Open Science Research Excellence

M Li




A New Self-Adaptive EP Approach for ANN Weights Training
Evolutionary Programming (EP) represents a methodology of Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) in which mutation is considered as a main reproduction operator. This paper presents a novel EP approach for Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) learning. The proposed strategy consists of two components: the self-adaptive, which contains phenotype information and the dynamic, which is described by genotype. Self-adaptation is achieved by the addition of a value, called the network weight, which depends on a total number of hidden layers and an average number of neurons in hidden layers. The dynamic component changes its value depending on the fitness of a chromosome, exposed to mutation. Thus, the mutation step size is controlled by two components, encapsulated in the algorithm, which adjust it according to the characteristics of a predefined ANN architecture and the fitness of a particular chromosome. The comparative analysis of the proposed approach and the classical EP (Gaussian mutation) showed, that that the significant acceleration of the evolution process is achieved by using both phenotype and genotype information in the mutation strategy.
Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Learning Theory, Evolutionary Programming (EP), Mutation, Self-Adaptation.
Evaluation of Power Consumption of Spanke Optical Packet Switch
The power consumption of an Optical Packet Switch equipped with SOA technology based Spanke switching fabric is evaluated. Sophisticated analytical models are introduced to evaluate the power consumption versus the offered traffic, the main switch parameters, and the used device characteristics. The impact of Amplifier Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise generated by a transmission system on the power consumption is investigated. As a matter of example for 32×32 switches supporting 64 wavelengths and offered traffic equal to 0,8, the average energy consumption per bit is 5, 07 · 10-2 nJ/bit and increases if ASE noise introduced by the transmission systems is increased.
Spanke, Amplifier Spontaneous Emission Noise,Power Consumption, Optical Packet Switch.
The Study of Fabricating the Field Emission Lamps with Carbon nano-Materials

Fabrication and efficiency enhancement of non-mercury, high efficiency and green field emission lamps using carbon nano-materials such as carbon nanotubes as cathode field emitters was studied. Phosphor was coated on the ITO glass or metal substrates as the anode. The luminescence efficiency enhancement was carried out by upgrading the uniform of the emitters, improving electron and thermal conductivity of the phosphor and the optimization of the design of different cathode/anode configurations. After evaluation of the aforementioned parameters, the luminescence efficiency of the field emission lamps was raised.

Field emission lamps, carbon nano-materials, luminescence efficiency
Multiple Model and Neural based Adaptive Multi-loop PID Controller for a CSTR Process
Multi-loop (De-centralized) Proportional-Integral- Derivative (PID) controllers have been used extensively in process industries due to their simple structure for control of multivariable processes. The objective of this work is to design multiple-model adaptive multi-loop PID strategy (Multiple Model Adaptive-PID) and neural network based multi-loop PID strategy (Neural Net Adaptive-PID) for the control of multivariable system. The first method combines the output of multiple linear PID controllers, each describing process dynamics at a specific level of operation. The global output is an interpolation of the individual multi-loop PID controller outputs weighted based on the current value of the measured process variable. In the second method, neural network is used to calculate the PID controller parameters based on the scheduling variable that corresponds to major shift in the process dynamics. The proposed control schemes are simple in structure with less computational complexity. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes have been demonstrated on the CSTR process, which exhibits dynamic non-linearity.
Multiple-model Adaptive PID controller, Multivariableprocess, CSTR process.
Multiple Crack Identification Using Frequency Measurement
This paper presents a method to detect multiple cracks based on frequency information. When a structure is subjected to dynamic or static loads, cracks may develop and the modal frequencies of the cracked structure may change. To detect cracks in a structure, we construct a high precision wavelet finite element (EF) model of a certain structure using the B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI). Cracks can be modeled by rotational springs and added to the FE model. The crack detection database will be obtained by solving that model. Then the crack locations and depths can be determined based on the frequency information from the database. The performance of the proposed method has been numerically verified by a rotor example.
Rotor, frequency measurement, multiple cracks,wavelet finite element method, identification.
Preparation of Tender for Building Conservation Work: Current Practices in Malaysia

