the past decade because of its nonlinearity. To seek new organic group of crystals which suit for fabrication of optical devices, three-member organic arylidene crystals were synthesized by using Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction. Good quality crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. Functional groups were identified by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Optical transparency and optical band gap were determined by UV-Vis-IR studies. Thermal stability and melting point were calculated using TGA and DSC. Variation of dielectric loss and dielectric constant with frequency were calculated by dielectric measurement.
Equipping Organic Farming in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants' Scientific Interventions
Consumers and practitioners (medical herbalists, pharmacists, and aromatherapists) with strong and increased awareness about health and environment demand organically grown medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) to offer a valued product. As the system does not permit the use of synthetic fertilizers the use of nutrient rich organic manures is extremely important. CSIR-CIMAP has developed a complete recycling package for managing distillation and agro-waste of medicinal and aromatic plants for production of superior quality vermicompost involving microbes capable of producing high amounts of humic acid. The major benefits being faster composting period and nutrient rich vermicompost; a nutrient advantage of about 100-150% over the most commonly used organic manure (FYM). At CSIR-CIMAP, strains of microbial inoculants with multiple activities especially strains useful both as biofertilizers and biofungicide and consortia of microbes possessing diverse functional activities have been developed. CSIR-CIMAP has also initiated a program where a large number of accessions are being screened for identifying organic proficient genotypes in mints, ashwagandha, geranium and safed musli. Some of the natural plant growth promoters like calliterpenones from the plant Callicarpa macrophylla has been tested successfully for induction of rooting in stem cuttings and improving growth and yield of various crops. Some of the microbes especially the endophytes have even been identified improving the active constituents of medicinal and aromatic plants. The above said scientific interventions making organic farming a charming proposition would be discussed in details.
Application of Metarhizium anisopliae against Meloidogyne javanica in Soil Amended with Oak Debris
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most popular, widely grown and the second most important vegetable crop, after potatoes. Nematodes have been identified as one of the major pests affecting tomato production throughout the world. The most destructive nematodes are the genus Meloidogyne. Most widespread and devastating species of this genus are M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. These species can cause complete crop loss under adverse growing conditions. There are several potential methods for management of the root knot nematodes. Although the chemicals are widely used against the phytonematodes, because of hazardous effects of these compounds on non-target organisms and on the environment, there is a need to develop other control strategies. Nowadays, non-chemical measures are widely used to control the plant parasitic nematodes. Biocontrol of phytonematodes is an important method among environment-friendly measures of nematode management. There are some soil-inhabiting fungi that have biocontrol potential on phytonematodes, which can be used in nematode management program. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, originally is an entomopathogenic bioagent. Biocontrol potential of this fungus on some phytonematodes has been reported earlier. Recently, use of organic soil amendments as well as the use of bioagents is under special attention in sustainable agriculture. This research aimed to reduce the pesticide use in control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. The effects of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and different levels of oak tree debris on M. javanica were determined. The combination effect of the fungus as well as the different rates of soil amendments was determined. Pots were filled with steam pasteurized soil mixture and the six leaf tomato seedlings were inoculated with 3000 second stage larvae of M. javanica/kg of soil. After eight weeks, plant growth parameters and nematode reproduction factors were compared. Based on the results of our experiment, combination of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and oak debris caused more than 90% reduction in reproduction factor of nematode, at the rates of 100 and 150 g/kg soil (P ≤ 0.05). As compared to control, the reduction in number of galls was 76%. It was 86% for nematode reproduction factor, showing the significance of combined effect of both tested agents. Our results showed that plant debris can increase the biological activity of the tested bioagent. It was also proved that there was no adverse effect of oak debris, which potentially has antimicrobial activity, on antagonistic power of applied bioagent.
Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation as a Pretreatment Option for Biodegradability Enhancement of Industrial Effluent
Complex industrial effluent generated from chemical industry is contaminated with toxic and hazardous organic compounds and not amenable to direct biological treatment. To effectively remove many toxic organic pollutants has made it evident that new, compact and more efficient systems are needed. Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) is a promising treatment technology for the abatement of organic pollutants in wastewater. A lot of information is available on using CWAO for the treatment of synthetic solution containing single organic pollutant. But the real industrial effluents containing multi-component mixture of organic compounds were less studied. The main objective of this study is to use the CWAO process for converting the organics into compounds more amenable to biological treatment; complete oxidation may be too expensive. Therefore efforts were made in the present study to explore the potential of alumina based Platinum (Pt) catalyst for the treatment of industrial organic raffinate containing toxic constituents like ammoniacal nitrogen, pyridine etc. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) surface area. CWAO experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure and (30 °C - 70 °C) temperature conditions and the results were evaluated in terms of COD removal efficiency. The biodegradability test was performed by BOD/COD ratio for checking the toxicity of the industrial wastewater as well as for the treated water. The BOD/COD ratio of treated water was significantly increased and signified that the toxicity of the organics was decreased while the biodegradability was increased, indicating the more amenability towards biological treatment.
Preparation of Heterogeneous Ferrite Catalysts and Their Application for Fenton-Like Oxidation of Radioactive Organic Wastewater
Fenton oxidation technology is the general strategy for the treatment of organic compounds-contained wastewater. However, a considerable amount of ferric sludge was produced during the Fenton process as secondary wastes, which were needed to be further removed from the effluent and treated. In this study, heterogeneous catalysts based on ferrite oxide (Cu-Fe-Ce-O) were synthesized and characterized, and their application for Fenton-like oxidation of simulated and actual radioactive organic wastewater was investigated. The results of TOC decomposition efficiency around 54% ~ 99% were obtained when the catalyst loading, H2O2 loading, pH, temperature, and reaction time were controlled. In this case, no secondary wastes formed and the given catalysts were able to be separated by magnetic devices and reused again.
Effects of Organic Manure on the Growth of Jatropha curcas in Kogi State North Central Nigeria
A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of organic manure on the growth of Jatropha curcas L seedlings at the Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Anyigba. There were seven treatments, namely, three (3) levels of poultry droppings (PD) (20g, 40g and 60g/kg soil) designated as T1, T2 and T3 respectively, three (3) levels of solid cattle dung (CD) (40g, 80g and 120g/kg soil designated as T4, T5, and T6) respectively, and control (no organic manure) designated as T7. All the treatments were replicated three (3) times. Jathopha curcas L seeds were sown into the polythene pot and observed for the period of six (6) weeks. Growth parameters measured were plant height, leaf count, stem girth, numbers of branches, and fresh weight. Mean separation using F-LSD0.05 showed that 120g cow dung/kg soil (T6) gave optional level of organic manure required for Jatropha curcas throughout the growth period of the seedlings. All the treatments having organic manure were significantly better than the control (P < 0.05) except at two weeks after planting where all the treatments gave the same number of leaves and at the sixth week after planting where only 120g cow dung/kg soil (T6) showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in the number of branches. As a result, 120g cow dung/kg soil (T6) is therefore recommended for raising Jatrophus curcas L seedlings in Anyigba, Kogi State.
Chemometric Analysis of Raw Milk Quality Originating from Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming in AP Vojvodina, Serbia
The present study describes the application of chemometric methods in analysis of milk samples which were collected in a conventional dairy farm and an organic dairy farm in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The chemometric analysis included the application of univariate regression modeling and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The ANOVA was used in order to determine the differences in fatty acids content in the milk samples from conventional and organic farm. The results of the ANOVA testing indicate that there is a highly statistically significant difference between the content of fatty acid (saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acids) in different dairy farming. Besides, the linear univariate models have been obtained as a result of modeling the linear relationships between the milk fat content and saturated fatty acids content, and the linear relationships between the milk fat content and unsaturated fatty acids content. The models obtained on the basis of the milk samples which originate from the organic farming are statistically better than the models based on the milk samples from conventional farming.
Biological Organic or Inorganic Sulfur Sources Feeding Effects on Intake and Some Blood Metabolites of Close-Up Holstein Cows
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of increased level of sulfur by supplementing magnesium sulfate with or without biologically organic source in dairy cow close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI) and some blood metabolites. The 24 multiparous close-up Holstein cows averaging body weight 687.94 kg and days until expected calving date 21.89 d were allocated in three different treatments (8 cows per each) in a completely randomized design. The first treatment (T1) has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis), the second treatment (T2) has contained 0.41% sulfur which entirely supplied through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3) has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur. All the cows were fed same diet after parturition until 21 d. The DMI for both pre-calving (P < 0.001) and post-calving was affected by treatments (P < 0.004) and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Among the blood metabolites, glucose, calcium, and copper were decreased in T2 (P < 0.05). However, blood concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, urea, CPK, and AST were increased in T2 (P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and biological organic source of sulfur in close-up diets could have positive effects on DMI and performance of Holstein dairy cows.
NiO-CeO2 Nano-Catalyst for the Removal of Priority Organic Pollutants from Wastewater through Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation at Mild Conditions
Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is normally carried out at elevated temperature and pressure. This work investigates the potential of NiO-CeO2 nano-catalyst in CWAO of paper industry wastewater under milder operating conditions of 90 °C and 1 atm. The NiO-CeO2 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), before and after use, in order to study any crystallographic change during experiment. The extent of metal-leaching from the catalyst was determined using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The catalytic activity of nano-catalysts was studied in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halides (AOX) and chlorophenolics (CHPs) removal. Interestingly, mixed oxide catalysts exhibited higher activity than the corresponding single-metal oxides. The maximum removal efficiency was achieved with Ce40Ni60 catalyst. The results indicate that the CWAO process is efficient in removing the priority organic pollutants from wastewater, as it exhibited up to 59% TOC, 55% AOX, and 54 % CHPs removal.
A Second Law Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Depending on Source Temperature
Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has potential in reducing fossil fuels and relaxing environmental problems. In this work performance analysis of ORC is conducted based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of low temperature heat source from 100°C to 140°C using R134a as the working fluid. Effects of system parameters such as turbine inlet pressure or source temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as net work production or exergy efficiency. Results show that the net work or exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is low, however, increases monotonically with increasing turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is high.
Influence of Different Ripening Agents on the Shelf-Life and Microbial Load of Organic and Inorganic Musaceae, during the Ripening Process, and the Health Implication for Food Security
Local farmers and fruit processors in developing countries of West Africa use different ripening agents to accelerate the ripening process of plantain and banana. This study reports on the influence of different ripening agents on the shelf-life and microbial load of organic and inorganic plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening process and the health implication for food security in Nigeria. The experiment consisted of four treatments, namely: Calcium carbide, Irvingia gabonensis fruits, Newbouldia laevis leaves and a control, where no ripening agent was applied to the fingers of plantain and banana. The unripe and ripened plantain and banana were subjected to microbial analysis by isolating their micro flora (Bacteria, Yeast and Mould) using pour plate method. Microbes present in the samples were enumerated, characterized and classified to genera and species. The result indicated that the microbial load of inorganic plantain from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 12.11 cfu/g for ripened; and the microbial load of organic plantain from Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching and Research Farm (OAUTRF) increased from 6.00 for unripe to 11.60 cfu/g for ripened. Also, the microbial load of inorganic banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife increased from 8.00 for unripe to 11.50 cfu/g for ripened; while the microbial load of organic banana from OAUTRF increased from 6.50 for unripe to 9.40 cfu/g for ripened. The microbial effects of the ripening agents increased from 10.00 for control to 16.00 cfu/g for treated (ripened) organic and inorganic plantain; while that of organic and inorganic banana increased from 7.50 for control to 14.50 cfu/g for ripened. Visual observation for the presence of fungal colonies and deterioration rates were monitored till seven days after the plantain and banana fingers have fully ripened. Inorganic plantain and banana from (Urban day) open market in Ile-Ife are more contaminated than organic plantain and banana fingers from OAUTRF. The ripening accelerators reduced the shelf life, increased senescence, and microbial load of plantain and banana. This study concluded that organic Agriculture is better and microbial friendlier than inorganic farming.
Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms
The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 °C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites’ concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.
Co-Composting of Poultry Manure with Different Organic Amendments
To study the influence of different organic amendments on the quality of poultry manure compost, three pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: poultry manure/carcasse meal/ashes/grape pomace (Pile 1), poultry manure/ cellulosic sludge (Pile 2) and poultry manure (Pile 3). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored, over time, by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters, such as, pH, electric conductivity, moisture, organic matter and ash content, total carbon and total nitrogen content, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and content in mineral elements. Piles 1 and 2 reached a thermophilic phase, however having different trends. Pile 1 reached this phase earlier than Pile 2. For both, the pH showed a slight alkaline character and the electric conductivity was lower than 2 mS/cm. Also, the initial C/N value was 22 and reached values lower than 15 at the end of composting process. The total N content of the Pile 1 increased slightly during composting, in contrast with the others piles. At the end of composting process, the phosphorus content ranged between 54 and 236 mg/kg dry matter, for Pile 2 and 3, respectively. Generally, the Piles 1 and 3 exhibited similar heavy metals content. This study showed that organic amendments can be used as carbon source, given that the final composts presented parameters within the range of those recommended in the 2nd Draft of EU regulation proposal (DG Env.A.2 2001) for compost quality.
