Larval Occurrence and Climatic Factors Affecting DHF Incidence in Samui Islands, Thailand
This study investigated the number of Aedes larvae,
the key breeding sites of Aedes sp., and the relationship between
climatic factors and the incidence of DHF in Samui Islands. We
conducted our questionnaire and larval surveys from randomly
selected 105 households in Samui Islands in July-September 2006.
Pearson-s correlation coefficient was used to explore the primary
association between the DHF incidence and all climatic factors.
Multiple stepwise regression technique was then used to fit the
statistical model. The results showed that the positive indoor
containers were small jars, cement tanks, and plastic tanks. The
positive outdoor containers were small jars, cement tanks, plastic
tanks, used cans, tires, plastic bottles, discarded objects, pot saucers,
plant pots, and areca husks. All Ae. albopictus larval indices (i.e., CI,
HI, and BI) were higher than Ae. aegypti larval indices in this area.
These larval indices were higher than WHO standard. This indicated
a high risk of DHF transmission at Samui Islands. The multiple
stepwise regression model was y = –288.80 + 11.024xmean temp. The
mean temperature was positively associated with the DHF incidence
in this area.
Dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus,
Container Index, House Index, Breteau Index, Aedes indices,
Climatic factors, Temperature.
Seasonal Prevalence of Aedes aegypti and Ae.albopictus in Three Topographical Areas of Southern Thailand
This study investigated the seasonal prevalence of
Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae in three topographical areas
(i.e. mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas). Samples were
collected from 300 households in both wet and dry seasons in nine
districts in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Ae. aegypti and Ae.
albopictus were found in 21 out of 29 types of water containers in
mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas. Ae. aegypti and Ae.
albopictus laid eggs in different container types depending on season
and topographical areas. Ae. aegypti larvae were found most in metal
box in mangrove and mountainous areas in wet season. Ae.
albopictus larvae were also found most in metal box in mangrove and
mountainous areas in both wet and dry seasons. All Ae. albopictus
larval indices were higher than Ae. aegypti larval indices in all three
topographical areas and both seasons. HI and BI did not differ in
three topographical areas but differed between Aedes sp. HI for both
Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in all three topographical areas in both
seasons were greater than 10 %, except Aedes aegypti in rice paddy
area in wet season. This indicated high risks of DHF transmission in
Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Season,Topography.
Climatic Factors Affecting Influenza Cases in Southern Thailand
This study investigated climatic factors associated
with influenza cases in Southern Thailand. The main aim for use
regression analysis to investigate possible causual relationship of
climatic factors and variability between the border of the Andaman
Sea and the Gulf of Thailand. Southern Thailand had the highest
Influenza incidences among four regions (i.e. north, northeast, central
and southern Thailand). In this study, there were 14 climatic factors:
mean relative humidity, maximum relative humidity, minimum
relative humidity, rainfall, rainy days, daily maximum rainfall,
pressure, maximum wind speed, mean wind speed, sunshine duration,
mean temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature,
and temperature difference (i.e. maximum – minimum temperature).
Multiple stepwise regression technique was used to fit the statistical
model. The results indicated that the mean wind speed and the
minimum relative humidity were positively associated with the
number of influenza cases on the Andaman Sea side. The maximum
wind speed was positively associated with the number of influenza
cases on the Gulf of Thailand side.
Influenza, Climatic Factor, Relative Humidity,
Rainfall, Pressure, Wind Speed, sunshine duration, Temperature,
Andaman Sea, Gulf of Thailand, Southern Thailand.
Simulation of Water Droplet on Horizontally Smooth and Rough Surfaces Using Quasi-Molecular Modelling
We developed a method based on quasi-molecular
modelling to simulate the fall of water drops on horizontally smooth
and rough surfaces. Each quasi-molecule was a group of particles
that interacted in a fashion entirely analogous to classical Newtonian
molecular interactions. When a falling water droplet was simulated at
low impact velocity on both smooth and rough surfaces, the droplets
moved periodically (i.e. the droplets moved up and down for a
certain period, finally they stopped moving and reached a steady
state), spreading and recoiling without splash or break-up. Spreading
rates of falling water droplets increased rapidly as time increased
until the spreading rate reached its steady state at time t ~ 0.25 s for
rough surface and t ~ 0.40 s for smooth surface. The droplet height
above both surfaces decreased as time increased, remained constant
after the droplet diameter attained a maximum value and reached its
steady state at time t ~ 0.4 s. However, rough surface had higher
spreading rates of falling water droplets and lower height on the
surface than smooth one.
Quasi-molecular modelling, particle modelling,molecular aggregate approach.
