EAAC: Energy-Aware Admission Control Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks
The decisions made by admission control algorithms are
based on the availability of network resources viz. bandwidth, energy,
memory buffers, etc., without degrading the Quality-of-Service (QoS)
requirement of applications that are admitted. In this paper, we
present an energy-aware admission control (EAAC) scheme which
provides admission control for flows in an ad hoc network based
on the knowledge of the present and future residual energy of the
intermediate nodes along the routing path. The aim of EAAC is to
quantify the energy that the new flow will consume so that it can
be decided whether the future residual energy of the nodes along
the routing path can satisfy the energy requirement. In other words,
this energy-aware routing admits a new flow iff any node in the
routing path does not run out of its energy during the transmission
of packets. The future residual energy of a node is predicted using
the Multi-layer Neural Network (MNN) model. Simulation results
shows that the proposed scheme increases the network lifetime. Also
the performance of the MNN model is presented.
Ad hoc networks, admission control, energy-aware
routing, Quality-of-Service, future residual energy, neural network.
Deep iCrawl: An Intelligent Vision-Based Deep Web Crawler
The explosive growth of World Wide Web has posed
a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web
crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps
expanding behind the scene. Deep web pages are created
dynamically as a result of queries posed to specific web databases.
The structure of the deep web pages makes it impossible for
traditional web crawlers to access deep web contents. This paper,
Deep iCrawl, gives a novel and vision-based approach for extracting
data from the deep web. Deep iCrawl splits the process into two
phases. The first phase includes Query analysis and Query translation
and the second covers vision-based extraction of data from the
dynamically created deep web pages. There are several established
approaches for the extraction of deep web pages but the proposed
method aims at overcoming the inherent limitations of the former.
This paper also aims at comparing the data items and presenting them
in the required order.
Crawler, Deep web, Web Database
Fast and Efficient On-Chip Interconnection Modeling for High Speed VLSI Systems
Timing driven physical design, synthesis, and
optimization tools need efficient closed-form delay models for
estimating the delay associated with each net in an integrated circuit
(IC) design. The total number of nets in a modern IC design has
increased dramatically and exceeded millions. Therefore efficient
modeling of interconnection is needed for high speed IC-s. This
paper presents closed–form expressions for RC and RLC
interconnection trees in current mode signaling, which can be
implemented in VLSI design tool. These analytical model
expressions can be used for accurate calculation of delay after the
design clock tree has been laid out and the design is fully routed.
Evaluation of these analytical models is several orders of magnitude
faster than simulation using SPICE.
IC design, RC/RLC Interconnection, VLSI Systems.
Study on Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Ducts with Radiation Effects
Experiments have been performed to investigate the radiation effects on mixed convection heat transfer for thermally developing airflow in vertical ducts with two differentially heated isothermal walls and two adiabatic walls. The investigation covers the Reynolds number Re = 800 to Re = 2900, heat flux varied from 256 W/m2 to 863 W/m2, hot wall temperature ranges from 27°C to 100 °C, aspect ratios 1 & 0.5 and the emissivity of internal walls are 0.05 and 0.85. In the present study, combined flow visualization was conducted to observe the flow patterns. The effect of surface temperature along the walls was studied to investigate the local Nusselt number variation within the duct. The result shows that flow condition and radiation significantly affect the total Nusselt number and tends to reduce the buoyancy condition.
Mixed convection, vertical duct, thermally developing and radiation effects.
Single-qubit Quantum Gates using Magneto-optic Kerr Effect
We propose the use of magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) to realize single-qubit quantum gates. We consider longitudinal and polar MOKE in reflection geometry in which the magnetic field is parallel to both the plane of incidence and surface of the film. MOKE couples incident TE and TM polarized photons and the Hamiltonian that represents this interaction is isomorphic to that of a canonical two-level quantum system. By varying the phase and amplitude of the magnetic field, we can realize Hadamard, NOT, and arbitrary phase-shift single-qubit quantum gates. The principal advantage is operation with magnetically non-transparent materials.
Quantum computing, qubit, magneto-optic kerr effect (MOKE), magneto-optical interactions, continuous variables.
Micromachining with ECDM: Research Potentials and Experimental Investigations
Electro Chemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) is an
emerging hybrid machining process used in precision machining of hard and brittle non-conducting materials. The present paper gives a
critical review on materials machined by ECDM under the prevailing machining conditions; capability indicators of the process are
reported. Some results obtained while performing experiments in micro-channeling on soda lime glass using ECDM are also presented. In these experiments, Tool Wear (TW) and Material Removal (MR)
were studied using design of experiments and L–4 orthogonal array. Experimental results showed that the applied voltage was the most influencing parameter in both MR and TW studies. Field
emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results obtained on the microchannels confirmed the presence of micro-cracks, primarily responsible for MR. Chemical etching was also seen along the edges.
The Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results were used to detect the elements present in the debris and specimens.
ECDM, applied-voltage, FESEM, EDS.
Preparing Entrepreneurial Women: A Challenge for Indian Education System
Education, as the most important resource in any country, has multiplying effects on all facets of development in a society. The new social realities, particularly the interplay between democratization of education; unprecedented developments in IT sector; emergence of knowledge society, liberalization of economy and globalization have greatly influenced the educational process of all nations. This turbulence entails upon education to undergo dramatic changes to keep up with the new expectations. Growth of entrepreneurship among Indian women is highly important for empowering them and this is highly essential for socio-economic development of a society. Unfortunately in India there is poor acceptance of entrepreneurship among women as unfounded myths and fears restrain them to be enterprising. To remove these inhibitions, education system needs to be re-engineered to make entrepreneurship more acceptable. This paper empirically analyses the results of a survey done on around 500 female graduates in North India to measure and evaluate various entrepreneurial traits present in them. A formative model has been devised in this context, which should improve the teaching-learning process in our education system, which can lead to sustainable growth of women entrepreneurship in India.
Women Empowerment, Entrepreneurship, Education System, Women Entrepreneurship, Sustainable Development.
Decoy-pulse Protocol for Frequency-coded Quantum Key Distribution
We propose a decoy-pulse protocol for frequency-coded implementation of B92 quantum key distribution protocol. A direct extension of decoy-pulse method to frequency-coding scheme results in security loss as an eavesdropper can distinguish between signal and decoy pulses by measuring the carrier photon number without affecting other statistics. We overcome this problem by optimizing the ratio of carrier photon number of decoy-to-signal pulse to be as close to unity as possible. In our method the switching between signal and decoy pulses is achieved by changing the amplitude of RF signal as opposed to modulating the intensity of optical signal thus reducing system cost. We find an improvement by a factor of 100 approximately in the key generation rate using decoy-state protocol. We also study the effect of source fluctuation on key rate. Our simulation results show a key generation rate of 1.5×10-4/pulse for link lengths up to 70km. Finally, we discuss the optimum value of average photon number of signal pulse for a given key rate while also optimizing the carrier ratio.
B92, decoy-pulse, frequency-coding, quantum key distribution.
Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions using Fuller's Earth
Fuller’s earth is a fine-grained, naturally occurring substance that has a substantial ability to adsorb impurities. In the present study Fuller’s earth has been characterized and used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of various physicochemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage and shaking time on adsorption were studied. The result of the equilibrium studies showed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting the adsorption. The optimum pH for adsorption was 5. Kinetics data for the adsorption of Pb(II) was best described by pseudo-second order model. The effective diffusion co-efficient for Pb(II) adsorption was of the order of 10-8 m2/s. The adsorption data for metal adsorption can be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum uptake of metal was 103.3 mg/g of adsorbent. Mass transfer analysis was also carried out for the adsorption process. The values of mass transfer coefficients obtained from the study indicate that the velocity of the adsorbate transport from bulk to the solid phase was quite fast. The mean sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicated that the metal adsorption process was chemical in nature.
Fuller's earth, Pseudo second order, Mass Transfer co-efficient, Langmuir
Balancing of Quad Tree using Point Pattern Analysis
Point quad tree is considered as one of the most
common data organizations to deal with spatial data & can be used to
increase the efficiency for searching the point features. As the
efficiency of the searching technique depends on the height of the
tree, arbitrary insertion of the point features may make the tree
unbalanced and lead to higher time of searching. This paper attempts
to design an algorithm to make a nearly balanced quad tree. Point
pattern analysis technique has been applied for this purpose which
shows a significant enhancement of the performance and the results
are also included in the paper for the sake of completeness.
Algorithm, Height balanced tree, Point patternanalysis, Point quad tree.