Effect of Organic Zinc in Supplement Diet on Some Reproryductive Hormones and Fertility in Laboratory Mice
Appropriate nutrition is necessary today for desire reproduction and profitable livestock industry. Minerals including zinc element are from nutritional factors. Studies show that zinc plays an important role in reproduction process and secretion of reproductive hormones. This study was carried out to determine the effects of organic zinc on some reproductive hormones, fertility of male mice. The study was done as completely randomized design with one control and six treatment groups. Seventy male mature mice were kept for 35 days to adapt to environment and then divided in seven groups with ten replications. Samples received zinc (organic) daily in 50,100, and 150 ppm doses of each type for 35 days. At the end, blood samples were taken to measure LH, FSH, and testosterone hormones. Meanwhile, fertility rates were measured. Results were analyzed using one way ANOVA and means were compared using Duncan multiple ranges test at 5% probability level. According to results, LH concentration of all groups except 50 ppm was increased significantly (p< 0.05). FSH amount was increased significantly (p< 0.05) in 100 ppm mineral group and reduced in 50 ppm mineral but was not changed in other groups.
The Development of Packaging to Create Additional Value for Organic Rice Products of Uttaradit Province, Thailand
The objectives of the study were to develop packaging made from rice straws left after the harvest in order to create additional value for organic rice products of Uttaradit Province and to demonstrate the technology of producing straw packaging to the community. The population was promoters of organic rice distributors, governmental organizations, consumers, and three groups of organic rice producers which are the Agriculturist Group of Khorrum Sub-district, Pichai District, Uttaradit Province; the Agriculturist Group of Wangdin Sub-district, Muang District, Uttaradit Province; and the Agriculturist Group of Wangkapi Sub-district, Muang District, Uttaradit Province. The data were collected via group discussions, and two types of questionnaires. The data acquired were then analyzed using descriptive statistic for percentage, mean, standard deviation, and content analysis. It has been found that primary packaging for one kilogram of rice requires vacuumed plastic bags made from thermoplastic or resin because they are able to preserve the quality of rice for a long time, and they are also very cheap. For secondary packaging, the making of straw paper was studied and applied. Straw paper can be used for various purposes, and in this study, it was used to create the secondary packaging models in compliance with packaging preferences acquired from the questionnaires. The models were surveyed among the population for their opinion using satisfaction questionnaires, and the result was overall highly satisfactory.
Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology
Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.
Discovering New Organic Materials through Computational Methods
Organic semiconductors have attracted the attention of the scientific community in the past decades due to their unique physicochemical properties, allowing new designs and alternative device fabrication methods. Until today, organic electronic devices are largely based on conjugated polymers mainly due to their easy processability. In the recent years, due to moderate ET and CT efficiencies and the ill-defined nature of polymeric systems the focus has been shifting to small conjugated molecules with well-defined chemical structure, easier control of intermolecular packing, and enhanced CT and ET properties. It has led to the synthesis of new small molecules, followed by the growth of their crystalline structure and ultimately by the device preparation. This workflow is commonly followed without a clear knowledge of the ET and CT properties related mainly to the macroscopic systems, which may lead to financial and time losses, since not all materials will deliver the properties and efficiencies demanded by the current standards. In this work, we present a theoretical workflow designed to predict the key properties of ET of these new materials prior synthesis, thus speeding up the discovery of new promising materials. It is based on quantum mechanical, hybrid, and classical methodologies, starting from a single molecule structure, finishing with the prediction of its packing structure, and prediction of properties of interest such as static and averaged excitonic couplings, and exciton diffusion length.
Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management Practice on Cultivation Scented Rice Varieties- a Better Approach for Resource Conservation
The experiment was carried out at Raipur during rainy season of 2012. The experiment revealed that the performance of Dubraj was comparatively better than that of badshah bhog, Vishnu bhog and bisni. The number of grains panicle-1, number of filled grains panicle-1 were comparable in Dubraj and badshah bhog. Among the different nutrient, application of 80:50:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1(50% Inorganic+50% Organic) gave better performance in all the above characters. It is revealed that the variety Dubraj fertilized with 80:50:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1(50% Inorganic+50% Organic) gave the good yield attributing characters along with highest yield.
Contribution for Rural Development Trough Training in Organic Farming
The aim of this work was to characterize a potential target group of people interested in participating into a training program in organic farming in the context of mobile-learning. The information sought addressed in particular, but not exclusively, possible contents, formats and forms of evaluation that will contribute to define the course objectives and curriculum, as well as to ensure that the course meets the needs of the learners and their preferences. The sample was selected among different European countries. The questionnaires were delivered electronically for answering online and in the end 135 consented valid questionnaires were obtained. The results allowed characterizing the target group and identifying their training needs and preferences towards m-learning formats, giving valuable tools to design the training offer.
Synthesis and Performance of Polyamide Forward Osmosis Membrane for Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Removal
Forward Osmosis (FO) polyamide thin-film composite membranes have been prepared by inter facial polymerization using commercial UF polyethersulfone as membrane support. Different inter facial polymerization times (10s, 30s and 60s) in the organic solution containing trimesoyl chloride (TMC) at constant m-phenylenediamine (MPD) concentration (2% w/v) were studied. The synthesized polyamide membranes then tested for treatment of natural organic matter (NOM) and compared to commercial Cellulose TriAcetate (CTA) membrane. It was found that membrane prepared with higher reaction time (30 s and 60 s) exhibited better membrane performance (flux and humic acid removal) over commercial CTA membrane.
Postharvest Losses and Handling Improvement of Organic Pak-Choi and Choy Sum
Current consumers’ behavior trends have changed towards more health awareness, the well-being of society and interest of nature and environment. The Royal Project Foundation is, therefore, well aware of organic agriculture. The project only focused on using natural products and utilizing its highland biological merits to increase resistance to diseases and insects for the produce grown. The project also brought in basic knowledge from a variety of available research information, including, but not limited to, improvement of soil fertility and a control of plant insects with biological methods in order to lay a foundation in developing and promoting farmers to grow quality produce with a high health safety. This will finally lead to sustainability for future highland agriculture and a decrease of chemical use on the highland area which is a source of natural watershed. However, there are still shortcomings of the postharvest management in term of quality and losses, such as bruising, rottenness, wilting and yellowish leaves. These losses negatively affect the maintenance and a shelf life of organic vegetables. Therefore, it is important that a research study of the appropriate and effective postharvest management is conducted for an individual organic vegetable to minimize product loss and find root causes of postharvest losses which would contribute to future postharvest management best practices. This can be achieved through surveys and data collection from postharvest processes in order to conduct analysis for causes of postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum. Consequently, postharvest losses reduction strategies of organic vegetables can be achieved. In this study, postharvest losses of organic pak choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were determined at each stage of the supply chain starting from the field after harvesting, at the Development Center packinghouse, at Chiang Mai packinghouse, at Bangkok packing house and at the Royal Project retail shop in Chiang Mai. The results showed that postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were 86.05, 89.05 and 59.03 percent, respectively. The main factors contributing to losses of organic vegetables were due to mechanical damage and underutilized parts and/or short of minimum quality standard. Good practices had been developed after causes of losses were identified. Appropriate postharvest handling and management, for example, temperature control, hygienic cleaning, and reducing the duration of the supply chain, postharvest losses of all organic vegetables should be able to remarkably reduced postharvest losses in the supply chain.
Fengqiao: An Ongoing Experiment with 'UrbanMemory' Theory in an Ancient Town and ItsDesign Experience
Ancient town is a unique carrier of urban culture, maintaining the core culture of a region and continuing the urban context. Fengqiao, a nearly 2000-year-old town was on the brink of dilapidation in the past few decades. The town faced such problems as poor construction quality, environmental degeneration, inadequate open space, cultural characteristics and industry vitality. Therefore, the research upholds the principle of ‘organic renewal’ and puts forward three practical updated strategies which are ‘Repair Old as Ever,' ‘Activate Function’ and ‘Fill in with The New’. Also as a participant in updating the design, the author aims to ‘keep the memory of the history and see the development of the present’ as the goal of updating the design and regards the process of town renewal as the experimental venue for realizing this purpose. The research will sum up innovations on the designing process and the engineering progress in the past two years, and find out the innovation experiment and the effect of its implementation on the methodological level of the organic renewal design in Fengqiao ancient town. From here, we can also enjoy the very characteristic development trend presented by China in the design practice of the organic renewal in the ancient town.
M. J. Rodríguez, F. M. Sánchez, B. Velardo, P. Calvo, M. J. Serradilla, J. Delgado, J. M. López
Many organic solid wastes are produced in the world. Poultry manure (PM), municipal organic wastes (MOW) and sugar beet lime sludge (LS) are produced in large quantities in Morocco. The co-composting of these organic wastes was investigated. The recycling and the valorization of such wastes is environmentally and economically beneficial especially for PM which is known source of bacterial pathogens. The aerobic biodegradation process was carried out by using three windrows of variable compositions: C1 prepared without LS (only MOW were composted with PM), C2 prepared from MOW plus PM and10% LS; and the last one C3 from MOW plus PM and 20% LS. The main process physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) and microbiological populations (mesophilic and thermophilic flora, total coliform, fecal coliform, Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic fungi) were monitored over three months to ascertain the compost maturity and to ensure the compost hygienic aspect. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 10.6-10.9. The organic matter degradation was reached approximately 59% for C2 and C3. In addition, the monitoring of the microbial population showed that the produced composts are mature and hygienic. The agronomic valorization of the final composts was tested on radish plant with tree level of composts and poultry manure without composting. The primary results of field trial showed a growth of radish plant biomass and root development without any phytotoxicity detected which reflects the quality of the composts produced. As for poultry manure it allowed to have a better results than other composts because of its readily available nitrogen.
Synthesis and Evaluation of Photovoltaic Properties of an Organic Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
In the present study, metal free organic dyes were prepared and used as photo-sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Double rhodanine was utilized as the fundamental electron acceptor group to which electron donor aldehyde with varying substituents was attached to produce new organic dye. This dye was first purified and then characterized by analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric evaluations of the prepared dye in solution and on a nano anatase TiO2 substrate were carried out in order to assess possible changes in the status of the dyes in different environments. The results show that the dye form j-type aggregates on the nano TiO2. Additionally, oxidation potential measurements were also carried out. Finally, dye sensitized solar cell based on synthesized dye was fabricated in order to determine the photovoltaic behavior and conversion efficiency of individual dye.
Optimization of NaOH Thermo-Chemical Pretreatment to Enhance Solubilisation of Organic Food Waste by Response Surface Methodology
This study investigates the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of organic food waste on the performance of COD solubilisation. Both temperature and alkaline agent were reported to have an effect on solubilizing any possible biomass including organic food waste. The three independent variables considered in this pretreatment were temperature (50-90oC), pretreatment time (30-120 minutes) and alkaline concentration, sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.7-15 g/L). The optimal condition obtained were 90oC, 15 g/L NaOH for 2 hours. Solubilisation has potential in enhancing methane production by providing a high amount of soluble components at an early stage during anaerobic digestion.
Detoxification of Hazardous Organic/Inorganic Contaminants in Automobile Shredder Residue by Multi-Functioned Nano-Size Metallic Calcium Composite
In recent years, environmental nanotechnology has risen to the forefront and the new properties and enhanced reactivates offered by nanomaterial may offer a new, low-cost paradigm to solving complex environmental pollution problems. This study assessed the synthesis and application of multi-functioned nano-size metallic calcium (nMC) composite for detoxification of hazardous inorganic (heavy metals (HMs)/organic chlorinated/brominated compound (CBCs) contaminants in automobile shredder residue (ASR). ASR residues ball milled with nMC composite can achieve about 90-100% of HMs immobilization and CBCs decomposition. The results highlight the low quantity of HMs leached from ASR residues after treatment with nMC, which was found to be lower than the standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The use of nMC composite in a mechanochemical process to treat hazardous ASR (dry conditions) is a simple and innovative approach to remediate hazardous inorganic/organic cross-contaminates in ASR.