Building conservation work generally involves complex and non-standard work different from new building construction processes. In preparing tenders for building conservation projects, therefore, the quantity surveyor must carefully consider the specificity of non-standard items and demarcate the scope of unique conservation work. While the quantity surveyor must appreciate the full range of works to prepare a good tender document, he typically manages many unfamiliar elements, including practical construction methods, restoration techniques and work sequences. Only by fulfilling the demanding requirements of building conservation work can the quantity surveyor enhance his professionalism an area of growing cultural value and economic importance. By discussing several issues crucial to tender preparations for building conservation projects in Malaysia, this paper seeks a deeper understanding of how quantity surveying can better standardize tender preparation work and more successfully manage building conservation processes.

Conservation Works, Quantity Surveying Practice, Tender Preparation, Malaysia
Determination of Adequate Fuzzy Inequalities for their Usage in Fuzzy Query Languages
Although the usefulness of fuzzy databases has been pointed out in several works, they are not fully developed in numerous domains. A task that is mostly disregarded and which is the topic of this paper is the determination of suitable inequalities for fuzzy sets in fuzzy query languages. This paper examines which kinds of fuzzy inequalities exist at all. Afterwards, different procedures are presented that appear theoretically appropriate. By being applied to various examples, their strengths and weaknesses are revealed. Furthermore, an algorithm for an efficient computation of the selected fuzzy inequality is shown.
Fuzzy Databases, Fuzzy Inequalities, Fuzzy QueryLanguages, Fuzzy Ranking.
Heavy Metal Contamination of the Landscape at the ─¢ubietová Deposit (Slovakia)
The heavy metal contamination of the technogenous sediments and soils at the investigated dump-field show irregular planar distribution. Also the heavy metal content in the surface water, drainage water and in the groundwater was studied both in the dry as well as during the rainy periods. The cementation process causes substitution of iron by copper. Natural installation and development of plant species was observed at the old mine waste dumps, specific to the local chemical conditions such as low content of essential nutrients and high content of heavy metals. The individual parts of the plant tissues (roots, branches/stems, leaves/needles, flowers/ fruits) are contaminated by heavy metals and tissues are damaged differently, respectively.
Contamination, dump-field, heavy metals, plants,sediment, water.
Evaluation of Radiation Synthesized β-Glucan Hydrogel Wound Dressing using Rat Models
In this study, hydrogels consisted of polyvinyl alcohol, propylene glycol and β-glucan were developed by radiation technique for wound dressing. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by examining of physical properties such as gel fraction and absorption ratio. The gel fraction and absorption ratio were dependent on the crosslinking density. On observing the wound healing of rat skin, the resulting hydrogels accelerated the wound healing comparing to cotton gauze. Therefore, the PVA/propylene glycol/β-glucan blended hydrogels can greatly accelerate the healing without causing irritation.
β-Glucan, poly(vinyl alcohol), propylene glycol, radiation, wound dressing.
A Case Study on Product Development Performance Measurement

In recent years, an increased competition and lower profit margins have necessitated a focus on improving the performance of the product development process, an area that traditionally have been excluded from detailed steering and evaluation. A systematic improvement requires a good understanding of the current performance, wherefore the interest for product development performance measurement has increased dramatically. This paper presents a case study that evaluates the performance of the product development performance measurement system used in a Swedish company that is a part of a global corporate group. The study is based on internal documentation and eighteen in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in the product development process. The results from the case study includes a description of what metrics that are in use, how these are employed, and its affect on the quality of the performance measurement system. Especially, the importance of having a well-defined process proved to have a major impact on the quality of the performance measurement system in this particular case.

