FPGA Implementation of a Vision-Based Blind Spot Warning System
Vision-based intelligent vehicle applications often require large amounts of memory to handle video streaming and image processing, which in turn increases complexity of hardware and software. This paper presents an FPGA implement of a vision-based blind spot warning system. Using video frames, the information of the blind spot area turns into one-dimensional information. Analysis of the estimated entropy of image allows the detection of an object in time. This idea has been implemented in the XtremeDSP video starter kit. The blind spot warning system uses only 13% of its logic resources and 95k bits block memory, and its frame rate is over 30 frames per sec (fps).
blind-spot area, image, FPGA
A C1-Conforming Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Fourth-Order Hyperbolic Equation
In this paper, the C1-conforming finite element method is analyzed for a class of nonlinear fourth-order hyperbolic partial differential equation. Some a priori bounds are derived using Lyapunov functional, and existence, uniqueness and regularity for the weak solutions are proved. Optimal error estimates are derived for both semidiscrete and fully discrete schemes.
Nonlinear fourth-order hyperbolic equation, Lyapunov functional, existence, uniqueness and regularity, conforming finite element method, optimal error estimates.
Multiple Positive Periodic Solutions to a Periodic Predator-Prey-Chain Model with Harvesting Terms
In this paper, a class of predator-prey-chain model with harvesting terms are studied. By using Mawhin-s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and some skills of inequalities, some sufficient conditions are established for the existence of eight positive periodic solutions. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the results.
Positive periodic solutions, Predator-prey-chain model, coincidence degree, harvesting term.
Stability of Interval Fractional-order Systems with Order 0 < α < 1
In this paper, some brief sufficient conditions for the stability of FO-LTI systems dαx(t) dtα = Ax(t) with the fractional order are investigated when the matrix A and the fractional order α are uncertain or both α and A are uncertain, respectively. In addition, we also relate the stability of a fractional-order system with order 0 < α ≤ 1 to the stability of its equivalent fractional-order system with order 1 ≤ β < 2, the relationship between α and β is presented. Finally, a numeric experiment is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our results.
Interval fractional-order systems, linear matrix inequality (LMI), asymptotical stability.
Reversible Watermarking for H.264/AVC Videos
In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking
scheme based on histogram shifting (HS) to embed watermark bits
into the H.264/AVC standard videos by modifying the last nonzero
level in the context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) domain.
The proposed method collects all of the last nonzero coefficients (or
called last level coefficient) of 4×4 sub-macro blocks in a macro
block and utilizes predictions for the current last level from the
neighbor block-s last levels to embed watermark bits. The feature of
the proposed method is low computational and has the ability of
reversible recovery. The experimental results have demonstrated that
our proposed scheme has acceptable degradation on video quality and
output bit-rate for most test videos.
Reversible data hiding, H.264/AVC standard,CAVLC, Histogram shifting
An H1-Galerkin Mixed Method for the Coupled Burgers Equation
In this paper, an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method is discussed for the coupled Burgers equations. The optimal error estimates of the semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes of the coupled Burgers equation are derived.
The coupled Burgers equation, H1-Galerkin mixed
finite element method, Backward Euler's method, Optimal error
Software Test Data Generation using Ant Colony Optimization
State-based testing is frequently used in software testing. Test data generation is one of the key issues in software testing. A properly generated test suite may not only locate the errors in a software system, but also help in reducing the high cost associated with software testing. It is often desired that test data in the form of test sequences within a test suite can be automatically generated to achieve required test coverage. This paper proposes an Ant Colony Optimization approach to test data generation for the state-based software testing.
Software testing, ant colony optimization, UML.
Adsorption Studies on the Removal of Pesticides(Carbofuran) using Activated Carbon from Rice Straw Agricultural Waste
In this study, we used a two-stage process and
potassium hydroxide (KOH) to transform waste biomass (rice straw)
into activated carbon and then evaluated the adsorption capacity of the
waste for removing carbofuran from an aqueous solution. Activated
carbon was fast and effective for the removal of carbofuran because of
its high surface area. The native and carbofuran-loaded adsorbents
were characterized by elemental analysis. Different adsorption
parameters, such as the initial carbofuran concentration, contact time,
temperature and pH for carbofuran adsorption, were studied using a
batch system. This study demonstrates that rice straw can be very
effective in the adsorption of carbofuran from bodies of water.
