Open Science Research Excellence

Krishna Raj

Publications

5

Publications

5
13259
Influence of Port Geometry on Thrust Transient of Solid Propellant Rockets at Liftoff
Abstract:
Numerical studies have been carried out using a two dimensional code to examine the influence of pressure / thrust transient of solid propellant rockets at liftoff. This code solves unsteady Reynolds-averaged thin-layer Navier–Stokes equations by an implicit LU-factorization time-integration method. The results from the parametric study indicate that when the port is narrow there is a possibility of increase in pressure / thrust-rise rate due to relatively high flame spread rate. Parametric studies further reveal that flame spread rate can be altered by altering the propellant properties, igniter jet characteristics and nozzle closure burst pressure without altering the grain configuration and/or the mission demanding thrust transient. We observed that when the igniter turbulent intensity is relatively low the vehicle could liftoff early due to the early flow choking of the rocket nozzle. We concluded that the high pressurization-rate has structural implications at liftoff in addition to transient burning effect. Therefore prudent selection of the port geometry and the igniter, for meeting the mission requirements, within the given envelop are meaningful objectives for any designer for the smooth liftoff of solid propellant rockets.
Keywords:
Igniter Characteristics, Solid Propellant Rocket, SRM Liftoff, Starting Thrust Transient.
4
9997225
A New Approach to Design an Efficient CIC Decimator Using Signed Digit Arithmetic
Abstract:

Any digital processing performed on a signal with larger nyquist interval requires more computation than signal processing performed on smaller nyquist interval. The sampling rate alteration generates the unwanted effects in the system such as spectral aliasing and spectral imaging during signal processing. Multirate-multistage implementation of digital filter can result a significant computational saving than single rate filter designed for sample rate conversion. In this paper, we presented an efficient cascaded integrator comb (CIC) decimation filter that perform fast down sampling using signed digit adder algorithm with compensated frequency droop that arises due to aliasing effect during the decimation process. This proposed compensated CIC decimation filter structure with a hybrid signed digit (HSD) fast adder provide an improved performance in terms of down sampling speed by 65.15% than ripple carry adder (RCA) and reduced area and power by 57.5% and 0.01 % than signed digit (SD) adder algorithms respectively.

Keywords:
Sampling rate conversion, Multirate Filtering, Compensation Theory, Decimation filter, CIC filter, Redundant signed digit arithmetic, Fast adders.
3
9998624
Design of an Efficient Retimed CIC Compensation Filter
Abstract:

Unwanted side effects because of spectral aliasing and spectral imaging during signal processing would be the major concern over the sampling rate alteration. Multirate-multistage implementation of digital filter could come about a large computational saving than single rate filter suitable for sample rate conversion. This implementation can further improve through high-level architectural transformation in circuit level. Reallocating registers and  relocating flip-flops across logic gates through retiming certainly a prominent sequential transformation technology, that optimize hardware circuits to achieve faster clocking speed without affecting the functionality. In this paper, we proposed an efficient compensated cascade Integrator comb (CIC) decimation filter structure that analyze the consequence of filter order variation which has a retimed FIR filter being compensator while using the cutset retiming technique and achieved an improvement in the passband droop by 14% to 39%, in computation time by 38.04%, 25.78%, 12.21%, 6.69% and 4.44% and reduction in path delay by 62.27%, 72%, 86.63%, 91.56% and 94.42% of 3, 6, 8, 12 and 24 order filter respectively than the non-retimed CIC compensation filter.

Keywords:
Multirate Filtering, CIC decimation filter, Compensation theory, Retiming, Retiming algorithm, Filter order, Synchronous dataflow graph.
2
9999490
Application of Hardware Efficient CIC Compensation Filter in Narrow Band Filtering
Abstract:

In many communication and signal processing systems, it is highly desirable to implement an efficient narrow-band filter that decimate or interpolate the incoming signals. This paper presents hardware efficient compensated CIC filter over a narrow band frequency that increases the speed of down sampling by using multiplierless decimation filters with polyphase FIR filter structure. The proposed work analyzed the performance of compensated CIC filter on the bases of the improvement of frequency response with reduced hardware complexity in terms of no. of adders and multipliers and produces the filtered results without any alterations. CIC compensator filter demonstrated that by using compensation with CIC filter improve the frequency response in passed of interest 26.57% with the reduction in hardware complexity 12.25% multiplications per input sample (MPIS) and 23.4% additions per input sample (APIS) w.r.t. FIR filter respectively.

Keywords:
Multirate filtering, Narrow-band Signaling, Compensation Theory, CIC filter, Decimation, Compensation filter.
1
10007308
Compensated CIC-Hybrid Signed Digit Decimation Filter
Abstract:

In this paper, firstly, we present the mathematical modeling of finite impulse response (FIR) filter and Cascaded Integrator Comb (CIC) filter for sampling rate reduction and then an extension of Canonical signed digit (CSD) based efficient structure is presented in framework using hybrid signed digit (HSD) arithmetic. CSD representation imposed a restriction that two non-zero CSD coefficient bits cannot acquire adjacent bit positions and therefore, represented structure is not economical in terms of speed, area and power consumption. The HSD based structure gives optimum performance in terms of area and speed with 37.02% passband droop compensation.

Keywords:
Multirate filtering, compensation theory, CIC filter, compensation filter, signed digit arithmetic, canonical signed digit.