A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.
In this research work, neural networks were applied to classify two types of hip joint implants based on the relative hip joint implant side speed and three components of each ground reaction force. The condition of walking gait at normal velocity was used and carried out with each of the two hip joint implants assessed. Ground reaction forces’ kinetic temporal changes were considered in the first approach followed but discarded in the second one. Ground reaction force components were obtained from eighteen patients under such gait condition, half of which had a hip implant type I-II, whilst the other half had the hip implant, defined as type III by Orthoload®. After pre-processing raw gait kinetic data and selecting the time frames needed for the analysis, the ground reaction force components were used to train a MLP neural network, which learnt to distinguish the two hip joint implants in the abovementioned condition. Further to training, unknown hip implant side and ground reaction force components were presented to the neural networks, which assigned those features into the right class with a reasonably high accuracy for the hip implant type I-II and the type III. The results suggest that neural networks could be successfully applied in the performance assessment of hip joint implants.
Kinematic data wisely correlate vector quantities in space to scalar parameters in time to assess the degree of symmetry between the intact limb and the amputated limb with respect to a normal model derived from the gait of control group participants. Furthermore, these particular data allow a doctor to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a certain rehabilitation therapy. Kinetic curves allow the analysis of ground reaction forces (GRFs) to assess the appropriateness of human motion. Electromyography (EMG) allows the analysis of the fundamental lower limb force contributions to quantify the level of gait asymmetry. However, the use of this technological tool is expensive and requires patient’s hospitalization. This research work suggests overcoming the above limitations by applying artificial neural networks.
A method which allows a diabetic quadriplegic patient that has had four limb amputations (above the knee and elbow) to self-administer injections of insulin has been designed. The aim of this research project is to improve a quadriplegic patient’s selfmanagement, affected by diabetes, by designing a suitable device for self-administering insulin. The quadriplegic patient affected by diabetes has to be able to selfadminister insulin safely and independently to guarantee stable healthy conditions. The device also should be designed to adapt to a number of different varying personal characteristics such as height and body weight.
The aim of this study was to design and simulate a particular type of Asynchronous State Machine (ASM), namely a ‘traffic light controller’ (TLC), operated at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. The design task involved two main stages: firstly, designing a 4-bit binary counter using J-K flip flops as the timing signal and, subsequently, attaining the digital logic by deploying ASM design process. The TLC was designed such that it showed a sequence of three different colours, i.e. red, yellow and green, corresponding to set thresholds by deploying the least number of AND, OR and NOT gates possible. The software Multisim was deployed to design such circuit and simulate it for circuit troubleshooting in order for it to display the output sequence of the three different colours on the traffic light in the correct order. A clock signal, an asynchronous 4- bit binary counter that was designed through the use of J-K flip flops along with an ASM were used to complete this sequence, which was programmed to be repeated indefinitely. Eventually, the circuit was debugged and optimized, thus displaying the correct waveforms of the three outputs through the logic analyser. However, hazards occurred when the frequency was increased to 10 MHz. This was attributed to delays in the feedback being too high.