Rice straw, Carbofuran, Activated carbon
The Taiwanese Institutional Arrangement for Coastal Management Due to Climate Change
Weather disaster events were frequent and caused loss
of lives and property in Taiwan recently. Excessive concentration of
population and lacking of integrated planning led to Taiwanese coastal
zone face the impacts of climate change directly. Comparing to many
countries which have already set up legislation, competent authorities
and national adaptation strategies, the ability of coastal management
adapting to climate change is still insufficient in Taiwan. Therefore, it
is necessary to establish a complete institutional arrangement for
coastal management due to climate change in order to protect
environment and sustain socio-economic development. This paper
firstly reviews the impact of climate change on Taiwanese coastal
zone. Secondly, development of Taiwanese institutional arrangement
of coastal management is introduced. Followed is the analysis of four
dimensions of legal basis, competent authority, scientific and financial
support and international cooperations of institutional arrangement.
The results show that Taiwanese government shall: 1) integrate climate
change issue into Coastal Act, Wetland Act and territorial planning
Act and pass them; 2) establish the high level competent authority for
coastal management; 3) set up the climate change disaster coordinate
platform; 4) link scientific information and decision markers; 5)
establish the climate change adjustment fund; 6) participate in
international climate change organizations and meetings actively; 7)
cooperate with near countries to exchange experiences.
Climate Change, Coastal Zone Management,
Institution Arrangement, Adaptation.
Permanence and Almost Periodic Solutions to an Epidemic Model with Delay and Feedback Control
This paper is concerned with an epidemic model with delay. By using the comparison theorem of the differential equation and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, Some sufficient conditions which guarantee the permeance and existence of a unique globally attractive positive almost periodic solution of the model are obtain. Finally, an example is employed to illustrate our result.
Permanence, Almost periodic solution, Epidemic
model, Delay, Feedback control.
Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for Neural Multi-Delay Logarithmic Population Model
In this paper, by applying Mawhin-s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we study the existence of almost periodic solutions for neural multi-delay logarithmic population model and obtain one sufficient condition for the existence of positive almost periodic solution for the above equation. An example is employed to illustrate our result.
Almost periodic solution, Multi-delay, Logarithmic population model, Coincidence degree.
Topological Queries on Graph-structured XML Data: Models and Implementations
In many applications, data is in graph structure, which
can be naturally represented as graph-structured XML. Existing
queries defined on tree-structured and graph-structured XML data
mainly focus on subgraph matching, which can not cover all the
requirements of querying on graph. In this paper, a new kind of
queries, topological query on graph-structured XML is presented.
This kind of queries consider not only the structure of subgraph but
also the topological relationship between subgraphs. With existing
subgraph query processing algorithms, efficient algorithms for topological
query processing are designed. Experimental results show the
efficiency of implementation algorithms.
XML, Graph Structure, Topological query.
A Power-Gating Scheme to Reduce Leakage Power for P-type Adiabatic Logic Circuits
With rapid technology scaling, the proportion of the
static power consumption catches up with dynamic power
consumption gradually. To decrease leakage consumption is
becoming more and more important in low-power design. This paper
presents a power-gating scheme for P-DTGAL (p-type dual
transmission gate adiabatic logic) circuits to reduce leakage power
dissipations under deep submicron process. The energy dissipations of
P-DTGAL circuits with power-gating scheme are investigated in
different processes, frequencies and active ratios. BSIM4 model is
adopted to reflect the characteristics of the leakage currents. HSPICE
simulations show that the leakage loss is greatly reduced by using the
P-DTGAL with power-gating techniques.
Leakage reduction, low power, deep submicronCMOS circuits, P-type adiabatic circuits.
Intelligent Vision System for Human-Robot Interface
This paper addresses the development of an intelligent vision system for human-robot interaction. The two novel contributions of this paper are 1) Detection of human faces and 2) Localizing the eye. The method is based on visual attributes of human skin colors and geometrical analysis of face skeleton. This paper introduces a spatial domain filtering method named ?Fuzzily skewed filter' which incorporates Fuzzy rules for deciding the gray level of pixels in the image in their neighborhoods and takes advantages of both the median and averaging filters. The effectiveness of the method has been justified over implementing the eye tracking commands to an entertainment robot, named ''AIBO''.
