Safety Compliance of Substation Earthing Design
As new challenges emerge in power electrical
workplace safety, it is the responsibility of the systems designer to
seek out new approaches and solutions that address them. Design
decisions made today will impact cost, safety and serviceability of
the installed systems for 40 or 50 years during the useful life for the
owner. Studies have shown that this cost is an order of magnitude of
7 to 10 times the installed cost of the power distribution equipment.
This paper reviews some aspects of earthing system design in power
substation surrounded by residential houses. The electrical potential
rise and split factors are discussed and a few recommendations are
provided to achieve a safety voltage in the area beyond the boundary
of the substation.
EPR, Split Factor, Earthing Design
Earth Potential Rise (EPR) Computation for a Fault on Transmission Mains Pole
The prologue of new High Voltage (HV) transmission
mains into the community necessitates earthing design to ensure
safety compliance of the system. Conductive structures such as steel
or concrete poles are widely used in HV transmission mains. The
earth potential rise (EPR) generated by a fault on these structures
could result to an unsafe condition. This paper discusses information
on the input impedance of the over head earth wire (OHEW) system
for finite and infinite transmission mains. The definition of finite and
infinite system is discussed, maximum EPR due to pole fault. The
simplified equations for EPR assessments are introduced and
discussed for the finite and infinite conditions. A case study is also
Coupling Factor, Earth Grid, EPR, Fault Current
Distribution, High Voltage, Line Impedance, OHEW, Split Factor,
Impact of Reflectors on Solar Energy Systems
The paper aims to show that implementing different
types of reflectors in solar energy systems, will dramatically improve
energy production by means of concentrating and intensifying more
sunlight onto a solar cell. The Solar Intensifier unit is designed to
increase efficiency and performance of a set of solar panels. The unit
was fabricated and tested. The experimental results show good
improvement in the performance of the solar energy system.
Renewable Energy, Power optimization, Solar
Earth Grid Safety Consideration: Civil Upgrade Works for an Energised Substation
The demand on High voltage (HV) infrastructures is growing due to the corresponding growth in industries and population. Many areas are being developed and therefore require additional electrical power to comply with the demand. Substation upgrade is one of the rapid solutions to ensure the continuous supply of power to customers. This upgrade requires civil modifications to structures and fences. The civil work requires excavation and steel works that may create unsafe touch conditions. This paper presents a brief theoretical overview of the touch voltage inside and around substations and uses CDEGS software to simulate a case study.
Earth safety, High Voltage, AC interference,
Switched Reluctance Generator for Wind Power Applications
Green house effect has becomes a serious concern in
many countries due to the increase consumption of the fossil fuel.
There have been many studies to find an alternative power source.
Wind energy found to be one of the most useful solutions to help in
overcoming the air pollution and global. There is no agreed solution
to conversion of wind energy to electrical energy. In this paper, the
advantages of using a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) for
wind energy applications. The theoretical study of the self excitation
of a SRG and the determination of the variable parameters in a SRG
design are discussed. The design parameters for the maximum power
output of the SRG are computed using Matlab simulation. The
designs of the circuit to control the variable parameters in a SRG to
provide the maximum power output are also discussed.
Switched Reluctance Generator, Wind Power,
Soil Resistivity Structure and Its Implication on the Pole Grid Resistance for Transmission Lines
High Voltage (HV) transmission lines are widely
spread around residential places. They take all forms of shapes:
concrete, steel, and timber poles. Earth grid always form part of the
HV transmission structure, whereat soil resistivity value is one of the
main inputs when it comes to determining the earth grid
requirements. In this paper, the soil structure and its implication on
the electrode resistance of HV transmission poles will be explored. In
Addition, this paper will present simulation for various soil structures
using IEEE and Australian standards to verify the computation with
CDEGS software. Furthermore, the split factor behavior under
different soil resistivity structure will be presented using CDEGS
Earth Grid, EPR, High Voltage, Soil Resistivity
Structure, Split Factor, Step Voltage, Touch Voltage.
