Adaptive Skin Segmentation Using Color Distance Map
In this paper an effective approach for segmenting
human skin regions in images taken at different environment is
proposed. The proposed method uses a color distance map that is
flexible enough to reliably detect the skin regions even if the
illumination conditions of the image vary. Local image conditions is
also focused, which help the technique to adaptively detect differently
illuminated skin regions of an image. Moreover, usage of local
information also helps the skin detection process to get rid of picking
up much noisy pixels.
Color Distance map, Reference skin color, Regiongrowing, Skin segmentation.
A New Similarity Measure on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets
Intuitionistic fuzzy sets as proposed by Atanassov,
have gained much attention from past and latter researchers for
applications in various fields. Similarity measures between
intuitionistic fuzzy sets were developed afterwards. However, it does
not cater the conflicting behavior of each element evaluated. We
therefore made some modification to the similarity measure of IFS
by considering conflicting concept to the model. In this paper, we
concentrate on Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures for IFSs and
some examples are given to validate these similarity measures. A
simple modification to Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures of IFSs
was proposed to find the best result according to the use of degree of
indeterminacy. Finally, we mark up with the application to real
decision making problems.
Intuitionistic fuzzy sets, similarity measures, multicriteriadecision making.
New Fuzzy Preference Relations and its Application in Group Decision Making
Decision making preferences to certain criteria
usually focus on positive degrees without considering the negative
degrees. However, in real life situation, evaluation becomes more
comprehensive if negative degrees are considered concurrently.
Preference is expected to be more effective when considering both
positive and negative degrees of preference to evaluate the best
selection. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to propose the
conflicting bifuzzy preference relations in group decision making by
utilization of a novel score function. The conflicting bifuzzy
preference relation is obtained by introducing some modifications on
intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations. Releasing the intuitionistic
condition by taking into account positive and negative degrees
simultaneously and utilizing the novel score function are the main
modifications to establish the proposed preference model. The
proposed model is tested with a numerical example and proved to be
simple and practical. The four-step decision model shows the
efficiency of obtaining preference in group decision making.
Fuzzy preference relations, score function,conflicting bifuzzy, decision making.
The Impact of Video Games in Children-s Learning of Mathematics
This paper describes a research project on Year 3 primary school students in Malaysia in their use of computer-based video game to enhance learning of multiplication facts (tables) in the Mathematics subject. This study attempts to investigate whether video games could actually contribute to positive effect on children-s learning or otherwise. In conducting this study, the researchers assume a neutral stand in the investigation as an unbiased outcome of the study would render reliable response to the impact of video games in education which would contribute to the literature of technology-based education as well as impact to the pedagogical aspect of formal education. In order to conduct the study, a subject (Mathematics) with a specific topic area in the subject (multiplication facts) is chosen. The study adopts a causal-comparative research to investigate the impact of the inclusion of a computer-based video game designed to teach multiplication facts to primary level students. Sample size is 100 students divided into two i.e., A: conventional group and B conventional group aided by video games. The conventional group (A) would be taught multiplication facts (timetables) and skills conventionally. The other group (B) underwent the same lessons but with supplementary activity: a computer-based video game on multiplication which is called Timez-Attack. Analysis of marks accrued from pre-test will be compared to post- test using comparisons of means, t tests, and ANOVA tests to investigate the impact of computer games as an added learning activity. The findings revealed that video games as a supplementary activity to classroom learning brings significant and positive effect on students- retention and mastery of multiplication tables as compared to students who rely only upon formal classroom instructions.
Technology for education, Gaming for education,
Computer-based video games, Cognitive learning
In vitro Anti-tubercular Screening of Newly Synthesized Benzimidazole Derivatives
A series of 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-(substituted phenyl)-2-propen-1-one were allowed to react with hydrazine hydrate and phenyl hydrazine in submitted reactions to get pyrazoline and phenyl pyrazoline derivatives. All the compounds entered for screening at the Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility (TAACF) for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain (ATCC 27294) using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) susceptibility test. The results expressed as MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) in μg/mL. Among the fifteen compounds, eight compounds were found to have MIC values less than 10 μg/mL. These were subjected for cytotoxicity assay in VERO cells to determine CC50 (cytotoxic concentration 50%) values and finally SI (Selectivity Index) were calculated. Compound (XV) 2-[5-(4- fluorophenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-3-pyrazolyl]-1Hbenzimidazole was considered the best candidate of the series that could be a good starting point to develop new lead compounds in the fight against tuberculosis.
anti-tubercular activity, benzimidazole, pyrazoline.
