An Optimized Design of Non-uniform Filterbank
The tree structured approach of non-uniform filterbank
(NUFB) is normally used in perfect reconstruction (PR). The PR is
not always feasible due to certain limitations, i.e, constraints in
selecting design parameters, design complexity and some times
output is severely affected by aliasing error if necessary and
sufficient conditions of PR is not satisfied perfectly. Therefore, there
has been generalized interest of researchers to go for near perfect
reconstruction (NPR). In this proposed work, an optimized tree
structure technique is used for the design of NPR non-uniform
filterbank. Window functions of Blackman family are used to design
the prototype FIR filter. A single variable linear optimization is used
to minimize the amplitude distortion. The main feature of the
proposed design is its simplicity with linear phase property.
Tree structure, NUFB, QMF, NPR.
New Efficient Iterative Optimization Algorithm to Design the Two Channel QMF Bank
This paper proposes an efficient method for the design
of two channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank. To achieve
minimum value of reconstruction error near to perfect reconstruction,
a linear optimization process has been proposed. Prototype low pass
filter has been designed using Kaiser window function. The modified
algorithm has been developed to optimize the reconstruction error
using linear objective function through iteration method. The result
obtained, show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is
better than that of the already exists methods.
Filterbank, near perfect reconstruction, Kaiserwindow, QMF.
Application of Genetic Algorithms for Evolution of Quantum Equivalents of Boolean Circuits
Due to the non- intuitive nature of Quantum
algorithms, it becomes difficult for a classically trained person to
efficiently construct new ones. So rather than designing new
algorithms manually, lately, Genetic algorithms (GA) are being
implemented for this purpose. GA is a technique to automatically
solve a problem using principles of Darwinian evolution. This has
been implemented to explore the possibility of evolving an n-qubit
circuit when the circuit matrix has been provided using a set of
single, two and three qubit gates. Using a variable length population
and universal stochastic selection procedure, a number of possible
solution circuits, with different number of gates can be obtained for
the same input matrix during different runs of GA. The given
algorithm has also been successfully implemented to obtain two and
three qubit Boolean circuits using Quantum gates. The results
demonstrate the effectiveness of the GA procedure even when the
search spaces are large.
Ancillas, Boolean functions, Genetic algorithm,
Oracles, Quantum circuits, Scratch bit
Effects of Capacitor Bank Defects on Harmonic Distortion and Park's Pattern Analysis in Induction Motors
Properly sized capacitor banks are connected across induction motors for several reasons including power factor correction, reducing distortions, increasing capacity, etc. Total harmonic distortion (THD) and power factor (PF) are used in such cases to quantify the improvements obtained through connection of the external capacitor banks. On the other hand, one of the methods for assessing the motor internal condition is by the use of Park-s pattern analysis. In spite of taking adequate precautionary measures, the capacitor banks may sometimes malfunction. Such a minor fault in the capacitor bank is often not apparently discernible. This may however, give rise to substantial degradation of power factor correction performance and may also damage the supply profile. The case is more severe with the fact that the Park-s pattern gets distorted due to such external capacitor faults, and can give anomalous results about motor internal fault analyses. The aim of this paper is to present simulation and hardware laboratory test results to have an understanding of the anomalies in harmonic distortion and Park-s pattern analyses in induction motors due to capacitor bank defects.
Capacitor bank, harmonic distortion, induction motor, Park's pattern, PSCAD simulation.
