Open Science Research Excellence

M Ali




Secure Protocol for Short Message Service
Short Message Service (SMS) has grown in popularity over the years and it has become a common way of communication, it is a service provided through General System for Mobile Communications (GSM) that allows users to send text messages to others. SMS is usually used to transport unclassified information, but with the rise of mobile commerce it has become a popular tool for transmitting sensitive information between the business and its clients. By default SMS does not guarantee confidentiality and integrity to the message content. In the mobile communication systems, security (encryption) offered by the network operator only applies on the wireless link. Data delivered through the mobile core network may not be protected. Existing end-to-end security mechanisms are provided at application level and typically based on public key cryptosystem. The main concern in a public-key setting is the authenticity of the public key; this issue can be resolved by identity-based (IDbased) cryptography where the public key of a user can be derived from public information that uniquely identifies the user. This paper presents an encryption mechanism based on the IDbased scheme using Elliptic curves to provide end-to-end security for SMS. This mechanism has been implemented over the standard SMS network architecture and the encryption overhead has been estimated and compared with RSA scheme. This study indicates that the ID-based mechanism has advantages over the RSA mechanism in key distribution and scalability of increasing security level for mobile service.
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), End-to-end Security, Identity-based Cryptography, Public Key, RSA, SMS Protocol.
Robust On-Body Communications using Creeping Wave: Methodology and Analysis
In this paper methodology to exploit creeping wave for body area network BAN communication reliability are described. Creeping wave propagation effects are visualized & analyzed. During this work Dipole, IA antennas various antennas were redesigned using existing designs and their propagation characteristics were verified for optimum performance when used on BANs. These antennas were then applied on body shapes-including rectangular, spherical and cylindrical so that all the effects of actual human body can be taken nearly into account. Parametric simulation scheme was devised so that on Body channel characterization can be visualized at front, curved and back region. In the next phase multiple inputs multiple output MIMO scheme was introduced where virtual antennas were used in order to diminish the effects of antennas on the propagation of waves. Results were, extracted and analyzed at different heights. Finally based on comparative measurement and analysis it was concluded that on body propagation can be exploited to gain spatial diversity.
BAN, Creeping Wave, MIMO, WIAs.
Calibration of Parallel Multi-View Cameras
This paper focuses on the calibration problem of a multi-view shooting system designed for the production of 3D content for auto-stereoscopic visualization. The considered multiview camera is characterized by coplanar and decentered image sensors regarding to the corresponding optical axis. Based on the Faugéras and Toscani-s calibration approach, a calibration method is herein proposed for the case of multi-view camera with parallel and decentered image sensors. At first, the geometrical model of the shooting system is recalled and some industrial prototypes with some shooting simulations are presented. Next, the development of the proposed calibration method is detailed. Finally, some simulation results are presented before ending with some conclusions about this work.
Auto-stereoscopic display, camera calibration, multi-view cameras, visual servoing
Plug and Play Interferometer Configuration using Single Modulator Technique
We demonstrate single-photon interference over 10 km using a plug and play system for quantum key distribution. The quality of the interferometer is measured by using the interferometer visibility. The coding of the signal is based on the phase coding and the value of visibility is based on the interference effect, which result a number of count. The setup gives full control of polarization inside the interferometer. The quality measurement of the interferometer is based on number of count per second and the system produces 94 % visibility in one of the detectors.
single photon, interferometer, quantum key distribution.
Moving From Problem Space to Solution Space
Extracting and elaborating software requirements and transforming them into viable software architecture are still an intricate task. This paper defines a solution architecture which is based on the blurred amalgamation of problem space and solution space. The dependencies between domain constraints, requirements and architecture and their importance are described that are to be considered collectively while evolving from problem space to solution space. This paper proposes a revised version of Twin Peaks Model named Win Peaks Model that reconciles software requirements and architecture in more consistent and adaptable manner. Further the conflict between stakeholders- win-requirements is resolved by proposed Voting methodology that is simple adaptation of win-win requirements negotiation model and QARCC.
Functional Requirements, Non Functional Requirements, Twin Peaks Model, QARCC.
Comparison between Beta Wavelets Neural Networks, RBF Neural Networks and Polynomial Approximation for 1D, 2DFunctions Approximation

This paper proposes a comparison between wavelet neural networks (WNN), RBF neural network and polynomial approximation in term of 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. We present a novel wavelet neural network, based on Beta wavelets, for 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. Our purpose is to approximate an unknown function f: Rn - R from scattered samples (xi; y = f(xi)) i=1....n, where first, we have little a priori knowledge on the unknown function f: it lives in some infinite dimensional smooth function space and second the function approximation process is performed iteratively: each new measure on the function (xi; f(xi)) is used to compute a new estimate f as an approximation of the function f. Simulation results are demonstrated to validate the generalization ability and efficiency of the proposed Beta wavelet network.