An Optimal Algorithm for HTML Page Building Process
Demand over web services is in growing with increases number of Web users. Web service is applied by Web application. Web application size is affected by its user-s requirements and interests. Differential in requirements and interests lead to growing of Web application size. The efficient way to save store spaces for more data and information is achieved by implementing algorithms to compress the contents of Web application documents. This paper introduces an algorithm to reduce Web application size based on reduction of the contents of HTML files. It removes unimportant contents regardless of the HTML file size. The removing is not ignored any character that is predicted in the HTML building process.
HTML code, HTML tag, WEB applications,
Document compression, DOM tree.
M-Learning Curriculum Design for Secondary School: A Needs Analysis
The learning society has currently transformed from 'wired society' to become 'mobile society' which is facilitated by wireless network. To suit to this new paradigm, m-learning was given birth and rapidly building its prospect to be included in the future curriculum. Research and studies on m-learning spruced up in numerous aspects but there is still scarcity in studies on curriculum design of m-learning. This study is a part of an ongoing bigger study probing into the m-learning curriculum for secondary schools. The paper reports on the first phase of the study which aims to probe into the needs of curriculum design for m-learning at the secondary school level and the researcher adopted the needs analysis method. Data accrued from responses on survey questionnaires based on Lickert-point scale were analyzed statistically. The findings from this preliminary study serve as a basis for m-learning curriculum development for secondary schools.
curriculum design, e-learning, future curriculum,m-learning
Selecting Negative Examples for Protein-Protein Interaction
Proteomics is one of the largest areas of research for
bioinformatics and medical science. An ambitious goal of proteomics
is to elucidate the structure, interactions and functions of all proteins
within cells and organisms. Predicting Protein-Protein Interaction
(PPI) is one of the crucial and decisive problems in current research.
Genomic data offer a great opportunity and at the same time a lot of
challenges for the identification of these interactions. Many methods
have already been proposed in this regard. In case of in-silico
identification, most of the methods require both positive and negative
examples of protein interaction and the perfection of these examples
are very much crucial for the final prediction accuracy. Positive
examples are relatively easy to obtain from well known databases. But
the generation of negative examples is not a trivial task. Current PPI
identification methods generate negative examples based on some
assumptions, which are likely to affect their prediction accuracy.
Hence, if more reliable negative examples are used, the PPI prediction
methods may achieve even more accuracy. Focusing on this issue, a
graph based negative example generation method is proposed, which
is simple and more accurate than the existing approaches. An
interaction graph of the protein sequences is created. The basic
assumption is that the longer the shortest path between two
protein-sequences in the interaction graph, the less is the possibility of
their interaction. A well established PPI detection algorithm is
employed with our negative examples and in most cases it increases
the accuracy more than 10% in comparison with the negative pair
selection method in that paper.
Interaction graph, Negative training data,Protein-Protein interaction, Support vector machine.
Fuzzy Approach for Ranking of Motor Vehicles Involved in Road Accidents
Increasing number of vehicles and lack of awareness among road users may lead to road accidents. However no specific literature was found to rank vehicles involved in accidents based on fuzzy variables of road users. This paper proposes a ranking of four selected motor vehicles involved in road accidents. Human and non-human factors that normally linked with road accidents are considered for ranking. The imprecision or vagueness inherent in the subjective assessment of the experts has led the application of fuzzy sets theory to deal with ranking problems. Data in form of linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. The Multi Criteria Decision Making, fuzzy TOPSIS was applied in computational procedures. From the analysis, it shows that motorcycles vehicles yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.6225. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the motorcycles recorded the first rank.
Road accidents, decision making, closeness coefficient, fuzzy number
Development of a Brain Glutamate Microbiosensor
This work attempts to improve the permselectivity of poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (PPD) coating for glutamate biosensor applications on Pt microelectrode, using constant potential amperometry and cyclic voltammetry. Percentage permeability of the modified PPD microelectrode was carried out towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (AA) whereas permselectivity represents the percentage interference by AA in H2O2 detection. The 50-μm diameter Pt disk microelectrode showed a good permeability value toward H2O2 (95%) and selectivity against AA (0.01%) compared to other sizes of electrode studied here. The electrode was further modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) that was immobilized and cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GA, 0.125%), resulting in Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrode design. The maximum current density Jmax and apparent Michaelis constant, KM, obtained on Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrodes were 48 μA cm-2 and 50 μM, respectively. The linear region slope (LRS) was 0.96 μA cm-2 mM-1. The detection limit (LOD) for glutamate was 3.0 ± 0.6 μM. This study shows a promising glutamate microbiosensor for brain glutamate detection.
Brain, Glutamate, Microbiosensor.