Design, Analysis and Modeling of Dual Band Microstrip Loop Antenna Using Defective Ground Plane
Present wireless communication demands compact and intelligent devices with multitasking capabilities at affordable cost. The focus in the presented paper is on a dual band antenna for wireless communication with the capability of operating at two frequency bands with same structure. Two resonance frequencies are observed with the second operation band at 4.2GHz approximately three times the first resonance frequency at 1.5GHz. Structure is simple loop of microstrip line with characteristic impedance 50 ohms. The proposed antenna is designed using defective ground structure (DGS) and shows the nearly one third reductions in size as compared to without DGS. This antenna was simulated on electromagnetic (EM) simulation software and fabricated using microwave integrated circuit technique on RT-Duroid dielectric substrate (εr= 2.22) of thickness (H=15 mils). The designed antenna was tested on automatic network analyzer and shows the good agreement with simulated results. The proposed structure is modeled into an equivalent electrical circuit and simulated on circuit simulator. Subsequently, theoretical analysis was carried out and simulated. The simulated, measured, equivalent circuit response, and theoretical results shows good resemblance. The bands of operation draw many potential applications in today’s wireless communication.
Defective Ground plane, Dual band, Loop Antenna, Microstrip antenna, Resonance frequency.
Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions using Fuller's Earth
Fuller’s earth is a fine-grained, naturally occurring substance that has a substantial ability to adsorb impurities. In the present study Fuller’s earth has been characterized and used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of various physicochemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage and shaking time on adsorption were studied. The result of the equilibrium studies showed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting the adsorption. The optimum pH for adsorption was 5. Kinetics data for the adsorption of Pb(II) was best described by pseudo-second order model. The effective diffusion co-efficient for Pb(II) adsorption was of the order of 10-8 m2/s. The adsorption data for metal adsorption can be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum uptake of metal was 103.3 mg/g of adsorbent. Mass transfer analysis was also carried out for the adsorption process. The values of mass transfer coefficients obtained from the study indicate that the velocity of the adsorbate transport from bulk to the solid phase was quite fast. The mean sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicated that the metal adsorption process was chemical in nature.
Fuller's earth, Pseudo second order, Mass Transfer co-efficient, Langmuir
CFD Simulations to Validate Two and Three Phase Up-flow in Bubble Columns
Bubble columns have a variety of applications in
absorption, bio-reactions, catalytic slurry reactions, and coal
liquefaction; because they are simple to operate, provide good heat
and mass transfer, having less operational cost. The use of
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for bubble column becomes
important, since it can describe the fluid hydrodynamics on both local
and global scale. Euler- Euler two-phase fluid model has been used to
simulate two-phase (air and water) transient up-flow in bubble
column (15cm diameter) using FLUENT6.3. These simulations and
experiments were operated over a range of superficial gas velocities
in the bubbly flow and churn turbulent regime (1 to16 cm/s) at
ambient conditions. Liquid velocity was varied from 0 to 16cm/s. The
turbulence in the liquid phase is described using the standard k-ε
model. The interactions between the two phases are described
through drag coefficient formulations (Schiller Neumann). The
objectives are to validate CFD simulations with experimental data,
and to obtain grid-independent numerical solutions. Quantitatively
good agreements are obtained between experimental data for hold-up
and simulation values. Axial liquid velocity profiles and gas holdup
profiles were also obtained for the simulation.
Bubble column, Computational fluid dynamics, Gas
holdup profile, k-ε model.
A Discriminatory Rewarding Mechanism for Sybil Detection with Applications to Tor
This paper presents an economic game for sybil
detection in a distributed computing environment. Cost parameters
reflecting impacts of different sybil attacks are introduced in the sybil
detection game. The optimal strategies for this game in which both
sybil and non-sybil identities are expected to participate are devised.
A cost sharing economic mechanism called Discriminatory
Rewarding Mechanism for Sybil Detection is proposed based on this
game. A detective accepts a security deposit from each active agent,
negotiates with the agents and offers rewards to the sybils if the latter
disclose their identity. The basic objective of the detective is to
determine the optimum reward amount for each sybil which will
encourage the maximum possible number of sybils to reveal
themselves. Maintaining privacy is an important issue for the
mechanism since the participants involved in the negotiation are
generally reluctant to share their private information. The mechanism
has been applied to Tor by introducing a reputation scoring function.