Fuzzily skewed filter, human-robot interface, rmscontrast, skin color segmentation.
A New Time Discontinuous Expanded Mixed Element Method for Convection-dominated Diffusion Equation
In this paper, a new time discontinuous expanded mixed finite element method is proposed and analyzed for two-order convection-dominated diffusion problem. The proofs of the stability of the proposed scheme and the uniqueness of the discrete solution are given. Moreover, the error estimates of the scalar unknown, its gradient and its flux in the L1( ¯ J,L2( )-norm are obtained.
Convection-dominated diffusion equation, expanded mixed method, time discontinuous scheme, stability, error estimates.
An Efficient Graph Query Algorithm Based on Important Vertices and Decision Features
Graph has become increasingly important in modeling
complicated structures and schemaless data such as proteins, chemical
compounds, and XML documents. Given a graph query, it is desirable
to retrieve graphs quickly from a large database via graph-based
indices. Different from the existing methods, our approach, called
VFM (Vertex to Frequent Feature Mapping), makes use of vertices
and decision features as the basic indexing feature. VFM constructs
two mappings between vertices and frequent features to answer graph
queries. The VFM approach not only provides an elegant solution to
the graph indexing problem, but also demonstrates how database
indexing and query processing can benefit from data mining,
especially frequent pattern mining. The results show that the proposed
method not only avoids the enumeration method of getting subgraphs
of query graph, but also effectively reduces the subgraph isomorphism
tests between the query graph and graphs in candidate answer set in
Decision Feature, Frequent Feature, Graph Dataset,Graph Query
Exergy Analysis of Combined Cycle of Air Separation and Natural Gas Liquefaction
This paper presented a novel combined cycle of air separation and natural gas liquefaction. The idea is that natural gas can be liquefied, meanwhile gaseous or liquid nitrogen and oxygen are produced in one combined cryogenic system. Cycle simulation and exergy analysis were performed to evaluate the process and thereby reveal the influence of the crucial parameter, i.e., flow rate ratio through two stages expanders β on heat transfer temperature difference, its distribution and consequent exergy loss. Composite curves for the combined hot streams (feeding natural gas and recycled nitrogen) and the cold stream showed the degree of optimization available in this process if appropriate β was designed. The results indicated that increasing β reduces temperature difference and exergy loss in heat exchange process. However, the maximum limit value of β should be confined in terms of minimum temperature difference proposed in heat exchanger design standard and heat exchanger size. The optimal βopt under different operation conditions corresponding to the required minimum temperature differences was investigated.
combined cycle simulation, exergy analysis, natural gas liquefaction.
A New Splitting H1-Galerkin Mixed Method for Pseudo-hyperbolic Equations
A new numerical scheme based on the H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for a class of second-order pseudohyperbolic equations is constructed. The proposed procedures can be split into three independent differential sub-schemes and does not need to solve a coupled system of equations. Optimal error estimates are derived for both semidiscrete and fully discrete schemes for problems in one space dimension. And the proposed method dose not requires the LBB consistency condition. Finally, some numerical results are provided to illustrate the efficacy of our method.
Pseudo-hyperbolic equations, splitting system, H1-Galerkin mixed method, error estimates.
A Nonconforming Mixed Finite Element Method for Semilinear Pseudo-Hyperbolic Partial Integro-Differential Equations
In this paper, a nonconforming mixed finite element method is studied for semilinear pseudo-hyperbolic partial integrodifferential equations. By use of the interpolation technique instead of the generalized elliptic projection, the optimal error estimates of the corresponding unknown function are given.
Pseudo-hyperbolic partial integro-differential equations,
Nonconforming mixed element method, Semilinear, Error
Improvement of Photoluminescence Uniformity of Porous Silicon by using Stirring Anodization Process
The electrolyte stirring method of anodization etching
process for manufacturing porous silicon (PS) is reported in this work.