Predicting DHF Incidence in Northern Thailand using Time Series Analysis Technique
This study aimed at developing a forecasting model on the number of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) incidence in Northern Thailand using time series analysis. We developed Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models on the data collected between 2003-2006 and then validated the models using the data collected between January-September 2007. The results showed that the regressive forecast curves were consistent with the pattern of actual values. The most suitable model was the SARIMA(2,0,1)(0,2,0)12 model with a Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) of 12.2931 and a Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE) of 8.91713. The SARIMA(2,0,1)(0,2,0)12 model fitting was adequate for the data with the Portmanteau statistic Q20 = 8.98644 ( x20,95= 27.5871, P>0.05). This indicated that there was no significant autocorrelation between residuals at different lag times in the SARIMA(2,0,1)(0,2,0)12 model.
Dengue, SARIMA, Time Series Analysis, Northern Thailand.
Analysis of Influenza Cases and Seasonal Index in Thailand
This study investigated the pattern and seasonal index of influenza cases in Thailand. Our results showed that southern Thailand had the highest influenza incidence among the four regions of Thailand (i.e. north, northeast, central and southern Thailand). The influenza pattern in southern Thailand was similar to that of northeastern Thailand. Seasonal index values of influenza cases in Thailand were higher in the hot season than in the wet season. Influenza cases started to increase at the beginning of the hot season (April), reached a maximum in August, rapidly declined in the middle of the wet season and reached the lowest value in December. Seasonal index values for northern Thailand differed from other regions of Thailand.
Influenza, disease index, seasonal index, Thailand.
Global Behavior in (Q-xy)2 Potential
The general global behavior of particle S a non-linear (Q - xy)2 potential cannot be revealed a Poincare surface of section method (PSS) because inost trajectories take practically infinitely long time to integrate numerically before they come back to the surface. In this study as an alternative to PSS, a multiple scale perturbation is applied to analyze global adiabatic, non-adiabatic and chaotic behavior of particles in this potential. It was found that the results can be summarized as a form of a Fermi-like map. Additionally, this method gives a variation of global stochasticity criteria with Q.
Multiple Scak Perturbation The Poincare Surface or Section, Fermi Map
Integration of Multi-Source Data to Monitor Coral Biodiversity
This study aims at using multi-source data to monitor
coral biodiversity and coral bleaching. We used coral reef at Racha
Islands, Phuket as a study area. There were three sources of data:
coral diversity, sensor based data and satellite data.
Coral reefs, Remote sensing, Sea surfacetemperatue, Satellite imagery.
XML Integration of Data from CloudSat Satellite and GMS-6 Water Vapor Satellite
This study aimed at developing visualization tools for integrating CloudSat images and Water Vapor Satellite images. KML was used for integrating data from CloudSat Satellite and GMS-6 Water Vapor Satellite. CloudSat 2D images were transformed into 3D polygons in order to achieve 3D images. Before overlaying the images on Google Earth, GMS-6 water vapor satellite images had to be rescaled into linear images. Web service was developed using webMathematica. Shoreline from GMS-6 images was compared with shoreline from LandSat images on Google Earth for evaluation. The results showed that shoreline from GMS-6 images was highly matched with the shoreline in LandSat images from Google Earth. For CloudSat images, the visualizations were compared with GMS-6 images on Google Earth. The results showed that CloudSat and GMS-6 images were highly correlated.
CloudSat, Water vapor, Satellite images, GoogleEarth™.
Morphometric Analysis of Tor tambroides by Stepwise Discriminant and Neural Network Analysis
The population structure of the Tor tambroides was
investigated with morphometric data (i.e. morphormetric
measurement and truss measurement). A morphometric analysis was
conducted to compare specimens from three waterfalls: Sunanta, Nan
Chong Fa and Wang Muang waterfalls at Khao Nan National Park,
Nakhon Si Thammarat, Southern Thailand. The results of stepwise
discriminant analysis on seven morphometric variables and 21 truss
variables per individual were the same as from a neural network. Fish
from three waterfalls were separated into three groups based on their
morphometric measurements. The morphometric data shows that the
nerual network model performed better than the stepwise
Morphometric, Tor tambroides, Stepwise
Discriminant Analysis , Neural Network Analysis.
Assessing Habitat-Suitability Models with a Virtual Species at Khao Nan National Park, Thailand
This study examined a habitat-suitability assessment method namely the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA). A virtual species was created and then dispatched in a geographic information system model of a real landscape in three historic scenarios: (1) spreading, (2) equilibrium, and (3) overabundance. In each scenario, the virtual species was sampled and these simulated data sets were used as inputs for the ENFA to reconstruct the habitat suitability model. The 'equilibrium' scenario gives the highest quantity and quality among three scenarios. ENFA was sensitive to the distribution scenarios but not sensitive to sample sizes. The use of a virtual species proved to be a very efficient method, allowing one to fully control the quality of the input data as well as to accurately evaluate the predictive power of the analyses.