Game theory, Incentive mechanism, Reputation,Sybil Attack
Capacity of Overloaded DS-CDMA System on Rayleigh Fading Channel with Timing Error
The number of users supported in a DS-CDMA
cellular system is typically less than spreading factor (N), and the
system is said to be underloaded. Overloading is a technique to
accommodate more number of users than the spreading factor N. In
O/O overloading scheme, the first set is assigned to the N
synchronous users and the second set is assigned to the additional
synchronous users. An iterative multistage soft decision interference
cancellation (SDIC) receiver is used to remove high level of
interference between the two sets. Performance is evaluated in terms
of the maximum number acceptable users so that the system
performance is degraded slightly compared to the single user
performance at a specified BER. In this paper, the capacity of CDMA
based O/O overloading scheme is evaluated with SDIC receiver. It is
observed that O/O scheme using orthogonal Gold codes provides
25% channel overloading (N=64) for synchronous DS-CDMA
system on an AWGN channel in the uplink at a BER of 1e-5.For a
Rayleigh faded channel, the critical capacity is 40% at a BER of 5e-5
assuming synchronous users. But in practical systems, perfect chip
timing is very difficult to maintain in the uplink.. We have shown that
the overloading performance reduces to 11% for a timing
synchronization error of 0.02Tc for a BER of 1e-5.
DS-CDMA, Interference Cancellation, MultiuserDetection, Orthogonal codes, Overloading.
Overloading Scheme for Cellular DS-CDMA using Quasi-Orthogonal Sequences and Iterative Interference Cancellation Receiver
Overloading is a technique to accommodate more
number of users than the spreading factor N. This is a bandwidth
efficient scheme to increase the number users in a fixed bandwidth.
One of the efficient schemes to overload a CDMA system is to use
two sets of orthogonal signal waveforms (O/O). The first set is
assigned to the N users and the second set is assigned to the
additional M users. An iterative interference cancellation technique is
used to cancel interference between the two sets of users. In this
paper, the performance of an overloading scheme in which the first N
users are assigned Walsh-Hadamard orthogonal codes and extra users
are assigned the same WH codes but overlaid by a fixed (quasi) bent
sequence  is evaluated. This particular scheme is called Quasi-
Orthogonal Sequence (QOS) O/O scheme, which is a part of
cdma2000 standard  to provide overloading in the downlink
using single user detector. QOS scheme are balance O/O scheme,
where the correlation between any set-1 and set-2 users are
equalized. The allowable overload of this scheme is investigated in
the uplink on an AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels, so that the
uncoded performance with iterative multistage interference
cancellation detector remains close to the single user bound. It is
shown that this scheme provides 19% and 11% overloading with
SDIC technique for N= 16 and 64 respectively, with an SNR
degradation of less than 0.35 dB as compared to single user bound at
a BER of 0.00001. But on a Rayleigh fading channel, the channel
overloading is 45% (29 extra users) at a BER of 0.0005, with an SNR
degradation of about 1 dB as compared to single user performance
for N=64. This is a significant amount of channel overloading on a
Rayleigh fading channel.
DS-CDMA, Iterative Interference CancellationOrthogonal codes, Overloading.
Investigation of Constant Transconductance Circuit for Low Power Low-Noise Amplifier
In this paper, the design of wide-swing constant transconductance (gm) bias circuit that generates bias voltage for low-noise amplifier (LNA) circuit design by using an off-chip resistor is demonstrated. The overall transconductance (Gm) generated by the constant gm bias circuit is important to maintain the overall gain and noise figure of the LNA circuit. Therefore, investigation is performed to study the variation in Gm with process, temperature and supply voltage (PVT). Temperature and supply voltage are swept from -10 °C to 85 °C and 1.425 V to 1.575 V respectively, while the process conditions are also varied to the extreme and the gm variation is eventually concluded at between -3 % to 7 %. With the slight variation in the gm value, through simulation, at worst condition of state SS, we are able to attain a conversion gain (S21) variation of -3.10 % and a noise figure (NF) variation of 18.71 %. The whole constant gm circuit draws approximately 100 µA from a 1.5V supply and is designed based on 0.13 µm CMOS process.