Simple and Advanced Models for Calculating Single-Phase Diode Rectifier Line-Side Harmonics
This paper proposes different methods for estimation
of the harmonic currents of the single-phase diode bridge rectifier. Both simple and advanced methods are compared and the models are
put into a context of practical use for calculating the harmonic distortion in a typical application. Finally, the different models are
compared to measurements of a real application and convincing results are achieved.
Single-phase rectifier, line side Harmonics
E-Books in Malaysian Primary Schools: The Terengganu Chapter
After the Terengganu state government decided to give a boost in teaching and learning through the allocation of free ebooks to all Primary five and six students; it was time to examine the presence of e-books in the classrooms. A survey was conducted on 101 students to determine how they felt about using the e-book and their experiences. It was discovered that a majority of these students liked using the e-book. However, although they had little problems using the e-book and the e-book helped to lighten the schoolbags, these new-age textbooks were not fully utilized. It is implied that perhaps the school administrators, teachers and students may not be able to overcome the unfamiliar characteristics of the e-book and its limitations.
E-books, students, classroom, limitations
Jacobi-Based Methods in Solving Fuzzy Linear Systems
Linear systems are widely used in many fields of science and engineering. In many applications, at least some of the parameters of the system are represented by fuzzy rather than crisp numbers. Therefore it is important to perform numerical algorithms or procedures that would treat general fuzzy linear systems and solve them using iterative methods. This paper aims are to solve fuzzy linear systems using four types of Jacobi based iterative methods. Four iterative methods based on Jacobi are used for solving a general n × n fuzzy system of linear equations of the form Ax = b , where A is a crisp matrix and b an arbitrary fuzzy vector. The Jacobi, Jacobi Over-Relaxation, Refinement of Jacobi and Refinement of Jacobi Over-Relaxation methods was tested to a five by five fuzzy linear system. It is found that all the tested methods were iterated differently. Due to the effect of extrapolation parameters and the refinement, the Refinement of Jacobi Over-Relaxation method was outperformed the other three methods.
Fuzzy linear systems, Jacobi, Jacobi Over-
Relaxation, Refinement of Jacobi, Refinement of Jacobi Over-
Optimization of Electrospinning Parameter by Employing Genetic Algorithm in order to Produce Desired Nanofiber Diameter
A numerical simulation of optimization all of electrospinning processing parameters to obtain smallest nanofiber diameter have been performed by employing genetic algorithm (GA). Fitness function in genetic algorithm methods, which was different for each parameter, was determined by simulation approach based on the Reneker’s model. Moreover, others genetic algorithm parameter, namely length of population, crossover and mutation were applied to get the optimum electrospinning processing parameters. In addition, minimum fiber diameter, 32 nm, was achieved from a simulation by applied the optimum parameters of electrospinning. This finding may be useful for process control and prediction of electrospun fiber production. In this paper, it is also compared between predicted parameters with some experimental results.
Diameter, Electrospinning, GA, Nanofiber.
A Human Activity Recognition System Based On Sensory Data Related to Object Usage
Sensor-based Activity Recognition systems usually accounts which sensors have been activated to perform an activity. The system then combines the conditional probabilities of those sensors to represent different activities and takes the decision based on that. However, the information about the sensors which are not activated may also be of great help in deciding which activity has been performed. This paper proposes an approach where the sensory data related to both usage and non-usage of objects are utilized to make the classification of activities. Experimental results also show the promising performance of the proposed method.
Naïve Bayesian-based classification, Activity recognition, sensor data, object-usage model.
An Interval Type-2 Dual Fuzzy Polynomial Equations and Ranking Method of Fuzzy Numbers
According to fuzzy arithmetic, dual fuzzy polynomials cannot be replaced by fuzzy polynomials. Hence, the concept of ranking method is used to find real roots of dual fuzzy polynomial equations. Therefore, in this study we want to propose an interval type-2 dual fuzzy polynomial equation (IT2 DFPE). Then, the concept of ranking method also is used to find real roots of IT2 DFPE (if exists). We transform IT2 DFPE to system of crisp IT2 DFPE. This transformation performed with ranking method of fuzzy numbers based on three parameters namely value, ambiguity and fuzziness. At the end, we illustrate our approach by two numerical examples.
Dual fuzzy polynomial equations, Interval type-2, Ranking method, Value.
Optimization of Springback Prediction in U-Channel Process Using Response Surface Methodology
There is not much effective guideline on development of design parameters selection on spring back for advanced high strength steel sheet metal in U-channel process during cold forming process. This paper presents the development of predictive model for spring back in U-channel process on advanced high strength steel sheet employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The experimental was performed on dual phase steel sheet, DP590 in Uchannel forming process while design of experiment (DoE) approach was used to investigates the effects of four factors namely blank holder force (BHF), clearance (C) and punch travel (Tp) and rolling direction (R) were used as input parameters using two level values by applying Full Factorial design (24 ). From a statistical analysis of variant (ANOVA), result showed that blank holder force (BHF), clearance (C) and punch travel (Tp) displayed significant effect on spring back of flange angle (β2 ) and wall opening angle (β1 ), while rolling direction (R) factor is insignificant. The significant parameters are optimized in order to reduce the spring back behavior using Central Composite Design (CCD) in RSM and the optimum parameters were determined. A regression model for spring back was developed. The effect of individual parameters and their response was also evaluated. The results obtained from optimum model are in agreement with the experimental values.
