Technical and Economic Impacts of Distributed Generation on Distribution System
Distributed Generation (DG) in the form of renewable
power generation systems is currently preferred for clean power
generation. It has a significant impact on the distribution systems.
This impact may be either positively or negatively depending on the
distribution system, distributed generator and load characteristics. In
this works, an overview of DG is briefly introduced. The technology
of DG is also listed while the technical impacts and economic
impacts are explained.
Distributed Generation, Technical Impacts,
Economic Load Dispatch with Daily Load Patterns and Generator Constraints by Particle Swarm Optimization
This paper presents an optimization technique to economic load dispatch (ELD) problems with considering the daily load patterns and generator constraints using a particle swarm optimization (PSO). The objective is to minimize the fuel cost. The optimization problem is subject to system constraints consisting of power balance and generation output of each units. The application of a constriction factor into PSO is a useful strategy to ensure convergence of the particle swarm algorithm. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total constraint cost function is minimized. The performance of the developed methodology is demonstrated by case studies in test system of fifteen-generation units. The results show that the proposed algorithm scan give the minimum total cost of generation while satisfying all the constraints and benefiting greatly from saving in power loss reduction
Particle Swarm Optimization, Economic Load Dispatch, Generator Constraints.
Technique for Grounding System Design in Distribution Substation
This paper presents the significant factor and give
some suggestion that should know before design. The main objective of this paper is guide the first step for someone who attends to design of grounding system before study in details later. The overview of
grounding system can protect damage from fault such as can save a human life and power system equipment. The unsafe conditions have
three cases. Case 1) maximum touch voltage exceeds the safety
criteria. In this case, the conductor compression ratio of the ground gird should be first adjusted to have optimal spacing of ground grid
conductors. If it still over limit, earth resistivity should be consider afterward. Case 2) maximum step voltage exceeds the safety criteria.
In this case, increasing the number of ground grid conductors around
the boundary can solve this problem. Case 3) both of maximum touch
and step voltage exceed the safety criteria. In this case, follow the solutions explained in case 1 and case 2. Another suggestion, vary depth of ground grid until maximum step and touch voltage do not
exceed the safety criteria.
Grounding System, Touch Voltage, Step Voltage, Safety Criteria.
Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Feeders
Optimal capacitor allocation in distribution systems
has been studied for a long times. It is an optimization problem
which has an objective to define the optimal sizes and locations of
capacitors to be installed. In this works, an overview of capacitor
placement problem in distribution systems is briefly introduced. The
objective functions and constraints of the problem are listed and the
methodologies for solving the problem are summarized.
Capacitor Placement, Distribution Systems,
Generation Expansion Planning Strategies on Power System: A Review
The problem of generation expansion planning (GEP)
has been extensively studied for many years. This paper presents
three topics in GEP as follow: statistical model, models for
generation expansion, and expansion problem. In the topic of
statistical model, the main stages of the statistical modeling are
briefly explained. Some works on models for GEP are reviewed in
the topic of models for generation expansion. Finally for the topic of
expansion problem, the major issues in the development of a longterm
expansion plan are summarized.
Generation expansion planning, strategies, power
Network Reconfiguration for Load Balancing in Distribution System with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placement
This paper presents an efficient algorithm for
optimization of radial distribution systems by a network
reconfiguration to balance feeder loads and eliminate overload
conditions. The system load-balancing index is used to determine the
loading conditions of the system and maximum system loading
capacity. The index value has to be minimum in the optimal network
reconfiguration of load balancing. A method based on Tabu search
algorithm, The Tabu search algorithm is employed to search for the
optimal network reconfiguration. The basic idea behind the search is
a move from a current solution to its neighborhood by effectively
utilizing a memory to provide an efficient search for optimality. It
presents low computational effort and is able to find good quality
configurations. Simulation results for a radial 69-bus system with
distributed generations and capacitors placement. The study results
show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified
to give the best network reconfiguration involving balancing of
feeder loads while respecting all the constraints.
Network reconfiguration, Distributed generation
Capacitor placement, Load balancing, Optimization technique
Heuristic Optimization Techniques for Network Reconfiguration in Distribution System
Network reconfiguration is an operation to modify the
network topology. The implementation of network reconfiguration
has many advantages such as loss minimization, increasing system
security and others. In this paper, two topics about the network
reconfiguration in distribution system are briefly described. The first
topic summarizes its impacts while the second explains some
heuristic optimization techniques for solving the network
Network Reconfiguration, Optimization Techniques,Distribution System
Transmission Expansion Planning with Economic Dispatch and N-1Constraints
This paper proposes a mathematical model for transmission expansion employing optimization method with scenario analysis approach. Economic transmission planning, on the other hand, seeks investment opportunities so that network expansions can generate more economic benefits than the costs. This approach can be used as a decision model for building new transmission lines added to the existing transmission system minimizing costs of the entire system subject to various system’s constraints and consider of loss value of transmission system and N-1 checking. The results show that the proposed model is efficient to be applied for the larger scale of power system topology.
Transmission Expansion Planning, Economic Dispatch, Scenario Analysis, Contingency.
Reliability Improvement with Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation in Distribution System
This paper presents the optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation (DG) in a distribution system. The problem is to reliability improvement of distribution system with distributed generations. The technique employed to solve the minimization problem is based on a developed Tabu search algorithm and reliability worth analysis. The developed methodology is tested with a distribution system of Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) bus 2. It can be seen from the case study that distributed generation can reduce the customer interruption cost and therefore improve the reliability of the system. It is expected that our proposed method will be utilized effectively for distribution system operator.
Distributed generation Optimization technique Reliability improvement, Distribution system.
Optimal Analysis of Grounding System Design for Distribution Substation
This paper presents the electrical effect of two neighboring distribution substation during the construction phase. The size of auxiliary grounding grid have an effect on entire grounding system. The bigger the size of auxiliary grounding grid, the lower the GPR and maximum touch voltage, with the exception that when the two grids are unconnected, i.e. the bigger the size of auxiliary grounding grid, the higher the maximum step voltage. The results in this paper could be served as design guideline of grounding system, and perhaps remedy of some troublesome grounding grids in power distribution’s system. Modeling and simulation is carried out on the Current Distribution Electromagnetic interference Grounding and Soil structure (CDEGS) program. The simulation results exhibit the design and analysis of power system grounding and perhaps could be set as a standard in grounding system design and modification in distribution substations.
Grounding System, Touch Voltage, Step Voltage, Safety Criteria.