A Strategy for Reducing Dynamic Disorder in Small Molecule Organic Semiconductors by Suppressing Large Amplitude Thermal Motions
Large-amplitude intermolecular vibrations in combination with complex shaped transfer integrals generate a thermally fluctuating energetic landscape. The resulting dynamic disorder and its intrinsic presence in organic semiconductors is one of the most fundamental differences to their inorganic counterparts. Dynamic disorder is believed to govern many of the unique electrical and optical properties of organic systems. However, the low energy nature of these vibrations makes it difficult to access them experimentally and because of this we still lack clear molecular design rules to control and reduce dynamic disorder. Applying a novel technique based on electron diffraction we encountered strong intermolecular, thermal vibrations in every single organic material we studied (14 up to date), indicating that a large degree of dynamic disorder is a universal phenomenon in organic crystals. In this paper a new molecular design strategy will be presented to avoid dynamic disorder. We found that small molecules that have their side chains attached to the long axis of their conjugated core have been found to be less likely to suffer from dynamic disorder effects. In particular, we demonstrate that 2,7-dioctylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothio-phene (C8-BTBT) and 2,9-di-decyl-dinaphtho-[2,3-b:20,30-f]-thieno-[3,2-b]-thiophene (C10DNTT) exhibit strongly reduced thermal vibrations in comparison to other molecules and relate their outstanding performance to their lower dynamic disorder. We rationalize the low degree of dynamic disorder in C8-BTBT and C10-DNTT with a better encapsulation of the conjugated cores in the crystal structure which helps reduce large amplitude thermal motions. The work presented in this paper provides a general strategy for the design of new classes of very high mobility organic semiconductors with low dynamic disorder.
Extraction of Strontium Ions through Ligand Assisted Ionic Liquids
Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) hasbeen investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL, Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents.Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant.
Photo Catalytic Treatment of Wastewater from Processing Poultry by-Products
The growing development in the poultry industry has generated a strong and adverse impact on quality and availability of water resources. Inside this industry, is finding out the treatment of by-products such as feathers, viscera and blood demanding highly water consumption, generating contaminant discharges as well. As one of current of treatment of by-products is the effluent of cooking condensate steam that has contaminant organic load; therefore, it is necessary to implement removal treatments before discharging it toward water sources. The photo catalysis appears as a promising alternative of treatment due to the different advantages it has, among others, includes low cost, easily operation, high efficiency and elimination of a wide variety of contaminants in a watery environment. This study has evaluated a heterogeneous photo catalytic treatment for removal contaminant organic load. This process was developed in oxidation and reduction conditions. It was analyzed the effect of factors such as pH, catalyst and sacrifice agent concentration. Finally, good conditions to removal contaminant organic load were achieved to determine percentage of contaminant organic load by means of response surface methodology.
Gandhi and the Judicial Discourse on Moral Rights
The inclusion of Rights of Author (Moral and Personal Rights) resonate the century long battle of rights of authors, composers, performers across developed and developing countries (whether following civil law or common law systems). But, the juxtaposition of author’s special, moral, personal rights within the legislative framework of Copyright statutes (Indian Copyright Act, 1957, applicable statutes) underscores the foundational role of the right which goes to the root of the constitutional structure of India and philosophies of political and literary leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Gurudeb Rabindranath Tagore. In the pre-independence era when the concept of moral rights was unknown to both England and India’s statutory laws, the strategic deployment method of Gandhi, his ideologies and thoughts scripted the concept of moral rights for authors/composers. The preservation of Rabindric Style (Characteristic Tagore’s vocal renditions) by Vishwabharati University (successor in interest for Tagore’s literary and musical compositions) prior to the Copyright Amendment of 1999 recognizing Author’s Special Rights in line with 6bis of Berne Convention invigorates the fact that the right existed intrinsically prior to the legislative amendment. The paper would in addition to the academic probe carry out an empirical enquiry of the institution’s (Navjivan Trust and Vishwa Bharati University’s) reasoning on the same. The judicial discourse and transforming constitutional ideals between 1950s till date in India alludes Moral Rights to be an essential legal right which have been reasoned by Indian Courts based on the underlying philosophies in culture, customs, religion wherein composers and literary figures have played key roles in enlightening and encouraging the members of society through their literary, musical and artistic work during pre-independence renaissance of India. The discourses have been influenced by the philosophies reflected in the preamble of the Indian constitution, ‘socialist, secular, democratic republic’ and laws of other civil law countries. Lastly, the paper would analyze the adjudication process and witness involvement in ascertaining violations of moral rights and further summarize the indigenous and country specific economic thoughts that often chisel decisions on moral rights of authors, composers, performers which sometimes intersect with author’s right of privacy and against defamation. The exclusivity contracts or other arrangements between authors, composers and publishing companies not only have an erosive effect on each thread of moral rights but irreparably dents factors that promote creativity. The paper would also be review these arrangements in view of the principles of unjust enrichment, unfair trade practices, anti-competitive behavior and breach of Section 27 (Restrain of Trade) of Indian Contract Act, 1857. The paper will thus lay down the three pillars on which author’s rights in India should namely rest, (a) political and judicial discourse evolving principles supporting moral rights of authors; (b) amendment and insertion of Section 57 of the Copyright Act, 1957; (c) overall constitutional framework supporting author’s rights.
Barrier Characteristics of Molecular Semiconductor-Based Organic/Inorganic Au/C₄₂H₂₈/n-InP Hybrid Junctions
Thin film of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon rubrene, C₄₂H₂₈ (5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene), has been surfaced on Moderately Doped (MD) n-InP substrate as an interfacial layer by means of spin coating technique for the electronic modification of Au/MD n-InP structure. Ex situ annealing has been carried out at 150 °C for three minutes under a brisk flow of nitrogen for the better adhesion of the deposited film with the substrate surface. Room temperature electrical characterization has been performed on the C₄₂H₂₈/MD n-InP hybrid junctions by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in the dark. It has been seen that the C₄₂H₂₈/MD n-InP structure demonstrated extraordinary rectifying behavior. An effective barrier height (BH) as high as 0.743 eV, along with an ideality factor very close to unity (n=1.203), has been achieved for C₄₂H₂₈/n-InP organic/inorganic device. A thin C₄₂H₂₈ interfacial layer between Au and MD n-InP also reduce the reverse leakage current by almost four orders of magnitude and enhance the BH about 0.278 eV. This good performance of the device is ascribed to the passivation effect of organic interfacial layer between Au and n-InP. By using C-V measurement, in addition, the value of BH of the C₄₂H₂₈/n-InP organic/inorganic hybrid junctions have been obtained as 0.796 eV. It has been seen that both of the BH value (0.743 and 0.796 eV) for the organic/inorganic hybrid junction obtained I-V and C-V measurement, respectively are significantly larger than that of the conventional Au/n-InP structure (0.465 and 0.503 eV). It was also seen that the device had good sensitivity to the light under 100 mW/cm² illumination conditions. The obtained results indicated that modification of the interfacial potential barrier for Metal/n-InP junctions might be attained using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon thin interlayer C₄₂H₂₈.
First and Second Analysis on the Reheat Organic Rankine Cycle
In recent years the increasing use of fossil fuels has led to various environmental problems including urban pollution, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. Moreover, with the increased number of industrial centers and higher consumption of these fuels, the end point of the fossil energy reserves has become more evident. Considering the environmental pollution caused by fossil fuels and their limited availability, renewable sources can be considered as the main substitute for non-renewable resources. One of these resources is the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). These cycles while having high safety, have low maintenance requirements. Combining the ORCs with other systems, such as ejector and reheater will increase overall cycle efficiency. In this study, ejector and reheater are used to improve the thermal efficiency (ηth), exergy efficiency (η_ex) and net output power (w_net); therefore, the ORCs with reheater (RORCs) are proposed. A computational program has been developed to calculate the thermodynamic parameters required in Engineering Equations Solver (EES). In this program, the analysis of the first and second law in RORC is conducted, and a comparison is made between them and the ORCs with Ejector (EORC). R245fa is selected as the working fluid and water is chosen as low temperature heat source with a temperature of 95 °C and a mass transfer rate of 1 kg/s. The pressures of the second evaporator and reheater are optimized in terms of maximum exergy efficiency. The environment is at 298.15 k and at 101.325 kpa. The results indicate that the thermodynamic parameters in the RORC have improved compared to EORC.
The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release for Stainless Steel between Artificial Saliva and Breadfruit Leaf Extracts
The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is the leaves of breadfruit. The method used for this research using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric test. The results showed that the difference of chromium ion releases on soaking in saliva and breadfruit leaf extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statically calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed the significant difference. The conclusion of this study shows that breadfruit leaf extract can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.
First and Second Analysis on the Reheat Organic Rankine Cycle
In recent years the increasing use of fossil fuels has led to various environmental problems including urban pollution, ozone layer depletion and acid rain. Moreover, with the increased number of industrial centers and higher consumption of these fuels, the end point of the fossil energy reserves has become more evident. Considering the environmental pollution caused by fossil fuels and their limited availability, renewable sources can be considered as the main substitute for non-renewable resources. One of these resources is the Organic Rankin Cycles (ORCs). These cycles while having high safety, they have low maintenance requirements. Combining the ORCs with other systems, such as ejector and reheater will increase overall cycle efficiency. In this study, ejector and reheater are used to improve the thermal efficiency (ηth), exergy efficiency (η_ex) and net output power (w_net); therefore, the ORCs with reheater (RORCs) are proposed. A computational program has been developed to calculate the thermodynamic parameters required in EES. In this program, the analysis of the first and second law in RORC is conducted, and a comparison is made between them and the ORCs with Ejector (EORC). R245fa is selected as the working fluid and water is chosen as low temperature heat source with a temperature of 95°C and a mass transfer rate of 1 kg/s. The pressures of the second evaporator and reheater are optimized in terms of maximum exergy efficiency. The environment is at 298.15 k and at 101.325 kpa. The results indicate that the thermodynamic parameters in the RORC have improved compared to EORC.
Comparing Performance Indicators among Mechanistic, Organic, and Bureaucratic Organizations
With globalization, organizations had to adjust to an unstable environment in order to survive in a competitive arena. Typically within the field of management, different types of organizations include mechanistic, bureaucratic and organic ones. In fact, bureaucratic and mechanistic organizations have some characteristics in common. Bureaucracy is one type of Thailand organization which adapted from mechanistic concept to develop an organization that is suitable for the characteristic and culture of Thailand. The objective of this study is to compare the adjustment strategies of both organizations in order to find key performance indicators (KPI) suitable for improving organization in Thailand. The methodology employed is binary logistic regression. The results of this study will be valuable for developing future management strategies for both bureaucratic and mechanistic organizations.
Organic Geochemical Characterization of the Ordovician Source Rock in the Chotts Basin, Southern Tunisia
This paper summarizes the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker data of shale samples collected from the Ordovician age (Llanvirnian-Llandeilian) (Azzel Formation) in the Chotts basin southern part of Tunisia. The results are supported by analysis of cutting samples from wells. The Azzel shales has poor to moderate, occasionally good, potential for sourcing oil and gas with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content varying from 0.80 to 4.49 % and petroleum potential (PP) values varying between 0.68 to 9.20 Kg of HC/t rock in Baguel and Alaguia wells. However, the Azzel Formation show poor to fair TOC and PP in Elfranig and HajBrahim wells not exceeding 1.10% and 1.05 kg HC/t of rock respectively. The Hydrogen Index (HI) and the Oxygen Index (OI) values of 95–165 mg S2/g TOC and of 33–108 mg CO2/g rock relatively show that the Ordovician shales exhibit type II Kerogen that reached the main oil window stage and that the organic matter was bad preserved, Tmax values of 435 – 448°C indicate the organic matter is mature. The biomarker features of the extract samples are characterized by high proportion of tricyclic terpanes that are dominated by C23 and C21 tricyclic terpanes. The hopanes fraction is dominated by C29 and C30 hopanes. The Ordovician shales show a predominance of C27 over C29 steranes (C27/C29>1) and relatively high proportions of diasteranes supporting the shaly character of the source rock.
A Comparative Analysis of Conventional and Organic Dairy Supply Chain: Assessing Transport Costs and External Effects in Southern Sweden
Purpose: Organic dairy products have steadily increased with consumer popularity in recent years in Sweden, permitting more transport activities. The main aim of this study was to compare the transport costs and the environmental emissions made by the organic and conventional dairy production in Sweden. The objective was to evaluate differences and environmental impacts of transport between the two different production systems, allowing a more transparent understanding of the real impact of transport within the supply chain. Methods: A partial attributional Life Cycle Assessment has been conducted based on a comprehensive survey of Swedish farmers, dairies and consumers regarding their transport needs and costs. Interviews addressed the farmers and dairies. Consumers were targeted through an online survey. Results: Higher transport inputs from conventional dairy transportation are mainly via feed and soil management on farm level. The regional organic milk brand illustrate less initial transport burdens on farm level, however, after leaving the farm, it had equal or higher transportation requirements. This was mainly due to the location of the dairy farm and shorter product expiry dates, which requires more frequent retail deliveries. Organic consumers tend to use public transport more than private vehicles. Consumers using private vehicles for shopping trips primarily bought conventional products for which price was the main deciding factor. Conclusions: Organic dairy products that emphasise its regional attributes do not ensure less transportation and may therefore not be a more “climate smart” option for the consumer. This suggests that the idea of localism needs to be analysed from a more systemic perspective. Fuel and regional feed efficiency can be further implemented, mainly via fuel type and the types of vehicles used for transport.
