Effect of Scene Changing on Image Sequences Compression Using Zero Tree Coding
We study in this paper the effect of the scene
changing on image sequences coding system using Embedded
Zerotree Wavelet (EZW). The scene changing considered here is the
full motion which may occurs. A special image sequence is generated
where the scene changing occurs randomly. Two scenarios are
considered: In the first scenario, the system must provide the
reconstruction quality as best as possible by the management of the
bit rate (BR) while the scene changing occurs. In the second scenario,
the system must keep the bit rate as constant as possible by the
management of the reconstruction quality. The first scenario may be
motivated by the availability of a large band pass transmission
channel where an increase of the bit rate may be possible to keep the
reconstruction quality up to a given threshold. The second scenario
may be concerned by the narrow band pass transmission channel
where an increase of the bit rate is not possible. In this last case,
applications for which the reconstruction quality is not a constraint
may be considered. The simulations are performed with five scales
wavelet decomposition using the 9/7-tap filter bank biorthogonal
wavelet. The entropy coding is performed using a specific defined
binary code book and EZW algorithm. Experimental results are
presented and compared to LEAD H263 EVAL. It is shown that if
the reconstruction quality is the constraint, the system increases the
bit rate to obtain the required quality. In the case where the bit rate
must be constant, the system is unable to provide the required quality
if the scene change occurs; however, the system is able to improve
the quality while the scene changing disappears.
Image Sequence Compression, Wavelet Transform,
Scene Changing, Zero Tree, Bit Rate, Quality.
A Novel Compression Algorithm for Electrocardiogram Signals based on Wavelet Transform and SPIHT
Electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression algorithm
is needed that will reduce the amount of data to be transmitted, stored
and analyzed, but without losing the clinical information content. A
wavelet ECG data codec based on the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical
Trees (SPIHT) compression algorithm is proposed in this paper. The
SPIHT algorithm has achieved notable success in still image coding.
We modified the algorithm for the one-dimensional (1-D) case and
applied it to compression of ECG data.
By this compression method, small percent root mean square
difference (PRD) and high compression ratio with low
implementation complexity are achieved. Experiments on selected
records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database revealed that the
proposed codec is significantly more efficient in compression and in
computation than previously proposed ECG compression schemes.
Compression ratios of up to 48:1 for ECG signals lead to acceptable
results for visual inspection.
Discrete Wavelet Transform, ECG compression,SPIHT.
Optimal Image Compression Based on Sign and Magnitude Coding of Wavelet Coefficients
Wavelet transforms is a very powerful tools for image compression. One of its advantage is the provision of both spatial and frequency localization of image energy. However, wavelet transform coefficients are defined by both a magnitude and sign. While algorithms exist for efficiently coding the magnitude of the transform coefficients, they are not efficient for the coding of their sign. It is generally assumed that there is no compression gain to be obtained from the coding of the sign. Only recently have some authors begun to investigate the sign of wavelet coefficients in image coding. Some authors have assumed that the sign information bit of wavelet coefficients may be encoded with the estimated probability of 0.5; the same assumption concerns the refinement information bit. In this paper, we propose a new method for Separate Sign Coding (SSC) of wavelet image coefficients. The sign and the magnitude of wavelet image coefficients are examined to obtain their online probabilities. We use the scalar quantization in which the information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also examined. We show that the sign information and the refinement information may be encoded by the probability of approximately 0.5 only after about five bit planes. Two maps are separately entropy encoded: the sign map and the magnitude map. The refinement information of the wavelet coefficient to belong to the lower or to the upper sub-interval in the uncertainly interval is also entropy encoded. An algorithm is developed and simulations are performed on three standard images in grey scale: Lena, Barbara and Cameraman. Five scales are performed using the biorthogonal wavelet transform 9/7 filter bank. The obtained results are compared to JPEG2000 standard in terms of peak signal to noise ration (PSNR) for the three images and in terms of subjective quality (visual quality). It is shown that the proposed method outperforms the JPEG2000. The proposed method is also compared to other codec in the literature. It is shown that the proposed method is very successful and shows its performance in term of PSNR.
Image compression, wavelet transform, sign coding, magnitude coding.
Using HMM-based Classifier Adapted to Background Noises with Improved Sounds Features for Audio Surveillance Application
Discrimination between different classes of environmental
sounds is the goal of our work. The use of a sound recognition
system can offer concrete potentialities for surveillance and
security applications. The first paper contribution to this research
field is represented by a thorough investigation of the applicability
of state-of-the-art audio features in the domain of environmental
sound recognition. Additionally, a set of novel features obtained by
combining the basic parameters is introduced. The quality of the
features investigated is evaluated by a HMM-based classifier to which
a great interest was done. In fact, we propose to use a Multi-Style
training system based on HMMs: one recognizer is trained on a
database including different levels of background noises and is used
as a universal recognizer for every environment. In order to enhance
the system robustness by reducing the environmental variability, we
explore different adaptation algorithms including Maximum Likelihood
Linear Regression (MLLR), Maximum A Posteriori (MAP)
and the MAP/MLLR algorithm that combines MAP and MLLR.
Experimental evaluation shows that a rather good recognition rate
can be reached, even under important noise degradation conditions
when the system is fed by the convenient set of features.
Sounds recognition, HMM classifier, Multi-style training,Environmental Adaptation, Feature combinations.
T-Wave Detection Based on an Adjusted Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima
The method described in this paper deals with the problems of T-wave detection in an ECG. Determining the position of a T-wave is complicated due to the low amplitude, the ambiguous and changing form of the complex. A wavelet transform approach handles these complications therefore a method based on this concept was developed. In this way we developed a detection method that is able to detect T-waves with a sensitivity of 93% and a correct-detection ratio of 93% even with a serious amount of baseline drift and noise.
ECG, Modulus Maxima Wavelet Transform,Performance, T-wave detection
Robust Features for Impulsive Noisy Speech Recognition Using Relative Spectral Analysis
The goal of speech parameterization is to extract the relevant information about what is being spoken from the audio signal. In speech recognition systems Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and Relative Spectral Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (RASTA-MFCC) are the two main techniques used. It will be shown in this paper that it presents some modifications to the original MFCC method. In our work the effectiveness of proposed changes to MFCC called Modified Function Cepstral Coefficients (MODFCC) were tested and compared against the original MFCC and RASTA-MFCC features. The prosodic features such as jitter and shimmer are added to baseline spectral features. The above-mentioned techniques were tested with impulsive signals under various noisy conditions within AURORA databases.
Auditory filter, impulsive noise, MFCC, prosodic features, RASTA filter.