Beta wavelets networks, RBF neural network,training algorithms, MSE, 1-D, 2D function approximation.
Parametric Transition as a Spiral Curve and Its Application in Spur Gear Tooth with FEA
The exploration of this paper will focus on the Cshaped transition curve. This curve is designed by using the concept of circle to circle where one circle lies inside other. The degree of smoothness employed is curvature continuity. The function used in designing the C-curve is Bézier-like cubic function. This function has a low degree, flexible for the interactive design of curves and surfaces and has a shape parameter. The shape parameter is used to control the C-shape curve. Once the C-shaped curve design is completed, this curve will be applied to design spur gear tooth. After the tooth design procedure is finished, the design will be analyzed by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This analysis is used to find out the applicability of the tooth design and the gear material that chosen. In this research, Cast Iron 4.5 % Carbon, ASTM A-48 is selected as a gear material.
Bézier-like cubic function, Curvature continuity, Cshapedtransition curve, Spur gear tooth.
Crash Severity Modeling in Urban Highways Using Backward Regression Method
Identifying and classifying intersections according to severity is very important for implementation of safety related counter measures and effective models are needed to compare and assess the severity. Highway safety organizations have considered intersection safety among their priorities. In spite of significant advances in highways safety, the large numbers of crashes with high severities still occur in the highways. Investigation of influential factors on crashes enables engineers to carry out calculations in order to reduce crash severity. Previous studies lacked a model capable of simultaneous illustration of the influence of human factors, road, vehicle, weather conditions and traffic features including traffic volume and flow speed on the crash severity. Thus, this paper is aimed at developing the models to illustrate the simultaneous influence of these variables on the crash severity in urban highways. The models represented in this study have been developed using binary Logit Models. SPSS software has been used to calibrate the models. It must be mentioned that backward regression method in SPSS was used to identify the significant variables in the model. Consider to obtained results it can be concluded that the main factor in increasing of crash severity in urban highways are driver age, movement with reverse gear, technical defect of the vehicle, vehicle collision with motorcycle and bicycle, bridge, frontal impact collisions, frontal-lateral collisions and multi-vehicle crashes in urban highways which always increase the crash severity in urban highways.
Backward regression, crash severity, speed, urbanhighways.
Web Usability : A Fuzzy Approach to the Navigation Structure Enhancement in a Website System, Case of Iranian Civil Aviation Organization Website
With the proliferation of World Wide Web, development of web-based technologies and the growth in web content, the structure of a website becomes more complex and web navigation becomes a critical issue to both web designers and users. In this paper we define the content and web pages as two important and influential factors in website navigation and paraphrase the enhancement in the website navigation as making some useful changes in the link structure of the website based on the aforementioned factors. Then we suggest a new method for proposing the changes using fuzzy approach to optimize the website architecture. Applying the proposed method to a real case of Iranian Civil Aviation Organization (CAO) website, we discuss the results of the novel approach at the final section.
Web content, Web navigation, Website system, Webusage mining.
Spatial Variability in Human Development Patterns in Assiut, Egypt
Given the motivation of maps impact in enhancing the perception of the quality of life in a region, this work examines the use of spatial analytical techniques in exploring the role of space in shaping human development patterns in Assiut governorate. Variations of human development index (HDI) of the governorate-s villages, districts and cities are mapped using geographic information systems (GIS). Global and local spatial autocorrelation measures are employed to assess the levels of spatial dependency in the data and to map clusters of human development. Results show prominent disparities in HDI between regions of Assiut. Strong patterns of spatial association were found proving the presence of clusters on the distribution of HDI. Finally, the study indicates several "hot-spots" in the governorate to be area of more investigations to explore the attributes of such levels of human development. This is very important for accomplishing the development plan of poorest regions currently adopted in Egypt.
Human development, Egypt, GIS, Spatial analysis.
LabVIEW with Fuzzy Logic Controller Simulation Panel for Condition Monitoring of Oil and Dry Type Transformer
Condition monitoring of electrical power equipment has attracted considerable attention for many years. The aim of this paper is to use Labview with Fuzzy Logic controller to build a simulation system to diagnose transformer faults and monitor its condition. The front panel of the system was designed using LabVIEW to enable computer to act as customer-designed instrument. The dissolved gas-in-oil analysis (DGA) method was used as technique for oil type transformer diagnosis; meanwhile terminal voltages and currents analysis method was used for dry type transformer. Fuzzy Logic was used as expert system that assesses all information keyed in at the front panel to diagnose and predict the condition of the transformer. The outcome of the Fuzzy Logic interpretation will be displayed at front panel of LabVIEW to show the user the conditions of the transformer at any time.
LabVIEW, Fuzzy Logic, condition monitoring, oiltransformer, dry transformer, DGA, terminal values.
In vivo Histomorphometric and Corrosion Analysis of Ti-Ni-Cr Shape Memory Alloys in Rabbits

A series of Ti based shape memory alloys with composition of Ti50Ni49Cr1, Ti50Ni47Cr3 and Ti50Ni45Cr5 were developed by vacuum arc-melting under a purified argon atmosphere. The histometric and corrosion evaluation of Ti-Ni-Cr shape memory alloys have been considered in this research work. The alloys were developed by vacuum arc melting and implanted subcutaneously in rabbits for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Metallic implants were embedded in order to determine the outcome of implantation on histometric and corrosion evaluation of Ti-Ni-Cr metallic strips. Encapsulating membrane formation around the alloys was minimal in the case of all materials. After histomorphometric analyses it was possible to demonstrate that there were no statistically significant differences between the materials. Corrosion rate was also determined in this study which is within acceptable range. The results showed the Ti- Ni-Cr alloy was neither cytotoxic, nor have any systemic reaction on living system in any of the test performed. Implantation shows good compatibility and a potential of being used directly in vivo system.

Shape memory alloy, Ti-Ni-Fe, histomorphometric, corrosion.
Investigation of 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(3-,5--Di-Tert-Butylphenyl)Porphyrinatocopper(II) for Electronics Applications
In this work, an organic compound 5,10,15,20- Tetrakis(3,5-di-tertbutylphenyl)porphyrinatocopper(II) (TDTBPPCu) is studied as an active material for thin film electronic devices. To investigate the electrical properties of TDTBPPCu, junction of TDTBPPCu with heavily doped n-Si and Al is fabricated. TDTBPPCu film was sandwiched between Al and n-Si electrodes. Various electrical parameters of TDTBPPCu are determined. The current-voltage characteristics of the junction are nonlinear, asymmetric and show rectification behavior, which gives the clue of formation of depletion region. This behavior indicates the potential of TDTBPPCu for electronics applications. The current-voltage and capacitance-voltage techniques are used to find the different electronic parameters.
P-type, organic semiconductor, Electricalcharacteristics
Tool Wear and Surface Roughness Prediction using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Turning Steel under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)
Tool wear and surface roughness prediction plays a significant role in machining industry for proper planning and control of machining parameters and optimization of cutting conditions. This paper deals with developing an artificial neural network (ANN) model as a function of cutting parameters in turning steel under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). A feed-forward backpropagation network with twenty five hidden neurons has been selected as the optimum network. The co-efficient of determination (R2) between model predictions and experimental values are 0.9915, 0.9906, 0.9761 and 0.9627 in terms of VB, VM, VS and Ra respectively. The results imply that the model can be used easily to forecast tool wear and surface roughness in response to cutting parameters.
ANN, MQL, Surface Roughness, Tool Wear.
Capability Investigation of Carbon Sequestration in Two Species (Artemisia sieberi Besser and Stipabarbata Desf) Under Different Treatments of Vegetation Management (Saveh, Iran)
The rangelands, as one of the largest dynamic biomes in the world, have very capabilities. Regulation of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide as the main these gases, is one of these cases. The attention to rangeland, as cheep and reachable resources to sequestrate the carbon dioxide, increases after the Industrial Revolution. Rangelands comprise the large parts of Iran as a steppic area. Rudshur (Saveh), as area index of steppic area, was selected under three sites include long-term exclosure, medium-term exclosure, and grazable area in order to the capable of carbon dioxide’s sequestration of dominated species. Canopy cover’s percentage of two dominated species (Artemisia sieberi Besser & Stipa barbata Desf) was determined via establishing of random 1 square meter plot. The sampling of above and below ground biomass style was obtained by complete random. After determination of ash percentage in the laboratory; conversion ratio of plant biomass to organic carbon was calculated by ignition method. Results of the paired t-test showed that the amount of carbon sequestration in above ground and underground biomass of Artemisia sieberi Besser & Stipa barbata Desf is different in three regions. It, of course, hasn’t any difference between under and surface ground’s biomass of Artemisia sieberi Besser in long-term exclosure. The independent t-test results indicate differences between underground biomass corresponding each other in the studied sites. Carbon sequestration in the Stipa barbata Desf was totally more than Artemisia sieberi Besser. Altogether, the average sequestration of the long-term exclosure was 5.842gr/m², the medium-term exclosure was 4.115gr/m², and grazable area was 5.975gr/m² so that there isn’t valuable statistical difference in term of total amount of carbon sequestration to three sites.
Carbon sequestration, the Industrial Revolution,greenhouse gases, Artemisia sieberi Besser, Stipa barbata Desf,steppic rangelands
Spatial thinking Issues: Towards Rural Sociological Research Agenda in the Third Millennium