Impact of Climatic Parameters on Soil's Nutritional and Enzymatic Properties
Soil is incoherent matter on Earth’s surface having organic and mineral content. The spatial variation of 4 soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass were assessed for two seasons’ viz. monsoon and winter along the latitudinal gradient in North-central India as the area of this study is fettered with respect to national status. The study was facilitated to encompass the effect of climate change, enzyme activity and biomass on nutrient cycling. Top soils were sampled from 4 sites in North-India. There were significant correlations found between organic C, N & P wrt to latitude gradient in two seasons. This distribution of enzyme activities and microbial biomass was consequence of alterations in temperature and moisture of soil because of which soil properties change along the latitude transect.
Reverse Osmosis Application on Sewage Tertiary Treatment
Water is an indispensable natural resource, which must be preserved to human activities as well the ecosystems. However, the sewage discharge has been contaminating water resources. Conventional treatment, such as physicochemical treatment followed by biological processes, has not been efficient to the complete degradation of persistent organic compounds, such as medicines and hormones. Therefore, the use of advanced technologies to sewage treatment has become urgent and necessary. The aim of this study was to apply Reverse Osmosis (RO) on sewage tertiary treatment from a Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) in south Brazil. It was collected 200 L of sewage pre-treated by wetland with aquatic macrophytes. The sewage was treated in a RO pilot plant, using a polyamide membrane BW30-4040 model (DOW FILMTEC), with 7.2 m² membrane area. In order to avoid damage to the equipment, this system contains a pleated polyester filter with 5 µm pore size. It was applied 8 bar until achieve 5 times of concentration, obtaining 80% of recovery of permeate, with 10 L.min-1 of concentrate flow rate. Samples of sewage pre-treated on WWTP, permeate and concentrate generated on RO was analyzed for physicochemical parameters and by gas chromatography (GC) to qualitative analysis of organic compounds. The results proved that the sewage treated on WWTP does not comply with the limit of phosphorus and nitrogen of Brazilian legislation. Besides this, it was found many organic compounds in this sewage, such as benzene, which is carcinogenic. Analyzing permeate results, it was verified that the RO as sewage tertiary treatment was efficient to remove of physicochemical parameters, achieving 100% of iron, copper, zinc and phosphorus removal, 98% of color removal, 91% of BOD and 62% of ammoniacal nitrogen. RO was capable of removing organic compounds, however, it was verified the presence of some organic compounds on de RO permeate, showing that RO did not have the capacity of removal all organic compounds of sewage. It has to be considered that permeate showed lower intensity of peaks in chromatogram in comparison to the sewage of WWTP. It is important to note that the concentrate generate on RO needs a treatment before its disposal in environment.
Awareness of Organic Products in Bangladesh: A Marketing Perspective
Bangladesh since its inception has been an economy that is fuelled by agriculture and agriculture has significant contribution to the GDP of Bangladesh. The agriculture of Bangladesh predominantly and historically dependent on organic sources of raw material though the place has taken in decades by inorganic sources of raw materials due to the high demand of food for rapidly growing of population. Meanwhile, a new market segment, which is niche market, has been evolving in the urban area in favor of organic products, though 71.1% population living in rural areas is dependent mainly on conventional products. The new market segment is search of healthy and safer source of food and they could believe that organic products are the solution of that. In Bangladesh, food adulteration is very common practices among the shop-keepers to extend the shelf life of raw vegetables and fruits. The niche group of city dwellers is aware about the fact and gradually shifting their buying behavior to organic products. A recent survey on organic farming revealed that 16,200 hectares under organic farming in recent time, which was only 2,500 hectares in 2008.
This study is focused on consumer awareness of organic products and tried to explore the factors affecting organic food consumption among high income group of people. The hypothesis is developed to explore the effect of gender (GENDER), ability to purchase (ABILITY) and health awareness (HEALTH) on purchase intention (INTENTION). A snowball sampling was administered among the high income group of people in Dhaka city among 150 respondents. In this sampling process the study could identify only those samples who has consume organic products. A Partial Least Square (PLS) method was used to analyze data using path analysis.
It was revealed from the analysis that coefficient determination R2 is 0.829 for INTENTION endogenous latent variable. This means that three latent variables (GENDER, ABILITY, and HEALTH) significantly explain 82.9% of the variance in INTENTION of purchasing organic products. Moreover, GENDER solely explains 6.3% and 8.6% variability of ABILITY and HEALTH respectively. The inner model suggests that HEALTH has strongest negative effect on INTENTION (-0.647) followed by ABILITY (0.344) and GENDER (0.246). The hypothesized path relationship between ABILITY->INTENTION, HEALTH->INTENTION and GENDER->INTENTION are statistically significant. Furthermore, the hypothesized path relationship between GENDER->ABILITY (0.262) and GENDER->HEALTH (-0.292) also statistically significant.
The purpose of the study is to demonstrate how an organic product producer can improve his participatory guarantee system (PGS) while marketing the products. The study focuses on understanding gender (GENDER), ability (ABILITY) and health (HEALTH) factors while positioning the products (INTENTION) in the mind of the consumer. In this study, the respondents are found to care about high price and ability to purchase variables with loading -0.920 and 0.898. They are good indicators of ability to purchase (ABILITY). The marketers should consider about price of organic comparing to conventional products while marketing, otherwise, that will create negative intention to buy with a loading of -0.939. Meanwhile, it is also revealed that believability of chemical free component in organic products and health awareness affects health (HEALTH) components with high loading -0.941 and 0.682. The study analyzes that low believability of chemical free component and high price of organic products affects intension to buy. The marketers should not overlook this point while targeting the consumers in Bangladesh.
Influence of Photophysical Parameters of Photoactive Materials on Exciton Diffusion Length and Diffusion Coefficient in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells
It has been experimentally demonstrated that exciton diffusion length in organic solids can be improved by fine-tuning the material parameters that govern exciton transfer. Here, a theoretical study is carried out to support this finding. We have therefore derived expressions for the exciton diffusion length and diffusion coefficient of singlet and triplet excitons using Förster resonance energy transfer and Dexter carrier transfer mechanisms and are plotted as a function of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield, spectral overlap integral, refractive index and dipole moment of the photoactive material. We found that singlet exciton diffusion length increases with PL quantum yield and spectral overlap integral, and decreases with increase in refractive index. Likewise, the triplet exciton diffusion length increases when PL quantum yield increases and dipole moment decreases. The calculated diffusion lengths in different organic materials are compared with existing experimental values and found to be in reasonable agreement. The results are expected to provide insight in developing new organic materials for fabricating bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) with better photoconversion efficiency.
The Impact of Initiators on Fast Drying Traffic Marking Paint
Fast drying traffic marking paint comprising a solvent-borne resin, a filler, a pigment and a solvent that is especially suitable for colder ambient (temperatures near freezing) applications, where waterborne traffic paint cannot be used. Acrylic resins based on methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, acrylic acid, and styrene were synthesized in different solvents using organic peroxide initiators such as peroxyester, peroxyketal, dialkylperoxide and azo. After polymerization, the molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index= PDI (Mw/Mn), viscosity, total residual monomer and APHA color were evaluated and results of organic peroxide initiators (t- butyl and t-amyl derivatives) were also compared with the azo initiator. The Mw, PDI, viscosity, mass conversation and APHA color of resins with t-amyl derivatives of organic peroxide initiators are very proper. The results of the traffic marking paints test such as non-volatile matter, no- pick- up time, hiding power, resistance to wear and water resistance study that produced with these resins also confirm this.
Process Development for the Conversion of Organic Waste into Valuable Products
Environmental concerns arising from the use of fossil fuels has increased the interest in the development of renewable and sustainable sources of energy. This would minimize the dependence on fossil fuels and serve as future alternatives. Organic wastes contain carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, which can be utilised as carbon sources for the production of bio-based products. Cellulose is the most abundant natural biopolymer, being the main structural component of lignocellulosic materials. The aim of this project is to develop a biological process for the hydrolysis and fermentation of organic wastes into ethanol and organic acids. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are integrated in a single vessel using undefined mixed culture microorganisms.
The anaerobic fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose was investigated in continuous and batch reactors at 25°C with an appropriate growth medium for cellulase formation, hydrolysis, and fermentation. The reactors were inoculated with soil (B1, C1, C3) or sludge from an anaerobic digester (B2, C2) and the breakdown of cellulose was monitored by measuring the production of ethanol, organic acids and the residual cellulose. The batch reactors B1 and B2 showed negligible microbial activity due to inhibition while the continuous reactors, C1, C2 and C3, exhibited little cellulose hydrolysis which was concealed by the cellulose accumulation in the reactor. At the end of the continuous operation, the reactors C1, C2 and C3 were operated under batch conditions. 48%, 34% and 42% cellulose had been fermented by day 88, 55 and 55 respectively of the batch fermentation. Acetic acid, ethanol, propionic acid and butyric acids were the main fermentation products in the reactors. A stable concentration of 0.6 g/l ethanol and 5 g/L acetic acid was maintained in C3 for several weeks due to reduced activity of methanogens caused by the decrease in pH. Thus far, the results have demonstrated that mixed microbial culture is capable of hydrolysing and fermenting cellulose under lenient conditions. The fermentation of cellulose has been found effective in a combination of continuous and batch processes.
The Effects of Lithofacies on Oil Enrichment in Lucaogou Formation Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks in Santanghu Basin, China
For more than the past ten years, oil and gas production from marine shale such as the Barnett shale. In addition, in recent years, major breakthroughs have also been made in lacustrine shale gas exploration, such as the Yanchang Formation of the Ordos Basin in China. Lucaogou Formation shale, which is also lacustrine shale, has also yielded a high production in recent years, for wells such as M1, M6, and ML2, yielding a daily oil production of 5.6 tons, 37.4 tons and 13.56 tons, respectively. Lithologic identification and classification of reservoirs are the base and keys to oil and gas exploration. Lithology and lithofacies obviously control the distribution of oil and gas in lithological reservoirs, so it is of great significance to describe characteristics of lithology and lithofacies of reservoirs finely. Lithofacies is an intrinsic property of rock formed under certain conditions of sedimentation. Fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale formed under different sedimentary conditions display great particularity and distinctiveness. Hence, to our best knowledge, no constant and unified criteria and methods exist for fine-grained sedimentary rocks regarding lithofacies definition and classification. Consequently, multi-parameters and multi-disciplines are necessary. A series of qualitative descriptions and quantitative analysis were used to figure out the lithofacies characteristics and its effect on oil accumulation of Lucaogou formation fine-grained sedimentary rocks in Santanghu basin. The qualitative description includes core description, petrographic thin section observation, fluorescent thin-section observation, cathode luminescence observation and scanning electron microscope observation. The quantitative analyses include X-ray diffraction, total organic content analysis, ROCK-EVAL.II Methodology, soxhlet extraction, porosity and permeability analysis and oil saturation analysis. Three types of lithofacies were mainly well-developed in this study area, which is organic-rich massive shale lithofacies, organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies and organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies mainly include massive shale and tuffaceous shale, of which quartz and clay minerals are the major components. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies contain lamina and cloddy structure. Rocks from this lithofacies chiefly consist of dolomite and quartz. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies mainly contains massive bedding fine-grained carbonate rocks, of which fine-grained dolomite accounts for the main part. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies contain the highest content of free hydrocarbon and solid organic matter. Moreover, more pores were developed in organic-rich massive shale lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies contain the lowest content solid organic matter and develop the least amount of pores. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies develop the largest number of cracks and fractures. To sum up, organic-rich massive shale lithofacies is the most favorable type of lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies is impossible for large scale oil accumulation.
Geotechnical Properties and Compressibility Behavior of Organic Dredged Soils
Sustainable development is one of the most important topics in today's world, and it is also an important research topic for geoenvironmental engineering. Dredging process is performed to expand the river and port channel, flood control and accessing harbors. Every year large amount of sediment are dredged for these purposes. Dredged marine soils can be reused as filling materials, road and foundation embankments, construction materials and wildlife habitat developments. In this study, geotechnical engineering properties and compressibility behavior of dredged soil obtained from the Izmir Bay were investigated. The samples with four different organic matter contents were obtained and particle size distributions, consistency limits, pH and specific gravity tests were performed. The consolidation tests were conducted to examine organic matter content (OMC) effects on compressibility behavior of dredged soil. This study has shown that the OMC has an important effect on the engineering properties of dredged soils. The liquid and plastic limits increased with increasing OMC. The lowest specific gravity belonged to sample which has the maximum OMC. The specific gravity values ranged between 2.76 and 2.52. The maximum void ratio difference belongs to sample with the highest OMC (De11% = 0.38). As the organic matter content of the samples increases, the change in the void ratio has also increased. The compression index increases with increasing OMC.
Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand
Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.
