Comparative Study of the Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of Oil from Melon Seed (Cococynthis citrullus) and Coconut Fruit (Cocos nucifera)
Comparative analysis of the properties of melon seed,
coconut fruit and their oil yield were evaluated in this work using
standard analytical technique AOAC. The results of the analysis
carried out revealed that the moisture contents of the samples studied
are 11.15% (melon) and 7.59% (coconut). The crude lipid content are
46.10% (melon) and 55.15% (coconut).The treatment combinations
used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solute: solvent ratio)
showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in yield between the
samples, with melon oil seed flour having a higher percentage range
of oil yield (41.30 – 52.90%) and coconut (36.25 – 49.83%). The
physical characterization of the extracted oil was also carried out.
The values gotten for refractive index are 1.487 (melon seed oil) and
1.361 (coconut oil) and viscosities are 0.008 (melon seed oil) and
0.002 (coconut oil). The chemical analysis of the extracted oils shows
acid value of 1.00mg NaOH/g oil (melon oil), 10.050mg NaOH/g oil
(coconut oil) and saponification value of 187.00mg/KOH (melon oil)
and 183.26mg/KOH (coconut oil). The iodine value of the melon oil
gave 75.00mg I2/g and 81.00mg I2/g for coconut oil. A standard
statistical package Minitab version 16.0 was used in the regression
analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical software
mentioned above was also used to optimize the leaching process.
Both samples gave high oil yield at the same optimal conditions. The
optimal conditions to obtain highest oil yield ≥ 52% (melon seed)
and ≥ 48% (coconut seed) are solute - solvent ratio of 40g/ml,
leaching time of 2hours and leaching temperature of 50oC. The two
samples studied have potential of yielding oil with melon seed giving
the higher yield.
Coconut, melon, optimization, processing.
Effects of Temperature and Enzyme Concentration on Quality of Pineapple and Pawpaw Blended Juice
The effects of temperature and enzyme concentration on the quality of mixed pineapple and pawpaw blended fruits juice were studied. Extracts of the two fruit juices were separately treated at 70 for 15 min each so as to inactivate micro-organisms. They were analyzed and blended in different proportions of 70% pawpaw and 30% pineapple, 60% pawpaw and 40% pineapple, 50% pineapple and 50% pawpaw, 40% pawpaw and 60% pineapple. The characterization of the fresh pawpaw and pineapple juice before blending showed that the juices have good quality. The high water content of the product may have affected the viscosity, vitamin C content and total soluble solid of the blended juice to be low. The effects of the process parameters on the quality showed that better quality of the blended juice can be obtained within the optimum temperature range of (50-70 °C) and enzyme concentration range (0.12-0.18 w/v). The ratio of mix 60% pineapple juice: 40% pawpaw juice has better quality. This showed that pawpaw and pineapple juices can blend effectively to produce a quality juice.
Clarification, pawpaw, pineapple, viscosity, vitamin C.