Does the spatial perspective provide a common thread for rural sociology? Have rural sociologists succeeded in bringing order to their data using spatial analysis models and techniques? A trial answer to such questions, as touchstones of theoretical and applied sociological studies in rural areas, is the point at issue in the present paper. Spatial analyses have changed the way rural sociologists approach scientific problems. Rural sociology is spatial by nature because much, if not most, of its research topics has a spatial “awareness." However, such spatial awareness is not quite the same as spatial analysis because it is not typically associated with underlying theories and hypotheses about spatial patterns that are designed to be tested for their specific spatial content. This paper presents pressing issues for future research to reintroduce mainstream rural sociology to the concept of space.

Maps, Rural Sociology, Space, Spatial variations
On Developing an Automatic Speech Recognition System for Standard Arabic Language
The Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) applied to Arabic language is a challenging task. This is mainly related to the language specificities which make the researchers facing multiple difficulties such as the insufficient linguistic resources and the very limited number of available transcribed Arabic speech corpora. In this paper, we are interested in the development of a HMM-based ASR system for Standard Arabic (SA) language. Our fundamental research goal is to select the most appropriate acoustic parameters describing each audio frame, acoustic models and speech recognition unit. To achieve this purpose, we analyze the effect of varying frame windowing (size and period), acoustic parameter number resulting from features extraction methods traditionally used in ASR, speech recognition unit, Gaussian number per HMM state and number of embedded re-estimations of the Baum-Welch Algorithm. To evaluate the proposed ASR system, a multi-speaker SA connected-digits corpus is collected, transcribed and used throughout all experiments. A further evaluation is conducted on a speaker-independent continue SA speech corpus. The phonemes recognition rate is 94.02% which is relatively high when comparing it with another ASR system evaluated on the same corpus.
ASR, HMM, acoustical analysis, acoustic modeling, Standard Arabic language
Capacity Optimization for Local and Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks
The dynamic spectrum allocation solutions such as cognitive radio networks have been proposed as a key technology to exploit the frequency segments that are spectrally underutilized. Cognitive radio users work as secondary users who need to constantly and rapidly sense the presence of primary users or licensees to utilize their frequency bands if they are inactive. Short sensing cycles should be run by the secondary users to achieve higher throughput rates as well as to provide low level of interference to the primary users by immediately vacating their channels once they have been detected. In this paper, the throughput-sensing time relationship in local and cooperative spectrum sensing has been investigated under two distinct scenarios, namely, constant primary user protection (CPUP) and constant secondary user spectrum usability (CSUSU) scenarios. The simulation results show that the design of sensing slot duration is very critical and depends on the number of cooperating users under CPUP scenario whereas under CSUSU, cooperating more users has no effect if the sensing time used exceeds 5% of the total frame duration.
Capacity, cognitive radio, optimization, spectrumsensing.
New Explicit Group Newton's Iterative Methods for the Solutions of Burger's Equation

In this article, we aim to discuss the formulation of two explicit group iterative finite difference methods for time-dependent two dimensional Burger-s problem on a variable mesh. For the non-linear problems, the discretization leads to a non-linear system whose Jacobian is a tridiagonal matrix. We discuss the Newton-s explicit group iterative methods for a general Burger-s equation. The proposed explicit group methods are derived from the standard point and rotated point Crank-Nicolson finite difference schemes. Their computational complexity analysis is discussed. Numerical results are given to justify the feasibility of these two proposed iterative methods.

Standard point Crank-Nicolson (CN), Rotated point Crank-Nicolson (RCN), Explicit Group (EG), Explicit Decoupled Group (EDG).
An Improved Algorithm for Channel Estimations of OFDM System based Pilot Signal

This paper presents a new algorithm for the channel estimation of the OFDM system based on a pilot signal for the new generation of high data rate communication systems. In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems over fast-varying fading channels, channel estimation and tracking is generally carried out by transmitting known pilot symbols in given positions of the frequency-time grid. In this paper, we propose to derive an improved algorithm based on the calculation of the mean and the variance of the adjacent pilot signals for a specific distribution of the pilot signals in the OFDM frequency-time grid then calculating of the entire unknown channel coefficients from the equation of the mean and the variance. Simulation results shows that the performance of the OFDM system increase as the length of the channel increase where the accuracy of the estimated channel will be increased using this low complexity algorithm, also the number of the pilot signal needed to be inserted in the OFDM signal will be reduced which lead to increase in the throughput of the signal over the OFDM system in compared with other type of the distribution such as Comb type and Block type channel estimation.