Producing Sustained Renewable Energy and Removing Organic Pollutants from Distillery Wastewater using Consortium of Sludge Microbes
Distillery wastewater in the form of spent wash is a complex and strong industrial effluent, with high load of organic pollutants that may deplete dissolved oxygen on being discharged into aquatic systems and contaminate groundwater by leaching of pollutants, while untreated spent wash disposed on land acidifies the soil. Stringent legislative measures have therefore been framed in different countries for discharge standards of distillery effluent. Utilising the organic pollutants present in various types of wastes as food by mixed microbial populations is emerging as an eco-friendly approach in the recent years, in which complex organic matter is converted into simpler forms, and simultaneously useful gases are produced as renewable and clean energy sources. In the present study, wastewater from a rice bran based distillery has been used as the substrate in a dark fermenter, and native microbial consortium from the digester sludge has been used as the inoculum to treat the wastewater and produce hydrogen. After optimising the operational conditions in batch reactors, sequential batch mode and continuous flow stirred tank reactors were used to study the best operational conditions for enhanced and sustained hydrogen production and removal of pollutants. Since the rate of hydrogen production by the microbial consortium during dark fermentation is influenced by concentration of organic matter, pH and temperature, these operational conditions were optimised in batch mode studies. Maximum hydrogen production rate (347.87ml/L/d) was attained in 32h dark fermentation while a good proportion of COD also got removed from the wastewater. Slightly acidic initial pH seemed to favor biohydrogen production. In continuous stirred tank reactor, high H2 production from distillery wastewater was obtained from a relatively shorter substrate retention time (SRT) of 48h and a moderate organic loading rate (OLR) of 172 g/l/d COD.
Determining the Nitrogen Mineralization Rate by Industrially Manufactured Organic Fertilizers on Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria
Laboratory incubation study was carried out at Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo Southwestern Nigeria to determine the rate of NO3-N, NH4-N, total N, OC and available P released to the soil samples collected from Okitipupa mangrove forest. The soil samples were incubated with organic (OG), organomineral (OMF) and NPK 15:15:15 (NPKF) fertilizers. Organic and organomineral fertilizers were separately applied at the rate of 0, 0.25 and 0.5mg/100 g soil while NPKF was applied at the rate of 0.002g/100g soil. The treatments were replicated three times and arranged on CRD. The treatments were incubated for 90 days. Compared with control, OG and NPKF at all rates significantly increased (p< 0.05) soil NH4-N, NO3-N, total N and available P. The order of increase in NH4-N were 10t/ha OMF> 5t/ha OMF> 5t/ha OG>10t/ha OG>control>400 kg/ha while the order of increase in NO3-N were 5t/ha OMF>10t/ha OMF>10t/ha OG>5t/ha OG>control>400 kg/ha NPKF. 5t/ha OMF had the highest, 5t/ha OMF recorded the highest pH, 5t/ha OG had the highest OC while 10t/ha OG had the highest available P.
Study of Bis(Trifluoromethylsulfonyl)Imide Based Ionic Liquids by Gas Chromatography
Development of safer and environmentally friendly processes and products is needed to achieve sustainable production and consumption patterns. Ionic liquids, which are of great interest to the chemical and related industries because of their attractive properties as solvents, should be considered. Ionic liquids are comprised of an asymmetric, bulky organic cation and a weakly coordinating organic or inorganic anion. A large number of possible combinations allows for the ability to ‘fine tune’ the solvent properties for a specific purpose. Physical and chemical properties of ionic liquids are not only influenced by the nature of the cation and the nature of cation substituents but also by the polarity and the size of the anion. These features infer to ionic liquids numerous applications, in organic synthesis, separation processes, and electrochemistry. Separation processes required a good knowledge of the behavior of organic compounds with ionic liquids. Gas chromatography is a useful tool to estimate the interactions between organic compounds and ionic liquids. Indeed, retention data may be used to determine infinite dilution thermodynamic properties of volatile organic compounds in ionic liquids. Among others, the activity coefficient at infinite dilution is a direct measure of solute-ionic liquid interaction.
In this work, infinite dilution thermodynamic properties of volatile organic compounds in specific bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ionic liquids measured by gas chromatography is presented. It was found that apolar compounds are not miscible in this family of ionic liquids. As expected, the solubility of organic compounds is related to their polarity and hydrogen-bond. Through activity coefficients data, the performance of these ionic liquids was evaluated for different separation processes (benzene/heptane, thiophene/heptane and pyridine/heptane). Results indicate that ionic liquids may be used for the extraction of polar compounds (aromatics, alcohols, pyridine, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran) from aliphatic media. For example, 1-benzylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide and 1-cyclohexylmethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are more efficient for the extraction of aromatics or pyridine from aliphatics than classical solvents. Ionic liquids with long alkyl chain length present important capacity values but their selectivity values are low. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that specific bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ILs containing polar chain grafted on the cation (for example benzyl or cyclohexyl) increases considerably their performance in separation processes.
A New Seperation / Precocentration and Determination Procedure Based on Solidified Floating Organic Drop Microextraction (SFODME) of Lead by Using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Solidified floating organic drop microextraction was used for a preconcentration method of trace amount of lead. The analyte was complexed with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol and 1-undecanol, acetonitrile was added as an extraction and dispersive solvent respectively. The influences of some analytical parameters pH, volumes of extraction and disperser solvent, concentration of chelating agent, and concentration of salt were optimized. Under the optimum conditions the detection limits of Pb (II) was determined. The procedure was validated for the analysis of NCS DC 73347a hair standard reference material with satisfactory result. The developed procedure was successfully applied to food and water samples for detection of Pb (II) ions.
Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator
The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.
Optimization of Horticultural Crops by Using the Peats from Rawa Pening Lake as Soil Conditioner
Rawa Pening is a lake at the Ambarawa Basin in Central Java, Indonesia. It serves as a source of power (hydroelectricity), irrigation, and flood control. The potential of this lake is getting worse by the presence of aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes) that grows wild, and it can make the lake covered by the cumulation of rotten E. crassipes. This cumulation causes the sediment formation which has high organic material composition. Sediment formation will be lead into a shallowing of the lake and affect water’s quality. The deposition of organic material produces methane gas and hydrogen sulfide, which in rain would turn the water muddy and decompose. Decomposition occuring in the water due to microbe activity in lake's water. The shallowing of Rawa Pening Lake not only will physically can reduce water discharge, but it also has ecologically major impact on water organism. The condition of Rawa Pening Lake peats can not be considered as unimportant issue. One of the solutions that can be applied is by using the peats as a compound materials on growing horticultural crops because the organic materials content on the mineral soil is low, particularly on an old soils. The horticultural crops required organic materials for growth promoting. The horticultural crops that use in this research is mustard cabbage (Brassica sp.). Using Rawa Pening's peats as the medium of plants with high organic materials that also can ameliorate soil’s physical properties, and indirectly serves as soil conditioner. Research will be focus on the peat’s contents and mustard cabbage product’s content. The contents that will be examined is the N-available, Ca, Mg, K, P, and C-organic. The analysis of Ca, Mg, and K is use soil base saturation measurement method and extracting soil is use NH4OAC solution. The aim of this study is to use the peats of Rawa Pening Lake as soil conditioner and increase the productivity of Brassica sp.
Sorption of Charged Organic Dyes from Anionic Hydrogels
Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks composed of homopolymers or copolymers and are insoluble in water due to the presence of chemical or physical cross-links. When hydrogels come in contact with aqueous solutions, they can effectively sorb and retain the dissolved substances, depending on the nature of the monomeric units comprising the hydrogel. For this reason, hydrogels have been proposed in several studies as water purification agents. At the present work anionic hydrogels bearing negatively charged –COO- groups were prepared and investigated. These gels are based on sodium acrylate (ANa), either homopolymerized (poly(sodiumacrylate), PANa) or copolymerized (P(DMAM-co-ANa)) with N,N Dimethylacrylamide (DMAM). The hydrogels were used to extract some model organic dyes from water. It is found that cationic dyes are strongly sorbed and retained by the hydrogels, while sorption of anionic dyes was negligible. In all cases it was found that both maximum sorption capacity and equilibrium binding constant varied from one dye to the other depending on the chemical structure of the dye, the presence of functional chemical groups and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. Finally, the nonionic hydrogel of the homopolymer poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide), PDMAM, was also used for reasons of comparison.
Organic Rejection and Membrane Fouling with Inorganic Alumina Membrane for Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Interests in an inorganic membrane are growing rapidly for industrial wastewater treatment due to its excellent chemical and thermal stability over polymeric membrane. Nevertheless, understanding of the membrane rejection and fouling rate caused by the deposit of contaminants on membrane surface and within membrane pores through inorganic porous membranes still requires much attention. Microfiltration alumina membranes were developed and applied for the industrial wastewater treatment to investigate rejection efficiency of organic contaminant and membrane fouling at various operational conditions. In this study, organic rejection and membrane fouling were investigated by using the alumina flat-tubular membrane developed for the treatment of industrial wastewaters. The flat-tubular alumina membranes were immersed in a fluidized membrane reactor added with granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Fluidization was driven by recirculating a bulk industrial wastewater along membrane surface through the reactor. In the absence of GAC particles, for hazardous anionic dye contaminants, functional group characterized by the organic contaminant was found as one of the main factors affecting both membrane rejection and fouling rate. More fouling on the membrane surface led to the existence of dipolar characterizations and this was more pronounced at lower solution pH, thereby improving membrane rejection accordingly. Similar result was observed with a real metal-plating wastewater. Strong correlation was found that higher fouling rate resulted in higher organic rejection efficiency. Hydrophilicity exhibited by alumina membrane improved the organic rejection efficiency of the membrane due to the formation of hydrophilic fouling layer deposited on it. In addition, less surface roughness of alumina membrane resulted in less fouling rate. Regardless of the operational conditions applied in this study, fluidizing the GAC particles along the surface of alumina membrane was very effective to enhance organic removal efficiency higher than 95% and provide an excellent tool to reduce membrane fouling. Less than 0.1 bar as suction pressure was maintained with the alumina membrane at 25 L/m²hr of permeate set-point flux during the whole operational periods without performing any backwashing and chemical enhanced cleaning for the membrane.
Influence of S.carnosus Bacteria as Biocollector for the Recovery Organic Matter in the Flotation Process
The mineral bioflotation represents a viable alternative for the evaluation of new processes benefit alternative. The adsorption bacteria on minerals surfaces will depend mainly on the type of the microorganism as well as of the studied mineral surface. In the current study, adhesion of S. carnosus on coal was studied. Several methods were used as: DRX, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) adhesion isotherms and kinetic. The main goal is the recovery of organic matter by the microflotation process on coal particles with biological reagent (S. carnosus). Adhesion tests revealed that adhesion took place after 8 h at pH 9. The results suggest that the adhesion of bacteria to solid substrates can be considered an abiotic physicochemical process that is consequently governed by bacterial surface properties such as their specific surface area, hydrophobicity and surface functionalities. The greatest coal fine flotability was 75%, after 5 min of flotation.
Development of Soil Test Kits to Determine Organic Matter Available Phosphorus and Exchangeable Potassium in Thailand
Soil test kits for rapid analysis of the organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were developed to drive a low-cost field testing kit to farmers. The objective was to provide a decision tool for improving soil fertility. One aspect of soil test kit development was ease of use which is a time requirement for completing organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium test in one soil sample. This testing kit required only two extractions and utilized no filtration consuming approximately 15 minutes per sample. Organic matter was principally created by oxidizing carbon KMnO₄ using the standard color chart. In addition, modified single extractant (Mehlich I) was applied to extract available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. Molybdenum blue method and turbidimetric method using standard color chart were adapted to analyze available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively. Modified single extractant using in soil test kits were highly significant matching with analytical laboratory results (r=0.959** and 0.945** for available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively). Linear regressions were statistically calculated between modified single extractant and standard laboratory analysis (y=0.9581x-12.973 for available phosphorus and y=0.5372x+15.283 for exchangeable potassium, respectively). These equations were calibrated to formulate a fertilizer rate recommendation for specific corps. To validate quality, soil test kits were distributed to farmers and extension workers. We found that the accuracy of soil test kits were 71.0%, 63.9% and 65.5% for organic matter, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium, respectively. The quantitative survey was also conducted in order to assess their satisfaction with soil test kits. The survey showed that more than 85% of respondents said these testing kits were more convenient, economical and reliable than the other commercial soil test kits. Based upon the finding of this study, soil test kits can be another alternative for providing soil analysis and fertility recommendations when a soil testing laboratory is not available.
Utilization of Juncus acutus as Alternative Feed Resource in Ruminants
The aim of this paper is to bring about the utilization of Juncus acutus as an alternative roughage resource in ruminant nutrition. In Turkey, JA is prevailing plant of the natural grassland in Kizilirmak Delta, Samsun. Crude nutrient values such as crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin(ADL) including antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid compounds, total organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolisable energy (ME) values of Juncus acutus stem, seed, and also its mixture with maize silage were estimated. and published. Furthermore, the effects of JA over rumen cellulolitic bacteria were studied. The obtained results from different studies conducted on JA by our team show that Juncus acutus may be a new roughage source in ruminant nutrition.