Treatment of Paper and Pulp Mill Effluent by Coagulation
The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high
polluting effluent amongst the effluents obtained from polluting
industries. All the available methods for treatment of pulp and paper
mill effluent have certain drawbacks. The coagulation is one of the
cheapest process for treatment of various organic effluents. Thus, the
removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour of paper mill
effluent is studied using coagulation process. The batch coagulation
process was performed using various coagulants like: aluminium
chloride, poly aluminium chloride and copper sulphate. The initial
pH of the effluent (Coagulation pH) has tremendous effect on COD
and colour removal. Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) as coagulant
reduced COD to 84 % and 92 % of colour was removed at an
optimum pH 5 and coagulant dose of 8 ml l-1. With aluminium
chloride at an optimum pH = 4 and coagulant dose of 5 g l-1, 74 %
COD and 86 % colour removal were observed. The results using
copper sulphate as coagulant (a less commercial coagulant) were
encouraging. At an optimum pH 6 and mass loading of 5 g l-1, 76 %
COD reduction and 78 % colour reduction were obtained. It was also
observed that after addition of coagulant, the pH of the effluent
decreases. The decrease in pH was highest for AlCl3, which was
followed by PAC and CuSO4. Significant amount of COD reductions
was obtained by coagulation process. Since the coagulation process
is the first stage for treatment of effluent and some of the coagulant
cations usually remain in the treated effluents. Thus, cation like
copper may be one of the good catalyst for second stage of treatment
process like wet oxidation. The copper has been found to be good
oxidation catalyst then iron and aluminum.
Aluminium based coagulants, Coagulation, Copper,PAC, Pulp and paper mill effluent, Wastewater treatment
TRS: System for Recommending Semantic Web Service Composition Approaches
A large number of semantic web service composition
approaches are developed by the research community and one is
more efficient than the other one depending on the particular
situation of use. So a close look at the requirements of ones particular
situation is necessary to find a suitable approach to use. In this paper,
we present a Technique Recommendation System (TRS) which using
a classification of state-of-art semantic web service composition
approaches, can provide the user of the system with the
recommendations regarding the use of service composition approach
based on some parameters regarding situation of use. TRS has
modular architecture and uses the production-rules for knowledge
Classification, composition techniques,
recommendation system, rule-based, semantic web service.
FEA Modeling of Material Removal Rate in Electrical Discharge Machining of Al6063/SiC Composites
Metal matrix composites (MMC) are generating
extensive interest in diverse fields like defense, aerospace, electronics
and automotive industries. In this present investigation, material
removal rate (MRR) modeling has been carried out using an
axisymmetric model of Al-SiC composite during electrical discharge
machining (EDM). A FEA model of single spark EDM was
developed to calculate the temperature distribution.Further, single
spark model was extended to simulate the second discharge. For
multi-discharge machining material removal was calculated by
calculating the number of pulses. Validation of model has been done
by comparing the experimental results obtained under the same
process parameters with the analytical results. A good agreement was
found between the experimental results and the theoretical value.
Electrical Discharge Machining,FEA, Metal matrix
Navigation of Multiple Mobile Robots using Rule-based-Neuro-Fuzzy Technique
This paper deals with motion planning of multiple
mobile robots. Mobile robots working together to achieve several
objectives have many advantages over single robot system. However,
the planning and coordination between the mobile robots is
extremely difficult. In the present investigation rule-based and rulebased-
neuro-fuzzy techniques are analyzed for multiple mobile
robots navigation in an unknown or partially known environment.
The final aims of the robots are to reach some pre-defined goals.
Based upon a reference motion, direction; distances between the
robots and obstacles; and distances between the robots and targets;
different types of rules are taken heuristically and refined later to find
the steering angle. The control system combines a repelling influence
related to the distance between robots and nearby obstacles and with
an attracting influence between the robots and targets. Then a hybrid
rule-based-neuro-fuzzy technique is analysed to find the steering
angle of the robots. Simulation results show that the proposed rulebased-
neuro-fuzzy technique can improve navigation performance in
complex and unknown environments compared to this simple rulebased
Mobile robots, Navigation, Neuro-fuzzy, Obstacle
avoidance, Rule-based, Target seeking
The Effect of Size, Thickness, and Type of the Bonding Interlayer on Bullet Proof Glass as per EN 1063
This investigation presents preparation of sample and
analysis of results of ballistic impact test as per EN 1063 on the size,
thickness, number, position, and type of the bonding interlayer
Polyvinyl Butyral, Poly Carbonate and Poly Urethane on bullet proof
glass. It was observed that impact energy absorbed by bullet proof
glass increases with the increase of the total thickness from 33mm to
42mm to 51mm for all the three samples respectively. Absorption
impact energy is greater for samples with more number of bonding
interlayers than with the number of glass layers for uniform increase
in total sample thickness. There is no effect on the absorption impact
energy with the change in position of the bonding interlayer.