Transmission Mains Earthing Design: Under Ground to Over Head Pole Transition
The demand on High voltage (HV) infrastructures is growing due to the corresponding growth in industries and population. New or upgraded HV infrastructure has safety implications since Transmission mains usually occupy the same easement in the vicinity of neighbouring residents. Transmission mains consist of underground (UG) and overhead (OH) sections and the transition between the UG and OH section is known as the UGOH pole. The existence of two transmission mains in the same easement can dictate to resort to more complicated earthing design in order to mitigate the effect of AC interference, and in some cases it can also necessitates completing a Split Study of the system. This paper provides an overview of the AC interference, Split Study and the earthing of an underground feeder including the UGOH pole .In addition, this paper discusses the use of different link boxes on the UG feeder and presents a case study that represent a clear example of the Ac interference and Split factor. Finally, a few recommendations are provided to achieve a safety zone in the area beyond the boundary of the HV system.
UGOH, High Voltage, AC interference, Earthing
Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels
This paper shows the potential system benefits of
simple tracking solar system using a stepper motor and light sensor.
This method is increasing power collection efficiency by developing
a device that tracks the sun to keep the panel at a right angle to its
rays. A solar tracking system is designed, implemented and
experimentally tested. The design details and the experimental results
Renewable Energy, Power Optimization.
Design of Synchronous Torque Couplers
This paper presents the design, analysis and
development of permanent magnet (PM) torque couplers. These
couplers employ rare-earth magnets. Based on finite element analysis
and earlier analytical works both concentric and face-type
synchronous type couplers have been designed and fabricated. The
experimental performance has good correlation with finite element
Finite Element Analysis, Synchronous TorqueCouplers, Permanent Magnet Torque Couplers
Transmission Mains Earthing Design and Concrete Pole Deployments
The High Voltage (HV) transmission mains into the community necessitate earthing design to ensure safety compliance of the system. Concrete poles are widely used within HV transmission mains; which could have an impact on the earth grid impedance and input impedance of the system from the fault point of view. This paper provides information on concrete pole earthing to enhance the split factor of the system; further, it discusses the deployment of concrete structures in high soil resistivity area to reduce the earth grid system of the plant. This paper introduces the cut off soil resistivity SC ρ when replacing timber poles with concrete ones.
Concrete Poles, Earth Grid, EPR, High Voltage, Soil
Soil Resistivity Data Computations; Single and Two - Layer Soil Resistivity Structure and Its Implication on Earthing Design
Performing High Voltage (HV) tasks with a multi craft
work force create a special set of safety circumstances. This paper
aims to present vital information relating to when it is acceptable to
use a single or a two-layer soil structure. Also it discusses the
implication of the high voltage infrastructure on the earth grid and the
safety of this implication under a single or a two-layer soil structure.
A multiple case study is investigated to show the importance of using
the right soil resistivity structure during the earthing system design.
Earth Grid, EPR, High Voltage, Soil Resistivity
Structure, Step Voltage, Touch Voltage.
Soil Resistivity Cut off Value and Concrete Pole Deployments in HV Transmission Mains
The prologue of new High Voltage (HV) transmission mains into the community necessitates earthing design to ensure safety compliance of the system. Concrete poles are widely used within HV transmission mains; many retired transmission mains with timber poles are being replaced with concrete ones, green transmission mains are deploying concrete poles. The earthing arrangement of the concrete poles could have an impact on the earth grid impedance also on the input impedance of the system from the fault point of view. This paper endeavors to provide information on the soil resistivity of the area and the deployments of concrete poles. It introduce the cut off soil resistivity value ρSC, this value aid in determine the impact of deploying the concrete poles on the earthing system. Multiple cases were discussed in this paper.
Soil Resistivity, HV Transmission Mains, Earthing, Safety.