Transconductance, LNA, temperature, process.
Gene Network Analysis of PPAR-γ: A Bioinformatics Approach Using STRING
Gene networks present a graphical view at the level of gene activities and genetic functions and help us to understand complex interactions in a meaningful manner. In the present study, we have analyzed the gene interaction of PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) by search tool for retrieval of interacting genes. We find PPAR-γ is highly networked by genetic interactions with 10 genes: RXRA (retinoid X receptor, alpha), PPARGC1A (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha), NCOA1 (nuclear receptor coactivator 1), NR0B2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2), HDAC3 (histone deacetylase 3), MED1 (mediator complex subunit 1), INS (insulin), NCOR2 (nuclear receptor co-repressor 2), PAX8 (paired box 8), ADIPOQ (adiponectin) and it augurs well for the fact that obesity and several other metabolic disorders are inter related.
Gene networks, NCOA1, PPARγ, PPARGC1A, RXRA.
Low Complexity Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System by Simultaneously Applying Partial Transmit Sequence and Clipping Algorithms
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM) has been used in many advanced wireless communication
systems due to its high spectral efficiency and robustness to
frequency selective fading channels. However, the major concern
with OFDM system is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)
of the transmitted signal. Some of the popular techniques used for
PAPR reduction in OFDM system are conventional partial transmit
sequences (CPTS) and clipping. In this paper, a parallel
combination/hybrid scheme of PAPR reduction using clipping and
CPTS algorithms is proposed. The proposed method intelligently
applies both the algorithms in order to reduce both PAPR as well as
computational complexity. The proposed scheme slightly degrades
bit error rate (BER) performance due to clipping operation and it can
be reduced by selecting an appropriate value of the clipping ratio
(CR). The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm
achieves significant PAPR reduction with much reduced
CCDF, OFDM, PAPR, PTS.
Low Complexity Hybrid Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Based on SLM and Clipping
In this paper, we present a low complexity hybrid scheme using conventional selective mapping (C-SLM) and clipping algorithms to reduce the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the proposed scheme, the input data sequence (X) is divided into two sub-blocks, then clipping algorithm is applied to the first sub-block, whereas C-SLM algorithm is applied to the second sub-block in order to reduce both computational complexity and PAPR. The resultant time domain OFDM signal is obtained by combining the output of two sub-blocks. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid scheme provides 0.45 dB PAPR reduction gain at CCDF value of 10-2 and 52% of computational complexity reduction when compared to C-SLM scheme at the expense of slight degradation in bit error rate (BER) performance.
CCDF, Clipping, OFDM, PAPR, SLM.
Smart Grid Communication Architecture Modeling for Heterogeneous Network Based Advanced Metering Infrastructure
A smart grid is an emerging technology in the power delivery system which provides an intelligent, self-recovery and homeostatic grid in delivering power to the users. Smart grid communication network provides transmission capacity for information transformation within the connected nodes in the network, in favor of functional and operational needs. In the electric grids communication network delay is based on choosing the appropriate technology and the types of devices enforced. In distinction, the combination of IEEE 802.16 based WiMAX and IEEE 802.11 based WiFi technologies provides improved coverage and gives low delay performances to meet the smart grid needs. By incorporating this method in Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) the performance of the smart grid will be considerably improved. This work deals with the implementation of WiMAX-WLAN integrated network architecture for WAMS and AMI in the smart grid.
WiMAX, WLAN, WAMS, Smart Grid, HetNet, AMI.