Channel estimation, orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (OFDM), comb type channel estimation, block typechannel estimation.
Synthesis of Wavelet Filters using Wavelet Neural Networks
An application of Beta wavelet networks to synthesize pass-high and pass-low wavelet filters is investigated in this work. A Beta wavelet network is constructed using a parametric function called Beta function in order to resolve some nonlinear approximation problem. We combine the filter design theory with wavelet network approximation to synthesize perfect filter reconstruction. The order filter is given by the number of neurons in the hidden layer of the neural network. In this paper we use only the first derivative of Beta function to illustrate the proposed design procedures and exhibit its performance.
Beta wavelets, Wavenet, multiresolution analysis,perfect filter reconstruction, salient point detect, repeatability.
The Analysis of Duct Model Through Structural and Dynamic Schemes
This paper presents the analysis of duct design using static and dynamic approaches. The static approach is used to find out applicability between the design and material applied. The material used in this paper is Thermoplastic Olefins (TPO). For the dynamic approach, the focusing is only on the CFD simulations. The fatigue life in this design and material applied also covered.
CFD, structural analysis, fluid analysis, duct design,fatigue life
Carbothermic Reduction of Mechanically Activated Mixtures of Celestite and Carbon
The effect of dry milling on the carbothermic reduction of celestite was investigated. Mixtures of celestite concentrate (98% SrSO4) and activated carbon (99% carbon) was milled for 1 and 24 hours in a planetary ball mill. Un-milled and milled mixtures and their products after carbothermic reduction were studied by a combination of XRD and TGA/DTA experiments. The thermogravimetric analyses and XRD results showed that by milling celestite-carbon mixtures for one hour, the formation temperature of strontium sulfide decreased from about 720°C (in un-milled sample) to about 600°C, after 24 hours milling it decreased to 530°C. It was concluded that milling induces increasingly thorough mixing of the reactants to reduction occurring at lower temperatures
Activated carbon, Celestite, Ball milling,Carbothermic reduction, Strontium sulfide.
Teachers- Perceptions on the Use of E-Books as Textbooks in the Classroom
At the time where electronic books, or e-Books, offer students a fun way of learning , teachers who are used to the paper text books may find it as a new challenge to use it as a part of learning process. Precisely, there are various types of e-Books available to suit students- knowledge, characteristics, abilities, and interests. The paper discusses teachers- perceptions on the use of ebooks as a paper text book in the classroom. A survey was conducted on 72 teachers who use e-books as textbooks. It was discovered that a majority of these teachers had good perceptions on the use of ebooks. However, they had little problems using the devices. It can be overcome with some strategies and a suggested framework.
Classroom, E-books, perception, teacher.
A Closed Form Solution for Hydrodynamic Pressure of Gravity Dams Reservoir with Effect of Viscosity under Dynamic Loading

Hydrodynamic pressures acting on upstream of concrete dams during an earthquake are an important factor in designing and assessing the safety of these structures in Earthquake regions. Due to inherent complexities, assessing exact hydrodynamic pressure is only feasible for problems with simple geometry. In this research, the governing equation of concrete gravity dam reservoirs with effect of fluid viscosity in frequency domain is solved and then compared with that in which viscosity is assumed zero. The results show that viscosity influences the reservoir-s natural frequency. In excitation frequencies near the reservoir's natural frequencies, hydrodynamic pressure has a considerable difference in compare to the results of non-viscose fluid.

Closed form solution, concrete dams reservoir, viscosity, dynamic loads, hydrodynamic pressure.
Stress Relaxation of Date at Different Temperature and Moisture Content of Product: A New Approach
Iran is one of the greatest producers of date in the world. However due to lack of information about its viscoelastic properties, much of the production downgraded during harvesting and postharvesting processes. In this study the effect of temperature and moisture content of product were investigated on stress relaxation characteristics. Therefore, the freshly harvested date (kabkab) at tamar stage were put in controlled environment chamber to obtain different temperature levels (25, 35, 45, and 55 0C) and moisture contents (8.5, 8.7, 9.2, 15.3, 20, 32.2 %d.b.). A texture analyzer TAXT2 (Stable Microsystems, UK) was used to apply uniaxial compression tests. A chamber capable to control temperature was designed and fabricated around the plunger of texture analyzer to control the temperature during the experiment. As a new approach a CCD camera (A4tech, 30 fps) was mounted on a cylindrical glass probe to scan and record contact area between date and disk. Afterwards, pictures were analyzed using image processing toolbox of Matlab software. Individual date fruit was uniaxially compressed at speed of 1 mm/s. The constant strain of 30% of thickness of date was applied to the horizontally oriented fruit. To select a suitable model for describing stress relaxation of date, experimental data were fitted with three famous stress relaxation models including the generalized Maxwell, Nussinovitch, and Pelege. The constant in mentioned model were determined and correlated with temperature and moisture content of product using non-linear regression analysis. It was found that Generalized Maxwell and Nussinovitch models appropriately describe viscoelastic characteristics of date fruits as compared to Peleg mode.
Stress relaxation, Viscoelastic properties, Date, Texture analyzer.
Reinforcement Effect on Dynamic Properties of Saturated Sand

Dynamic behavior of soil are evaluated relative to a number of factors including: strain level, density, number of cycles, material type, fine content, geosynthetic inclusion, saturation, and effective stress .This paper investigate the dynamic behavior of saturated reinforced sand under cyclic stress condition. The cyclic triaxial tests are conducted on remolded specimens under various CSR which reinforced by different arrangement of non-woven geotextile. Aforementioned tests simulate field reinforced saturated deposits during earthquake or other cyclic loadings. This analysis revealed that the geotextile arrangement played dominant role on dynamic soil behavior and as geotextile close to top of specimen, the liquefaction resistance increased.

Dynamic Behavior, Reinforced Sand, Triaxial Test, Non-woven Geotextile.
Unsteady Stagnation-Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Radiation Effect

In this paper, the problem of unsteady stagnation-point flow and heat transfer induced by a shrinking sheet in the presence of radiation effect is studied. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically by the shooting method. The influence of radiation, unsteadiness and shrinking parameters, and the Prandtl number on the reduced skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer coefficient, as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed in detail. It is found that dual solutions exist and the temperature distribution becomes less significant with radiation parameter.

Heat transfer, Radiation effect, Shrinking sheet Unsteady flow.
Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction

A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.

Exponentially shrinking sheet, magnetic field, mixed convection, suction.
Apoptosis Activity of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Methanolic Crude Extract

Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 .g/mL after 48h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development.

Antiproliferative, apoptosis, MCF-7 human breast cancer, Persea declinata.
Bright–Dark Pulses in Nonlinear Polarisation Rotation Based Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

We have experimentally demonstrated bright-dark pulses in a nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) based mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a long cavity configuration. Bright–dark pulses could be achieved when the laser works in the passively mode-locking regime and the net group velocity dispersion is quite anomalous. The EDFL starts to generate a bright pulse train with degenerated dark pulse at the mode-locking threshold pump power of 35.09 mW by manipulating the polarization states of the laser oscillation modes using a polarization controller (PC). A split bright–dark pulse is generated when further increasing the pump power up to 37.95 mW. Stable bright pulses with no obvious evidence of a dark pulse can also be generated when further adjusting PC and increasing the pump power up to 52.19 mW. At higher pump power of 54.96 mW, a new form of bright-dark pulse emission was successfully identified with the repetition rate of 29 kHz. The bright and dark pulses have a duration of 795.5 ns and 640 ns, respectively.

Erbium-doped fiber laser, Nonlinear polarization rotation, bright-dark pulse.
Removal of Tartrazine Dye form Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on the Surface of Polyaniline/Iron Oxide Composite

In this work, a polyaniline/Iron oxide (PANI/Fe2O3) composite was chemically prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline in acid medium, in presence of ammonium persulphate as an oxidant and amount of Fe2O3. The composite was characterized by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared composite has been used as adsorbent to remove Tartrazine dye form aqueous solutions. The effects of initial dye concentration and temperature on the adsorption capacity of PANI/Fe2O3 for Tartrazine dye have been studied in this paper. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models have been used for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium data. The best fit is obtained using the Freundlich isotherm with an R2 value of 0.998. The change of Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of adsorption has been also evaluated for the adsorption of Tartrazine onto PANI/ Fe2O3. It has been proved according the results that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature.