Absorbed energy, bullet proof glass, laminated glass,
Comparison of Design Procedures for Pre Engineering Buildings (PEB): A Case Study
In recent years, the introduction of Pre Engineered Building (PEB) concept in the design of structures has helped in optimizing design. The adoptability of PEB in the place of Conventional Steel Building (CSB) design concept resulted in many advantages, including economy and easier fabrication. In this study, an industrial structure (Ware House) is analyzed and designed according to the Indian standards, IS 800-1984, IS 800-2007 and also by referring MBMA-96 and AISC-89. In this study, a structure with length 187m,width 40m,with clear height 8m and having R-Slope 1:10,isconsidered to carry out analysis& design for 2D frames (End frame, frame without crane and frame with 3 module cranes). The economy of the structure is discussed in terms of its weight comparison, between Indian codes (IS800-1984, IS800-2007) & American code (MBMA-96), & between Indian codes (IS800-1984, IS800-2007).
AISC, Crane Beam, MBMA, Pre-Engineered-Buildings, Staad Pro, Utilization Ratio.
PAPR Reduction of FBMC Using Sliding Window Tone Reservation Active Constellation Extension Technique
The high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAR) in Filter
Bank Multicarrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
(FBMC-OQAM) can significantly reduce power efficiency and
performance. In this paper, we address the problem of PAPR
reduction for FBMC-OQAM systems using Tone Reservation (TR)
technique. Due to the overlapping structure of FBMCOQAM signals,
directly applying TR schemes of OFDM systems to FBMC-OQAM
systems is not effective. We improve the tone reservation (TR)
technique by employing sliding window with Active Constellation
Extension for the PAPR reduction of FBMC-OQAM signals, called
sliding window tone reservation Active Constellation Extension
(SW-TRACE) technique. The proposed SW-TRACE technique uses
the peak reduction tones (PRTs) of several consecutive data
blocks to cancel the peaks of the FBMC-OQAM signal inside a
window, with dynamically extending outer constellation points in
active(data-carrying) channels, within margin-preserving constraints,
in order to minimize the peak magnitude. Analysis and simulation
results compared to the existing Tone Reservation (TR) technique for
FBMC/OQAM system. The proposed method SW-TRACE has better
PAPR performance and lower computational complexity.
FBMC-OQAM, peak-to-average power ratio, sliding
window, tone reservation Active Constellation Extension.
SVPWM Based Two Level VSI for Micro Grids
With advances in solid-state power electronic devices
and microprocessors, various pulse-width-modulation (PWM)
techniques have been developed for industrial applications. This
paper presents the comparison of two different PWM techniques, the
sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) technique and the space-vector PWM
(SVPWM) technique applied to two level VSI for micro grid
applications. These two methods are compared by discussing their
ease of implementation and by analyzing the output harmonic spectra
of various output voltages (line-to-neutral voltages, and line-to-line
voltages) and their total harmonic distortion (THD). The SVPWM
technique in the under-modulation region can increase the
fundamental output voltage by 15.5% over the SPWM technique.
SPWM, SVPWM, VSI, Modulation Index.
Advertisement Effectiveness: A Review and Research Agenda
In today’s highly competitive, dynamic and
technology driven business circumstances, marketers are under
steady pressure to deliver the best. Organizations are continuously
improving and upgrading themselves to meet customer expectations
and demands. Technology has not only changed the way in which
business is done in modern times but has also transformed the way to
reach out to target audience. Marketers have identified most recent
media options to communicate and convince potential customers.
Numerous scholars have studied the research domain of advertising
and have tried to recognize different measures of advertisement
effectiveness in context of various media. The objective of this paper
is to critically review accessible literature on advertisement
effectiveness in context of varied advertising media, recognize major
gaps in the literature and identify future research prospects on the
basis of critical analysis of literature.
Advertising, Advertising Media, Competition,
Advertisement Effectiveness for Print Media: A Conceptual Model
The objective of present research paper is to highlight
the importance of measuring advertisement effectiveness in print
media and to develop a conceptual model for advertisement
effectiveness. The developed model is based on dimensions on which
advertisement effectiveness depends and on the dimensions which are
used to measure the effectiveness. An in-depth and extensive
literature review is carried out to understand the concept of
advertisement effectiveness and its various determinants in context of
print media. Based on the insights gained, a conceptual framework
for advertisement effectiveness is presented. The model is an attempt
to uncover the relatively less explored area of advertisement
effectiveness in Indian advertising scenario. It is believed that present
work will encourage scholars and academicians to further explore the
area and will offer conceptual assistance and a fresh direction in the
domain of advertisement effectiveness.
