A Feature-based Invariant Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments
In this paper, a novel feature-based image
watermarking scheme is proposed. Zernike moments which have
invariance properties are adopted in the scheme. In the proposed
scheme, feature points are first extracted from host image and several
circular patches centered on these points are generated. The patches
are used as carriers of watermark information because they can be
regenerated to locate watermark embedding positions even when
watermarked images are severely distorted. Zernike transform is then
applied to the patches to calculate local Zernike moments. Dither
modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of the Zernike
moments followed by false alarm analysis. Experimental results show
that quality degradation of watermarked image is visually
transparent. The proposed scheme is very robust against image
processing operations and geometric attacks.
Image watermarking, Zernike moments, Featurepoint, Invariance, Robustness.
Audio Watermarking Based on Compression-expansion Technique
A novel robust audio watermarking scheme is
proposed in this paper. In the proposed scheme, the host audio signals
are segmented into frames. Two consecutive frames are assessed if
they are suitable to represent a watermark bit. If so, frequency
transform is performed on these two frames. The compressionexpansion
technique is adopted to generate distortion over the two
frames. The distortion is used to represent one watermark bit.
Psychoacoustic model is applied to calculate local auditory mask to
ensure that the distortion is not audible. The watermarking schemes
using mono and stereo audio signals are designed differently. The
correlation-based detection method is used to detect the distortion
and extract embedded watermark bits. The experimental results show
that the quality degradation caused by the embedded watermarks is
perceptually transparent and the proposed schemes are very robust
against different types of attacks.
Audio watermarking, Compression-expansion,Stereo signals, Robustness.
A Normalization-based Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Using SVD and DCT
Digital watermarking is one of the techniques for
copyright protection. In this paper, a normalization-based robust
image watermarking scheme which encompasses singular value
decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT)
techniques is proposed. For the proposed scheme, the host image is
first normalized to a standard form and divided into non-overlapping
image blocks. SVD is applied to each block. By concatenating the
first singular values (SV) of adjacent blocks of the normalized image,
a SV block is obtained. DCT is then carried out on the SV blocks to
produce SVD-DCT blocks. A watermark bit is embedded in the highfrequency
band of a SVD-DCT block by imposing a particular
relationship between two pseudo-randomly selected DCT
coefficients. An adaptive frequency mask is used to adjust local
watermark embedding strength. Watermark extraction involves
mainly the inverse process. The watermark extracting method is blind
and efficient. Experimental results show that the quality degradation
of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually
transparent. Results also show that the proposed scheme is robust
against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.
Image watermarking, Image normalization, Singularvalue decomposition, Discrete cosine transform, Robustness.