Adsorption, Composite, dye, Polyaniline, Tartrazine.
Comparative Analysis of Ranunculus muricatus and Typha latifolia as Wetland Plants Applied for Domestic Wastewater Treatment in a Mesocosm Scale Study

Comparing other methods of waste water treatment, constructed wetlands are one of the most fascinating practices because being a natural process they are eco-friendly have low construction and maintenance cost and have considerable capability of wastewater treatment. The current research was focused mainly on comparison of Ranunculus muricatus and Typha latifolia as wetland plants for domestic wastewater treatment by designing and constructing efficient pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow mesocosms. Parameters like chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, phosphates, sulphates, nitrites, nitrates, and pathogenic indicator microbes were studied continuously with successive treatments. Treatment efficiency of the system increases with passage of time and with increase in temperature. Efficiency of T. latifolia planted setups in open environment was fairly good for parameters like COD and BOD5 which was showing reduction up to 82.5% for COD and 82.6% for BOD5 while DO was increased up to 125%. Efficiency of R. muricatus vegetated setup was also good but lowers than that of T. latifolia planted showing 80.95% removal of COD and BOD5. Ranunculus muricatus was found effective in reducing bacterial count in wastewater. Both macrophytes were found promising in wastewater treatment.

Biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, horizontal subsurface flow, Total suspended solids, Wetland.
Architectural Building Safety and Health Performance Model for Stratified Low-Cost Housing: Education and Management Tool for Building Managers

The safety and health performances aspects of a building are the most challenging aspect of facility management. It requires a deep understanding by the building managers on the factors that contribute to health and safety performances. This study attempted to develop an explanatory architectural safety performance model for stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The proposed Building Safety and Health Performance (BSHP) model was tested empirically through a survey on 308 construction practitioners using partial least squares (PLS) and structural equation modelling (SEM) tool. Statistical analysis results supports the conclusion that architecture, building services, external environment, management approaches and maintenance management have positive influence on safety and health performance of stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The findings provide valuable insights for construction industry to introduce BSHP model in the future where the model could be used as a guideline for training purposes of managers and better planning and implementation of building management.