Advertisement Effectiveness, Conceptual Model,
Effectiveness Dimensions, Print Media.
Support Vector Regression for Retrieval of Soil Moisture Using Bistatic Scatterometer Data at X-Band
An approach was evaluated for the retrieval of soil
moisture of bare soil surface using bistatic scatterometer data in the
angular range of 200 to 700 at VV- and HH- polarization. The
microwave data was acquired by specially designed X-band (10
GHz) bistatic scatterometer. The linear regression analysis was done
between scattering coefficients and soil moisture content to select the
suitable incidence angle for retrieval of soil moisture content. The 250
incidence angle was found more suitable. The support vector
regression analysis was used to approximate the function described
by the input output relationship between the scattering coefficient and
corresponding measured values of the soil moisture content. The
performance of support vector regression algorithm was evaluated by
comparing the observed and the estimated soil moisture content by
statistical performance indices %Bias, root mean squared error
(RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The values of %Bias,
root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency
(NSE) were found 2.9451, 1.0986 and 0.9214 respectively at HHpolarization.
At VV- polarization, the values of %Bias, root mean
squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were
found 3.6186, 0.9373 and 0.9428 respectively.
Bistatic scatterometer, soil moisture, support vector
regression, RMSE, %Bias, NSE.
Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-treatment with Different Intensities on the Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery from Sewage Treatment Plant
Anaerobic digestion is a well-known technique for
sustainable energy recovery from sewage sludge. However, sewage
sludge digestion is restricted due to certain factors. Pre-treatment
methods have been established in various publications as a promising
technique to improve the digestibility of the sewage sludge and to
enhance the biogas generated which can be used for energy recovery.
In this study, continuous flow microwave (MW) pre-treatment with
different intensities were compared by using 5 L semi-continuous
digesters at a hydraulic retention time of 27 days. We focused on the
effects of MW at different intensities on the sludge solubilization,
sludge digestibility, and biogas production of the untreated and MW
pre-treated sludge. The MW pre-treatment demonstrated an increase
in the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical
oxygen demand (sCOD/tCOD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA)
concentration. Besides that, the total volatile solid (TVS) removal
efficiency and tCOD removal efficiency also increased during the
digestion of the MW pre-treated sewage sludge compared to the
untreated sewage sludge. Furthermore, the biogas yield also
subsequently increases due to the pre-treatment effect. A higher MW
power level and irradiation time generally enhanced the biogas
generation which has potential for sustainable energy recovery from
sewage treatment plant. However, the net energy balance tabulation
shows that the MW pre-treatment leads to negative net energy production.
Anaerobic digestion, biogas, microwave pre-treatment,
Performance Evaluation of Data Mining Techniques for Predicting Software Reliability
Accurate software reliability prediction not only enables developers to improve the quality of software but also provides useful information to help them for planning valuable resources. This paper examines the performance of three well-known data mining techniques (CART, TreeNet and Random Forest) for predicting software reliability. We evaluate and compare the performance of proposed models with Cascade Correlation Neural Network (CCNN) using sixteen empirical databases from the Data and Analysis Center for Software. The goal of our study is to help project managers to concentrate their testing efforts to minimize the software failures in order to improve the reliability of the software systems. Two performance measures, Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) and Mean Absolute Errors (MAE), illustrate that CART model is accurate than the models predicted using Random Forest, TreeNet and CCNN in all datasets used in our study. Finally, we conclude that such methods can help in reliability prediction using real-life failure datasets.
Classification, Cascade Correlation Neural Network, Random Forest, Software reliability, TreeNet.
Investigations of Protein Aggregation Using Sequence and Structure Based Features
The main cause of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzhemier, Parkinson and spongiform encephalopathies is formation of amyloid fibrils and plaques in proteins. We have analyzed different sets of proteins and peptides to understand the influence of sequence based features on protein aggregation process. The comparison of 373 pairs of homologous mesophilic and thermophilic proteins showed that aggregation prone regions (APRs) are present in both. But, the thermophilic protein monomers show greater ability to ‘stow away’ the APRs in their hydrophobic cores and protect them from solvent exposure. The comparison of amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating hexapeptides suggested distinct preferences for specific residues at the six positions as well as all possible combinations of nine residue pairs. The compositions of residues at different positions and residue pairs have been converted into energy potentials and utilized for distinguishing between amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating peptides. Our method could correctly identify the amyloid forming peptides at an accuracy of 95-100% in different datasets of peptides.
