Classifying of Maize Inbred Lines into Heterotic Groups using Diallel Analysis
The selection of parents and breeding strategies for
the successful maize hybrid production will be facilitated by
heterotic groupings of parental lines and determination of combining
abilities of them. Fourteen maize inbred lines, used in maize breeding
programs in Iran, were crossed in a diallel mating design. The 91 F1
hybrids and the 14 parental lines were studied during two years at
four locations of Iran for investigation of combining ability of
gentypes for grain yield and to determine heterotic patterns among
germplasm sources, using both, the Griffing-s method and the biplot
approach for diallel analysis. The graphical representation offered by
biplot analysis allowed a rapid and effective overview of general
combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA)
effects of the inbred lines, their performance in crosses, as well as
grouping patterns of similar genotypes. GCA and SCA effects were
significant for grain yield (GY). Based on significant positive GCA
effects, the lines derived from LSC could be used as parent in crosses
to increase GY. The maximum best- parent heterosis values and
highest SCA effects resulted from crosses B73 × MO17 and A679 ×
MO17 for GY. The best heterotic patterns were LSC × RYD, which
would be potentially useful in maize breeding programs to obtain
high-yielding hybrids in the same climate of Iran.
biplot, diallel, Griffing, Heterotic pattern
Sonochemically Prepared SnO2 Quantum Dots as a Selective and Low Temperature CO Sensor
In this study, a low temperature sensor highly selective to CO in presence of methane is fabricated by using 4 nm SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) prepared by sonication assisted precipitation. SnCl4 aqueous solution was precipitated by ammonia under sonication, which continued for 2 h. A part of the sample was then dried and calcined at 400°C for 1.5 h and characterized by XRD and BET. The average particle size and the specific surface area of the SnO2 QDs as well as their sensing properties were compared with the SnO2 nano-particles which were prepared by conventional sol-gel method. The BET surface area of sonochemically as-prepared product and the one calcined at 400°C after 1.5 hr are 257 m2/gr and 212 m2/gr respectively while the specific surface area for SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by conventional sol-gel method is about 80m2/gr. XRD spectra revealed pure crystalline phase of SnO2 is formed for both as-prepared and calcined samples of SnO2 QDs. However, for the sample prepared by sol-gel method and calcined at 400°C SnO crystals are detected along with those of SnO2. Quantum dots of SnO2 show exceedingly high sensitivity to CO with different concentrations of 100, 300 and 1000 ppm in whole range of temperature (25- 350°C). At 50°C a sensitivity of 27 was obtained for 1000 ppm CO, which increases to a maximum of 147 when the temperature rises to 225°C and then drops off while the maximum sensitivity for the SnO2 sample prepared by the sol-gel method was obtained at 300°C with the amount of 47.2. At the same time no sensitivity to methane is observed in whole range of temperatures for SnO2 QDs. The response and recovery times of the sensor sharply decreases with temperature, while the high selectivity to CO does not deteriorate.
Sonochemical, SnO2 QDs, SnO2 gas sensor
Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZnO/SnO2 Nanoparticles with High Photocatalytic Activity
The paper reports the preparation and photocatalytic
activity of ZnO/SnO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles. These nanoparticles
were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The products were
characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM). Their grain sizes are about 50-100 nm. The
photocatalytic activities of these materials were investigated for
congo red removal from aqueous solution under UV light irradiation.
It was shown that the use of ZnO/SnO2 as photocatalyst have better
photocatalytic activity for degradation of congo red than SnO2 or
TiO2 (anatase, particle size: 30nm) alone.
ZnO/SnO2 nanoparticle, hydrothermal,photocatalysis
Low Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor based on SnO2/MWNTs Nanocomposite
A composite made of plasma functionalized multiwall
carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) coated with SnO2 was synthesized by
sonochemical precipitation method. Thick layer of this
nanocomposite material was used as ethanol sensor at low
temperatures. The composite sensitivity for ethanol has increased by
a factor of 2 at room temperature and by a factor of 13 at 250°C in
comparison to that of pure SnO2. SEM image of nanocomposite
material showed MWNTs were embedded in SnO2 matrix and also a
higher surface area was observed in the presence of functionalized
MWNTs. Greatly improved sensitivity of the composite material to
ethanol can be attributed to new gas accessing passes through
MWNTs and higher specific surface area.
Carbon nanotube, Functionalized, Gas sensor, Low
temperature, Nanocomposite, Tin oxide.