Building management, stratified low-cost housing, Safety and health model
Attitude and Knowledge of Primary Health Care Physicians and Local Inhabitants about Leishmaniasis and Sandfly in West Alexandria
Leishmaniasis is the collective name for a number of diseases caused by protozoan flagellates of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted by Phlebotomine sandfly, the disease has diverse clinical manifestations and found in many areas of the world, particularly in Africa, Latin America, South and Central Asia, the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East. This study was done to assess primary health care physicians’ knowledge (PHP) and attitude about leishmaniasis and to assess awareness of local inhabitants about the disease and its vector in four areas in west Alexandria, Egypt. It is a cross sectional survey that was conducted in four PHC units in west Alexandria. All physicians currently working in these units during the study period were invited to participate in the study; only 20 PHP completed the questionnaire. 60 local inhabitants were selected randomly from the four areas of the study, 15 from each area; Data was collected through two different specially designed questionnaires. Results showed that 11 (55%) percent of the physicians had satisfactory knowledge; they answered more than 9 (60%) questions out of a total 14 questions about leishmaniasis and sandfly. On the other hand when attitude of the primary health care physicians about leishmaniasis was measured, results showed that 17 (85%) had good attitude and 3 (15%) had poor attitude. The second questionnaire showed that the awareness of local inhabitants about leishmaniasis and sandfly as a vector of the disease is poor and needs to be corrected. (90%) of the interviewed inhabitants had not heard about leishmaniasis, Only 3 (5%) of them said they know sandfly and its role in transmission of leishmaniasis. Thus we conclude that knowledge and attitudes of physicians are acceptable. However, there is, room for improvement and could be done through formal training courses and distribution of guidelines. In addition to raising the awareness of primary health care physicians about the importance of early detection and notification of cases of leishmaniasis, health education for raising awareness of the public regarding the vector and the disease is necessary because related studies have demonstrated that for inhabitants to take enough protective measures against the vector, they should perceive that it is responsible for causing a disease.
Attitude, knowledge, PHP, leishmaniasis, sandfly, local inhabitants, inside and outside housing conditions.
Image-Based (RBG) Technique for Estimating Phosphorus Levels of Crops
In this glasshouse study, we developed a new imagebased non-destructive technique for detecting leaf P status of different crops such as cotton, tomato and lettuce. The plants were grown on a nutrient solution containing different P concentrations, e.g. 0%, 50% and 100% of recommended P concentration (P0 = no P, L; P1 = 2.5 mL 10 L-1 of P and P2 = 5 mL 10 L-1 of P). After 7 weeks of treatment, the plants were harvested and data on leaf P contents were collected using the standard destructive laboratory method and at the same time leaf images were collected by a handheld crop image sensor. We calculated leaf area, leaf perimeter and RGB (red, green and blue) values of these images. These data were further used in linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to estimate leaf P contents, which successfully classified these plants on the basis of leaf P contents. The data indicated that P deficiency in crop plants can be predicted using leaf image and morphological data. Our proposed nondestructive imaging method is precise in estimating P requirements of different crop species.
Image-based techniques, leaf area, leaf P contents, linear discriminant analysis.
The Influence of the Types of Smoke Powder and Storage Duration on Sensory Quality of Balinese Beef and Buffalo Meatballs
This study aims to examine the sensory quality of meatballs made from Balinese beef and buffalo meat after the addition of smoke powder prior to storage at the temperatures of 2- 5°C for 7 days. This study used meat from Longissimus dorsi muscle of male Balinese cattle aged 3 years and of male buffalo aged 5 years as the main raw materials, and smoke powder as a binder and preservative in making meatballs. The study was based on completely randomized design (CRD) of factorial pattern of 2 x 3 x 2 where factors 1, 2 and 3 included the types of meat (cattle and buffalo), types of smoke powder (oven dried, freeze dried and spray dried) with a level of 2% of the weight of the meat (w/w), and storage duration (0 and 7 days) with three replications, respectively. The parameters measured were the meatball sensory quality (scores of tenderness, firmness, chewing residue, and intensity of flavor). The results of this study show that each type of meat has produced different sensory characteristics. The meatballs made from buffalo meat have higher tenderness and elasticity scores than the Balinese beef. Meanwhile, the buffalo meatballs have a lower residue mastication score than the Balinese beef. Each type of smoke powders has produced a relatively similar sensory quality of meatballs. It can be concluded that the smoke powder of 2% of the weight of the meat (w/w) could maintain the sensory quality of the meatballs for 7 days of storage.
Balinese beef meatballs, buffalo meatballs, sensory quality, smoke powder.
Study of Low Loading Heavier Phase in Horizontal Oil-Water Liquid-Liquid Pipe Flow
Production fluids are transported from the platform to tankers or process facilities through transfer pipelines. Water being one of the heavier phases tends to settle at the bottom of pipelines especially at low flow velocities and this has adverse consequences for pipeline integrity. On restart after a shutdown, this could result in corrosion and issues for process equipment, thus the need to have the heavier liquid dispersed into the flowing lighter fluid. This study looked at the flow regime of low water cut and low flow velocity oil and water flow using conductive film thickness probes in a large diameter 4-inch pipe to obtain oil and water interface height and the interface structural velocity. A wide range of 0.1–1.0 m/s oil and water mixture velocities was investigated for 0.5–5% water cut. Two fluid model predictions were used to compare with the experimental results.
Interface height, liquid-liquid flow, two-fluid model, water cut.
Approximating Maximum Speed on Road from Curvature Information of Bezier Curve
Bezier curves have useful properties for path generation problem, for instance, it can generate the reference trajectory for vehicles to satisfy the path constraints. Both algorithms join cubic Bezier curve segment smoothly to generate the path. Some of the useful properties of Bezier are curvature. In mathematics, curvature is the amount by which a geometric object deviates from being flat, or straight in the case of a line. Another extrinsic example of curvature is a circle, where the curvature is equal to the reciprocal of its radius at any point on the circle. The smaller the radius, the higher the curvature thus the vehicle needs to bend sharply. In this study, we use Bezier curve to fit highway-like curve. We use different approach to find the best approximation for the curve so that it will resembles highway-like curve. We compute curvature value by analytical differentiation of the Bezier Curve. We will then compute the maximum speed for driving using the curvature information obtained. Our research works on some assumptions; first, the Bezier curve estimates the real shape of the curve which can be verified visually. Even though, fitting process of Bezier curve does not interpolate exactly on the curve of interest, we believe that the estimation of speed are acceptable. We verified our result with the manual calculation of the curvature from the map.
Speed estimation, path constraints, reference trajectory, Bezier curve.
The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs
Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, nonobstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post-operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.
Ahmed valve, endoscopy, glaucoma, ocular fundus.
Seismic Behavior of Steel Structure with Buckling- Restrained Braces
One of the main purposes of designing bucklingrestrained braces is the fact that the entire lateral load is wasted by the braces, the entire gravitational load is moved to the foundation through the beams, and the columns can be moved to the foundation. In other words, braces are designed for bearing lateral load. In the implementation of the structure, it should be noted that the implementation of various parts of the structure must be conducted in such a way that the buckling-restrained braces would not bear the gravitational load. Moreover, this type of brace has been investigated under impact loading, and the design goals of designing method (direct motion) are controlled under impact loading. The results of dynamic analysis are shown as the relocation charts of the floors and switch between the floors. Finally, the results are compared with each other.
Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame (BRBF), energydissipating, ABAQUS, SAP2000, impact load.
Quality of Bali Beef and Broiler after Immersion in Liquid Smoke on Different Concentrations and Storage Times
The aim of this study was to improve the durability and quality of Bali beef (M. Longissimus dorsi) and broiler carcass through the addition of liquid smoke as a natural preservative. This study was using Longissimus dorsi muscle from male Bali beef aged 3 years, broiler breast and thigh aged 40 days. Three types of meat were marinated in liquid smoke with concentrations of 0, 5, and 10% for 30 minutes at the level of 20% of the sample weight (w/w). The samples were storage at 2-5°C for 1 month. This study designed as a factorial experiment 3 x 3 x 4 based on a completely randomized design with 5 replications; the first factor was meat type (beef, chicken breast and chicken thigh); the 2nd factor was liquid smoke concentrations (0, 5, and 10%), and the 3rd factor was storage duration (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks). Parameters measured were TBA value, total bacterial colonies, water holding capacity (WHC), shear force value both before and after cooking (80°C – 15min.), and cooking loss. The results showed that the type of meat produced WHC, shear force value, cooking loss and TBA differed between the three types of meat. Higher concentration of liquid smoke, the WHC, shear force value, TBA, and total bacterial colonies were decreased; at a concentration of 10% of liquid smoke, the total bacterial colonies decreased by 57.3% from untreated with liquid smoke. Longer storage, the total bacterial colonies and WHC were increased, while the shear force value and cooking loss were decreased. It can be concluded that a 10% concentration of liquid smoke was able to maintain fat oxidation and bacterial growth in Bali beef and chicken breast and thigh.
Bali beef, chicken meat, liquid smoke, meat quality.
CAGE Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Hazardous Drinking in an Acute Admissions Ward: Frequency of Application and Comparison with AUDIT-C Questionnaire
The aim of this audit was to examine the efficiency of alcohol history documentation and screening for hazardous drinkers at the Medical Admission Unit (MAU) of Northern General Hospital (NGH), Sheffield, to identify any potential for enhancing clinical practice. Data were collected from medical clerking sheets, ICE system and directly from 82 patients by three junior medical doctors using both CAGE questionnaire and AUDIT-C tool for newly admitted patients to MAU in NGH, in the period between January and March 2015. Alcohol consumption was documented in around two-third of the patient sample and this was documented fairly accurately by health care professionals. Some used subjective words such as 'social drinking' in the alcohol units’ section of the history. CAGE questionnaire was applied to only four patients and none of the patients had documented advice, education or referral to an alcohol liaison team. AUDIT-C tool had identified 30.4%, while CAGE 10.9%, of patients admitted to the NGH MAU as hazardous drinkers. The amount of alcohol the patient consumes positively correlated with the score of AUDIT-C (Pearson correlation 0.83). Re-audit is planned to be carried out after integrating AUDIT-C tool as labels in the notes and presenting a brief teaching session to junior doctors. Alcohol misuse screening is not adequately undertaken and no appropriate action is being offered to hazardous drinkers. CAGE questionnaire is poorly applied to patients and when satisfactory and adequately used has low sensitivity to detect hazardous drinkers in comparison with AUDIT-C tool. Re-audit of alcohol screening practice after introducing AUDIT-C tool in clerking sheets (as labels) is required to compare the findings and conclude the audit cycle.
Alcohol screening, AUDIT-C, CAGE, Hazardous drinking.
Web 2.0 in Higher Education: The Instructors’ Acceptance in Higher Educational Institutes in Kingdom of Bahrain

Since the beginning of distance education with the rapid evolution of technology, the social network plays a vital role in the educational process to enforce the interaction been the learners and teachers. There are many Web 2.0 technologies, services and tools designed for educational purposes. This research aims to investigate instructors’ acceptance towards web-based learning systems in higher educational institutes in Kingdom of Bahrain. Questionnaire is used to investigate the instructors’ usage of Web 2.0 and the factors affecting their acceptance. The results confirm that instructors had high accessibility to such technologies. However, patterns of use were complex. Whilst most expressed interest in using online technologies to support learning activities, learners seemed cautious about other values associated with web-based system, such as the shared construction of knowledge in a public format. The research concludes that there are main factors that affect instructors’ adoption which are security, performance expectation, perceived benefits, subjective norm, and perceived usefulness.