Two experimental setups of nature air stirring (PS-ASM) and
electrolyte stirring (PS-ESM) are employed to clarify the influence of
stirring mechanisms on electrochemical etching process. Compared to
traditional fabrication without any stirring apparatus (PS-TM), a large
plateau region of PS surface structure is obtained from samples with
both stirring methods by the 3D-profiler measurement. Moreover, the
light emission response is also improved by both proposed electrolyte
stirring methods due to the cycling force in electrolyte could
effectively enhance etch-carrier distribution while the electrochemical
etching process is made. According to the analysis of statistical
calculation of photoluminescence (PL) intensity, lower standard
deviations are obtained from PS-samples with studied stirring methods,
i.e. the uniformity of PL-intensity is effectively improved. The
calculated deviations of PL-intensity are 93.2, 74.5 and 64,
respectively, for PS-TM, PS-ASM and PS-ESM.
Porous Silicon, Photoluminescence, Uniformity
Carrier Stirring Method
On Face Recognition using Gabor Filters
Gabor-based face representation has achieved enormous success in face recognition. This paper addresses a novel algorithm for face recognition using neural networks trained by Gabor features. The system is commenced on convolving a face image with a series of Gabor filter coefficients at different scales and orientations. Two novel contributions of this paper are: scaling of rms contrast and introduction of fuzzily skewed filter. The neural network employed for face recognition is based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) architecture with backpropagation algorithm and incorporates the convolution filter response of Gabor jet. The effectiveness of the algorithm has been justified over a face database with images captured at different illumination conditions.
Fuzzily skewed filter, Gabor filter, rms contrast,neural network.
A Video-based Algorithm for Moving Objects Detection at Signalized Intersection
Mixed-traffic (e.g., pedestrians, bicycles, and vehicles)
data at an intersection is one of the essential factors for intersection
design and traffic control. However, some data such as pedestrian
volume cannot be directly collected by common detectors (e.g.
inductive loop, sonar and microwave sensors). In this paper, a video
based detection algorithm is proposed for mixed-traffic data collection
at intersections using surveillance cameras. The algorithm is derived
from Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), and uses a mergence time
adjustment scheme to improve the traditional algorithm. Real-world
video data were selected to test the algorithm. The results show that
the proposed algorithm has the faster processing speed and more
accuracy than the traditional algorithm. This indicates that the
improved algorithm can be applied to detect mixed-traffic at
signalized intersection, even when conflicts occur.
detection, intersection, mixed traffic, moving objects.
An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations
In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.
Pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equation, least squares mixed finite element method, adaptive method, a posteriori error estimates.
XML Data Management in Compressed Relational Database
XML is an important standard of data exchange and
representation. As a mature database system, using relational database
to support XML data may bring some advantages. But storing XML in
relational database has obvious redundancy that wastes disk space,
bandwidth and disk I/O when querying XML data. For the efficiency
of storage and query XML, it is necessary to use compressed XML
data in relational database. In this paper, a compressed relational
database technology supporting XML data is presented. Original
relational storage structure is adaptive to XPath query process. The
compression method keeps this feature. Besides traditional relational
database techniques, additional query process technologies on
compressed relations and for special structure for XML are presented.
In this paper, technologies for XQuery process in compressed
relational database are presented..
XML, compression, query processing
A New Approximate Procedure Based On He’s Variational Iteration Method for Solving Nonlinear Hyperbolic Wave Equations
In this article, we propose a new approximate procedure
based on He’s variational iteration method for solving nonlinear
hyperbolic equations. We introduce two transformations q = ut and
σ = ux and formulate a first-order system of equations. We can
obtain the approximation solution for the scalar unknown u, time
derivative q = ut and space derivative σ = ux, simultaneously.
Finally, some examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of
Hyperbolic wave equation, Nonlinear, He’s variational
iteration method, Transformations
The Design of Imaginable Urban Road Landscape
With the rapid development of cities, the way that people commute has changed greatly, meanwhile, people turn to require more on physical and psychological aspects in the contemporary world. However, the current urban road landscape ignores these changes, for example, those road landscape elements are boring, confusing, fragmented and lack of integrity and hierarchy. Under such current situation, in order to shape beautiful, identifiable and unique road landscape, this article concentrates on the target of imaginability. This paper analyzes the main elements of the urban road landscape, the concept of image and its generation mechanism, and then discusses the necessity and connotation of building imaginable urban road landscape as well as the main problems existing in current urban road landscape in terms of imaginability. Finally, this paper proposes how to design imaginable urban road landscape in details based on a specific case.