Study of Real Gas Behavior in a Single-Stage Gas Gun
In this paper, one-dimensional analysis of flow in a
single-stage gas gun is conducted. The compressible inviscid flow
equations are numerically solved by the second-order Roe TVD
method, by using moving boundaries. For investigation of real gas
effect the Noble-Able equation is applied. The numerical results are
compared with the experimental data to validate the numerical
scheme. The results show that with using the Noble-Able equation,
the muzzle velocity decreases.
Gas gun, Roe, projectile, muzzle velocity
Investigation of Advanced Oxidation Process for the Removal of Residual Carbaryl from Drinking Water Resources
A laboratory set-up was designed to survey the
effectiveness of UV/O3 advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the
removal of Carbaryl from polluted water in batch reactor. The study
was carried out by UV/O3 process for water samples containing 1 to
20 mg/L of Carbaryl in distilled water. Also the range of drinking
water resources adjusted in synthetic water and effects of contact
time, pH and Carbaryl concentration were studied. The residual
pesticide concentration was determined by applying high
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated
that increasing of retention time and pH, enhances pesticide removal
efficiency. The removal efficiency has been affected by pesticide
initial concentration. Samples with low pesticide concentration
showed a remarkable removal efficiency compared to the samples
with high pesticide concentration. AOP method showed the removal
efficiencies of 80% to 100%. Although process showed high
performance for removal of pesticide from water samples, this
process has different disadvantages including complication,
intolerability, difficulty of maintenance and equipmental and
AOP, Carbaryl, Pesticides, Water treatment.
Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Using Nitric Acid Oxidation and DBD Plasma
In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)
were modified with nitric acid chemically and by dielectric barrier
discharge (DBD) plasma in an oxygen-based atmosphere. Used
carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by chemical vapour
deposition (CVD) floating catalyst method. For removing amorphous
carbon and metal catalyst, MWNTs were exposed to dry air and
washed with hydrochloric acid. Heating purified CNTs under helium
atmosphere caused elimination of acidic functional groups. Fourier
transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows formation of
oxygen containing groups such as C=O and COOH. Brunauer,
Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis revealed that functionalization causes
generation of defects on the sidewalls and opening of the ends of
CNTs. Results of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and gas
chromatography(GC) indicate that nitric acid treatment create more
acidic groups than plasma treatment.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), chemical treatment,
Extraction of Knowledge Complexity in 3G Killer Application Construction for Telecommunications National Strategy
We review a knowledge extractor model in
constructing 3G Killer Applications. The success of 3G is essential
for Government as it became part of Telecommunications National
Strategy. The 3G wireless technologies may reach larger area and
increase country-s ICT penetration. In order to understand future
customers needs, the operators require proper information
(knowledge) lying inside. Our work approached future customers as
complex system where the complex knowledge may expose regular
behavior. The hidden information from 3G future customers is
revealed by using fractal-based questionnaires. Afterward, further
statistical analysis is used to match the results with operator-s
strategic plan. The developments of 3G applications also consider its
saturation time and further improvement of the application.
3G Killer Applications, Knowledge,
Native Framework of Economic Activities Development to Achieve The 1404 Iranian View Statement's Goals
Planning of economic activities development has various dimensions one of which determines adequate capacity of economic activities in provinces regarding the government-s goals. Paralleling planning goals of economic activities development including subjects being focused on the view statement is effective to better realize the statement's goals. Current paper presents a native framework for economic activities development in provincial level. Triple steps within the framework are concordant with the view statement-s goals achievement. At first step of the proposed framework, economic activities are being prioritized in terms of employment indices, and secondly economic activities regarding to the province's relative advantages are being recognized. In the third step, desirable capacity of economic activities is determined with regards to the government's goals and effective constraints in economic activities development. Development of economic activities related to the provinces- relative advantages, contributes on regional balance and on equal development of economic activities. Furthermore, results of the framework enable more confident investment, affect employment development and remove unemployment concern as the main goals of the view statement.
Development, economic activity, regional planning, view statement.
Study of Environmental Effects on Sunflower Oil Percent based on Graphical Method
Biplot can be used to evaluate cultivars for their oil
percent potential and stability and to evaluate trial sites for their
discriminating ability and representativeness. Multi-environmental
trial (MET) data for oil percent of 10 open pollinating sunflower
cultivars were analyzed to investigate the genotype-environment
interactions. The genotypes were evaluated in four locations with
different climatic conditions in Iran in 2010. In each location, a
Randomized Complete Block design with four replications was used.