Aggregation prone regions, amyloids, thermophilic proteins, amino acid residues, machine learning.
Optimization of Process Parameters in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Inconel X-750 for Dimensional Deviation Using Taguchi Technique
The effective optimization of machining process parameters affects dramatically the cost and production time of machined components as well as the quality of the final products. This paper presents the optimization aspects of a Wire Electrical Discharge Machining operation using Inconel X-750 as work material. The objective considered in this study is minimization of the dimensional deviation. Six input process parameters of WEDM namely spark gap voltage, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, wire feed rate, peak current and wire tension, were chosen as variables to study the process performance. Taguchi's design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The analysis of variance was carried out for raw data as well as for signal to noise ratio. Four input parameters and one two-factor interaction have been found to be statistically significant for their effects on the response of interest. The confirmation experiments were also performed for validating the predicted results.
ANOVA, DOE, inconel, machining, optimization.
Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution
A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.
Carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology.
Environmental Accounting: A Conceptual Study of Indian Context
As the entire world continues its rapid move towards industrialization, it has seriously threatened mankind’s ability to maintain an ecological balance. Geographical and natural forces have a significant influence on the location of industries. Industrialization is the foundation stone of the development of any country, while the unplanned industrialization and discharge of waste by industries is the cause of environmental pollution. There is growing degree of awareness and concern globally among nations about environmental degradation or pollution. Environmental resources endowed by the gift of nature and not manmade are invaluable natural resources of a country like India. Any developmental activity is directly related to natural and environmental resources. Economic development without environmental considerations brings about environmental crises and damages the quality of life of present, as well as future generation. As corporate sectors in the global market, especially in India, are becoming anxious about environmental degradation, naturally more and more emphasis will be ascribed to how environment-friendly the outcomes are. Maintaining accounts of such environmental and natural resources in the country has become more urgent. Moreover, international awareness and acceptance of the importance of environmental issues has motivated the development of a branch of accounting called “Environmental Accounting”. Environmental accounting attempts to detect and focus the resources consumed and the costs rendered by an industrial unit to the environment. For the sustainable development of mankind, a healthy environment is indispensable. Gradually, therefore, in many countries including India, environment matters are being given top most priority. Accounting and disclosure of environmental matters have been increasingly manifesting as an important dimension of corporate accounting and reporting practices. But, as conventional accounting deals with mainly non-living things, the formulation of valuation, and measurement and accounting techniques for incorporating environment-related matters in the corporate financial statement sometimes creates problems for the accountant. In the light of this situation, the conceptual analysis of the study is concerned with the rationale of environmental accounting on the economy and society as a whole, and focuses the failures of the traditional accounting system. A modest attempt has been made to throw light on the environmental awareness in developing nations like India and discuss the problems associated with the implementation of environmental accounting. The conceptual study also reflects that despite different anomalies, environmental accounting is becoming an increasing important aspect of the accounting agenda within the corporate sector in India. Lastly, a conclusion, along with recommendations, has been given to overcome the situation.
Environmental accounting, environmental degradation, environmental management, environmental resources.
Investigation of Flame and Soot Propagation in Non-Air Conditioned Railway Locomotives
Propagation of fire through a non-air conditioned
railway compartment is studied by virtue of numerical simulations.
Simultaneous computational fire dynamics equations, such as
Navier-Stokes, lumped species continuity, overall mass and energy
conservation, and heat transfer are solved using finite volume based
(for radiation) and finite difference based (for all other equations)
solver, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). A single coupe with an eight
berth occupancy is used to establish the numerical model, followed
by the selection of a three coupe system as the fundamental unit
of the locomotive compartment. Heat Release Rate Per Unit Area
(HRRPUA) of the initial fire is varied to consider a wide range of
compartmental fires. Parameters, such as air inlet velocity relative
to the locomotive at the windows, the level of interaction with the
ambiance and closure of middle berth are studied through a wide
range of numerical simulations. Almost all the loss of lives and
properties due to fire breakout can be attributed to the direct or
indirect exposure to flames or to the inhalation of toxic gases and
resultant suffocation due to smoke and soot. Therefore, the temporal
stature of fire and smoke are reported for each of the considered
cases which can be used in the present or extended form to develop
guidelines to be followed in case of a fire breakout.
Fire dynamics, flame propagation, locomotive fire,
soot flow pattern.
