Repair and Maintenance Capability and Facilities Availability for MF 285 Tractor Operators in North of Khouzestan Province
A repairable mechanical system (as agricultural
tractor) is subject to deterioration or repeated failure and needs a
repair shops and also operator’s capability for the repair and
maintenance operations. Data are based on field visits and interviews
with 48MF 285 tractor operators from 14 villages collected in north
of Khouzestan province. The results showed that most operators were
lack the technical skill to service and repair tractors due to
insufficient training, specific education and work experience.
Inadequate repair and maintenance facilities, such as workshops,
mechanics and spare parts depots cause delays in repair work in the
survey areas. Farmers do not keep accurate service records and most
of them disregard proper maintenance and service of their tractors,
such as changing engine oil without following the manufacturer’s
recommendations. Since, Repair and maintenance facilities should be
established in village areas to guarantee timely repair in case of
breakdowns and to make spare parts available at low price. The
operators should keep service records accurately and adhere to
maintenance and service schedules according to the manufacturer’s
instructions. They should also be encouraged to do the service and
maintain their tractors properly.
Operators’ capability, Facilities availability, Repair
and maintenance, MF 285 tractors.
Development of a Nano-Alumina-Zirconia Composite Catalyst as an Active Thin Film in Biodiesel Production
A nano-alumina-zirconia composite catalyst was synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel method using AlCl3.6H2O and ZrCl4 as precursors. Thermal decomposition of the precursor and subsequent formation of γ-Al2O3 and t-Zr were investigated by thermal analysis. XRD analysis showed that γ-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 phases were formed at 700 °C. FT-IR analysis also indicated that the phase transition to γ-Al2O3 occurred in corroboration with X-ray studies. TEM analysis of the calcined powder revealed that spherical particles were in the range of 8-12 nm. The nano-alumina-zirconia composite particles were mesoporous and uniformly distributed in their crystalline phase. In order to measure the catalytic activity, esteriﬁcation reaction was carried out. Biodiesel, as a renewable fuel, was formed in a continuous packed column reactor. Free fatty acid (FFA) was esterified with ethanol in a heterogeneous catalytic reactor. It was found that the synthesized γ-Al2O3/ZrO2 composite had the potential to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production processes.
Nano-alumina-zirconia, composite catalyst, thin film, biodiesel.