Investigation of Performance of Organic Acids on Carbonate Rocks (Experimental Study in Ahwaz Oilfield)
Matrix acidizing treatments can yield impressive production increase if properly applied. In this study, carbonate samples taken from Ahwaz Oilfield have undergone static solubility, sludge, emulsion, and core flooding tests. In each test interaction of acid and rock is reported and at the end it has been shown that how initial permeability and type of acid affects the overall treatment efficiency.
Biogas Production from University Canteen Waste: Effect of Organic Loading Rate and Retention Time
University canteen waste was used as raw material to produce biogas in Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia. This faculty was home to more than 3000 students and lecturers who work and study for 5 days/week (8 hours/day). It produced approximately 85 ton/year organic fraction of canteen waste. Yet, this waste had been dumped for years in landfill area which cause severe environmental problems. It was proposed to utilize the waste as raw material for producing renewable energy source of biogas. This research activities was meant to investigate the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and retention time (RT) of continuous anaerobic digestion process for 200 days. Organic loading rate was set at value 2, 3, 4 and 5 g VS/l/d whereas the retention time was adjusted at 30, 24, 18 and 14.4 days. Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 4 g VS/l/d and RT 24 days with biogas production rate between 0.75 to 1.25 liter/day (40-60% CH4). This indicated that the utilization of canteen waste to produce biogas was promising method to mitigate environmental problem of university canteen waste. Furthermore, biogas could be used as alternative energy source to supply energy demand at the university. This implementation is simultaneous solution for both waste and energy problems to achieve green campus.
Thermodynamics of Water Condensation on an Aqueous Organic-Coated Aerosol Aging via Chemical Mechanism
A large subset of aqueous aerosols can be initially (immediately upon formation) coated with various organic amphiphilic compounds whereof the hydrophilic moieties are attached to the aqueous aerosol core while the hydrophobic moieties are exposed to the air thus forming a hydrophobic coating thereupon. We study the thermodynamics of water condensation on such an aerosol whereof the hydrophobic organic coating is being concomitantly processed by chemical reactions with atmospheric reactive species. Such processing (chemical aging) enables the initially inert aerosol to serve as a nucleating center for water condensation. The most probable pathway of such aging involves atmospheric hydroxyl radicals that abstract hydrogen atoms from hydrophobic moieties of surface organics (first step), the resulting radicals being quickly oxidized by ubiquitous atmospheric oxygen molecules to produce surface-bound peroxyl radicals (second step). Taking these two reactions into account, we derive an expression for the free energy of formation of an aqueous droplet on an organic-coated aerosol. The model is illustrated by numerical calculations. The results suggest that the formation of aqueous cloud droplets on such aerosols is most likely to occur via Kohler activation rather than via nucleation. The model allows one to determine the threshold parameters necessary for their Kohler activation. Numerical results also corroborate previous suggestions that one can neglect some details of aerosol chemical composition in investigating aerosol effects on climate.
Waste Minimization through Vermicompost: An Alternative Approach
Vermicompost is the product or process of composting using various worms. Large-scale vermicomposting is practiced in Canada, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and the United States. The vermicompost may be used for farming, landscaping, and creating compost tea or for sale. Some of these operations produce worms for bait and/or home vermicomposting. As a processing system, The vermicomposting of organic waste is very simple. Worms ingest the waste material-break it up in their rudimentary. Gizzards, consume the digestible/putrefiable portion and then excrete a stable, Humus-like material that can be immediately marketed. Vermitechnology can be a promising technique that has shown its potential in certain challenging areas like augmentation of food production, waste recycling, management of solid wastes etc. There is no doubt that in India, where on side pollution is increasing due to accumulation of organic wastes and on the other side there is shortage of organic manure, which could increase the fertility and productivity of the land and produce nutritive and safe food. So, the scope for vermicomposting is enormous.
Removal of Aromatic Fractions of Natural Organic Matter from Synthetic Water Using Aluminium Based Electrocoagulation
Occurrence of aromatic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) led to formation of carcinogenic disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated water. In the present study, the efficiency of aluminium based electrocoagulation on the removal of prominent aromatic groups such as phenol, hydrophobic auxochromes, and carboxyl groups from NOM enriched synthetic water has been evaluated using various spectral indices. The effect of electrocoagulation on turbidity has also been discussed. The variation in coagulation performance as a function of pH has been studied. Our result suggests that electrocoagulation can be considered as appropriate remediation approach to reduce trihalomethanes formation in water. It has effectively reduced hydrophobic fractions from NOM enriched low turbid water. The charge neutralization and enmeshment of dispersed colloidal particles inside metallic hydroxides is the possible mechanistic approach in electrocoagulation.
The Micro-Activated Organic Regeneration in Rural Construction: A Case Study of Yangdun Village in Deqing County, Zhejiang Province
With the strategy of Rural Rejuvenation proposed in China, the rural has become the focus of all works today. In addition to the support of industry and policy, the rural planning and construction which is the space dependence of Rural Rejuvenation are also very crucial. Based on an analysis of the case of Yangdun Village in Deqing County, this paper summarizes village existing resources and construction status quo. It tries to illuminate the micro-activated organic renewal strategies and methods, based on ecological landscape, history context, industry development and living life requirements. It takes advantage of industrial linkage and then asks for the coordination of both spatial and industrial planning, the revival and remodeling of the rural image can be achieved through shaping the of architectural and landscape nodes as well as the activation of street space.
Identification of Deposition Sequences of the Organic Content of Lower Albian-Cenomanian Age in Northern Tunisia: Correlation between Molecular and Stratigraphic Fossils
The present work is an organic geochemical study of the Fahdene Formation outcrops at the Mahjouba region belonging to the Eastern part of the Kalaat Senan structure in northwestern Tunisia (the Kef-Tedjerouine area). The analytical study of the organic content of the samples collected, allowed us to point out that the Formation in question is characterized by an average to good oil potential. This fossilized organic matter has a mixed origin (type II and III), as indicated by the relatively high values of hydrogen index. This origin is confirmed by the C29 Steranes abundance and also by tricyclic terpanes C19/(C19+C23) and tetracyclic terpanes C24/(C24+C23) ratios, that suggest a marine environment of deposit with high plants contribution. We have demonstrated that the heterogeneity of organic matter between the marine aspect, confirmed by the presence of foraminifera, and the continental contribution, is the result of an episodic anomaly in relation to the sequential stratigraphy. Given that the study area is defined as an outer platform forming a transition zone between a stable continental domain to the south and a deep basin to the north, we have explained the continental contribution by successive forced regressions, having blocked the albian transgression, allowing the installation of the lowstand system tracts. This aspect is represented by the incised valleys filling, in direct contact with the pelagic and deep sea facies. Consequently, the Fahdene Formation, in the Kef-Tedjerouine area, consists of transgressive system tracts (TST) brutally truncated by extras of continental progradation; resulting in a mixed influence deposition having retained a heterogeneous organic material.
Gammarus: Asellus Ratio as an Index of Organic Pollution: A Case Study in Markeaton, Kedleston Hall, and Allestree Park Lakes Derby, UK
Macro-invertebrates have been used to monitor organic pollution in rivers and streams. Several biotic indices based on macro-invertebrates have been developed over the years including the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). A new biotic index, the Gammarus:Asellus ratio has been recently proposed as an index of organic pollution. This study tested the validity of the Gammarus:Asellus ratio as an index of organic pollution, by examining the relationship between the Gammarus:Asellus ratio and physical-chemical parameters, and other biotic indices such as BMWP and, Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) from lakes and streams at Markeaton Park, Allestree Park, and Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire. Macro invertebrates were sampled using the standard five-minute kick sampling techniques physical and chemical environmental variables were obtained based on standard sampling techniques. Eighteen sites were sampled, six sites from Markeaton Park (three sites across the stream and three sites across the lake). Six sites each were also sampled from Allestree Park and Kedleston Hall lakes. The Gammarus:Asellus ratio showed an opposite significant positive correlations with parameters indicative of organic pollution such as the level of nitrates, phosphates, and calcium and also revealed a negatively significant correlations with other biotic indices (BMWP/ASPT). The BMWP score correlated positively significantly with some water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen and flow rate, but revealed no correlations with other chemical environmental variables. The BMWP score was significantly higher in the stream than the lake in Markeaton Park, also The ASPT scores appear to be significantly higher in the upper Lakes than the middle and lower lakes. This study has further strengthened the use of BMWP/ASPT score as an index of organic pollution. But, additional application is required to validate the use of Gammarus:Asellus as a rapid bio monitoring tool.
Effects of Organic Chromium and Propylene Glycol on Milk Yield and Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Early Lactation Dairy Cows
This study was conducted to determine the effects of organic chromium and organic chromium+propylene glycol on milk yield and some blood parameters related with liver fatty acid metabolism in early lactation dairy cows. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used as study material. Cows assigned to three groups as control (C), chromium (Cr) and chromium+propylene glycol (CP). Live weight, parity and body condition score were used as covariates for statistical analyses. The study began at calving and finished at 3 weeks after calving. All cows were consumed same diet. Organic chromium and organic chromium+propylene glycol were orally administrated to cows in treatment groups shortly after the morning milking. Blood samples were collected from all cows on 0 (calving), 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 18th, 21th days after calving. Then, samples were analyzed for BHBA (Betahydroxybutiric acids), NEFA (Non Esterified Fatty Acids), urea, total protein (TP) and glucose concentrations. Weekly milk yields were calculated from daily milk data on farm. Organic chromium treatment had no significant differences on serum biochemical parameters and milk yields. However, administration of organic chromium and propylene glycol combination decreased serum urea and total protein concentration, helped to protection from subclinical metabolic diseases via decreasing serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations. Also, this combination decreased serum glucose levels of cows. Neither only chromium nor chromium and propylene glycol combination did not affect milk yield throughout the study. These findings were suggested that orally administrations of chromium and propylene glycol combination improved liver glucose and fatty acid metabolism, decreased serum parameters which are representing subclinical diseases in early lactation dairy cows.
Facile Synthesis of Heterostructured Bi₂S₃-WS₂ Photocatalysts for Photodegradation of Organic Dye
In this paper, we report a facile synthetic strategy of randomly disturbed Bi₂S₃ nanorods on WS₂ nanosheets, which are synthesized via a controlled hydrothermal method without surfactant under an inert atmosphere. We developed a simple hydrothermal method for the formation of heterostructured of Bi₂S₃/WS₂ with a large scale (>95%). The structural features, composition, and morphology were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, HRTEM, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, N₂ adsorption-desorption, and TG-DTA measurements. The heterostructured Bi₂S₃/WS₂ composite has significant photocatalytic efficiency toward the photodegradation of organic dye. The time-dependent UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy measurement was consistent with the enhanced photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation with the diminishing carrier recombination for the Bi₂S₃/WS₂ photocatalyst. Due to their marked synergistic effects, the supported Bi₂S₃ nanorods on WS₂ nanosheet heterostructures exhibit significant visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability for the degradation of RhB. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed for the Bi₂S₃/WS₂ composite.
Utilization of Sugar Factory Waste as an Organic Fertilizer on Growth and Production of Baby Corn
The research purpose is to view and know the influence of giving blotong against growth and production of baby corn. The research was arranged as a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The first is fertilizer type: blotong (B1), blotong+EM4 (B2) and bokashi blotong (B3), while of the blotong dose assigned as the second factor: blotong 5 ton ha -1 (D1), blotong 10 ton ha-1 (D2) and blotong 15 ton ha-1 (D3). The research result indicated that bokashi blotong gives the best influence compare to blotong+EM4 against all parameters. Interaction between fertilizers does 10 ton ha-1 to the bokashi. Blotong gives the best influence to the baby corn production 4.41 ton ha-1, bokasi blotong best anyway influence on baby corn vegetative growth, that is: plant height 113.00 cm, leaves number 8 (eight) pieces and stem diameter 6.02 cm. Results of analysis of variance showed that giving of bokashi blotong (B3) showed a better effect on the growth and production of baby corn and highly significant for plant height age of 60 days after planting, leaf number aged 60 days after planting, cob length cornhusk and without cornhusk, diameter stems and cobs, cob weight with cornhusk and without cornhusk and production are converted into ton ha-1. This is due to bokashi blotong has organic content of C, N, P, and K totalling more than the maximum treatment blotong (B1) and the blotong+EM4 (B2). Based on the research result, it can be summarised that sugar factory waste called blotong can be used to make bokashi as organic fertilizer, so the baby corn can growth and production better.