Outcome metric, Performance driver, Performance measurement, Product development process.
MIMO Performances in Tunnel Environment: Interpretation from the Channel Characteristics
The objective of this contribution is to study the performances in terms of bit error rate, of space-time code algorithms applied to MIMO communication in tunnels. Indeed, the channel characteristics in a tunnel are quite different than those of urban or indoor environment, due to the guiding effect of the tunnel. Therefore, MIMO channel matrices have been measured in a straight tunnel, in a frequency band around 3GHz. Correlation between array elements and properties of the MIMO matrices are first studied as a function of the distance between the transmitter and the receiver. Then, owing to a software tool simulating the link, predicted values of bit error rate are given for VLAST, OSTBC and QSTBC algorithms applied to a MIMO configuration with 2 or 4 array elements. Results are interpreted from the analysis of the channel properties.
MIMO, propagation channel, space-time algorithms, tunnel.
Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Soil Physical Properties using Neural Networks Model
Saturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the soil hydraulic properties which is widely used in environmental studies especially subsurface ground water. Since, its direct measurement is time consuming and therefore costly, indirect methods such as pedotransfer functions have been developed based on multiple linear regression equations and neural networks model in order to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from readily available soil properties e.g. sand, silt, and clay contents, bulk density, and organic matter. The objective of this study was to develop neural networks (NNs) model to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from available parameters such as sand and clay contents, bulk density, van Genuchten retention model parameters (i.e. r θ , α , and n) as well as effective porosity. We used two methods to calculate effective porosity: : (1) eff s FC φ =θ -θ , and (2) inf φ =θ -θ eff s , in which s θ is saturated water content, FC θ is water content retained at -33 kPa matric potential, and inf θ is water content at the inflection point. Total of 311 soil samples from the UNSODA database was divided into three groups as 187 for the training, 62 for the validation (to avoid over training), and 62 for the test of NNs model. A commercial neural network toolbox of MATLAB software with a multi-layer perceptron model and back propagation algorithm were used for the training procedure. The statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient (R2), and mean square error (MSE) were also used to evaluate the developed NNs model. The best number of neurons in the middle layer of NNs model for methods (1) and (2) were calculated 44 and 6, respectively. The R2 and MSE values of the test phase were determined for method (1), 0.94 and 0.0016, and for method (2), 0.98 and 0.00065, respectively, which shows that method (2) estimates saturated hydraulic conductivity better than method (1).
Neural network, Saturated hydraulic conductivity,Soil physical properties.
Plate Waste as an Indicator of Portions Inadequacy at School Lunch

Quality of school meals is one of the major concerns of governments and international organizations worldwide. This study aims to evaluate nutritional compliance of meals served at a Portuguese primary school considering the portions stated by Portuguese Education Ministry. To evaluate adequacy of portions served, weighing of all meal components offered to students and leftovers was performed during ten consecutive days at two different moments. Plate waste (%) was calculated by the ratio of food discarded and food served to the children. Nutritional evaluation of menus was made using the Portuguese Food Composition Table. Meals evaluated showed a percent contribution to energetic daily intake higher than recommendations. Meals served to children were considered high energy and protein dense. No significant waste of soup was accounted and the main meal components wasted were fish and vegetables. It will be necessary to adjust portions indicated by Ministry of Education in order to comply with recommendations and reduce food waste. 

Portions, waste, nutritional adequacy, school meals.
Evaluation of the Energy Consumption per Bit inBENES Optical Packet Switch
We evaluate the average energy consumption per bit in Optical Packet Switches equipped with BENES switching fabric realized in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) technology. We also study the impact that the Amplifier Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise generated by a transmission system has on the power consumption of the BENES switches due to the gain saturation of the SOAs used to realize the switching fabric. As a matter of example for 32×32 switches supporting 64 wavelengths and offered traffic equal to 0,8, the average energy consumption per bit is 2, 34 · 10-1 nJ/bit and increases if ASE noise introduced by the transmission systems is increased.
Benes, Amplifier Spontaneous Emission Noise, EnergyConsumption, Optical Packet Switch.
Performance Evaluation of the OCDM/WDM Technique for Optical Packet Switches

The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.

