Development of In Situ Permeability Test Using Constant Discharge Method for Sandy Soils
The post-rain puddles problem that occurs in the first
yard of Prambanan Temple are often disturbing visitor activity. A
poodle layer and a drainage system had ever built to avoid such a
problem, but puddles still did not stop appearing after rain.
Permeability parameter needs to be determined by using a simpler
procedure to find exact method of solution. The instrument modelling
was proposed according to the development of field permeability
testing instrument. This experiment used a proposed Constant
Discharge method. Constant Discharge method used a tube poured
with constant water flow from unsaturated until saturated soil
condition. Volumetric water content (θ) were monitored by soil
moisture measurement device. The results were correlations between
k and θ which were drawn by numerical approach from Van
Genutchen model. Parameters θr optimum value obtained from the
test was at very dry soil. Coefficient of permeability with a density of
19.8 kN/m3 for unsaturated conditions was in range of 3 x 10-6
cm/sec (Sr=68%) until 9.98 x 10-4 cm/sec (Sr=82%). The equipment
and testing procedure developed in this research was quite effective,
simple and easy to be implemented on determining field soil
permeability coefficient value of sandy soil. Using constant discharge
method in proposed permeability test, value of permeability
coefficient under unsaturated condition can be obtained without
establish soil water characteristic curve.
Constant discharge method, in situ permeability test,
sandy soil, unsaturated conditions.
Determination of Unsaturated Soil Permeability Based on Geometric Factor Development of Constant Discharge Model
After Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006, the main problem that occurred in the first yard of Prambanan Temple is ponding area that occurred after rainfall. Soil characterization needs to be determined by conducting several processes, especially permeability coefficient (k) in both saturated and unsaturated conditions to solve this problem. More accurate and efficient field testing procedure is required to obtain permeability data that present the field condition. One of the field permeability test equipment is Constant Discharge procedure to determine the permeability coefficient. Necessary adjustments of the Constant Discharge procedure are needed to be determined especially the value of geometric factor (F) to improve the corresponding value of permeability coefficient. The value of k will be correlated with the value of volumetric water content (θ) of an unsaturated condition until saturated condition. The principle procedure of Constant Discharge model provides a constant flow in permeameter tube that flows into the ground until the water level in the tube becomes constant. Constant water level in the tube is highly dependent on the tube dimension. Every tube dimension has a shape factor called the geometric factor that affects the result of the test. Geometric factor value is defined as the characteristic of shape and radius of the tube. This research has modified the geometric factor parameters by using empty material tube method so that the geometric factor will change. Saturation level is monitored by using soil moisture sensor. The field test results were compared with the results of laboratory tests to validate the results of the test. Field and laboratory test results of empty tube material method have an average difference of 3.33 x 10-4 cm/sec. The test results showed that modified geometric factor provides more accurate data. The improved methods of constant discharge procedure provide more relevant results.
Constant discharge, geometric factor, permeability coefficient, unsaturated soils.