Habitat-Suitability Models, Ecological niche factoranalysis, Climatic factors, Geographic information system.
Climatic Factors Affecting on Influenza Casesin Nakhon Si Thammarat
This study investigated the climatic factors associated
with Influenza incidence in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Southern
Thailand. Climatic factors comprised of the amount of rainfall,
percent of rainy days, relative humidity, wind speed, maximum,
minimum temperatures and temperature difference. A multiple
stepwise regression technique was used to fit the statistical model.
The result showed that the temperature difference and percent of
rainy days were positively associated with Influenza incidence in
Nakhon Si Thammarat.
Influenza, Climatic Factor, Relative Humidity,Rainy day, Wind Speed.
Simulation of Lid Cavity Flow in Rectangular, Half-Circular and Beer Bucket Shapes using Quasi-Molecular Modeling
We developed a new method based on quasimolecular
modeling to simulate the cavity flow in three cavity
shapes: rectangular, half-circular and bucket beer in cgs units. Each
quasi-molecule was a group of particles that interacted in a fashion
entirely analogous to classical Newtonian molecular interactions.
When a cavity flow was simulated, the instantaneous velocity vector
fields were obtained by using an inverse distance weighted
interpolation method. In all three cavity shapes, fluid motion was
rotated counter-clockwise. The velocity vector fields of the three
cavity shapes showed a primary vortex located near the upstream
corners at time t ~ 0.500 s, t ~ 0.450 s and t ~ 0.350 s, respectively.
The configurational kinetic energy of the cavities increased as time
increased until the kinetic energy reached a maximum at time t ~
0.02 s and, then, the kinetic energy decreased as time increased. The
rectangular cavity system showed the lowest kinetic energy, while
the half-circular cavity system showed the highest kinetic energy.
The kinetic energy of rectangular, beer bucket and half-circular
cavities fluctuated about stable average values 35.62 x 103, 38.04 x
103 and 40.80 x 103 ergs/particle, respectively. This indicated that the
half-circular shapes were the most suitable shape for a shrimp pond
because the water in shrimp pond flows best when we compared with
rectangular and beer bucket shape.
Quasi-molecular modelling, particle modelling, lid
driven cavity flow.
The Pixel Value Data Approach for Rainfall Forecasting Based on GOES-9 Satellite Image Sequence Analysis
To develop a process of extracting pixel values over the using of satellite remote sensing image data in Thailand. It is a very important and effective method of forecasting rainfall. This paper presents an approach for forecasting a possible rainfall area based on pixel values from remote sensing satellite images. First, a method uses an automatic extraction process of the pixel value data from the satellite image sequence. Then, a data process is designed to enable the inference of correlations between pixel value and possible rainfall occurrences. The result, when we have a high averaged pixel value of daily water vapor data, we will also have a high amount of daily rainfall. This suggests that the amount of averaged pixel values can be used as an indicator of raining events. There are some positive associations between pixel values of daily water vapor images and the amount of daily rainfall at each rain-gauge station throughout Thailand. The proposed approach was proven to be a helpful manual for rainfall forecasting from meteorologists by which using automated analyzing and interpreting process of meteorological remote sensing data.
Pixel values, satellite image, water vapor, rainfall,image processing.
Phenology of the Parah tree (Elateriospermumtapos) using a GAPS Model
This work investigated the phenology of Parah tree
(Elateriospermum tapos) using the General Purpose Atmosphere
Plant Soil Simulator (GAPS model) to determine the amount of Plant
Available Water (PAW) in the soil. We found the correlation
between PAW and the timing of budburst and flower burst at Khao
Nan National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. PAW from the
GAPS model can be used as an indicator of soil water stress. The low
amount of PAW may lead to leaf shedding in Parah trees.
Basic GAPS, Parah (Elateriospermum tapos),Phenology, Climate, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.
Thailand National Biodiversity Database System with webMathematica and Google Earth
National Biodiversity Database System (NBIDS) has
been developed for collecting Thai biodiversity data. The goal of this
project is to provide advanced tools for querying, analyzing,
modeling, and visualizing patterns of species distribution for
researchers and scientists. NBIDS data record two types of datasets:
biodiversity data and environmental data. Biodiversity data are
specie presence data and species status. The attributes of biodiversity
data can be further classified into two groups: universal and projectspecific
attributes. Universal attributes are attributes that are common
to all of the records, e.g. X/Y coordinates, year, and collector name.
Project-specific attributes are attributes that are unique to one or a
few projects, e.g., flowering stage. Environmental data include
atmospheric data, hydrology data, soil data, and land cover data
collecting by using GLOBE protocols. We have developed webbased
tools for data entry. Google Earth KML and ArcGIS were used
as tools for map visualization. webMathematica was used for simple
data visualization and also for advanced data analysis and
visualization, e.g., spatial interpolation, and statistical analysis.