According to both mean and stability, Zaria, Master and R453, had
highest performances among all cultivars. The graphical analysis
identified best cultivar for each environment. Cultivars Berezans and
Record performed best in Khoy and Islamabad. Zaria and R453 were
the best genotypes in Sari and Karaj followed by Master and Favorit.
The GGE bi-plot indicated two mega-environments, group one
contained Karaj, Khoy and Islamabad and the second group
contained Sari. The best discriminating location was Karaj followed
with Khoy, Islamabad and Sari. The best representative genotypes
were Zaria, R453, Master and Favorit. Ranking of ten cultivars based
their oil percent was as Zaria > R453 ≈ Master ≈ Favorit > Record ≈
Berezans > Sor > Lakumka > Bulg3 > Bulg5.
Stability, Bi-plot, Genotype- environment
Environmental Impact Assessment of Gotv and Hydro-Electric Dam on the Karoon River Using ICOLD Technique
Today Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is known as one of the most important tools for decision makers in the construction of civil and industrial projects towards sustainable development. In the past, projects were evaluated based on cost and benefit analysis regardless of the physical and biological environmental effects and its socio-economical impacts. According to the Department of Environment (DOE) of Iran's regulations, the construction of hydroelectric dams is an activity that requires an EIA report. In this paper the environmental impact assessment of the Gotvand hydro-electrical dam has been evaluated in the three environment elements, biological, Physical-chemical and cultural units. This dam is one of the largest dams in Iran with a volume of 4500 MCM and is going to be the last dam on the Karoon River in the south of Iran. In this paper the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) technique was employed for the environmental impact assessment of the dam. The research includes all socio economical and environmental effects of the dam during the construction and operation of the hydro electric dam and Environmental management, monitoring and mitigation of negative impacts were analyzed. In this project the results led to using some techniques to protect the destructive impacts on biological aspects beside the effective long time period impacts on the biological aspects. The impacts on physical aspects are temporary and negative commonly that could be restored and rehabilitated in natural process in the long time in operation period.
"Gotvand Hydro Electric Dam", "EIA", "ICOLD and Leopold matrices"
Finite Element Prediction and Experimental Verification of the Failure Pattern of Proximal Femur using Quantitative Computed Tomography Images
This paper presents a novel method for prediction of
the mechanical behavior of proximal femur using the general
framework of the quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based
finite element Analysis (FEA). A systematic imaging and modeling
procedure was developed for reliable correspondence between the
QCT-based FEA and the in-vitro mechanical testing. A speciallydesigned
holding frame was used to define and maintain a unique
geometrical reference system during the analysis and testing. The
QCT images were directly converted into voxel-based 3D finite
element models for linear and nonlinear analyses. The equivalent
plastic strain and the strain energy density measures were used to
identify the critical elements and predict the failure patterns. The
samples were destructively tested using a specially-designed gripping
fixture (with five degrees of freedom) mounted within a universal
mechanical testing machine. Very good agreements were found
between the experimental and the predicted failure patterns and the
associated load levels.
Bone, Osteoporosis, Noninvasive methods, Failure
Probabilistic Bayesian Framework for Infrared Face Recognition
Face recognition in the infrared spectrum has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Many of the techniques used in infrared are based on their visible counterpart, especially linear techniques like PCA and LDA. In this work, we introduce a probabilistic Bayesian framework for face recognition in the infrared spectrum. In the infrared spectrum, variations can occur between face images of the same individual due to pose, metabolic, time changes, etc. Bayesian approaches permit to reduce intrapersonal variation, thus making them very interesting for infrared face recognition. This framework is compared with classical linear techniques. Non linear techniques we developed recently for infrared face recognition are also presented and compared to the Bayesian face recognition framework. A new approach for infrared face extraction based on SVM is introduced. Experimental results show that the Bayesian technique is promising and lead to interesting results in the infrared spectrum when a sufficient number of face images is used in an intrapersonal learning process.
Face recognition, biometrics, probabilistic imageprocessing, infrared imaging.
Infrared Face Recognition Using Distance Transforms
In this work we present an efficient approach for face
recognition in the infrared spectrum. In the proposed approach
physiological features are extracted from thermal images in order to
build a unique thermal faceprint. Then, a distance transform is used
to get an invariant representation for face recognition. The obtained
physiological features are related to the distribution of blood vessels
under the face skin. This blood network is unique to each individual
and can be used in infrared face recognition. The obtained results are
promising and show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Face recognition, biometrics, infrared imaging.