Advance high strength steel, U-channel process,
Springback, Design of Experiment, Optimization, Response Surface
Quality Assessment of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks in Minna, Nigeria
The properties of hollow sandcrete blocks produced in
Minna, Nigeria are presented. Sandcrete block is made of cement,
water and sand binded together in certain mix proportions. For the
purpose of this work, fifty (50) commercial sandcrete block industries
were visited in Minna, Nigeria to obtain block samples and
aggregates used for the manufacture, and to take inventory of the mix
composition and the production process. Sieve analysis tests were
conduction on the soil sample from various block industries to
ascertain their quality to be used for block making. The mix ratios
were also investigated. Five (5) nine inches (9’’ or 225mm) blocks
were obtained from each block industry and tested for dimensional
compliance and compressive strength. The results of the soil test
shows that the grading fall within the limit for natural aggregate and
can easily are used to obtain workable mix. Physical examinations of
the block sizes show slight deviation from the standard requirement
in NIS 87:2000. Compressive strength of hollow sandcrete blocks in
range of 0.12 N/mm2 to 0.54 N/mm2 was obtained which is below the
recommendable value of 3.45 N/mm2 for load bearing hollow
sandcrete blocks. This indicates that these blocks are below the
standard for load-bearing sandcrete blocks and cannot be used as load
bearing walling units. The mix composition also indicated low
cement content resulting in low compressive strength. Most of the
commercial block industries visited does not take curing very serious.
Water were only sprinkled ones or twice before the blocks were
stacked and made readily available for sale. It is recommended that a
mix ratio of 1:4 to 1:6 should be used for the production of sandcrete
blocks and proper curing practice should be adhered. Blocks should
also be cured for 14 days before making them available for
Compressive strength, dimensions, mix proportions,
Harnessing Nigeria's Forestry Potential for Structural Applications: Structural Reliability of Nigerian Grown Opepe Timber
This study examined the structural reliability of the Nigerian grown Opepe timber as bridge beam material. The strength of a particular specie of timber depends so much on some factors such as soil and environment in which it is grown. The steps involved are collection of the Opepe timber samples, seasoning/preparation of the test specimens, determination of the strength properties/statistical analysis, development of a computer programme in FORTRAN language and finally structural reliability analysis using FORM 5 software. The result revealed that the Nigerian grown Opepe is a reliable and durable structural bridge beam material for span of 5000mm, depth of 400mm, breadth of 250mm and end bearing length of 150mm. The probabilities of failure in bending parallel to the grain, compression perpendicular to the grain, shear parallel to the grain and deflection are 1.61 x 10-7, 1.43 x 10-8, 1.93 x 10-4 and 1.51 x 10-15 respectively. The paper recommends establishment of Opepe plantation in various Local Government Areas in Nigeria for structural applications such as in bridges, railway sleepers, generation of income to the nation as well as creating employment for the numerous unemployed youths.
Bending and deflection, Bridge beam, Compression, Nigerian Opepe, Shear, Structural reliability.
Using Thinking Blocks to Encourage the Use of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Students When Solving Problems on Fractions
Problem-solving is an activity which can encourage students to use Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Learning fractions can be challenging for students since empirical evidence shows that students experience difficulties in solving the fraction problems. However, visual methods can help students to overcome the difficulties since the methods help students to make meaningful visual representations and link abstract concepts in Mathematics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any changes in students’ HOTS at the four highest levels when learning the fractions by using Thinking Blocks. 54 students participated in a quasi-experiment using pre-tests and post-tests. Students were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=32) received a treatment to improve the students’ HOTS and the other group acted as the control group (n=22) which used a traditional method. Data were analysed by using Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that during post-test, students who used Thinking Blocks showed significant improvement in their HOTS level (p=0.000). In addition, the results of post-test also showed that the students’ performance improved significantly at the four highest levels of HOTS; namely, application (p=0.001), analyse (p=0.000), evaluate (p=0.000), and create (p=0.000). Therefore, it can be concluded that Thinking Blocks can effectively encourage students to use the four highest levels of HOTS which consequently enable them to solve fractions problems successfully.
Thinking blocks, higher order thinking skills, fractions, problem solving.