Routing in MANET is extremely challenging because of MANETs dynamic features, its limited bandwidth, frequent topology changes caused by node mobility and power energy consumption. In order to efficiently transmit data to destinations, the applicable routing algorithms must be implemented in mobile ad-hoc networks. Thus we can increase the efficiency of the routing by satisfying the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters by developing routing algorithms for MANETs. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and distributed collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems and are becoming more popular. This paper presents a survey on few meta-heuristic algorithms and naturally-inspired algorithms.
Nature is a great source of inspiration for solving complex problems in networks. It helps to find the optimal solution. Metaheuristic algorithm is one of the nature-inspired algorithm which helps in solving routing problem in networks. The dynamic features, changing of topology frequently and limited bandwidth make the routing, challenging in MANET. Implementation of appropriate routing algorithms leads to the efficient transmission of data in mobile ad hoc networks. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of naturally-distributed/collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems. Thus some of the bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms help to increase the efficiency of routing in ad hoc networks. This survey work presents the overview of bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms which support the efficiency of routing in mobile ad hoc networks.
Robotics brings together several very different engineering areas and skills. There are various types of robot such as humanoid robot, mobile robots, remotely operated vehicles, modern autonomous robots etc. This survey paper advocates the operation of a robotic car (remotely operated vehicle) that is controlled by a mobile phone (communicate on a large scale over a large distance even from different cities). The person makes a call to the mobile phone placed in the car. In the case of a call, if any one of the button is pressed, a tone equivalent to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is known as DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency). The car recognizes this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked in the car. The received tone is processed by the Arduino microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed to acquire a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors in the forward direction or backward direction or left or right direction. The mobile phone that makes a call to cell phone stacked in the car act as a remote.
Nature is the immense gifted source for solving complex problems. It always helps to find the optimal solution to solve the problem. Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork (MANET) is a wide research area of networks which has set of independent nodes. The characteristics involved in MANET’s are Dynamic, does not depend on any fixed infrastructure or centralized networks, High mobility. The Bio-Inspired algorithms are mimics the nature for solving optimization problems opening a new era in MANET. The typical Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Modified Termite Algorithm, Bat Algorithm (BA), Wolf Search Algorithm (WSA) and so on. This work mainly concentrated on nature of MANET and behavior of nodes. Also it analyses various performance metrics such as throughput, QoS and End-to-End delay etc.
The electricity consumption in the Japanese household sector has increased with higher rate than that of other sectors. This may be because of aging and information oriented society that requires more electrical appliances to make the life better and easier, under this circumstances, energy saving is one of the essential necessity in Japanese society. To understand the way of energy use and demand response of the residential occupants, it is important to understand the structure of energy used. Home Energy Management System (HEMS) may be used for understanding the pattern and the structure of energy used. HEMS is a visualization system of the energy usage by connecting the electrical equipment in the home and thereby automatically control the energy use in each device, so that the energy saving is achieved. Therefore, the HEMS can provide with the easiest way to understand the structure of energy use. The HEMS has entered the mainstream of the Japanese market. The objective of this study is to understand the pattern of energy saving and cost saving in different regions including Japan during HEMS use. To observe thermal comfort level of HEMS managed residential buildings in Japan, the field survey was made and altogether, 1534 votes from 37 occupants related to thermal comfort, occupants’ behaviors and clothing insulation were collected and analyzed. According to the result obtained, approximately 17.9% energy saving and 8.9% cost saving is possible if HEMS is applied effectively. We found the thermal sensation and overall comfort level of the occupants is high in the studied buildings. The occupants residing in those HEMS buildings are satisfied with the thermal environment and they have accepted it. Our study concluded that the significant reduction in Japanese residential energy use can be achieved by the proper utilization of the HEMS. Better thermal comfort is also possible with the use of HEMS if energy use is managed in a rationally effective manner.