Microwave Assisted Fast Synthesis of Flower-like ZnO Based Guanidinium Template for Photodegradation of Azo Dye Congo Red
ZnO nanostructure were synthesized via microwave
method using zinc acetate as starting material, guanidinium as
structure directing agents, and water as solvent.. This work
investigates the photodegradation of azo dyes using the ZnO Flowerlike
in aqueous solutions. As synthesized ZnO samples were
characterized using X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning
electron microscopy (SEM), and FTIR spectroscopy.In this work
photodecolorization of congored azo dye under UV irradiation by
nano ZnO was studied.
Photo catalyst, Nano crystals, Zinc Oxide
Generation Scheduling Optimization of Multi-Hydroplants: A Case Study
A case study of the generation scheduling optimization
of the multi-hydroplants on the Yuan River Basin in China is reported
in this paper. Concerning the uncertainty of the inflows, the
long/mid-term generation scheduling (LMTGS) problem is solved by
a stochastic model in which the inflows are considered as stochastic
variables. For the short-term generation scheduling (STGS) problem, a
constraint violation priority is defined in case not all constraints are
satisfied. Provided the stage-wise separable condition and low
dimensions, the hydroplant-based operational region schedules
(HBORS) problem is solved by dynamic programming (DP). The
coordination of LMTGS and STGS is presented as well. The
feasibility and the effectiveness of the models and solution methods
are verified by the numerical results.
generation scheduling, multi-hydroplants,
Effect of Evaporator Temperature on the Performance of Water Desalination/Refrigeration Adsorption System Using AQSOA-ZO2
Many water desalination technologies have been
developed but in general they are energy intensive and have high cost
and adverse environmental impact. Recently, adsorption technology
for water desalination has been investigated showing the potential of
using low temperature waste heat (50-85oC) thus reducing energy
consumption and CO2 emissions. This work mathematically
compares the performance of an adsorption cycle that produces two
useful effects namely, fresh water and cooling using two different
adsorbents, silica-gel and an advanced zeolite material AQSOA-ZO2,
produced by Mitsubishi plastics. It was found that at low chilled
water temperatures, typically below 20oC, the AQSOA-Z02 is more
efficient than silica-gel as the cycle can produce 5.8 m3 of fresh water
per day and 50.1 Rton of cooling per tonne of AQSOA-ZO2. Above
20oC silica-gel is still better as the cycle production reaches 8.4 m3
per day and 62.4 Rton per tonne of silica-gel. These results show the
potential of using the AQSOA-Z02 at low chilled water temperature
for water desalination and cooling applications.
Adsorption, desalination, refrigeration, seawater.
Evaluation of Superabsorbent Application on Corn Yield under Deficit Irrigation
This research was planned in order to study the effect
of drought stress and different levels of Superabsorbent and their
effect on grain yield, biologic yield and harvest index. In this study, 3
different depths of irrigation were considered as the main treatment
I1, I2, I3 as 100, 75 and 50 percent of water requirement of plants
respectively and different levels of Superabsorbent were used as
secondary treatment (S0, S1, S2 and S3, equal to 0 (control), 15, 30
and 45 gr/m2 respectively). According to the results, independent
effects of irrigation and Superabsorbent treatments at 1% level on
biologic and grain yield of corn were significant. In addition,
independent effect of irrigation treatments at 5% level on harvest
index was significant. But independent effect of Superabsorbent
treatments on harvest index was not significant.
Corn, Deficit irrigation, Superabsorbent, Yield.
Control of Underactuated Biped Robots Using Event Based Fuzzy Partial Feedback Linearization
Underactuated biped robots control is one of the interesting topics in robotics. The main difficulties are its highly nonlinear dynamics, open-loop instability, and discrete event at the end of the gait. One of the methods to control underactuated systems is the partial feedback linearization, but it is not robust against uncertainties and disturbances that restrict its performance to control biped walking and running. In this paper, fuzzy partial feedback linearization is presented to overcome its drawback. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method to generate stable and robust biped walking and running gaits.
Underactuated system, biped robot, fuzzy control, partial feedback linearization.
Experimental Measurements of Mean and Turbulence Quantities behind the Circular Cylinder by Attaching Different Number of Tripping Wires
For a bluff body, roughness elements in simulating a turbulent boundary layer, leading to delayed flow separation, a smaller wake, and lower form drag. In the present work, flow past a circular cylinder with using tripping wires is studied experimentally. The wind tunnel used for modeling free stream is open blow circuit (maximum speed = 30m/s and maximum turbulence of free stream = 0.1%). The selected Reynolds number for all tests was constant (Re = 25000). The circular cylinder selected for this experiment is 20 and 400mm in diameter and length, respectively. The aim of this research is to find the optimal operation mode. In this study installed some tripping wires 1mm in diameter, with a different number of wires on the circular cylinder and the wake characteristics of the circular cylinder is studied. Results showed that by increasing number of tripping wires attached to the circular cylinder (6, 8, and 10, respectively), The optimal angle for the tripping wires with 1mm in diameter to be installed on the cylinder is 60̊ (or 6 wires required at angle difference of 60̊). Strouhal number for the cylinder with tripping wires 1mm in diameter at angular position 60̊ showed the maximum value.