Enhancing the Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells Using Metallic Nanoparticles
In recent years, bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) based on polymer–fullerene attracted a large research attention due to their numerous advantages such as light weight, easy processability, eco-friendly, low-cost, and capability for large area roll-to-roll manufacturing. BHJ OSCs usually suffer from insufficient light absorption due to restriction on keeping thin ( < 150 nm) photoactive layer because of small exciton diffusion length ( ~ 10 nm) and low charge carrier mobilities. It is thus highly desirable that light absorption as well as charge transport properties are enhanced by alternative methods so as to improve the device efficiency. In this work, therefore, we have focused on the strategy of incorporating metallic nanostructures in the active layer or charge transport layer to enhance the absorption and improve the charge transport.
Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds on Activated Carbon DSAC36-24
Activated carbon DSAC36-24 iy is adsorbent materials, characterized by a specific surface area of 548.13 m²g⁻¹. Their manufacture uses the natural raw materials like the nucleus of dates. In this study the treatment is done in two stages: A chemical treatment by H3PO4 followed by a physical treatment under nitrogen for 1 hour then under stream of CO2 for 24 hours. A characterization of the various parameters was determined such as the measurement of the specific surface area, determination of pHPZC, bulk density, iodine value. The study of the adsorption of organic molecules (hydroquinone, paranitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol) indicates that the adsorption phenomena are essentially due to the van der Waals interaction. In the case of organic molecules carrying the polar substituents, the existence of hydrogen bonds is also proved by the donor-acceptor forces. The study of the pH effect was done with modeling by different models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson), a kinetic treatment is also followed by the application of Lagergren, Weber, Macky.
Green Organic Chemistry, a New Paradigm in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Green organic chemistry which is the latest and one of the most researched topics now-a- days has been in demand since 1990’s. Majority of the research in green organic chemistry chemicals are some of the important starting materials for greater number of major chemical industries. The production of organic chemicals has raw materials (or) reagents for other application is major sector of manufacturing polymers, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paints, artificial fibers, food additives etc. organic synthesis on a large scale compound to the labratory scale, involves the use of energy, basic chemical ingredients from the petro chemical sectors, catalyst and after the end of the reaction, seperation, purification, storage, packing distribution etc. During these processes there are many problems of health and safety for workers in addition to the environmental problems caused there by use and deposition as waste. Green chemistry with its 12 principles would like to see changes in conventional way that were used for decades to make synthetic organic chemical and the use of less toxic starting materials. Green chemistry would like to increase the efficiency of synthetic methods, to use less toxic solvents, reduce the stage of synthetic routes and minimize waste as far as practically possible. In this way, organic synthesis will be part of the effort for sustainable development Green chemistry is also interested for research and alternatives innovations on many practical aspects of organic synthesis in the university and research labaratory of institutions. By changing the methodologies of organic synthesis, health and safety will be advanced in the small scale laboratory level but also will be extended to the industrial large scale production a process through new techniques. The three key developments in green chemistry include the use of super critical carbondioxide as green solvent, aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidising agent and use of hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis. It also focuses on replacing traditional methods of heating with that of modern methods of heating like microwaves traditions, so that carbon foot print should reduces as far as possible. Another beneficiary of this green chemistry is that it will reduce environmental pollution through the use of less toxic reagents, minimizing of waste and more bio-degradable biproducts. In this present paper some of the basic principles, approaches, and early achievements of green chemistry has a branch of chemistry that studies the laws of passing of chemical reactions is also considered, with the summarization of green chemistry principles. A discussion about E-factor, old and new synthesis of ibuprofen, microwave techniques, and some of the recent advancements also considered.
A Comprehensive Review on Health Hazards and Challenges for Microbial Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have become a great concern due to their toxicity, transformation and bioaccumulation property. Therefore, this review highlights the types, sources, classification health hazards and mobility of organochlorine pesticides, industrial chemicals and their by-products. Moreover, with the signing of Aarhus and Stockholm convention on POPs there is an increased demand to identify and characterise such chemicals from industries and environment which are toxic in nature or to existing biota. Due to long life, persistent nature they enter into body through food and transfer to all tropic levels of ecological unit. In addition, POPs are lipophilic in nature and accumulate in lipid-containing tissues and organs which further indicates the adverse symptoms after the threshold limit. Though, several potential enzymes are reported from various categories of microorganism and their interaction with POPs may break down the complex compounds either through biodegradation, biostimulation or bioaugmentation process, however technological advancement and human activities have also indicated to explore the possibilities for the role of genetically modified organisms and metagenomics and metabolomics. Though many studies have been done to develop low cost, effective and reliable method for detection, determination and removal of ultra-trace concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) but due to insufficient knowledge and non-feasibility of technique, the safe management of POPs is still a global challenge.
The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus
This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P< 0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.
Adsorption of Dyes and Iodine: Reaching Outstanding Kinetics with CuII-Based Metal–Organic Nanoballs
Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have attracted great interest in recent years, taking a lead role in the field of catalysis, drug delivery, sensors and absorption. In the past decade, promising results have been reported specifically in the field of adsorption, based on the topology and chemical features of this type of porous material. Thus, its application in industry and environment for the adsorption of pollutants is presented as a response to an increasingly important need. In this area, organic dyes are nowadays widely used in many industries including medicine, textile, leather, printing and plastics. The consequence of this fact is that dyes are present as emerging pollutants in soils and water where they remain for long periods of time due to their high stability, with a potential risk of toxicity in wildlife and in humans. On the other hand, the presence of iodine in soils, water and gas as a nuclear activity pollutant product or its extended use as a germicide is still a problem in many countries, which indicates the imperative need for its removal. In this context, this work presents the characterization as an adsorbent of the activated compound α[email protected]
obtained from the already reported [Cu₂₄(m-BDC)₂₄(DMF)₂₀(H₂O)₄]•24DMF•40H₂O ([email protected]
), where m-BDC is the 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic ligand and DMF is N,N′-dimethylformamide. The structure of [email protected]
consists of Cu24 clusters arranged in such a way that 12 paddle-wheels are connected through m-BDC ligands. The clusters exhibit an internal cavity where crystallization molecules of DMF and water are located. Adsorption of dyes and iodine as pollutant examples has been carried out, focusing attention on the kinetics of the rapid process.
Wettability Behavior of Organic Silane Molecules with Different Alkyl-Chain Length Coated Si Surface
Control of surface wettability is very important in various industrial fields. Thus, contact angle hysteresis which is defined as the difference between advancing and receding water contact angles has been paid attention because the surface having low contact angle hysteresis can control wetting behavior of water droplet. Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed using organic silane molecules has been used to control surface wettability, in particular, static contact angles, however, the effect of alkyl-chain length in organic silane molecules on the contact angle hysteresis has not yet clarified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of alkyl-chain length (C1-C18) in organic silane molecules on the contact angle hysteresis. SAMs were formed on Si wafer by thermal CVD method using silane coupling agents having different alkyl-chain length. The static water contact angles increased with an increase in the alkyl-chain length. On the other hand, although the water contact angle hysteresis tended to decrease with an increase in the alkyl-chain length, in case of the alkyl-chain length of more than C16 the contact angle hysteresis increased. This could be due to the decrease in the molecular mobility because of the increase in the molecular packing density in chemisorbed silane molecules.
Modeling and Characterization of Organic LED
It is well-known that Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are attracting great interest in the display technology industry due to their many advantages, such as low price of manufacturing, large-area of electroluminescent display, various colors of emission included white light. Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the device physics of OLEDs and their basic operating principles. In OLEDs, Light emitting is the result of the recombination of electron and hole in light emitting layer, which are injected from cathode and anode. For improve luminescence efficiency, it is needed that hole and electron pairs exist affluently and equally and recombine swiftly in the emitting layer. The aim of this paper is to modeling polymer LED and OLED made with small molecules for studying the electrical and optical characteristics. The first simulation structures used in this paper is a mono layer device; typically consisting of the poly (2-methoxy-5(2’-ethyl) hexoxy-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) polymer sandwiched between an anode usually an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate, and a cathode, such as Al.
In the second structure we replace MEH-PPV by tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq3). We choose MEH-PPV because of it's solubility in common organic solvents, in conjunction with a low operating voltage for light emission and relatively high conversion efficiency and Alq3 because it is one of the most important host materials used in OLEDs. In this simulation, the Poole-Frenkel- like mobility model and the Langevin bimolecular recombination model have been used as the transport and recombination mechanism. These models are enabled in ATLAS -SILVACO software. The influence of doping and thickness on I(V) characteristics and luminescence, are reported.
Evaluation of Different Fertilization Practices and Their Impacts on Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties in Two Agroecological Zones of Ghana
Renewed interest in soil management aimed at improving the productive capacity of Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) soils has called for the need to analyse the long term effect of different fertilization systems on soil. This study was conducted in two agroecological zones (i.e., Guinea Savannah (GS) and Deciduous forest (DF)) of Ghana to evaluate the impacts of long term (> 5 years) fertilization schemes on soil chemical and microbial properties. Soil samples under four different fertilization schemes (inorganic, inorganic and organic, organic, and no fertilization) were collected from 20 farmers` field in both agroecological zones. Soil analyses were conducted using standard procedures. All average soil quality parameters except extractable C, potential mineralizable nitrogen and CEC were significantly higher in DF sites compared to GS. Inorganic fertilization proved superior in soil chemical and microbial biomass especially in GS zone. In GS, soil deterioration index (DI) revealed that soil quality deteriorated significantly (−26%) under only organic fertilization system whereas soil improvement was observed under inorganic and no fertilization sites. In DF, either inorganic or organic and inorganic fertilization showed significant positive effects on soil quality. The high soil chemical composition and enhanced microbial biomass in DF were associated with the high rate of inorganic fertilization.
Organic Substance Removal from Pla-Som Family Industrial Wastewater through APCW System
The research focused on the efficiency for treating high organic wastewater from pla-som production process by anaerobic tanks, oxidation ponds and constructed wetland treatment systems (APCW). The combined system consisted of 50-mm plastic screen, five 5.8 m3 oil-grease trap tanks (2-day hydraulic retention time; HRT), four 4.3 m3 anaerobic tanks (1-day HRT), 16.7 m3 oxidation pond no.1 (7-day HRT), 12.0 m3 oxidation pond no.2 (3-day HRT), and 8.2 m3 constructed wetland plot (1-day HRT). After washing fresh raw fishes, they were sliced in small pieces and were converted into ground fish meat by blender machine. The fish meat was rinsed for 8 rounds: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 by tap water and 4 and 8 by rice-wash-water, before mixing with salt, garlic, steamed rice and monosodium glutamate, followed by plastic wrapping for 72-hour of edibility. During pla-som production processing, the rinsed wastewater about 5 m3/day was fed to the treatment systems and fully stagnating storage in its components. The result found that, 1) percentage of treatment efficiency for BOD, COD, TDS and SS were 93, 95, 32 and 98 respectively, 2) the treatment was conducted with 500-kg raw fishes along with full equipment of high organic wastewater treatment systems, 3) the trend of the treatment efficiency and quantity in all indicators was similarly processed and 4) the small pieces of fish meat and fish blood were needed more than 3-day HRT in anaerobic digestion process.
Study of Lanthanoide Organic Frameworks Properties and Synthesis: Multicomponent Ligands
Coordination polymers, also known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or lanthanoide organic frameworks (LOFs) have been reported due of their promising applications in gas storage, separation, catalysis, luminescence, magnetism, drug delivery, and so on. As a type of organic–inorganic hybrid materials, the properties of coordination polymers could be chosen by deliberately selecting the organic and inorganic components. LOFs have received considerable attention because of their properties such as porosity, luminescence, and magnetism. Methods such as solvothermal synthesis are important as a strategy to control the structural and morphological properties as well as the composition of the target compounds. In this work the first solvothermal synthesis was employed to obtain the compound [Y0.4,Yb0.4,Er0.2(dmf)(for)(H2O)(tft)], by using terephthalic acid (tft) and oxalic acid, decomposed in formate (for), as ligands; Yttrium, Ytterbium and, Erbium as metal centers, in DMF and water for 4 days under 160 °C. The semi-rigid terephthalic acid (dicarboxylic) coordinates with Ln3+ ions and also is possible to form a polyfunctional bridge. On the other hand, oxalate anion has no high-energy vibrational groups, which benefits the excitation of Yb3+ in upconversion process. It was observed that the compounds with water molecules in the coordination sphere of the lanthanoide ions cause lower crystalline properties and change the structure of the LOF (1D, 2D, 3D). In the FTIR, the bands at 1589 and 1500 cm-1 correspond to the asymmetric stretching vibration of –COO. The band at 1383 cm-1 is assigned to the symmetric stretching vibration of –COO. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals an infinite 3D coordination framework that crystalizes in space group P21/c. The other three products, [TR(chel)(ofd)0,5(H2O)2], where TR= Eu3+, Y3, and Yb3+/Er3+ were obtained by using 1, 2-phenylenedioxydiacetic acid (ofd) and chelidonic acid (chel) as organic ligands. Thermal analysis shows that the lanthanoide organic frameworks do not collapse at temperatures below 250 °C. By the polycrystalline X-ray diffraction patterns (PXRD) it was observed that the compounds with Eu3+, Y3+, and Yb3+/Er3+ ions are isostructural. From PXRD patterns, high crystallinity can be noticed for the complexes. The final products were characterized by single X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an effective method to investigate crystalline properties of synthesized materials. The solid crystal obtained in the synthesis show peaks at 2θ < 10°, indicating the MOF formation. The chemical composition of LOFs was also confirmed by EDS.
Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery from Excavator
This study describes the application of a single loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for recovering waste heat from an excavator. In the case of waste heat recovery of the excavator, the heat of hydraulic oil can be used in the ORC system together with the other waste heat sources including the exhaust gas and engine coolant. The performances of four different cases of single loop ORC systems were studied at the main operating condition, and critical design factors are studied to get the maximum power output from the given waste heat sources. The energy and exergy analysis of the cycles are performed concerning the available heat source to determine the best fluid and system configuration. The analysis demonstrates that the ORC in the excavator increases 14% of the net power output at the main operating condition with a simpler system configuration at a lower expander inlet temperature than in a conventional vehicle engine without the heat of the hydraulic oil.
Hydrogeological Factors of the Ore Genesis in the Sedimentary Basins
The present work was made for the purpose of evaluating the interstitial water’s role in the mobilization of metal elements of clay deposits and occurrences in sedimentary formation in the hydro-geological basins. The experiments were performed by using a special facility, which allows adjusting the pressure, temperature, and the frequency of the acoustic vibrations. The dates for study were samples of the oil shales (Baltic career, O2kk) and clay rocks, mainly montmorillonite composition (Borehole SG-12000, the depth of selection 1000–3600 m, the Azov-Kuban trough, N1). After interstitial water squeezing from the rock samples, decrease in the original content of the rock forming components including trace metals V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Mo, Pb, W, Ti, and others was recorded. The experiments made it possible to evaluate the ore elements output and organic matters with the interstitial waters. Calculations have shown that, in standard conditions, from each ton of the oil shales, 5-6 kg of ore elements and 9-10 kg of organic matter can be escaped. A quantity of matter, migrating from clays in the process of solidification, is changed depending on the lithogenesis stage: more recent unrealized deposits lose more ore and organic materials than the clay rocks, selected from depth over 3000 m. Each ton of clays in the depth interval 1000-1500 m is able to generate 3-5 kg of the ore elements and 6-8 kg of the organic matters. The interstitial waters are a freight forwarder over transferring these matters in the reservoir beds. It was concluded that the interstitial waters which escaped from the study samples are solutions with abnormal high concentrations of the metals and organic matters. In the discharge zones of the sediment basins, such fluids can create paragenetic associations of the sedimentary-catagenetic ore and hydrocarbon mineral resources accumulations.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS) Destruction by Catalytic Oxidation for Environmental Applications
Pt/γ-Al2O3 membrane catalysts were prepared via an evaporative-crystallization deposition method. The obtained Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst activity was tested after characterization (SEM-EDAX observation, BET measurement, permeability assessment) in the catalytic oxidation of selected volatile organic compound (VOC) i.e. propane, fed in mixture of oxygen. The VOC conversion (nearly 90%) obtained by varying the operating temperature showed that flow-through membrane reactor might do better in the abatement of VOCs.
Sustainable Use of Agricultural Waste to Enhance Food Security and Conserve the Environment
The rapid increase in the world’s population coupled by decrease the arable land per capita has resulted into an increased demand for food which has in turn led to the production of large amounts of agricultural wastes, both at the farmer, municipality and city levels. Agricultural wastes can be a valuable resource for improving food security. Unfortunately, agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health. This calls for increased public awareness on the benefits and potential hazards of agricultural wastes, especially in developing countries. Agricultural wastes (residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husks, shells etcetera) and animal waste (manures) are widely available, renewable and virtually free, hence they can be an important resource. They can be converted into heat, steam, charcoal, methanol, ethanol, bio diesel as well as raw materials (animal feed, composting, energy and biogas construction etcetera). agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health, if it is not used in a sustainable manner. Organic wastes could be considered an important source of biofertilizer for enhancing food security in the small holder farming communities that would not afford use of expensive inorganic fertilizers. Moreover, these organic wastes contain high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter important for improving nutrient status of soils in urban agriculture. Organic compost leading to improved crop yields and its nutritional values as compared with inorganic fertilization. This paper briefly reviews how agricultural wastes can be used to enhance food security and conserve the environment.
Adsorption Mechanism of Heavy Metals and Organic Pesticide on Industrial Construction and Demolition Waste and Its Runoff Behaviors
Adsorption of heavy metal pollutants (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu) and organic pesticide (phorate, dithiophosphate diethyl, triethyl phosphorothioate), along with their multi-contamination on the surface of industrial construction & demolition waste (C&D waste) was investigated. Brick powder was selected as the appropriate waste while its maximum equilibrium adsorption amount of heavy metal under single controlled contamination matrix reached 5.41, 0.81, 0.45, 1.13 and 0.97 mg/g, respectively. Effects of pH and spiking dose of ICDW was also investigated. Equilibrium adsorption amount of organic pesticide varied from 0.02 to 0.97 mg/g, which was negatively correlated to the size distribution and hydrophilism. Existence of organic pesticide on surface of ICDW caused various effects on the heavy metal adsorption, mainly due to combination of metal ions and the floccule formation along with wrapping behaviors by pesticide pollutants. Adsorption of Zn was sharply decreased from 7.1 to 0.15 mg/g compared with clean ICDW and phorate contaminated ICDW, while that of Pb, Cr and Cd experienced an increase- then decrease procedure. On the other hand, runoff of pesticide contaminants was investigated under 25 mm/h simulated rainfall. Results showed that the cumulative runoff amount fitted well with curve obtained from a power function, of which r2=0.95 and 0.91 for 1DAA (1 day between contamination and runoff) and 7DAA, respectively. This study helps provide evaluation of industrial construction and demolition waste contamination into aquatic systems.
Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizer Application on Yield of Herbaceous Crops in Succession
Fertilizer is a critical input for improving production and increasing crop yields. Consecutive experimental trials during six years (from 2010-2015) were carried out in Apulia region (south-eastern Italy) on seven crops grown in cylinder pots. The aim was to determinate the effects of chemical and organic fertilizer on marketable yield and other parameters of processing tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L., cv Docet), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv Canasta), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., cv Casper), pepper (Capsicum annum L., cv Akron), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L., cv Tarquinia), eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv Primato F1) and chard (Beta vulgaris L., Argentata). At harvest the quail-quantitative yield characteristics of each crop were determined. All of the experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the yields for all of these crops were greater under the chemical system than the organic system whereas quite variable results were generally observed for the other characteristics of the yield.
Effect of Biostimulants Application on Quali-Quantitative Characteristics of Cauliflower, Pepper, and Fennel Crops Under Organic and Conventional Fertilization
Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. In the recent years, the use of organic fertilizers or bio stimulants, that can be applied in agriculture in order to improve the quanti-qualitative crop yields, has encountered an increasing interest. The bio stimulants are gaining importance also for their possible use in organic and sustainable agriculture, avoiding excessive fertilizer applications. Consecutive experimental trials were carried out in Apulia region (southern Italy) on three herbaceous crops (cauliflower, pepper and fennel), grown in pots, under conventional and organic fertilization, with and without bio stimulants application, to verify the effects of several bio stimulants (Siapton®10L, Micotech L and Lysodin Alga-Fert) on quanti-qualitative yield characteristics. At the harvest, the quanti-qualitative yield characteristics of each crop were determined. All experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and, when significant effects were detected, the mean values were compared using Tukey’s test. Results showed great differences of yield characteristics between conventional and organic crops, particularly highlighting a higher yield in the conventional one. Variable results were generally observed when bio stimulants were applied. In this contest no effect were noted on quantitative yield, whereas a light positive effect of bio stimulants on qualitative characteristic, related to the higher dry matter content of cauliflower and the higher soluble solid content of pepper, was observed. Moreover, an evident positive effect of bio stimulants was noted in the fennel due to the lower nitrate content. The latter results are according with most of published literature obtained on other herbaceous crops.
On-Farm Evaluation of Fast and Slow Growing Genotypes for Organic and Pasture Poultry Production Systems
Organic poultry production is becoming increasingly popular in the United States with approximately 17% increase in the sales of organic meat and poultry in 2016. As per the National Organic Program (NOP), organic poultry production system should operate according to specific standards, including access to outdoors. In the United States, organic poultry farmers are raising both fast growing and slow growing genotypes for alternative productive systems. Even though heritage breed birds grow much slower compared to commercial breeds, many free range producers believe that they are better suited for outdoor production systems. We conducted an on-farm trial on a working pasture poultry farm to compare the performance and meat quality characteristics of a slow-growing heritage breed (Freedom Rangers, FR), and two commonly used fast growing types of chickens (Cornish cross, CC and Naked Neck, NN), raised on pasture, in side by side pens segregated by breed (n=70/breed). CC and NN group birds were reared for eight weeks whereas FR group birds were reared for 10 weeks and all the birds were commercially processed. By the end of the rearing period, the final body weight of FR group birds was significantly lower than both the fast growing genotypes (CC and NN). Both CC and NN birds showed significantly higher live weight, carcass weight as well as fillet, tender and leg yield (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the wing and rack yield among the different groups. Color of the meat was measured using CEILAB method and expressed as lightness (L), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). The breast meat from FR birds was much redder (higher a* values) and less yellow (lesser b* values) compared to both the fast growing type of chickens (P < 0.05). Overall, fast growing genotypes produced higher carcass weight and meat yield compared to slow growing genotypes and appear to be an economical option for alternative production systems.
Potentiality of Biohythane Process for the Gaseous Energy Recovery from Organic Wastes
A two-phase anaerobic process combining biohydrogen followed by biomethane (biohythane technology) serves as an environment-friendly and economically sustainable approach for the improved valorization of organic wastes. Suitability of the pure cultures like Klebsiela pneumonia, C. freundii, B. coagulan, etc. and mixed acidogenic cultures for the biohydrogen production was already studied. The characteristics of organic wastes play a critical role in biohydrogen production. The choice of an appropriate combination of complementary organic wastes can vastly improve the bioenergy generation besides achieving the significant cost reduction. Suitability and economic viability of using the groundnut deoiled cake (GDOC), mustard deoiled cake (MDOC), distillers’ dried grain with soluble (DDGS) and algal biomass (AB) as a co-substrate were studied for a biohythane production. Results show that maximum gaseous energy of 20.7, 9.3, 16.7 and 15.6 % was recovered using GDOC, MDOC, DDGS and AB in the two stage biohythane production, respectively. Both GDOC and DDGS were found to be better co-substrates as compared to MDOC and AB in terms of hythane production, respectively. The maximum cumulative hydrogen and methane production of 150 and 64 mmol/L were achieved using GDOC. Further, 98 % reduction in substrate input cost (SIC) was achieved using the co-supplementation procedure.
Organic Matter Distribution in Bazhenov Source Rock: Insights from Sequential Extraction and Molecular Geochemistry
There is a high complexity in the pore structure of organic-rich rocks caused by the combination of inter-particle porosity from inorganic mineral matter and ultraﬁne intra-particle porosity from both organic matter and clay minerals. Fluids are retained in that pore space, but there are major uncertainties in how and where the fluids are stored and to what extent they are accessible or trapped in 'closed' pores. A large degree of tortuosity may lead to fractionation of organic matter so that the lighter and flexible compounds would diffuse to the reservoir whereas more complicated compounds may be locked in place. Additionally, parts of hydrocarbons could be bound to solid organic matter –kerogen– and mineral matrix during expulsion and migration. Larger compounds can occupy thin channels so that clogging or oil and gas entrapment will occur. Sequential extraction of applying different solvents is a powerful tool to provide more information about the characteristics of trapped organic matter distribution. The Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Bazhenov shale is one of the most petroliferous source rock extended in West Siberia, Russia. Concerning the variable mineral composition, pore space distribution and thermal maturation, there are high uncertainties in distribution and composition of organic matter in this formation. In order to address this issue geological and geochemical properties of 30 samples including mineral composition (XRD and XRF), structure and texture (thin-section microscopy), organic matter contents, type and thermal maturity (Rock-Eval) as well as molecular composition (GC-FID and GC-MS) of different extracted materials during sequential extraction were considered. Sequential extraction was performed by a Soxhlet apparatus using different solvents, i.e., n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol-benzene (1:1 v:v) first on core plugs and later on pulverized materials. The results indicate that the studied samples are mainly composed of type II kerogen with TOC contents varied from 5 to 25%. The thermal maturity ranged from immature to late oil window. Whereas clay contents decreased with increasing maturity, the amount of silica increased in the studied samples. According to molecular geochemistry, stored hydrocarbons in open and closed pore space reveal different geochemical fingerprints. The results improve our understanding of hydrocarbon expulsion and migration in the organic-rich Bazhenov shale and therefore better estimation of hydrocarbon potential for this formation.