Scholarly Research Excellence

R Chan

Publications

10

Publications

10
365
Modeling Decentralized Source-Separation Systems for Urban Waste Management
Abstract:

Decentralized eco-sanitation system is a promising and sustainable mode comparing to the century-old centralized conventional sanitation system. The decentralized concept relies on an environmentally and economically sound management of water, nutrient and energy fluxes. Source-separation systems for urban waste management collect different solid waste and wastewater streams separately to facilitate the recovery of valuable resources from wastewater (energy, nutrients). A resource recovery centre constituted for 20,000 people will act as the functional unit for the treatment of urban waste of a high-density population community, like Singapore. The decentralized system includes urine treatment, faeces and food waste co-digestion, and horticultural waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste treatment in composting plants. A design model is developed to estimate the input and output in terms of materials and energy. The inputs of urine (yellow water, YW) and faeces (brown water, BW) are calculated by considering the daily mean production of urine and faeces by humans and the water consumption of no-mix vacuum toilet (0.2 and 1 L flushing water for urine and faeces, respectively). The food waste (FW) production is estimated to be 150 g wet weight/person/day. The YW is collected and discharged by gravity into tank. It was found that two days are required for urine hydrolysis and struvite precipitation. The maximum nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) recovery are 150-266 kg/day and 20-70 kg/day, respectively. In contrast, BW and FW are mixed for co-digestion in a thermophilic acidification tank and later a decentralized/centralized methanogenic reactor is used for biogas production. It is determined that 6.16-15.67 m3/h methane is produced which is equivalent to 0.07-0.19 kWh/ca/day. The digestion residues are treated with horticultural waste and organic fraction of municipal waste in co-composting plants.

Keywords:
Decentralization, ecological sanitation, material flow analysis, source-separation
9
667
Sensitivity of Input Blocking Capacitor on Output Voltage and Current of a PV Inverter Employing IGBTs
Abstract:

This paper present a MATLAB-SIMULINK model of a single phase 2.5 KVA, 240V RMS controlled PV VSI (Photovoltaic Voltage Source Inverter) inverter using IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). The behavior of output voltage, output current, and the total harmonic distortion (THD), with the variation in input dc blocking capacitor (Cdc), for linear and non-linear load has been analyzed. The values of Cdc as suggested by the other authors in their papers are not clearly defined and it poses difficulty in selecting the proper value. As the dc power stored in Cdc, (generally placed parallel with battery) is used as input to the VSI inverter. The simulation results shows the variation in the output voltage and current with different values of Cdc for linear and non-linear load connected at the output side of PV VSI inverter and suggest the selection of suitable value of Cdc.

Keywords:
DC Blocking capacitor, IGBTs, PV VSI, THD.
8
2069
Color Image Edge Detection using Pseudo-Complement and Matrix Operations
Abstract:
A color image edge detection algorithm is proposed in this paper using Pseudo-complement and matrix rotation operations. First, pseudo-complement method is applied on the image for each channel. Then, matrix operations are applied on the output image of the first stage. Dominant pixels are obtained by image differencing between the pseudo-complement image and the matrix operated image. Median filtering is carried out to smoothen the image thereby removing the isolated pixels. Finally, the dominant or core pixels occurring in at least two channels are selected. On plotting the selected edge pixels, the final edge map of the given color image is obtained. The algorithm is also tested in HSV and YCbCr color spaces. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images show that the accuracy of the proposed method is comparable to other color edge detectors. All the proposed procedures can be applied to any image domain and runs in polynomial time.
Keywords:
Color edge detection, dominant pixels, matrixrotation/shift operations, pseudo-complement.
7
9996603
Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review
Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review the process parameters, microstructural evolution, and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords:
Aluminum alloys, Friction stir welding (FSW), Microstructure, Properties.
6
9045
Frequency-Domain Design of Fractional-Order FIR Differentiators
Abstract:
In this paper, a fractional-order FIR differentiator design method using the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is presented. In the proposed method, the FIR digital filter is designed to meet the frequency response of a desired fractal-order differentiator, which is evaluated in the frequency domain. To verify the design performance, another design method considered in the time-domain is also provided. Simulation results reveal the efficiency of the proposed method.
Keywords:
Fractional-order differentiator, FIR digital filter,Differential evolution algorithm.
5
9310
Effect of Cooled EGR in Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection CI Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel Blend
Abstract:

As the demand and prices of various petroleum products have been on the rise in recent years, there is a growing need for alternative fuels. Biodiesel, which consists of alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils and animal fats, is considered as an alternative to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel has comparable performance with that of diesel and has lower brake specific fuel consumption than diesel with significant reduction in emissions of CO, hydrocarbons (HC) and smoke with however, a slight increase in NOx emissions. This paper analyzes the effect of cooled exhaust gas recirculation in the combustion characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine using biodiesel blended fuel as opposed to the conventional system. The combustion parameters such as cylinder pressure, heat release rate, delay period and peak pressure were analyzed at various loads. The maximum cylinder pressure reduces as the fraction of biodiesel increases in the blend the maximum rate of pressure rise was found to be higher for diesel at higher engine loads.

Keywords:
Cylinder pressure, delay period, EGR, heat release.
4
14059
E-Learning Experiences of Hong Kong Students
Authors:
Abstract:
The adoption of e-learning in Hong Kong has been increasing rapidly in the past decade. To understand the e-learning experiences of the students, the School of Professional and Continuing Education of The University of Hong Kong conducted a survey. The survey aimed to collect students- experiences in using learning management system, their perceived e-learning advantages, barriers in e-learning and preferences in new e-learning development. A questionnaire with 84 questions was distributed in mid 2012 and 608 valid responds were received. The analysis results showed that the students found e-learning helpful to their study. They preferred interactive functions and mobile features. Blended learning mode, both face-to-face learning mode integrated with online learning and face-to-face learning mode supplemented with online resources, were preferred by the students. The results of experiences of Hong Kong students in e-learning provided a contemporary reference to the e-learning practitioners to understand the e-learning situation in Asia.
Keywords:
E-learning, blended learning, learning experience, learning management system.
3
17061
Reliability Approximation through the Discretization of Random Variables using Reversed Hazard Rate Function
Abstract:

Sometime it is difficult to determine the exact reliability for complex systems in analytical procedures. Approximate solution of this problem can be provided through discretization of random variables. In this paper we describe the usefulness of discretization of a random variable using the reversed hazard rate function of its continuous version. Discretization of the exponential distribution has been demonstrated. Applications of this approach have also been cited. Numerical calculations indicate that the proposed approach gives very good approximation of reliability of complex systems under stress-strength set-up. The performance of the proposed approach is better than the existing discrete concentration method of discretization. This approach is conceptually simple, handles analytic intractability and reduces computational time. The approach can be applied in manufacturing industries for producing high-reliable items.

Keywords:
Discretization, Reversed Hazard Rate, Exponential distribution, reliability approximation, engineering item.
2
10000881
Survey on Strategic Games and Decision Making
Abstract:

Game theory is the study of how people interact and make decisions to handle competitive situations. It has mainly been developed to study decision making in complex situations. Humans routinely alter their behaviour in response to changes in their social and physical environment. As a consequence, the outcomes of decisions that depend on the behaviour of multiple decision makers are difficult to predict and require highly adaptive decision-making strategies. In addition to the decision makers may have preferences regarding consequences to other individuals and choose their actions to improve or reduce the well-being of others. Nash equilibrium is a fundamental concept in the theory of games and the most widely used method of predicting the outcome of a strategic interaction in the social sciences. A Nash Equilibrium exists when there is no unilateral profitable deviation from any of the players involved. On the other hand, no player in the game would take a different action as long as every other player remains the same.

Keywords:
Game Theory, Nash Equilibrium, Rules of Dominance.
1
10007899
Single Phase Fluid Flow in Series of Microchannel Connected via Converging-Diverging Section with or without Throat
Abstract:
Single phase fluid flow through series of uniform microchannels connected via transition section (converging-diverging section with or without throat) was analytically and numerically studied to characterize the flow within the channel and in the transition sections. Three sets of microchannels of diameters 100, 184, and 249 μm were considered for investigation. Each set contains 10 numbers of microchannels of length 20 mm, connected to each other in series via transition sections. Transition section consists of either converging-diverging section with throat or without throat. The effect of non-uniformity in microchannels on pressure drop was determined by passing water/air through the set of channels for Reynolds number 50 to 1000. Compressibility and rarefaction effects in transition sections were also tested analytically and numerically for air flow. The analytical and numerical results show that these configurations can be used in enhancement of transport processes. However, converging-diverging section without throat shows superior performance over with throat configuration.
Keywords:
Contraction-expansion flow, integrated microchannel, microchannel network, single phase flow.