Methodology: A Review in Modelling and Predictability of Embankment in Soft Ground
Transportation network development in the developing country is in rapid pace. The majority of the network belongs to railway and expressway which passes through diverse topography, landform and geological conditions despite the avoidance principle during route selection. Construction of such networks demand many low to high embankment which required improvement in the foundation soil. This paper is mainly focused on the various advanced ground improvement techniques used to improve the soft soil, modelling approach and its predictability for embankments construction. The ground improvement techniques can be broadly classified in to three groups i.e. densification group, drainage and consolidation group and reinforcement group which are discussed with some case studies. Various methods were used in modelling of the embankments from simple 1-dimensional to complex 3-dimensional model using variety of constitutive models. However, the reliability of the predictions is not found systematically improved with the level of sophistication. And sometimes the predictions are deviated more than 60% to the monitored value besides using same level of erudition. This deviation is found mainly due to the selection of constitutive model, assumptions made during different stages, deviation in the selection of model parameters and simplification during physical modelling of the ground condition. This deviation can be reduced by using optimization process, optimization tools and sensitivity analysis of the model parameters which will guide to select the appropriate model parameters.
Embankment, ground improvement, modelling, model prediction.
Utilization of Industrial Byproducts in Concrete Applications by Adopting Grey Taguchi Method for Optimization
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate with industrial waste by-products on concrete strength properties. The Grey Taguchi approach has been used to optimize the mix proportions for desired properties. In this research work, a ternary combination of industrial waste by-products has been used. The experiments have been designed using Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array with four factors having three levels each. The cement was partially replaced by ladle furnace slag (LFS), fly ash (FA) and copper slag (CS) at 10%, 25% and 40% level and fine aggregate (sand) was partially replaced with electric arc furnace slag (EAFS), iron slag (IS) and glass powder (GP) at 20%, 30% and 40% level. Three water to binder ratios, fixed at 0.40, 0.44 and 0.48, were used, and the curing age was fixed at 7, 28 and 90 days. Thus, a series of nine experiments was conducted on the specimens for water to binder ratios of 0.40, 0.44 and 0.48 at 7, 28 and 90 days of the water curing regime. It is evident from the investigations that Grey Taguchi approach for optimization helps in identifying the factors affecting the final outcomes, i.e. compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete. For the materials and a range of parameters used in this research, the present study has established optimum mixes in terms of strength properties. The best possible levels of mix proportions were determined for maximization through compressive and splitting tensile strength. To verify the results, the optimal mix was produced and tested. The mixture results in higher compressive strength and split tensile strength than other mixes. The compressive strength and split tensile strength of optimal mixtures are also compared with the control concrete mixtures. The results show that compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete made with partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate is more than control concrete at all ages and w/c ratios. Based on the overall observations, it can be recommended that industrial waste by-products in ternary combinations can effectively be utilized as partial replacements of cement and fine aggregates in all concrete applications.
Analysis of variance, ANOVA, compressive strength, concrete, grey Taguchi method, industrial by-products, split tensile strength.
Reduced Rule Based Fuzzy Logic Controlled Isolated Bidirectional Converter Operating in Extended Phase Shift Control for Bidirectional Energy Transfer
Bidirectional energy transfer capability with high efficiency and reduced cost is fast gaining prominence in the central part of a lot of power conversion systems in Direct Current (DC) microgrid. Preferably, under the economics constraints, these systems utilise a single high efficiency power electronics conversion system and a dual active bridge converter. In this paper, modeling and performance of Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter with Extended Phase Shift (EPS) is evaluated with two batteries on both sides of DC bus and bidirectional energy transfer is facilitated and this is further compared with the Single Phase Shift (SPS) mode of operation. Optimum operating zone is identified through exhaustive simulations using MATLAB/Simulink and SimPowerSystem software. Reduced rules based fuzzy logic controller is implemented for closed loop control of DAB converter. The control logic enables the bidirectional energy transfer within the batteries even at lower duty ratios. Charging and discharging of batteries is supervised by the fuzzy logic controller. State of charge, current and voltage for both the batteries are plotted in the battery characteristics. Power characteristics of batteries are also obtained using MATLAB simulations.
Fuzzy logic controller, rule base, membership functions, dual active bridge converter, bidirectional power flow, duty ratio, extended phase shift, state of charge.