Optical code division multiplexing, bufferless optical packet switch, performance evaluation.
A Bathtub Curve from Nonparametric Model

This paper presents a nonparametric method to obtain the hazard rate “Bathtub curve” for power system components. The model is a mixture of the three known phases of a component life, the decreasing failure rate (DFR), the constant failure rate (CFR) and the increasing failure rate (IFR) represented by three parametric Weibull models. The parameters are obtained from a simultaneous fitting process of the model to the Kernel nonparametric hazard rate curve. From the Weibull parameters and failure rate curves the useful lifetime and the characteristic lifetime were defined. To demonstrate the model the historic time-to-failure of distribution transformers were used as an example. The resulted “Bathtub curve” shows the failure rate for the equipment lifetime which can be applied in economic and replacement decision models.

Bathtub curve, failure analysis, lifetime estimation, parameter estimation, Weibull distribution.
Dual-Task – Immersion in the Interactions of Simultaneously Performed Tasks

With a long history, dual-task has become one of the most intriguing research fields regarding human brain functioning and cognition. However, findings considering effects of taskinterrelations are limited (especially, in combined motor and cognitive tasks). Therefore, we aimed at developing a measurement system in order to analyse interrelation effects of cognitive and motor tasks. On the one hand, the present study demonstrates the applicability of the measurement system and on the other hand first results regarding a systematisation of different task combinations are shown. Future investigations should combine imagine technologies and this developed measurement system.

Dual-task, interference, cognition, measurement.
Transformations of Spatial Distributions of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions Induced by Resonance-Like Low Frequency Electrical Fields
Water suspensions of in-organic (metals and oxides) and organic nano-objects (chitozan and collagen) were subjected to the treatment of direct and alternative electrical fields. In addition to quasi-periodical spatial patterning resonance-like performance of spatial distributions of these suspensions has been found at low frequencies of alternating electrical field. These resonances are explained as the result of creation of equilibrium states of groups of charged nano-objects with opposite signs of charges at the interparticle distances where the forces of Coulomb attraction are compensated by the repulsion forces induced by relatively negative polarization of hydrated regions surrounding the nanoparticles with respect to pure water. The low frequencies of these resonances are explained by comparatively big distances between the particles and their big masses with t\respect to masses of atoms constituting molecules with high resonance frequencies. These new resonances open a new approach to detailed modeling and understanding of mechanisms of the influence of electrical fields on the functioning of internal organs of living organisms at the level of cells and neurons.
Bio-polymers, chitosan, collagen, nanoparticles, coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances, transformations.
Using Scanning Electron Microscope and Computed Tomography for Concrete Diagnostics of Airfield Pavements
This article presents the comparison of selected evaluation methods regarding microstructure modification of hardened cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. Basic test results were presented for two pavement quality concrete lots. Analysis included standard concrete used for airfield pavements and modern material solutions based on concrete composite modification. In case of basic grain size distribution of concrete cement CEM I 42,5HSR NA, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate fractions in the form of granite chippings, water and admixtures were considered. In case of grain size distribution of modified concrete, the use of modern modifier as substitute of fine aggregate was suggested. Modification influence on internal concrete structure parameters using scanning electron microscope was defined. Obtained images were compared to the results obtained using computed tomography. Opportunity to use this type of equipment for internal concrete structure diagnostics and an attempt of its parameters evaluation was presented. Obtained test results enabled to reach a conclusion that both methods can be applied for pavement quality concrete diagnostics, with particular purpose of airfield pavements.
Scanning electron microscope, computed tomography, cement concrete, airfield pavements.
Airfield Pavements Made of Reinforced Concrete: Dimensioning According to the Theory of Limit States and Eurocode
In the previous airfield construction industry, pavements made of reinforced concrete have been used very rarely; however, the necessity to use this type of pavements in an emergency situations justifies the need reference to this issue. The paper concerns the problem of airfield pavement dimensioning made of reinforced concrete and the evaluation of selected dimensioning methods of reinforced concrete slabs intended for airfield pavements. Analysis of slabs dimensioning, according to classical method of limit states has been performed and it has been compared to results obtained in case of methods complying with Eurocode 2 guidelines. Basis of an analysis was a concrete slab of class C35/45 with reinforcement, located in tension zone. Steel bars of 16.0 mm have been used as slab reinforcement. According to comparative analysis of obtained results, conclusions were reached regarding application legitimacy of the discussed methods and their design advantages.
Reinforced concrete, cement concrete, airport pavements.
Analysis of Flexural Behavior of Wood-Concrete Beams