Identifiability, imaginability, road landscape, the image of the city.
Strategy Research for the Development of Thematic Commercial Streets - Based On the Survey of Eight Typical Thematic Commercial Streets in Harbin
The construction of thematic commercial streets has been on the hotspot with the rapid development of cities. In order to improve the image and competitiveness of cities, many cities are building or rebuilding thematic commercial streets. However, many contradictions and problems have emerged during this process. Therefore, it is significant, for both the practice and the research, to analyze the development of thematic commercial streets and provide some useful suggestions. Through the deep research and comparative study of the eight typical thematic commercial streets in Harbin, this paper summarize the current situations, laws and influencing factors of the development of these streets, and then put forward some suggestions about the plan, constructions and developments of the thematic commercial streets.
Thematic commercial streets, laws of the development, influence factors, the constructions and developments, degrees of aggregation.
Stability Analysis of Fractional Order Systems with Time Delay
In this paper, we mainly study the stability of linear and
interval linear fractional systems with time delay. By applying the
characteristic equations, a necessary and sufficient stability condition
is obtained firstly, and then some sufficient conditions are deserved. In
addition, according to the equivalent relationship of fractional order
systems with order 0 < α ≤ 1 and with order 1 ≤ β < 2, one may
get more relevant theorems. Finally, two examples are provided to
demonstrate the effectiveness of our results.
Fractional order systems, Time delay, Characteristic equation.
'Pink' Waxapple Response to Salinity: Growth and Nutrient Uptake
Waxapple (Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry) is an
important tropical fruit in Taiwan. The famous producing area is
located on the coast in Pingtung County. Land subsidence and climate
change will tend to soil alkalization more seriously. This study was to
evaluate the effects of NaCl in waxapple seedlings. NaCl salinity
reduced waxapple shoot growth; it may due to reducing relative water
content in leaf and new shoot. Leaf Cl and Na concentration were
increased but K, Ca, and Mg content had no significant difference after
irrigated with NaCl for six weeks. In roots, Na and Cl content increase
significantly with 90 mM NaCl treatment, but K, Ca, and Mg content
was reduced. 30-90mM Nacl treatment do not effect K/Na, Ca/Na and
Mg/Na ratio, but decrease significantly in 90mM treatment in roots.
The leaf and root electrolyte leakage were significantly affected by 90
mM NaCl treatment. Suggesting 90mM was optimum concentration
for sieve out other tolerance waxapples verities.
Growth, NaCl stress, Nutrient, Waxapple.
Design of a Service-Enabled Dependable Integration Environment
The aim of information systems integration is to make all the data sources, applications and business flows integrated into the new environment so that unwanted redundancies are reduced and bottlenecks and mismatches are eliminated. Two issues have to be dealt with to meet such requirements: the software architecture that supports resource integration, and the adaptor development tool that help integration and migration of legacy applications. In this paper, a service-enabled dependable integration environment (SDIE), is presented, which has two key components, i.e., a dependable service integration platform and a legacy application integration tool. For the dependable platform for service integration, the service integration bus, the service management framework, the dependable engine for service composition, and the service registry and discovery components are described. For the legacy application integration tool, its basic organization, functionalities and dependable measures taken are presented. Due to its service-oriented integration model, the light-weight extensible container, the service component combination-oriented p-lattice structure, and other features, SDIE has advantages in openness, flexibility, performance-price ratio and feature support over commercial products, is better than most of the open source integration software in functionality, performance and dependability support.
Application integration, dependability, legacy, SOA.
Four Positive Almost Periodic Solutions to an Impulsive Delayed Plankton Allelopathy System with Multiple Exploit (or Harvesting) Terms
In this paper, we obtain sufficient conditions for the
existence of at least four positive almost periodic solutions to an
impulsive delayed periodic plankton allelopathy system with multiple
exploited (or harvesting) terms. This result is obtained through the
use of Mawhins continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory
along with some properties relating to inequalities.
Almost periodic solutions, plankton allelopathy
system, coincidence degree, impulse.