Numerical Simulations of Fire in Typical Air Conditioned Railway Coach
Railways in India remain primary mode of transport
having one of the largest networks in the world and catering to
billions of transits yearly. Catastrophic economic damage and loss
to life is encountered over the past few decades due to fire to
locomotives. Study of fire dynamics and fire propagation plays an
important role in evacuation planning and reducing losses. Simulation
based study of propagation of fire and soot inside an air conditioned
coach of Indian locomotive is done in this paper. Finite difference
based solver, Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) version 6 has been
used for analysis. A single air conditioned 3 tier coupe closed to
ambient surroundings by glass windows having occupancy for 8
people is the basic unit of the domain. A system of three such
coupes combined is taken to be fundamental unit for the entire
study to resemble effect to an entire coach. Analysis of flame and
soot contours and concentrations is done corresponding to variations
in heat release rate per unit volume (HRRPUA) of fire source,
variations in conditioned air velocity being circulated inside coupes
by vents and an alternate fire initiation and propagation mechanism
via ducts. Quantitative results of fractional area in top and front
view of the three coupes under fire and smoke are obtained using
MATLAB (IMT). Present simulations and its findings will be useful
for organizations like Commission of Railway Safety and others in
designing and implementing safety and evacuation measures.
Air-conditioned coaches, fire propagation, flame
contour, soot flow, train fire.
Study of Fire Propagation and Soot Flow in a Pantry Car of Railway Locomotive
Fire accidents in trains bring huge disaster to human
life and property. Evacuation becomes a major challenge in such
incidents owing to confined spaces, large passenger density and
trains moving at high speeds. The pantry car in Indian Railways
trains carry inflammable materials like cooking fuel and LPG and
electrical fittings. The pantry car is therefore highly susceptible to
fire accidents. Numerical simulations have been done in a pantry car
of Indian locomotive train using computational fluid dynamics based
software. Different scenarios of a fire outbreak have been explored
by varying Heat Release Rate per Unit Area (HRRPUA) of the fire
source, introduction of exhaust in the cooking area, and taking a
case of an air conditioned pantry car. Temporal statures of flame and
soot have been obtained for each scenario and differences have been
studied and reported. Inputs from this study can be used to assess
casualties in fire accidents in locomotive trains and development of
smoke control/detection systems in Indian trains.
Fire propagation, flame contour, pantry fire, soot flow.
Contemplating Preference Ratings of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices for Supply Chain Performance System Implementation
The objective of this research work is to identify and analyze the significant corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices with an aim to improve the supply chain performance of automobile industry located at National Capital Region (NCR) of India. To achieve the objective, 6 CSR practices have been considered and analyzed using expert’s preference rating (EPR) approach. The considered CSR practices are namely, Top management and employee awareness about CSR (P1), Employee involvement in social and environmental problems (P2), Protection of human rights (P3), Waste reduction, energy saving and water conservation (P4), Proper visibility of CSR guidelines (P5) and Broad perception towards CSR initiatives (P6). The outcomes of this research may help mangers in decision making processes and framing polices for SCP implementation under CSR context.
Supply chain performance, corporate social responsibility, CSR practices, expert’s preference rating approach.
Impact of Flexibility on Patient Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention: A Critical Reassessment and Model Development
In the anticipation of demand fluctuations, services cannot be inventoried and hence it creates a difficult problem in marketing of services. The inability to meet customers (patients) requirements in healthcare context has more serious consequences than other service sectors. In order to meet patient requirements in the current uncertain environment, healthcare organizations are seeking ways for improved service delivery. Flexibility provides a mechanism for reducing variability in service encounters and improved performance. Flexibility is defined as the ability of the organization to cope with changing circumstances or instability caused by the environment. Patient satisfaction is an important performance outcome of healthcare organizations. However, the paucity of information exists in healthcare delivery context to examine the impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. The present study is an attempt to develop a conceptual foundation for investigating overall impact of flexibility on patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Several dimensions of flexibility in healthcare context are examined and proposed to have a significant impact on patient satisfaction and intention. Furthermore, the study involves a critical examination of determinants of patient satisfaction and development of a comprehensive view the relationship between flexibility, patient satisfaction and behavioral intention. Finally, theoretical contributions and implications for healthcare professionals are suggested from flexibility perspective.
Healthcare, flexibility, patient satisfaction, behavioral intention.