Wake of a circular cylinder, trip wire, velocity defect, Strouhal number.
Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric-Based AC Current Measuring Sensor
Electrical current measurement is a suitable method for the performance determination of electrical devices. There are two contact and noncontact methods in this measuring process. Contact method has some disadvantages like having direct connection with wire which may endamage the system. Thus, in this paper, a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam which has a permanent magnet on its free end is used to measure electrical current in a noncontact way. In mathematical modeling, based on Galerkin method, the governing equation of the cantilever beam is solved, and the equation presenting the relation between applied force and beam’s output voltage is presented. Magnetic force resulting from current carrying wire is considered as the external excitation force of the system. The results are compared with other references in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Finally, the effects of geometric parameters on the output voltage and natural frequency are presented.
Cantilever beam, electrical current measurement, forced excitation, piezoelectric.
A Prevalence of Phonological Disorder in Children with Specific Language Impairment
Phonological disorder is a serious and disturbing issue to many parents and teachers. Efforts towards resolving the problem have been undermined by other specific disabilities which were hidden to many regular and special education teachers. It is against this background that this study was motivated to provide data on the prevalence of phonological disorders in children with specific language impairment (CWSLI) as the first step towards critical intervention. The study was a survey of 15 CWSLI from St. Louise Inclusive schools, Ikot Ekpene in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Phonological Processes Diagnostic Scale (PPDS) with 17 short sentences, which cut across the five phonological processes that were examined, were validated by experts in test measurement, phonology and special education. The respondents were made to read the sentences with emphasis on the targeted sounds. Their utterances were recorded and analyzed in the language laboratory using Praat Software. Data were also collected through friendly interactions at different times from the clients. The theory of generative phonology was adopted for the descriptive analysis of the phonological processes. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and composite bar chart for better understanding of the result. The study found out that CWSLI exhibited the five phonological processes under investigation. It was revealed that 66.7%, 80%, 73.3%, 80%, and 86.7% of the respondents have severe deficit in fricative stopping, velar fronting, liquid gliding, final consonant deletion and cluster reduction, respectively. It was therefore recommended that a nationwide survey should be carried out to have national statistics of CWSLI with phonological deficits and develop intervention strategies for effective therapy to remediate the disorder.
Language disorders, phonology, phonological processes, specific language impairment.
Tools and Techniques in Risk Assessment in Public Risk Management Organisations
Risk assessment and the knowledge provided through this process is a crucial part of any decision-making process in the management of risks and uncertainties. Failure in assessment of risks can cause inadequacy in the entire process of risk management, which in turn can lead to failure in achieving organisational objectives as well as having significant damaging consequences on populations affected by the potential risks being assessed. The choice of tools and techniques in risk assessment can influence the degree and scope of decision-making and subsequently the risk response strategy. There are various available qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques that are deployed within the broad process of risk assessment. The sheer diversity of tools and techniques available to practitioners makes it difficult for organisations to consistently employ the most appropriate methods. This tools and techniques adaptation is rendered more difficult in public risk regulation organisations due to the sensitive and complex nature of their activities. This is particularly the case in areas relating to the environment, food, and human health and safety, when organisational goals are tied up with societal, political and individuals’ goals at national and international levels. Hence, recognising, analysing and evaluating different decision support tools and techniques employed in assessing risks in public risk management organisations was considered. This research is part of a mixed method study which aimed to examine the perception of risk assessment and the extent to which organisations practise risk assessment’ tools and techniques. The study adopted a semi-structured questionnaire with qualitative and quantitative data analysis to include a range of public risk regulation organisations from the UK, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. The results indicated the public risk management organisations mainly use diverse tools and techniques in the risk assessment process. The primary hazard analysis; brainstorming; hazard analysis and critical control points were described as the most practiced risk identification techniques. Within qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, the participants named the expert judgement, risk probability and impact assessment, sensitivity analysis and data gathering and representation as the most practised techniques.
Decision-making, public risk management organisations, risk assessment, tools and techniques.