Web 2.0, Higher education, Acceptance, Students’ perception.
Thermomechanical Coupled Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Square Tube: A Finite Element Study

This paper presents a numerical investigation on the behavior of fiber reinforced polymer composite tubes (FRP) under thermomechanical coupled loading using finite element software ABAQUS and a special add-on subroutine, CZone. Three cases were explored; pure mechanical loading, pure thermal loading, and coupled thermomechanical loading. The failure index (Tsai-Wu) under all three loading cases was assessed for all plies in the tube walls. The simulation results under pure mechanical loading showed that composite tube failed at a tensile load of 3.1 kN. However, with the superposition of thermal load on mechanical load on the composite tube, the failure index of the previously failed plies in tube walls reduced significantly causing the tube to fail at 6 kN. This showed 93% improvement in the load carrying capacity of the composite tube in present study. The increase in load carrying capacity was attributed to the stress effects of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) on the laminate as well as the inter-lamina stresses induced due to the composite stack layup.

Thermal, mechanical, composites, square tubes.
Ongoing Gender-Based Challenges in Post-2015 Development Agenda: A Comparative Study between Qatar and Arab States

Discrimination against women and girls impairs progress in all domains of development articulated either in the framework of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) or in the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Paper aspires to create greater awareness among researchers and policy makers of the challenges posed by gender gaps and the opportunities created by reducing them within the Arab region. The study reveals how Arab countries are closing in on gender-oriented targets of the third and fifth MDGs. While some countries can claim remarkable achievements particularly in girls’ equality in education, there is still a long way to go to keep Arab’s commitments to current and future generations in other countries and subregions especially in the economic participation or in the political empowerment of women. No country has closed or even expected to close the economic participation gap or the political empowerment gap. This should provide the incentive to keep moving forward in the Post-2015 Agenda. Findings of the study prove that while Arab states have uneven achievements in reducing maternal mortality, Arab women remain at a disadvantage in the labour market. For Arab region especially LDCs, improving maternal health is part of the unmet agenda for the post-2015 period and still calls for intensified efforts and procedures. While antenatal care coverage is improving across the Arab region, progress is marginal in LDCs. To achieve proper realization of gender equality and empowerment of women in the Arab region in the post-2015 agenda, the study presents critical key challenges to be addressed. These challenges include: Negative cultural norms and stereotypes; violence against women and girls; early marriage and child labour; women’s limited control over their own bodies; limited ability of women to generate their own income and control assets and property; gender-based discrimination in law and in practice; women’s unequal participation in private and public decision making autonomy; and limitations in data. However, in all Arab states, gender equality must be integrated as a goal across all issues, particularly those that affect the future of a country.

Gender, equity, millennium development goals, post-2015 development agenda.
The Effect of the Thermal Temperature and Injected Current on Laser Diode 808 nm Output Power

In this paper, the effect of the injected current and temperature into the output power of the laser diode module operating at 808nm were applied, studied and discussed. Low power diode laser was employed as a source. The experimental results were demonstrated and then the output power of laser diode module operating at 808nm was clearly changed by the thermal temperature and injected current. The output power increases by the increasing the injected current and temperature. We also showed that the increasing of the injected current results rising in heat, which also, results into decreasing of the laser diode output power during the highest temperature as well. The best ranges of characteristics made by diode module operating at 808nm were carefully handled and determined.

Laser diode, light amplification, injected current, output power.
Environmental Effects on Energy Consumption of Smart Grid Consumers

Environment and surrounding plays a pivotal rule in structuring life-style of the consumers. Living standards intern effect the energy consumption of the consumers. In smart grid paradigm, climate drifts, weather parameter and green environmental directly relates to the energy profiles of the various consumers, such as residential, commercial and industrial. Considering above factors helps policy in shaping utility load curves and optimal management of demand and supply. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop correlation models of load and weather parameters and critical analysis of the factors effecting energy profiles of smart grid consumers. In this paper, we elaborated various environment and weather parameter factors effecting demand of consumers. Moreover, we developed correlation models, such as Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, an inter-relation between dependent (load) parameter and independent (weather) parameters. Furthermore, we validated our discussion with real-time data of Texas State. The numerical simulations proved the effective relation of climatic drifts with energy consumption of smart grid consumers.

Climatic drifts, correlation analysis, energy consumption, smart grid, weather parameter.
Development of a Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface for Interactive Robot Therapy: An Exploration of EEG and EMG Features during Hypnosis
This study presents a framework for development of a new generation of therapy robots that can interact with users by monitoring their physiological and mental states. Here, we focused on one of the controversial methods of therapy, hypnotherapy. Hypnosis has shown to be useful in treatment of many clinical conditions. But, even for healthy people, it can be used as an effective technique for relaxation or enhancement of memory and concentration. Our aim is to develop a robot that collects information about user’s mental and physical states using electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals and performs costeffective hypnosis at the comfort of user’s house. The presented framework consists of three main steps: (1) Find the EEG-correlates of mind state before, during, and after hypnosis and establish a cognitive model for state changes, (2) Develop a system that can track the changes in EEG and EMG activities in real time and determines if the user is ready for suggestion, and (3) Implement our system in a humanoid robot that will talk and conduct hypnosis on users based on their mental states. This paper presents a pilot study in regard to the first stage, detection of EEG and EMG features during hypnosis.
Hypnosis, EEG, robotherapy, brain-computer interface.
Relationship of Sleep Duration with Obesity and Dietary Intake

Background: There is a mutual relationship between sleep duration and obesity. We studied the relationship between sleep duration with obesity and dietary Intake. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 444 male students in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science. Dietary intake was analyzed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric indices were analyzed. Participants were being asked about their sleep duration and they were categorized into three groups according to their responses (less than six hours, between six and eight hours, and more than eight hours). Results: Macronutrient, micronutrient, and antioxidant intake did not show significant difference between three groups. Moreover, we did not observe any significant difference between anthropometric indices (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat). Conclusions: Our study results show no significant relationship between sleep duration, nutrition pattern, and obesity. Further study is recommended.