An Investigation on Material Removal Rate of EDM Process: A Response Surface Methodology Approach
In the present work response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) is used for analyzing the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. For experimentation, mild steel is selected as work piece and copper is used as electrode. Three machining parameters namely current (I), spark on time (Ton) and spark off time (Toff) are selected as the input variables. The output or response chosen is material removal rate (MRR) which is to be maximized. To reduce the number of runs face centered central composite design (FCCCD) was used. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of parameter and interactions. The suitability of model is tested using Anderson darling (AD) plot. The results conclude that different parameters considered i.e. current, pulse on and pulse off time; all have dominant effect on the MRR. At last, the optimized parameter setting for maximizing MRR is found through main effect plot analysis.
Electrical discharge machining, electrode, MRR, RSM, ANOVA.
An Introduction to the Concept of Environmental Audit: Indian Context
Phenomenal growth of population and industry exploits the environment in varied ways. Consequently, the greenhouse effect and other allied problems are threatening mankind the world over. Protection and up gradation of environment have, therefore, become the prime necessity all of mankind for the sustainable development of environment. People in humbler walks of life including the corporate citizens have become aware of the impacts of environmental pollution. Governments of various nations have entered the picture with laws and regulations to correct and cure the effects of present and past violations of environmental practices and to obstruct future violations of good environmental disciplines. In this perspective, environmental audit directs verification and validation to ensure that the various environmental laws are complied with and adequate care has been taken towards environmental protection and preservation. The discipline of environmental audit has experienced expressive development throughout the world. It examines the positive and negative effects of the activities of an enterprise on environment and provides an in-depth study of the company processes any growth in realizing long-term strategic goals. Environmental audit helps corporations assess its achievement, correct deficiencies and reduce risk to the health and improving safety. Environmental audit being a strong management tool should be administered by industry for its own self-assessment. Developed countries all over the globe have gone ahead in environment quantification; but unfortunately, there is a lack of awareness about pollution and environmental hazards among the common people in India. In the light of this situation, the conceptual analysis of this study is concerned with the rationale of environmental audit on the industry and the society as a whole and highlights the emerging dimensions in the auditing theory and practices. A modest attempt has been made to throw light on the recent development in environmental audit in developing nations like India and the problems associated with the implementation of environmental audit. The conceptual study also reflects that despite different obstacles, environmental audit is becoming an increasing aspect within the corporate sectors in India and lastly, conclusions along with suggestions have been offered to improve the current scenario.
Environmental audit, environmental hazards, environmental laws, environmental protection, environmental preservation.
Nanomaterial Based Electrochemical Sensors for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds
Main sources of endocrine disrupting compounds in the ecosystem are hormones, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, dioxins, personal-care products, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A, and parabens. These endocrine disrupting compounds are responsible for learning disabilities, brain development problems, deformations of the body, cancer, reproductive abnormalities in females and decreased sperm count in human males. Although discharge of these chemical compounds into the environment cannot be stopped, yet their amount can be retarded through proper evaluation and detection techniques. The available techniques for determination of these endocrine disrupting compounds mainly include high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). These techniques are accurate and reliable but have certain limitations like need of skilled personnel, time consuming, interference and requirement of pretreatment steps. Moreover, these techniques are laboratory bound and sample is required in large amount for analysis. In view of above facts, new methods for detection of endocrine disrupting compounds should be devised that promise high specificity, ultra sensitivity, cost effective, efficient and easy-to-operate procedure. Nowadays, electrochemical sensors/biosensors modified with nanomaterials are gaining high attention among researchers. Bioelement present in this system makes the developed sensors selective towards analyte of interest. Nanomaterials provide large surface area, high electron communication feature, enhanced catalytic activity and possibilities of chemical modifications. In most of the cases, nanomaterials also serve as an electron mediator or electrocatalyst for some analytes.
Sensors, endocrine disruptors, nanoparticles, electrochemical, microscopy.
Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.
Carrier lifetime, Impedance, nano-textured, and photocurrent.
A Quadratic Approach for Generating Pythagorean Triples
The article explores one of the important relations between numbers-the Pythagorean triples (triplets) which finds its application in distance measurement, construction of roads, towers, buildings and wherever Pythagoras theorem finds its application. The Pythagorean triples are numbers, that satisfy the condition “In a given set of three natural numbers, the sum of squares of two natural numbers is equal to the square of the other natural number”. There are numerous methods and equations to obtain the triplets, which have their own merits and demerits. Here, quadratic approach for generating triples uses the hypotenuse leg difference method. The advantage is that variables are few and finally only three independent variables are present.
Arithmetic progression, hypotenuse leg difference method, natural numbers, Pythagorean triplets, quadratic equation.