A Study on the Leadership Behavior, Safety Culture, and Safety Performance of the Healthcare Industry
Object: Review recent publications of patient safety
culture to investigate the relationship between leadership behavior,
safety culture, and safety performance in the healthcare industry.
Method: This study is a cross-sectional study, 350 questionnaires were
mailed to hospital workers with 195 valid responses obtained, and a
55.7% valid response rate. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was
carried out to test the factor structure and determine if the composite
reliability was significant with a factor loading of >0.5, resulting in an
acceptable model fit. Results: Through the analysis of One-way
ANOVA, the results showed that physicians significantly have more
negative patient safety culture perceptions and safety performance
perceptions than non- physicians. Conclusions: The path analysis
results show that leadership behavior affects safety culture and safety
performance in the health care industry. Safety performance was
affected and improved with contingency leadership and a positive
patient safety organization culture. The study suggests improving
safety performance by providing a well-managed system that
includes: consideration of leadership, hospital worker training
courses, and a solid safety reporting system.
Leadership Behavior, Patient Safety, Safety Culture,
Imposing Speed Constraints on Arrival Flights: Case Study for Changi Airport
Arrival flights tend to spend long waiting times at holding stacks if the arrival airport is congested. However, the waiting time spent in the air in the vicinity of the arrival airport may be reduced if the delays are distributed to the cruising phase of the arrival flights by means of speed control. Here, a case study was conducted for the flights arriving at Changi Airport. The flights that were assigned holdings were simulated to fly at a reduced speed during the cruising phase. As the study involves a single airport and is limited to imposing speed constraints to arrivals within 200 NM from its location, the simulation setup in this study could be considered as an application of the Extended Arrival Management (E-AMAN) technique, which is proven to result in considerable fuel savings and more efficient management of delays. The objective of this experiment was to quantify the benefits of imposing cruise speed constraints to arrivals at Changi Airport and to assess the effects on controllers’ workload. The simulation results indicated considerable fuel savings, reduced aircraft emissions and reduced controller workload.
Aircraft emissions, air traffic flow management, controller workload, fuel consumption.