Endothelial-Cell-Mediated Displacement of Extracellular Matrix during Angiogenesis
Mechanical interaction between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (or collagen gel) is known to influence the sprouting response of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. This influence is believed to impact on the capability of endothelial cells to sense soluble chemical cues. Quantitative analysis of endothelial-cell-mediated displacement of the collagen gel provides a means to explore this mechanical interaction. Existing analysis in this context is generally limited to 2D settings. In this paper, we investigate the mechanical interaction between endothelial cells and the extracellular matrix in terms of the endothelial-cellmediated displacement of the collagen gel in both 2D and 3D. Digital image correlation and Digital volume correlation are applied on confocal reflectance image stacks to analyze cell-mediated displacement of the gel. The skeleton of the sprout is extracted from phase contrast images and superimposed on the displacement field to further investigate the link between the development of the sprout and the displacement of the gel.
Angiogenesis, digital image correlation, digital
volume correlation, interaction between ECs and ECM.
Overhead Estimation over Capacity of Mobile WiMAX
The IEEE802.16 standard which has emerged as
Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) technology, promises to deliver
high data rate over large areas to a large number of subscribers in the
near future. This paper analyze the effect of overheads over capacity
of downlink (DL) of orthogonal frequency division multiple access
(OFDMA)–based on the IEEE802.16e mobile WiMAX system with
and without overheads. The analysis focuses in particular on the
impact of Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) as well as
deriving an algorithm to determine the maximum numbers of
subscribers that each specific WiMAX sector may support. An
analytical study of the WiMAX propagation channel by using Cost-
231 Hata Model is presented. Numerical results and discussion
estimated by using Matlab to simulate the algorithm for different
BWA, mobile WiMAX, capacity, AMC , overheads.