NBIDS will be used by park rangers at Khao Nan National Park, and
GLOBE protocol, Biodiversity, Database
System, ArcGIS, Google Earth and webMathematica.
Water Quality and Freshwater Fish Diversity at Khao Luang National Park, Thailand
Water quality and freshwater fish diversity from nine
waterfalls at Khao Luang National Park, Thailand was examined.
Streams were shallow, fast flowing with clear water and rocky and
sandy substrate. The mean water quality of waterfalls at Khao Luang
National Park were as following pH 7.50, air temperature 24.27 °C,
water temperature 26.37 °C, dissolved oxygen 7.88 mg/l, hardness
4.44-21.33 mg/l, alkalinity 3.55-11.88 mg/(as CaCO3). Twenty fish
species were found at Khao Luang National Park belonging to nine
families. A cluster analysis of water quality at Khao Luang National
Park revealed that waterfalls at Khao Luang National Park were
divided into two groups: A and B. Group A composed of two
waterfalls (i.e. Aie Kaew and Wangmaipak) that flew to the Gulf of
Thailand side. Group B composed of seven waterfalls (i.e. Promlok,
Kalom, Nuafa, Suankun, Soidaw, Suanhai, and Thapae) that flew to
the Andaman Sea side (Fig. 2) .The Cyprinids represented the major
species in all the waterfalls comprising of 45%.
Water quality, Freshwater fishes, National Park,Khao Luang, Thailand.
Computation of D8 Flow Line at Ron Phibun Area, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand
A flow line computational technique based on the D8
method using Mathematica was developed. The technique was
applied to Ron Phibun area, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This
area is highly contaminated with arsenic 3 and 5. It was found that
the technique using Mathematica can produce similar results to those
obtained from GRASS v 5.0.2.
Arsenic contamination, flow line, D8 method, Ron
Spanner Barb at Thepchana Waterfall, Khao Nan National Park, Thailand
This study investigated morphology of the Spanner Barb (Puntius lateristriga Valenciennes, 1842) and water quality at Thepchana waterfall. This study was conducted at Thepchana Waterfall, Khao Nan National Park from March to May 2007. There were 40 Spanner Barb collected with 20 males and 20 females. Males had an average of 5.57 cm in standard length, 6.62 cm in total length and 5.18 g in total body weight. Females had an average of 7.25 cm in standard length, 8.24 cm in total length and 10.96 g in total body weight. The length (L) – weight (W) relationships for combining sexes, males and females were LogW = -2.137 + 3.355logL, log W = -0.068 + 3.297logL, and log W = -2.068 + 3.297logL, respectively. The Spanner Barb were smaller size fish with a compressed form; terminal mouth; villiform teeth; ctenoid scale; concave tail; general body color yellowish olive, with slight reddish tint to fins; vertical band beginning below dorsal and horizontal stripe from base of tail almost to vertical band. They also had a vertical band midway between the eye and first vertical band. There was a black spot above anal fin. The bladder looked like J-shape. Inside of the bladder was found small insects and insect lava. The body length and the bowels length was 1:1 ratio. The water temperature ranged from 25.00 – 27.00 °C which was appropriate for their habitat characteristics. Acid - alkalinity ranged from 6.65 – 6.90 mg/l. Dissolved oxygen ranged from 4.55 – 4.70 mg/l. Water hardness ranged from 31.00 – 48.00 mg/l. The amount of ammonia was about 0.25 mg/l.
Spanner barb, morphology, water quality.
Cloud Forest Characteristics of Khao Nan, Thailand
A better understanding of cloud forest characteristic in a tropical montane cloud forest at Khao Nan, Nakhon Si Thammarat on climatic, vegetation, soil and hydrology were studied during 18-21 April 2007. The results showed that as air temperature at Sanyen cloud forest increased, the percent relative humidity decreased. The amount of solar radiation at Sanyen cloud forest had a positive association with the amount of solar radiation at Parah forest. The amount of solar radiation at Sanyen cloud forest was very low with a range of 0-19 W/m2. On the other hand, the amount of solar radiation at Parah forest was high with a range of 0-1000 W/m2. There was no difference between leaf width, leaf length, leaf thickness and leaf area with increasing in elevations. As the elevations increased, bush height and tree height decreased. There was no association between bush width and bush ratio with elevation. As the elevations increased, the percent epiphyte cover and the percent soil moisture increased but water temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen decreased. The percent soil moistures and organic contents were higher at elevations above 900 m than elevations below.
Cloud forest, climate, vegetation, soil, hydrology.