Sleep duration, obesity, dietary intake, cross-sectional.
Effects of High-Protein, Low-Energy Diet on Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Clinical Trial

Background: In addition to reducing body weight, the low-calorie diets can reduce the lean body mass. It is hypothesized that in addition to reducing the body weight, the low-calorie diets can maintain the lean body mass. So, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of high-protein diet with calorie restriction on body composition in overweight and obese individuals. Methods: 36 obese and overweight subjects were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received a normal-protein, low-energy diet (RDA), and the second group received a high-protein, low-energy diet (2×RDA). The anthropometric indices including height, weight, body mass index, body fat mass, fat free mass, and body fat percentage were evaluated before and after the study. Results: A significant reduction was observed in anthropometric indices in both groups (high-protein, low-energy diets and normal-protein, low-energy diets). In addition, more reduction in fat free mass was observed in the normal-protein, low-energy diet group compared to the high -protein, low-energy diet group. In other the anthropometric indices, significant differences were not observed between the two groups. Conclusion: Independently of the type of diet, low-calorie diet can improve the anthropometric indices, but during a weight loss, high-protein diet can help the fat free mass to be maintained.

Diet, high-protein, body mass index, body fat percentage.
Coupled Spacecraft Orbital and Attitude Modeling and Simulation in Multi-Complex Modes
This paper presents verification of a modeling and simulation for a Spacecraft (SC) attitude and orbit control system. Detailed formulation of coupled SC orbital and attitude equations of motion is performed in order to achieve accepted accuracy to meet the requirements of multitargets tracking and orbit correction complex modes. Correction of the target parameter based on the estimated state vector during shooting time to enhance pointing accuracy is considered. Time-optimal nonlinear feedback control technique was used in order to take full advantage of the maximum torques that the controller can deliver. This simulation provides options for visualizing SC trajectory and attitude in a 3D environment by including an interface with V-Realm Builder and VR Sink in Simulink/MATLAB. Verification data confirms the simulation results, ensuring that the model and the proposed control law can be used successfully for large and fast tracking and is robust enough to keep the pointing accuracy within the desired limits with considerable uncertainty in inertia and control torque.
Attitude and orbit control, time-optimal nonlinear feedback control, modeling and simulation, pointing accuracy, maximum torques.
Effect of Fire on Structural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams
This paper investigates and evaluates experimentally the structural behavior of high strength concrete (HSC) beams under fire and compares it with that of Normal strength concrete (NSC) beams. The main investigated parameters are: concrete compressive strength (300 or 600 kg/cm2); the concrete cover thickness (3 or 5 cm); the degree of temperature (room temperature or 600 oC); the type of cooling (air or water); and the fire exposure time (3 or 5 hours). Test results showed that the concrete compressive strength decreases significantly as the exposure time to fire increases.
Experimental, fire, high strength concrete beams, monotonic loading.
Computer Aided Diagnostic System for Detection and Classification of a Brain Tumor through MRI Using Level Set Based Segmentation Technique and ANN Classifier

Due to the acquisition of huge amounts of brain tumor magnetic resonance images (MRI) in clinics, it is very difficult for radiologists to manually interpret and segment these images within a reasonable span of time. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of radiologists and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. An intelligent computer-aided technique for automatic detection of a brain tumor through MRI is presented in this paper. The technique uses the following computational methods; the Level Set for segmentation of a brain tumor from other brain parts, extraction of features from this segmented tumor portion using gray level co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify brain tumor images according to their respective types. The entire work is carried out on 50 images having five types of brain tumor. The overall classification accuracy using this method is found to be 98% which is significantly good.

Artificial neural network, ANN, brain tumor, computer-aided diagnostic, CAD system, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, GLCM, level set method, tumor segmentation.
Wavelet-Based ECG Signal Analysis and Classification

This paper presents the processing and analysis of ECG signals. The study is based on wavelet transform and uses exclusively the MATLAB environment. This study includes removing Baseline wander and further de-noising through wavelet transform and metrics such as signal-to noise ratio (SNR), Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the mean squared error (MSE) are used to assess the efficiency of the de-noising techniques. Feature extraction is subsequently performed whereby signal features such as heart rate, rise and fall levels are extracted and the QRS complex was detected which helped in classifying the ECG signal. The classification is the last step in the analysis of the ECG signals and it is shown that these are successfully classified as Normal rhythm or Abnormal rhythm.  The final result proved the adequacy of using wavelet transform for the analysis of ECG signals.

ECG Signal, QRS detection, thresholding, wavelet decomposition, feature extraction.
Measurement and Prediction of Speed of Sound in Petroleum Fluids

Seismic methods play an important role in the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, the success of the method depends strongly on the reliability of the measured or predicted information regarding the velocity of sound in the media. Speed of sound has been used to study the thermodynamic properties of fluids. In this study, experimental data are reported and analyzed on the speed of sound in toluene and octane binary mixture. Three-factor three-level Box-Benhkam design is used to determine the significance of each factor, the synergetic effects of the factors, and the most significant factors on speed of sound. The developed mathematical model and statistical analysis provided a critical analysis of the simultaneous interactive effects of the independent variables indicating that the developed quadratic models were highly accurate and predictive.

Experimental design, octane, speed of sound, toluene.
Effects of Selected Plant-Derived Nutraceuticals on the Quality and Shelf-Life Stability of Frankfurter Type Sausages during Storage

The application of natural plant extracts which are rich in promising antioxidants and antimicrobial ingredients in the production of frankfurter-type sausages addresses consumer demands for healthier, more functional meat products. The effects of olive leaves, green tea and Urtica dioica L. extracts on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristic of frankfurter-type sausage were investigated during 45 days of storage at 4 °C. The results revealed that pH and phenolic compounds decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all samples during storage. Sausages containing 500 ppm green tea extract (1.78 mg/kg) showed the lowest TBARS values compared to olive leaves (2.01 mg/kg), Urtica dioica L. (2.26 mg/kg) extracts and control (2.74 mg/kg). Plant extracts significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the count of total mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold by at least 2 log cycles (CFU/g) than those of control samples. Sensory characteristics of texture showed no difference (P > 0.05) between sausage samples, but sausage containing Urtica dioica L. extract had the highest score regarding flavor, freshness odor, and overall acceptability. Based on the results, sausage containing plant extracts could have a significant impact on antimicrobial activity, antioxidant capacity, sensory score, and shelf life stability of frankfurter-type sausage.

Antimicrobial, antioxidant, frankfurter-type sausage, green tea, olive oil, shelf life, Urtica dioica L.