This study presents an overview of the work carried out by the use of wood waste as coarse aggregate in mortar. The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations carried on pervious concrete made of wood chips and also sheds lights on the mechanical properties of this new product. The properties of pervious wood-concrete such as strength, elastic modulus, and failure modes are compared and evaluated. The characterization procedure of the mechanical properties of wood waste ash are presented and discussed. The numerical and tested load–deflection response results are compared. It was observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Wood waste ash, characterization, mechanical properties, finite element analysis, flexural behavior, bending tests.
Finite Element Modeling of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Porous Material
This paper presents a two-dimensional model to study the heat and moisture transfer through porous building materials. Dynamic and static coupled models of heat and moisture transfer in porous material under low temperature are presented and the coupled models together with variable initial and boundary conditions have been considered in an analytical way and using the finite element method. The resulting coupled model is converted to two nonlinear partial differential equations, which is then numerically solved by an implicit iterative scheme. The numerical results of temperature and moisture potential changes are compared with the experimental measurements available in the literature. Predicted results demonstrate validation of the theoretical model and effectiveness of the developed numerical algorithms. It is expected to provide useful information for the porous building material design based on heat and moisture transfer model.
Finite element method, heat transfer, moisture transfer, porous materials, wood.
Experiment Study on the Influence of Tool Materials on the Drilling of Thick Stacked Plate of 2219 Aluminum Alloy

The drilling and riveting processes are widely used in the assembly of carrier rocket, which makes the efficiency and quality of drilling become the important factor affecting the assembly process. According to the problem existing in the drilling of thick stacked plate (thickness larger than 10mm) of carrier rocket, such as drill break, large noise and burr etc., experimental study of the influence of tool material on the drilling was carried out. The cutting force was measured by a piezoelectric dynamometer, the aperture was measured with an outline projector, and the burr is observed and measured by a digital stereo microscope. Through the measurement, the effects of tool material on the drilling were analyzed from the aspects of drilling force, diameter, and burr. The results show that, compared with carbide drill and coated carbide one, the drilling force of high speed steel is larger. But, the application of high speed steel also has some advantages, e.g. a higher number of hole can be obtained, the height of burr is small, the exit is smooth and the slim burr is less, and the tool experiences wear but not fracture. Therefore, the high speed steel tool is suitable for the drilling of thick stacked plate of 2219 Aluminum alloy.

2219 aluminum alloy, thick stacked plate, drilling, tool material.
Proposal for a Model of Economic Integration for the Development of Industry in Cabinda, Angola

This study aims to present a proposal for an economic integration model for the development of the manufacturing industry in Cabinda, Angola. It seeks to analyze the degree of economic integration of Cabinda and the dynamics of the manufacturing industry. Therefore, in the same way, to gather information to support the decision-making for public financing programs that will aim at the disengagement of the manufacturing industry in Angola and Cabinda in particular. The Cabinda Province is the 18th of Angola, the enclave is located in a privileged area of the African and arable land.

Economic integration, industrial development, Cabinda industry, Angola.