Convection through Light Weight Timber Constructions with Mineral Wool
The major part of light weight timber constructions
consists of insulation. Mineral wool is the most commonly used
insulation due to its cost efficiency and easy handling. The fiber
orientation and porosity of this insulation material enables flowthrough.
The air flow resistance is low. If leakage occurs in the
insulated bay section, the convective flow may cause energy losses
and infiltration of the exterior wall with moisture and particles. In
particular the infiltrated moisture may lead to thermal bridges and
growth of health endangering mould and mildew. In order to prevent
this problem, different numerical calculation models have been
developed. All models developed so far have a potential for
completion. The implementation of the flow-through properties of
mineral wool insulation may help to improve the existing models.
Assuming that the real pressure difference between interior and
exterior surface is larger than the prescribed pressure difference in the
standard test procedure for mineral wool ISO 9053 / EN 29053,
measurements were performed using the measurement setup for
research on convective moisture transfer “MSRCMT".
These measurements show, that structural inhomogeneities of
mineral wool effect the permeability only at higher pressure
differences, as applied in MSRCMT. Additional microscopic
investigations show, that the location of a leak within the
construction has a crucial influence on the air flow-through and the
infiltration rate. The results clearly indicate that the empirical values
for the acoustic resistance of mineral wool should not be used for the
calculation of convective transfer mechanisms.
convection, convective transfer, infiltration, mineralwool, permeability, resistance, leakage
Surface Modification by EUV laser Beam based on Capillary Discharge
Many applications require surface modification and
micro-structuring of polymers. For these purposes is mainly used
ultraviolet (UV) radiation from excimer lamps or excimer lasers.
However, these sources have a decided disadvantage - degrading the
polymer deep inside due to relatively big radiation penetration depth
which may exceed 100 μm. In contrast, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
radiation is absorbed in a layer approximately 100 nm thick only. In
this work, the radiation from a discharge-plasma EUV source (with
wavelength 46.9 nm) based on a capillary discharge driver is focused
with a spherical Si/Sc multilayer mirror for surface modification of
PMMA sample or thin gold layer (thickness about 40 nm). It was
found that the focused EUV laser beam is capable by one shot to
ablate PMMA or layer of gold, even if the focus is significantly
influenced by astigmatism.
ablation, capillary discharge, EUV laser, surface
Rating Charts of R-22 Alternatives Flow through Adiabatic Capillary Tubes
Drop-in of R-22 alternatives in refrigeration and air conditioning systems requires a redesign of system components to improve system performance and reliability with the alternative refrigerants. The present paper aims at design adiabatic capillary tubes for R-22 alternatives such as R-417A, R-422D and R-438A. A theoretical model has been developed and validated with the available experimental data from literature for R-22 over a wide range of both operating and geometrical parameters. Predicted lengths of adiabatic capillary tube are compared with the lengths of the capillary tube needed under similar experimental conditions and majority of predictions are found to be within 4.4% of the experimental data. Hence, the model has been applied for R-417A, R- 422D and R-438A and capillary tube selection charts and correlations have been computed. Finally a comparison between the selected refrigerants and R-22 has been introduced and the results showed that R-438A is the closest one to R-22.
Adiabatic flow, Capillary tube, R-22 alternatives, Rating charts, Modelling.
Effect of Dietary Linseed Oil Soap on Lamb Meat
Theexperiment was carried out with 2x5 male Merino
lambs raised under intensive conditions to investigate the effect of
dietary calcium soap of linseed oil on the color and fatty acid
composition of longissimusdorsi muscle. Control lambs fed a basal
diet and the experimental lambs consumed a diet supplemented with
3% calcium soap of linseed oil. The color values (L*, a*, b* a*/b*
and chroma) were not influenced by dietary treatment. The MUFA
proportion reduced, SFA and PUFA content did not alter. As
expected, the linolenic (C18:3 n3) and thusthe n-3 content
significantly improved by linseed supplement (0.47 and 0.81; 0.78
and 1.16 in control and in experimental samples, respectively). Other
n-3 and n-6 fatty acids had similar valuestocontrol samples. The n-
6/n-3 ratio was significantly narrower in the experimental group (6.31
vs. 9.38) but the P/S ratio did not differ betweenthe two groups.In
conclusion calcium soap of linseed oil seems to be a suitable
supplement form of n-3 fatty acids to improve the nutritive value of
calcium soap, fatty acid, lamb meat, linseed
The Ethics of Instream Flows: Science and Policy in Southern Alberta, Canada
Securing instream flows for aquatic ecosystems is
critical for sustainable water management and the promotion of
human and environmental health. Using a case study from the semiarid
region of southern Alberta (Canada) this paper considers how
the determination of instream flow standards requires judgments with
respect to: (1) The relationship between instream flow indicators and
assessments of overall environmental health; (2) The indicators used
to determine adequate instream flows, and; (3) The assumptions
underlying efforts to model instream flows given data constraints. It
argues that judgments in each of these areas have an inherently
ethical component because instream flows have direct effects on the
water(s) available to meet obligations to humans and non-humans.
The conclusion expands from the case study to generic issues
regarding instream flows, the growing water ethics literature and
prospects for linking science to policy.
ethics, instream flows, policy, science, watermanagement